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1

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247Scm-1) at 150C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285mAhg-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750mWhg-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785mWhg-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680mWhg-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

2

The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically fabricated with a thick tubular ?"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at relatively high temperatures (? 300C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present work, a planar-type sodium-nickel chloride battery possessing a thin BASE (~600 ?m thick) was tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of the battery operation at low temperatures (?200C). Electrochemical test results revealed that the battery was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175C despite the higher cell polarization at the reduced temperature. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the performance degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride in the cathode. The cells tested at lower temperatures (e.g., 175 and 200C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in cell voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of NaAlCl4 melt or the poor wettability of sodium on the BASE. Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of a secondary electrolyte and sodium wetting are desirable to further enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-10-01

3

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

4

Denaturation and the Glass Transition Temperatures of Myofibrillar Proteins from Osmotically Dehydrated Tilapia: Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sucrose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium chloride and\\/or sucrose content on the denaturation (Td) and the glass transition (Tg) temperatures of osmotically dehydrated tilapia fillets using binary or ternary solutions at 20C, was evaluated. DSC analyses revealed that myofibrillar proteins denaturation temperatures and enthalpies decreased with increase in muscle salt content. Sugar produced a stabilizing effect on denaturation of the fillets proteins.

M. Medina-Vivanco; P. J. A. Sobral; A. M. Sereno; M. D. Hubinger

2007-01-01

5

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

SciTech Connect

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

2000-04-01

6

Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 110% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 C, 30 C and 45 C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress. PMID:24159283

Lee, H.Y.; Chai, L.C.; Pui, C.F.; Mustafa, S.; Cheah, Y.K.; Nishibuchi, M.; Radu, S.

2013-01-01

7

The third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete set of third-order elastic constants of potassium chloride, sodium chloride and lithium fluoride have been measured at room temperature under conditions which eliminate the possibility that plastic deformation occurred during the experiments. A partial check on these values, provided by the pressure derivatives of the elastic constants, shows satisfactory agreement with experiment for potassium chloride and sodium chloride

J. R. Drabble; R. E. B. Strathen

1967-01-01

8

Viscosities of the ternary solution dimethyl sulfoxide/water/sodium chloride at subzero temperatures and their application in cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Vitrification is considered as the most promising method for long-term storage of tissues and organs. An effective way to reduce the accompanied cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, during CPA addition/removal, is to operate at low temperatures. The permeation process of CPA into/out of biomaterials is affected by the viscosity of CPA solution, especially at low temperatures. The objective of the present study is to measure the viscosity of the ternary solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)/water/sodium chloride (NaCl), at low temperatures and in a wide range of concentrations. A rotary viscometer coupled with a low temperature thermostat bath was used. The measurement was carried out at temperatures from -10 to -50C. The highest mass fraction of Me2SO was 75% (w/w) and the lowest mass fraction of Me2SO was the value that kept the solution unfrozen at the measurement temperature. The concentration of NaCl was kept as a constant [0.85% (w/w), the normal salt content of extracellular fluids]. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model was employed to fit the obtained viscosity data. As an example, the effect of solution viscosity on modeling the permeation of Me2SO into articular cartilage was qualitatively analyzed. PMID:23376371

Zhang, Shaozhi; Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Guangming

2013-04-01

9

A fiber-optic sensor using an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to measure temperature and water level simultaneously.  

PubMed

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

10

A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously  

PubMed Central

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

11

Equation of state for pure sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

An equation of state for pure sodium chloride has been developed on the basis of experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations for the restricted primitive model (RPM). The experimental data base included limited vapor pressure and saturated liquid density data as well as dimerization equilibrium constants. The liquid densities have been extrapolated to the supercooled region using liquid-phase Monte Carlo data. For this purpose, the parameters of the primitive model have been calculated by assuming that sodium chloride and RPM obey the corresponding states principle over a limited range of conditions. In the near-critical region Monte Carlo data as well as results of cluster calculations have been used with parameters scaled to reproduce the critical temperature obtained by extrapolating saturation data. The RPM parameters employed in the calculations are close to those for crystalline NaCl. The experimental and scaled Monte Carlo data have been reproduced within their accuracy using a van der Waals-type equation of state with two temperature-dependent parameters a and b. The functions representing the temperature dependence of the parameters have been designed to ensure reliable extrapolation to lower and higher temperatures. Dimerization of sodium chloride has been allowed for by using a closed-form term representing the effect of association on the compressibility factor. The performance of the equation has been additionally verified by predicting compressibility factors at low reduced temperatures outside the saturation region and comparing them with scaled Monte Carlo data. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Anderko, A; Pitzer, K S

1991-06-01

12

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

13

Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

1990-01-01

14

Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

1994-01-01

15

Secondary electron emission from sodium chloride, glass and aluminum oxide at various temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of single impulses was used to measure the coefficients of the secondary electronic emission for 2 types of Al2O2, monocrystalline NaCl and glass at different temperatures and for different values of the energy of the primary electrons. The value of the secondary electron emission does not depend upon temperature. The effect of a gas film on the value of the secondary electron emission was detected.

Shulman, A. R.; Makedonskiy, V. L.; Yaroshetskiy, I. D.

1980-01-01

16

The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

1976-01-01

17

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

18

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

E-print Network

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride fractions in sodium chloride solutions by viscosity, size-exclusionchromatography, and light(dimethyldial1ylammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC)were prepared by preparative size-exclusion chromatography

Dubin, Paul D.

19

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

20

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

21

A sodium/beta-alumina/nickel chloride secondary cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium/beta alumina/sodium tetrachloroaluminate/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel/sodium choride sinter. Molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte (NaAlCl4) acted as intermediate between electrode and beta alumina tube. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of low resistances and rates of discharge for cells up to 20-Ah capacity. Cells were operated over the temperature range from 230 to 400 C where the OCV of the cell reaction varied from 2.60 V to 2.56 V.

Galloway, R. C.

1987-01-01

22

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

23

Vial breakage during freeze-drying: crystallization of sodium chloride in sodium chloride-sucrose frozen aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate sodium chloride-sucrose frozen solutions with regard to sodium chloride crystallization and vial strain. Sodium chloride-sucrose solutions were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a strain gauge instrumented vial. The sodium chloride concentration was varied with a fixed concentration of sucrose to identify a composition where crystallization was observed during heating and this composition was examined using the strain-gauged vials. DSC heating thermograms of a 1:1 (w/w) ratio of sodium chloride-sucrose solution show a sodium chloride crystallization exotherm at approximately -45 degrees C. Examination of this composition in a strain-gauged vial shows an increase in strain, which corresponds to the temperature of the exotherm. Vial breakage is a phenomenon reported for mannitol containing solutions, which is associated with crystallization of mannitol in frozen solution. These data also suggest that vial strain and breakage is associated with the crystallization of solutes and the crystallization of water, which is released from the amorphous phase to form ice, and volume expansion. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding effect of excipient ratios, specifically in systems containing crystallizing and non-crystallizing excipients, and thermal history when developing freeze-dried formulations. PMID:17299763

Milton, N; Gopalrathnam, G; Craig, G D; Mishra, D S; Roy, M L; Yu, L

2007-07-01

24

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

25

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

26

Synergistic Effects of Sodium Chloride, Glucose, and Temperature on Biofilm Formation by Listeria monocytogenes Serotype 1/2a and 4b Strains ?  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes is generally associated with its persistence in the food-processing environment. Serotype 1/2a strains make up more than 50% of the total isolates recovered from food and the environment, while serotype 4b strains are most often associated with major outbreaks of human listeriosis. Using a microplate assay with crystal violet staining, we examined biofilm formation by 18 strains of each serotype in tryptic soy broth with varying concentrations of glucose (from 0.25% to 10.0%, wt/vol), sodium chloride (from 0.5% to 7.0%, wt/vol) and ethanol (from 1% to 5.0%, vol/vol), and at different temperatures (22.5C, 30C, and 37C). A synergistic effect on biofilm formation was observed for glucose, sodium chloride, and temperature. The serotype 1/2a strains generally formed higher-density biofilms than the 4b strains under most conditions tested. Interestingly, most serotype 4b strains had a higher growth rate than the 1/2a strains, suggesting that the growth rate may not be directly related to the capacity for biofilm formation. Crystal violet was found to stain both bacterial cells and biofilm matrix material. The enhancement in biofilm formation by environmental factors was apparently due to the production of extracellular polymeric substances instead of the accumulation of viable biofilm cells. PMID:20048067

Pan, Youwen; Breidt, Frederick; Gorski, Lisa

2010-01-01

27

Effect of sodium chloride supplementation on serum sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance.  

E-print Network

??These studies determined the effects of sodium chloride supplementation on serum and sweat sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance. Sweat sodium losses, (more)

Pahnke, Matthew Daleon

2010-01-01

28

Volumetric Properties of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature data for the volumetric properties of sodium chloride solutions to concentrations of 5.5 molal have been compiled and critically evaluated. A semi-empirical equation of the same type found to be effective in describing the thermal properties of NaCl solutions has been used to reproduce the volumetric data from O C to 300 C and 1 bar to 1000 bar.

P. S. Z. Rogers; Kenneth S. Pitzer

1982-01-01

29

Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride, and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product. PMID:25285486

Juneja, Vijay K; Garcia-Dvila, Jimena; Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; Pena-Ramos, Etna Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin

2014-10-01

30

Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

1998-01-01

31

Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

1971-01-01

32

Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Latexes  

E-print Network

1 Adsorption of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Sodium Dodecyl Benzenesulfonate on Poly(Vinyl Chloride@cpe.fr #12;2 Abstract The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) latex particles was investigated. Conductometric titrations were

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

33

Unexpected stable stoichiometries of sodium chlorides  

E-print Network

At ambient pressure, sodium, chlorine, and their only known compound NaCl, have well-understood crystal structures and chemical bonding. Sodium is a nearly-free-electron metal with the bcc structure. Chlorine is a molecular crystal, consisting of Cl2 molecules. Sodium chloride, due to the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, has highly ionic chemical bonding, with stoichiometry 1:1 dictated by charge balance, and rocksalt (B1-type) crystal structure in accordance with Pauling's rules. Up to now, Na-Cl was thought to be an ultimately simple textbook system. Here, we show that under pressure the stability of compounds in the Na-Cl system changes and new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at pressure as low as 25 GPa. In addition to NaCl, our theoretical calculations predict the stability of Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3 and NaCl7 compounds with unusual bonding and electronic properties. The bandgap is closed for the majority of these materials. Guided by these predictions, we h...

Zhang, Weiwei; Goncharov, Alexander F; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B

2012-01-01

34

Unexpected Stable Stoichiometries of Sodium Chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl), or rocksalt, is well characterized at ambient pressure. As a result of the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, it has highly ionic chemical bonding (with 1:1 stoichiometry dictated by charge balance) and B1-type crystal structure. By combining theoretical predictions and diamond anvil cell experiments, we found that new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at high pressures. Compounds such as Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3, and NaCl7 are theoretically stable and have unusual bonding and electronic properties. To test this prediction, we synthesized cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl. These experiments establish that compounds violating chemical intuition can be thermodynamically stable even in simple systems at nonambient conditions.

Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Konpkov, Zuzana

2013-12-01

35

Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp.  

PubMed Central

The phospholipid headgroup composition and fatty acid composition of a gram-positive halotolerant Planococcus sp. (strain A4a) were examined as a function of growth temperature (5 to 35 degrees C) and NaCl content (0 to 1.5 M) of the growth medium. When the growth temperature was decreased, the relative amount of mono-unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids increased. When Planococcus sp. strain A4a was grown in media containing high NaCl concentrations, the relative amount of the major fatty acid, Ca15:0, increased. The relative amount of anionic phospholipid also increased when the NaCl concentration of the growth medium was increased. The increase in anionic phospholipid content resulted from a decrease in the relative mole percent content of phosphatidylethanolamine and an increase in the relative mole percent content of cardiolipin. PMID:3980436

Miller, K J

1985-01-01

36

Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

37

Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

Birks, N.

1983-01-01

38

Osmotic dehydration of sugar beet in combined aqueous solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Response surface methodology was used for quantitative investigation of water and solids transfer during osmotic dehydration of sugar beet cossettes in combined aqueous solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride. Effects of immersion time (30240min), sucrose concentration (3070%, w\\/w), sodium chloride concentration (08%, w\\/w), and temperature of the osmotic solution (3050C) were estimated. Quadratic regression equations describing the effects of these

Aleksandar Joki?; Julianna Gyura; Ljubinko Levi?; Zoltan Zavarg

2007-01-01

39

Phase studies of the systems synthetic soap-sodium chloride-water  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe phase behavior of ternary mixtures of various synthetic soaps, sodium chloride, and water are described. Several mixed\\u000a sodium alkyl sulphates were investigated in detail at two temperatures; pure alkyl sulphates and alkyl and alkylarene sulphonates\\u000a were investigated only tentatively. The phase relations showed a striking resemblance with those of fatty acid soaps.

P. C. Blokker

1955-01-01

40

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-print Network

1 EXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS W. B. BIZZELL, Preeident BULLETIN NO. 271 OCTOBER, 1920 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEEDS B. YOUNGBLOOD, DIRECTOK COLLEGE.... ............... Salt content of feecls.. ......... Salt content of mixed feeds.. ................... Summary ancl conclusions. Page. l1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] BULLETIN XO. 271. OCTOBE- '"On THE SALT OR SODIUM CHLORIDE CONTENT OF FEI The Texas feed...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01

41

Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

1992-01-01

42

Research paper Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition  

E-print Network

Research paper Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition of starch made of sodium chloride only and tablets made of a mixture of sodium chloride (97.5% v/v) and starch (2 was developed in a research project focusing on tablets made of a binary mixture of sodium chloride and starch

van Vliet, Lucas J.

43

Volumetric and acoustic properties of D-mannitol in aqueous sodium or magnesium chloride solutions over temperature range of 293.15-313.15K.  

PubMed

Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar compressibilities for d-mannitol in (1, 5 and 10) % aqueous sodium or magnesium chloride have been determined from solution density measurements at T=(293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 310.15, and 313.15)K and sound velocity measurements at T=(293.15 and 310.15)K as a function of the concentration of sugar alcohol. The limiting apparent molar volumes and limiting apparent molar compressibilities have been obtained from the Masson equation. The corresponding transfer parameters and expansion coefficients were also estimated. These parameters have been discussed in terms of d-mannitol-cosolute (NaCl or MgCl(2)) interactions in aqueous solutions and thus used to understand the mixing effects due to these interactions. PMID:22221791

Warmi?ska, Dorota

2012-02-15

44

Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

45

Injection of beef strip loins with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride to enhance palatability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef strip loins (46 U.S. Choice loins and 49 U.S. Select loins) were used to evaluate the potential for enhancing beef tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by injecting fresh cuts with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride. One half of each loin served as an untreated control, and the other half was injected with either distilled water (110%

D. J. Vote; W. J. Platter; J. D. Tatum; G. R. Schmidt; K. E. Belk; G. C. Smith; N. C. Speer

2010-01-01

46

Effect of orthoaminothiophenol on nickel in 3% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The use of thiol compounds as inhibitors against corrosion of nickel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Stationary and transient measurements were made. Results implied the formation of a thick and compact inhibitor film. A correlation between the inhibiting film and the structure of orthoaminothiophenol (OATP) was shown.

Srhiri, A. [Electrochemistry Lab., Kenitra City (Morocco); Derbali, Y. [National High School of Sciences and Technics, Tunis City (Tunisia). Applied Chemistry Lab.; Picaud, T. [National High School of Chemistry, Toulouse (France). Metallurgy Lab.

1995-10-01

47

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed  

E-print Network

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed: Legacy Effects of Road Salt% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study include road salt, oil field brine, water softeners, septic and sewage effluent, natural salt deposits

Weathers, Kathleen C.

48

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

, studies have mainly focused on plants which naturally grew in natural saline environ- ments or on crop plants which may encounter salinity induced by agricultural practices like irrigation. There is lessOriginal article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Diffusion of Sodium Chloride in Cellulose and Amylose Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for measuring the resistance change of a film with time was used to determine the diffusion and apparent permeability coefficients of sodium chloride in the two polymeric films. The results with cellulose diacetate (CDA, 39.8% acetyl) were compar...

M. Barnes, C. Skaar, P. Luner

1972-01-01

50

Effect of Sodium\\/Potassium (1:1) Chloride and Low Sodium Chloride Concentrations on Quality of Cheddar Cheese1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese samples containing either 1.25, 1.5, or 1.75% sodium chlo- ride or 1.25 or 1.5% sodium\\/potassium chloride (1:1, molar basis) were manu- factured from a split lot of cheese curd. Sensory analysis of the cheeses through 9 mo aging at 3C showed that all sam- ples were acceptable although some bitter- ness was observed, especially in the cheese containing

R. C. Lindsay; S. M. Hargett; C. S. Bush

1982-01-01

51

Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained

Chizuko Morita; Kouichi Sano; Shinichi Morimatsu; Hiromasa Kiura; Toshiyuki Goto; Takehiro Kohno; Wu Hong; Hirofumi Miyoshi; Atsuo Iwasawa; Yoshiko Nakamura; Masami Tagawa; Osamu Yokosuka; Hiromitsu Saisho; Toyoyuki Maeda; Yoji Katsuoka

2000-01-01

52

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sodium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar evaporation...

2010-07-01

53

Heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has been used to quantify the deposition mode ice nucleation ability of airborne crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate (NaCl 2H2O) particles with median diameters between 0.06 and 1.1 m. For this purpose, expansion cooling experiments with starting temperatures from 235 to 216 K were conducted. Recently, supermicron-sized NaCl 2H2O particles deposited onto a surface have been observed to be ice-active in the deposition mode at temperatures below 238 K, requiring a median threshold ice saturation ratio of only 1.02 in the range from 238 to 221 K. In AIDA, heterogeneous ice nucleation by NaCl 2H2O was first detected at a temperature of 227.1 K with a concomitant threshold ice saturation ratio of 1.25. Above that temperature, the crystallized salt particles underwent a deliquescence transition to form aqueous NaCl solution droplets upon increasing relative humidity. At nucleation temperatures below 225 K, the inferred threshold ice saturation ratios varied between 1.15 and 1.20. The number concentration of the nucleated ice crystals was related to the surface area of the seed aerosol particles to deduce the ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) density of the aerosol population as a function of the ice supersaturation. Maximum INAS densities of about 6 ? 1010 m-2 at an ice saturation ratio of 1.20 were found for temperatures below 225 K. These INAS densities are similar to those recently derived for deposition mode ice nucleation on mineral dust particles.

Wagner, Robert; MHler, Ottmar

2013-05-01

54

Physica B 325 (2003) 172183 Energies and stabilities of sodium chloride clusters  

E-print Network

Physica B 325 (2003) 172­183 Energies and stabilities of sodium chloride clusters based and charged sodium chloride clusters ðNaCl?n; NanClþ n?1 and ðNaCl?nCl? : r 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All; Sodium chloride; Ab initio calculations 1. Introduction Since the properties of sodium chloride clusters

Wang, Yayu

55

First Evidence of Rhombic (NaCl)2 -. Ab Initio Reexamination of the Sodium Chloride  

E-print Network

First Evidence of Rhombic (NaCl)2 -. Ab Initio Reexamination of the Sodium Chloride Dimer Anion, 2002 The possibility of electron binding to sodium chloride dimers in the gas-phase was studied. Introduction 1.1. Binding of an Excess Electron to Sodium Chloride Clusters. Substantial current interest

Simons, Jack

56

Energy minimization using the classical density distribution: Application to sodium chloride clusters  

E-print Network

Energy minimization using the classical density distribution: Application to sodium chloride. In the case of sodium chloride, it has been shown that small clus- ters have, in general, two stable packings several potentials have been used to model sodium chloride clusters and for some clusters the identity

Straub, John E.

57

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of  

E-print Network

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella% added sodium chloride was investigated. A protective effect in the heating medium and an inhibitory values, of sodium chloride concentration in both media. Lower concentration in the heating media led

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

1979-01-01

59

High temperature oxidation and sodium chloride-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9chromium-1molybdenum and 310 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological development were investigated by weight gain kinetics, metallographs, depths of attack, metal losses, and X-ray analyses. The results of 310SS deposited with salt mixtures show that weight gain kinetics in simple oxidation reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law after 3 hr, while the kinetics with salt deposits display multi-stage growth rates. NaCl is the main corrosive specie in high-temperature corrosion involving mixtures of NaCl/Na2SO 4 and is responsible for the formation of internal attack. Uniform internal attack is the typical morphology of NaCl-induced hot corrosion, while the extent of intergranular attack is more pronounced as the content of Na 2SO4 in the mixture is increased. The thermal-cycling test results of 310SS deposited NaCl and coated 7wt%Si/93wt%Al show that the aluminized layers have good corrosion resistance during the first four cycles of testing, while degradation occurs after testing for five cycles. The reason for degradation of aluminized layers is attributed to the formation of inter-connecting voids caused by aluminum inward diffusion, chloridation/oxidation cyclic reactions and the penetration of molten NaCl through the voids into the alloy substrate. The 9Cr-1Mo steels coated with 7wt%Si/93wt%Al oxidized at 750, 850, and 950C in static air show that oxidation kinetics followed a parabolic rate law at 750 and 850C. The cracks propagated through the Fex Aly layer due to the growth of brittle FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 at 750 and 850C. The voids condensed in the interface of intermetallics and substrate are attributed to the Kirkendall effect. At 950C, the fast growing aluminide layer has a different expansion coefficient than oxide scale, leading to scale cracking, oxygen penetration, and internal oxidized, evidenced by a rapid mass gain.

Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

60

Effect of Sodium Alkanoates on Micellization of Dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium Chloride in Aqueous Medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study deals with the interaction of sodium alkanoates viz. sodium acetate, sodium propionate, sodium butanoate, sodium hexanoate and sodium benzoate on the micellization of dodecylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride using conductometeric and flourscence quenching experiments carried out at 25C. The analysis has been made through study of variation of critical micelle concentration (cmc), degree of counterion binding (?), aggregation number (N),

Adil Amin; Aijaz Ahmad Dar; Mohsin Ahmad Bhat; Musarat Jan; Nuzhat Rehman; Mohammad Amin Mir; Ghulam Mohammad Rather

2008-01-01

61

The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is one of the primary contaminants that enter gas turbine engines and contribute, either directly or indirectly, to the hot corrosion degradation of hot-gas-path components. The paper surveys the results of laboratory experiments along with thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, intended for elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments. It is shown that besides being a source of sodium for the formation of corrosive liquid Na2SO4, the NaCl itself contributes in other indirect ways to the material degradation associated with the high-temperature environmental attack. In addition, the experimental results lend credence to the conceptual scheme presented schematically (behavior of NaCl in a turbine engine combustion gas environment) and resolve conflicting aspects of relevant NaCl misconceptions.

Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

1979-01-01

62

Extended Stability of Intravenous 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution After Prolonged Heating or Cooling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of an intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution that had been cooled or heated for an extended period of time. Methods: Fifteen sterile 1 L bags of 0.9% sodium chloride solution were randomly selected for this experiment. Five bags were refrigerated at an average temperature of 5.2C, 5 bags were heated at an average temperature of 39.2C, and 5 bags were stored at an average room temperature of 21.8C to serve as controls. All samples were protected from light and stored for a period of 199 days prior to being assayed and analyzed for microbial and fungal growth. Results: There was no clinically significant difference in the mean sodium values between the refrigerated samples, the heated samples, and the control group. There were no signs of microbial or fungal growth for the duration of the study. Conclusion: A sterile intravenous solution of 0.9% sodium chloride that was heated or cooled remained stable and showed no signs of microbial or fungal growth for a period of 199 days. This finding will allow hospitals and emergency medical technicians to significantly extend the expiration date assigned to these fluids and therefore obviate the need to change out these fluids every 28 days as recommended by the manufacturer. PMID:24715747

Puertos, Enrique

2014-01-01

63

Effect of concentration on the thermodynamics of sodium chloride aqueous solutions in the supercooled regime  

E-print Network

Molecular Dynamics simulations are performed on two sodium chloride solutions in TIP4P water with concentrations c=1.36 mol/kg and c=2.10 mol/kg upon supercooling. The isotherms and isochoresplanes are calculated. The temperature of maximum density line and the limit of mechanical stability line are obtained from the analysis of the thermodynamic planes. The comparison of the results shows that for densities well above the limit of mechanical stability, the isotherms and isochores of the sodium chloride aqueous solution shift to lower pressures upon increasing concentration while the limit of mechanical stability is very similar to that of bulk waterfor both concentrations. We also find that the temperature of maximum density line shifts to lower pressures and temperatures upon increasing concentration. Indications of the presence ofa liquid-liquid coexistence are found for both concentrations.

D. Corradini; P. Gallo; M. Rovere

2009-03-23

64

Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices  

E-print Network

Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration influence on the movement of zinc, sodium, and chloride in the vadose zone beneath a typical infiltration, pathogens, heavy metals, solids, organic compounds, pesticides, chlorides), which have greatly contributed

Clark, Shirley E.

65

Apical membrane sodium and chloride entry during osmotic swelling of renal (A6) epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of chloride in cell volume and sodium transport regulation, we measured cell height changes (CH), transepithelial chloride and sodium fluxes, and intracellular chloride content during challenge with hyposmotic solutions under open circuit (OC) conditions. CH maximally increased following hyposmotic challenge within ~5 minutes. The change in CH was smaller under short circuit (SC) conditions or following

W. E. Crowe; J. Ehrenfeld; E. Brochiero; N. K. Wills

1995-01-01

66

Thermodynamic and NMR study of aggregation of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium salicylate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex aggregation processes of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) have been studied in dilute solutions of sodium\\u000a salicylate (NaSal) by isothermal titration calorimetry and electrical conductivity at temperatures between 278.15K and 318.15K.\\u000a A structural transformation that was dependent on the concentrations of DTAC and NaSal was observed. The micellization process\\u000a in dilute solutions of DTAC has been subjected to a detailed

Bojan arac; Janez Cerkovnik; Bernard Ancian; Guillaume Mriguet; Galle M. Roger; Serge Durand-Vidal; Marija Beter-Roga?

67

Sodium chloride affects propidium monoazide action to distinguish viable cells.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a DNA-intercalating agent used to selectively detect DNA from viable cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we report that high concentrations (>5%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) prevents PMA from inhibiting DNA amplification from dead cells. Moreover, Halobacterium salinarum was unable to maintain cell integrity in solutions containing less than 15% NaCl, indicating that extreme halophilic microorganisms may not resist the concentration range in which PMA fully acts. We conclude that NaCl, but not pH, directly affects the efficiency of PMA treatment, limiting its use for cell viability assessment of halophiles and in hypersaline samples. PMID:22728959

Barth, Valdir C; Cattani, Fernanda; Ferreira, Carlos A S; de Oliveira, Slvia D

2012-09-15

68

Poly-silicon nanowire sensor for sodium chloride concentration measurement.  

PubMed

In this paper, the poly-Si nanowire sensor was fabricated by top-down technique for sodium chloride concentration measurement. The results showed that the smallest threshold voltage and the best resolution were 1.65 V and 0.41 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, the sensor can be reused more than 50 times which maintained acceptable performance and showed good linearity of the calibration within wide range of the concentration. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the proposed sensor has great potential to be used for measuring complicated sample with suitable modification on the surface of nanowires. PMID:24211887

Kan, Yao-Chiang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Ho, Wen-Kai; Wu, Tsai-Chen; Ho, Yao-Yaun; Yang, Chia Yu

2014-01-01

69

Recovery of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate from Sambhar Lake brineA theoretical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sambhar Lake brine contains predominantly sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate. The mutual solubility relationships\\u000a existing in the system NaCl?Na2SO4?Na2C03?H20 have been projected isothermally at 0, 20, 35and 100C, indicating various\\u000a solid phases formed. The theoretical recoveries have been calculated by plotting the course of change in brine and bittern\\u000a compositions on the respective phase diagrams. Various steps to

V R K S Susarla; J M Parekh; U V Chitnis

1991-01-01

70

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

...chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar evaporation...

2014-07-01

71

The influence of the chloride gradient across red cell membranes on sodium and potassium movements  

PubMed Central

1. A study has been made to see whether active and passive movements of sodium and potassium in human red blood cells are influenced by changing the chloride gradient and hence the potential difference across the cell membrane. 2. Chloride distribution was measured between red cells and isotonic solutions with a range of concentrations of chloride and non-penetrating anions (EDTA, citrate, gluconate). The cell chloride concentration was greater than that outside with low external chloride, suggesting that the sign of the membrane potential was reversed. The chloride ratio (internal/external) was approximately equal to the inverse of the hydrogen ion ratio at normal and low external chloride, and inversely proportional to external pH. These results show that chloride is passively distributed, making it valid to calculate the membrane potential from the chloride ratio. 3. Ouabain-sensitive (pump) potassium influx and sodium efflux were decreased by not more than 20 and 40% respectively on reversing the chloride gradient, corresponding to a change in membrane potential from -9 to +30 mV. In contrast, passive (ouabain-insensitive) movements were reversibly altered potassium influx was decreased about 60% and potassium efflux was increased some tenfold. Sodium influx was unaffected by the nature of the anion and depended only on the external sodium concentration, whereas ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux was increased about threefold. When external sodium was replaced by potassium there was a decrease in ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux with normal chloride, but an increase in low-chloride medium. 4. Net movements of sodium and potassium were roughly in accord with the unidirectional fluxes. 5. The results suggest that reversing the chloride gradient and, therefore, the sign of the membrane potential, had little effect on the sodium pump, but caused a marked increase in passive outward movements of both sodium and potassium ions. PMID:4996368

Cotterrell, D.; Whittam, R.

1971-01-01

72

Inhibitory effect of combinations of heat treatment, pH, and sodium chloride on a growth from spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum at refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed Central

Nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum will grow at refrigeration temperatures and thus pose a potential hazard in minimally processed foods. Spores of types B, E, and F strains were used to inoculate an anaerobic meat medium. The effects of various combinations of pH, NaCl concentration, addition of lysozyme, heat treatment (85 to 95 degrees C), and incubation temperature (5 to 16 degrees C) on time until growth were determined. No growth occurred after spores were heated at 95 degrees C, but lysozyme improved recovery from spores heated at 85 and 90 degrees C. PMID:8779606

Graham, A F; Mason, D R; Peck, M W

1996-01-01

73

Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

2014-08-01

74

A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

75

Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges  

SciTech Connect

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

Clark, Kendal W [ORNL; Qin, Shengyong [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

2012-01-01

76

Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, commensurate with the atomic rows of the NaCl surface. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface and the modulations appear to reflect a surface structural reconstruction facilitated by surface charges.

Clark, Kendal; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Wendelken, John; Li, An-Ping

2012-02-01

77

Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

1991-01-01

78

Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride  

SciTech Connect

Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na{sub x}HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains.

Oro-Sole, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Frontera, C. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Beltran-Porter, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de la Universitat de Valencia, PO Box 2085, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Lebedev, O.I. [EMAT, RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp 2020 (Belgium); Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp 2020 (Belgium); Fuertes, A. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: amparo.fuertes@icmab.es

2006-05-25

79

Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to investigate whether the loop diuretic sensitive, sodium-chloride cotransport system described previously in shark rectal gland is in fact a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system, plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rectal glands ofSqualus acanthias and sodium and rubidium uptake were measured by a rapid filtration technique. In addition, the binding of N-methylfurosemide to the membranes was investigated.

J. Hannafin; E. Kinne-Saffran; D. Friedman; R. Kinne

1983-01-01

80

Efficacy of Sodium Chloride Applications for Control of Goosegrass (Eleusine Indica) in Seashore Paspalum Turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of goosegrass is difficult in the pan-Pacific region. No herbicides are currently labeled for selective control of goosegrass in seashore paspalum turf, a species used regularly on golf courses throughout the tropics. Sequential granular applications of sodium chloride (99% sodium chloride, 1% sodium silicoaluminate, 83% 0.5 to 0.25 mm diam) at 488 kg\\/ha did not effectively (. 70%) control

James T. Brosnan; Joseph DeFrank; Micah S. Woods; Greg K. Breeden

2009-01-01

81

The Mechanism of Sodium and Chloride Uptake by the Gills of a Fresh-Water Fish, Carassius auratus: I. Evidence for an independent uptake of sodium and chloride ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carassius auratus placed in a dilute sodium chloride solution (400 gM) is able to absorb sodium and chloride ions at very different rates, or to absorb one ion and to lose the other. This is the case not only for fish which have been previously kept in choline chloride or sodium sulfate solutions or deionized water, in order to stimulate

F. Garcia Romeu; A ROMEU; J. MAETZ

1964-01-01

82

Effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate and sodium chloride on silage intake by lactating cows.  

PubMed

Lactating dairy cows prepared with rumen fistulas were fed on grass silage and concentrates and used in two experiments to compare the effects of sodium acetate and sodium chloride infused over 3 h into the rumen on the voluntary intake of silage. Silage intake was depressed in an approximately linear manner by increasing amounts (6-15 mol) of sodium acetate (NaOAc) and 15 mol NaCl had an effect similar to that of 12 mol NaOAc. Sodium in rumen fluid was significantly correlated with intake as was osmolality. 5.5, 7.4 or 9.1 mol of NaOAc significantly depressed silage intake, while 7.4 and 9.1 mol NaCl had significant effects. There were significant negative relationships between intake and the level of NaOAc or NaCl. It is concluded that the major effect of either salt was via the elevation of osmolality of rumen fluid and the relevance to normal control of feeding is discussed. PMID:1482166

Forbes, J M; Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H

1992-12-01

83

21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.  

...Production Aids 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be...the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride emulsion polymers intended...temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used...

2014-04-01

84

High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

Widespread penetration of renewable energy and increasing demands on reliability/security of the electrical grid require extensive advances in energy storage technologies. One most promising technology is the sodium-beta batteries (NBBs) based on a sodium-ion conducting ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at elevated temperatures (300-350oC). Current NBBs, constructed on a 1-3 mm thick tubular electrolyte, have high capital cost, performance/safety issues and relatively high operating temperature that limit market penetration of the technology. In this work we report a new generation NBB that utilizes a planar design, incorporating a thinner BASE that reduces the area of specific resistance and may be operated at reduced temperatures. The lower operating temperatures allows for use of more cost-effective cell materials and decreases adverse temperature effects that impact cycle life and overall cost. We here present recent progress generated from planar NBB button cells, including initial cell performance, cathode design and chemistry.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.

2010-07-01

85

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01

86

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water - surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid as a surface active compound tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data. As a result, a surface tension parameterization of ternary solution was obtained over the whole concentration range. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

Vanhanen, J.; Hyvrinen, A.-P.; Anttila, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

2008-04-01

87

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

Vanhanen, J.; Hyvrinen, A.-P.; Anttila, T.; Raatikainen, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

2008-08-01

88

The coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of frog skin epithelium.  

PubMed Central

1. When frog skin epithelium was exposed to a chloride-free solution bathing the basolateral side of the frog skin preparation the short-circuit current fell and there was a simultaneous loss of chloride and water from its cells. This effect was partially blocked by furosemide when this drug was added to the basolateral bathing solution. 2. Under control conditions and when added to the solution bathing the basolateral side of the preparation furosemide had no effect on the ion and water contents of the frog skin epithelium. 3. Furosemide but not SITS (4-acetamide-4'-isothiocyanate-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or amiloride blocked the recovery of short-circuit current and the reuptake of chloride and water by preparations pre-incubated with chloride-free solution on the basolateral side. The recovery of the short-circuit current was also blocked by the replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium. 4. The effect on the short-circuit current of graded replacements by impermeant ions of sodium or chloride did not show saturation for concentrations of these ions up to their control values. 5. Replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium inhibited the short-circuit current and the recovery observed when potassium was reintroduced in the basolateral bathing solution was blocked by furosemide. 6. The replacement of basolateral sodium or chloride by impermeant ions induced an immediate fall in the intracellular concentrations of both sodium and chloride suggesting that the transport system coupling the movements of the two ions across the basolateral membrane is operative under control conditions. 7. It is proposed that the coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium are mediated by a sodium-potassium-2 chloride co-transport system which under control conditions is very near equilibrium. PMID:2607456

Fernandes, P L; Ferreira, H G; Ferreira, K T

1989-01-01

89

The effect of sodium chloride in the irrigation water on the growth of selected ornamental plants  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Floriculture THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE IRRIGATION WATER ON THE GROWTH OF SELECTED ORNAMENTAL PLANTS A Thesis by GARY EDWARD APPS Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

Apps, Gary Edward

2012-06-07

90

Longitudinal changes during the development of hypertension in rats fed excess chloride and sodium.  

PubMed

The effects of supplemental NaCl, KCl, and Na acetate on the blood pressure of weanling rats fed semipurified diets and diets based on naturally high salt products, like cottage cheese, were examined in two studies. Within 2 weeks of initiation of dietary treatments, rats fed supplemental chloride had elevated blood pressure and lowered plasma renin activity, which persisted throughout the 8-week study. The effect of supplemental sodium on blood pressure was not significant until after 6 weeks of dietary treatment. The initial increase in blood pressure preceded the slowed growth observed in rats fed excess chloride or sodium. Urinary volume and urinary excretion of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and chloride were increased when supplemental chloride or sodium was fed, but tissue electrolyte and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations remained constant. Two changes preceded the rise in blood pressure: rats fed supplemental chloride had enlarged kidneys, and those fed supplemental sodium had elevated hematocrits, suggesting a transient shift among fluid compartments, after only 6 days of treatment. These data suggest that the hypertension induced by ingestion of supplemental (14.6 mg CI/g of diet) chloride is mediated by changes in renal function. Ingestion of excess sodium depressed bone magnesium concentrations in Study 1 and after 24 days in Study 2; the impact of this "relative" magnesium depletion on blood pressure deserves further study. PMID:8516350

Greger, J L; Tseng, E

1993-07-01

91

Manipulation and characterization of aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium chloride aerosol particles.  

PubMed

Aerosol optical tweezers coupled with Raman spectroscopy can allow the detailed investigation of aerosol dynamics. We describe here measurements of the evolving size, composition, and phase of single aqueous aerosol droplets containing the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate and the inorganic salt sodium chloride. Not only can the evolving wet particle size be probed with nanometer accuracy, but we show that the transition to a metastable microgel particle can be followed, demonstrating that optical tweezers can be used to manipulate both spherical and non-spherical aerosol particles. Further, through the simultaneous manipulation and characterization of two aerosol droplets of different composition in two parallel optical traps, the phase behavior of a surfactant-doped particle and a surfactant-free droplet can be compared directly in situ. We also illustrate that the manipulation of two microgel particles can allow studies of the coagulation and interaction of two solid particles. Finally, we demonstrate that such parallel measurements can permit highly accurate comparative measurements of the evolving wet particle size of a surfactant-doped droplet with a surfactant-free droplet. PMID:18044858

Buajarern, Jariya; Mitchem, Laura; Reid, Jonathan P

2007-12-20

92

Toxicity of sodium chloride to house sparrows (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is widely used as a deicing agent on roadways. There are numerous anecdotal reports of poisoning of passerine birds by road salt in the United States and Canada, but little is known about the toxicity of NaCl to songbirds. The objectives of this study were to determine the lethal dose range for NaCl in a representative passerine species (house sparrow [Passer domesticus]); to determine the clinical, physiologic, and pathologic effects of sublethal and lethal oral NaCl exposure; and to assess the potential for recovery after exposure to granular salt or highly concentrated salt solutions. The up-and-down method was used in a pilot study to estimate the lethal oral dose of granular NaCl in wild caught house sparrows. The toxicity of highly concentrated NaCl solution also was investigated. This was followed by an acute dose response study in which house sparrows were dosed orally with granular NaCl at 0, 500, 1,500, 2,500, or 3,500 mg/kg. Sparrows were deprived of water for 6 hr postexposure (PE) in an attempt to mimic specific winter conditions. Groups of three birds at each dose were euthanized at 1, 3, 6, and 12 hr PE, and samples were collected for histopathology and brain and plasma electrolyte analyses. Results indicated an approximate mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3,000-3,500 mg/kg in water-deprived birds, which is similar to mammalian values. House sparrows dosed with a concentrated solution of NaCl generally died at doses of 8,000 mg/kg. Clinical signs observed at >or=1,500 mg/kg included rapid onset (<30 min) of depression (indicated by reduced activity and reduced response to visual and auditory stimuli), ataxia, inability to fly or perch, and death in as little as 45 min. Birds that survived for 6 hr usually recovered. Plasma Na concentrations >200 mmol/l were consistently associated with clinical signs. Pathologic lesions consisted of edema and distension of the caudoventral thin muscled region of the gizzard and were observed 1 hr PE in most birds dosed with >or=500 mg/kg. Brain Na concentrations in clinically ill sparrows and those that died of NaCl toxicity ranged from 1,297 to 1,615 (mean=1,450; SD=115) ppm wet weight or 5,603 to 6,958 (mean=6,367; SD=454) ppm dry weight, which differed significantly from control birds. No histologic lesions were observed in brain sections of exposed birds, likely reflecting the acute nature of the exposure. However, fluid accumulation beneath the koilin layer of the gizzard was observed in the majority of birds at high dosage levels. These results indicate that passerines ingesting relatively small numbers of road salt granules or small quantities of highly concentrated NaCl solutions are at risk of sodium poisoning. PMID:16107671

Bollinger, Trent K; Mineau, Pierre; Wickstrom, Mark L

2005-04-01

93

Apical membrane sodium and chloride entry during osmotic swelling of renal (A6) epithelial cells.  

PubMed

To assess the role of chloride in cell volume and sodium transport regulation, we measured cell height changes (CH), transepithelial chloride and sodium fluxes, and intracellular chloride content during challenge with hyposmotic solutions under open circuit (OC) conditions. CH maximally increased following hyposmotic challenge within approximately 5 minutes. The change in CH was smaller under short circuit (SC) conditions or following replacement of chloride in the mucosal solution by gluconate or cyclamate (Cl(-)-freem). When corrected for the osmotically inactive cell volume (30 +/- 2%), delta CH for controls (OC) were greater than predicted for an ideal osmometer. In contrast, delta CH for Cl(-)-freem or SC conditions were similar to that predicted for an ideal osmometer. Na+ and Cl- mucosa-to-serosa fluxes increased following hyposmotic challenge. Chloride fluxes increased maximally within 5 min, then decreased. In contrast, the Na+ flux increased slowly and reached a steady state after approximately 25 min. Under isosmotic conditions, exposure to Cl(-)-freem solutions led to decreases in the transepithelial conductance, Na+ flux, and CH. Chloride permeabilities in the apical and basolateral membranes were detected using the fluorescent intracellular chloride indicator MQAE. The results indicate that during osmotic swelling, the entry of both sodium and chloride is increased. The time courses of these increases differ, suggesting distinct mechanisms for the osmotic regulation of these apical membrane transport processes. PMID:7541082

Crowe, W E; Ehrenfeld, J; Brochiero, E; Wills, N K

1995-03-01

94

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels  

SciTech Connect

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

Hill, J. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W. [UK Nirex Limited, Curie Avenue, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Manning, M. [Formerly AEA Technology, Building 220, Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Chambers, A. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [Serco Assurance, Building 150, Harwell International Business Centre, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

2006-07-01

95

Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt-binding macrobicycle  

E-print Network

Facilitated transport of sodium or potassium chloride across vesicle membranes using a ditopic salt, where the facilitated influx of chloride and sodium ions into vesicles is observed directly by 35 Cl as an Advance Article on the web 8th November 2002 A synthetic receptor, with an ability to bind sodium

Smith, Bradley D.

96

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n 7, Tome 41, Juillet 1980, page C6-289 Interdiffusion between sodium chloride and potassium chloride  

E-print Network

-289 Interdiffusion between sodium chloride and potassium chloride L. Bonpunt, N. B. Chanh and Y. Haget Laboratoire de.1051/jphyscol:1980673 #12;C6-290 L. BONPUNT, N. B. CHANH AND Y. HAGET (cp = 13 mm) of the two chlorides were

Boyer, Edmond

97

Modeling time to inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in response to high pressure, sodium chloride, and sodium lactate.  

PubMed

A mathematical model was developed to predict time to inactivation (TTI) by high pressure processing of Listeria monocytogenes in a broth system (pH 6.3) as a function of pressure (450 to 700 MPa), inoculum level (2 to 6 log CFU/ml), sodium chloride (1 or 2%), and sodium lactate (0 or 2.5%) from a 4C initial temperature. Ten L. monocytogenes isolates from various sources, including processed meats, were evaluated for pressure resistance. The five most resistant strains were used as a cocktail to determine TTI and for model validation. Complete inactivation of L. monocytogenes in all treatments was demonstrated with an enrichment method. The TTI increased with increasing inoculum level and decreasing pressure magnitude, from 1.5 min at 700 MPa and 2 log CFU/ml, to 15 min at 450 MPa and 6 log CFU/ml. Neither NaCl nor sodium lactate significantly influenced TTI. The model was validated with ready-to-eat, uncured, Australian retail poultry products, and with product specially made at a U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)-inspected pilot plant in the United States. Data from the 210 individual product samples used for validation indicate that the model gives "fail-safe" predictions (58% with response as expected, 39% with no survivors where survivors expected, and only 3% with survivors where none were expected). This model can help manufacturers of refrigerated ready-to-eat meats establish effective processing criteria for the use of high pressure processing as a postlethality treatment for L. monocytogenes in accordance with FSIS regulations. PMID:21067666

Youart, Alyssa M; Huang, Yang; Stewart, Cynthia M; Kalinowski, Robin M; Legan, J David

2010-10-01

98

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280C and 240C. At 280C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28

99

Coupled sodium and chloride transport into plasma membrane vesicles prepared from dogfish rectal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane fraction, rich in basal-lateral plasma membranes, was prepared from the rectal gland of the spiny dogfish,Squalus acanthias, and the uptake of22Na into the plasma membrane vesicles was investigated by a rapid filtration technique. Sodium uptake was greatest in the presence of a chloride gradient directed into the vesicles; it was strikingly reduced when chloride was replaced with nitrate

Jill Eveloff; Rolf Kinne; Eva Kinne-Saffran; Heini Murer; Patricio Silva; Franklin H. Epstein; Jeffrey Stoff; William B. Kinter

1978-01-01

100

Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1999-02-01

101

Thermodynamic behaviour and structural properties of an aqueous sodium chloride solution upon supercooling  

E-print Network

We present the results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of thermodynamic and structural properties upon supercooling of a low concentration sodium chloride solution in TIP4P water and the comparison with the corresponding bulk quantities. We study the isotherms and the isochores for both the aqueous solution and bulk water. The comparison of the phase diagrams shows that thermodynamic properties of the solution are not merely shifted with respect to the bulk. Moreover, from the analysis of the thermodynamic curves, both the spinodal line and the temperatures of maximum density curve can be calculated. The spinodal line appears not to be influenced by the presence of ions at the chosen concentration, while the temperatures of maximum density curve displays both a mild shift in temperature and a shape modification with respect to bulk. Signatures of the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point are found in the aqueous solution. By analysing the water-ion radial distribution functions of the aqueous solution we observe that upon changing density, structural modifications appear close to the spinodal. For low temperatures additional modifications appear also for densities close to that corresponding to a low density configurational energy minimum.

D. Corradini; P. Gallo; M. Rovere

2008-05-16

102

Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

103

Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

2000-02-01

104

Heterozygous mutations of the sodium chloride cotransporter in Chinese children: prevalence and association with blood pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Gitelman's syndrome (GS), which is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), usually manifests in children and is associated with low blood pressure. However, the prevalence of heterozy- gous NCC mutations and their association with blood pres- sure in children have not yet been studied. Methods. Five hundred unrelated children from the

Yu-Juei Hsu; Sung-Sen Yang; Nain-Feng Chu; Huey-Kang Sytwu; Chih-Jen Cheng; Shih-Hua Lin

2008-01-01

105

Effects of Sodium Chloride on Steady-state Growth and Metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sodium chloride decreased the maximum specific growth rate of Sac- charomyces cerevisiae. Chemostat experiments showed this to be largely due to an increased requirement for energy-yielding substrate, apparently linked to maintenance and leading to a decrease in the yield. The increased main- tenance requirement is probably concerned with maintaining an intracellular Na+ concentration ten times lower than the extracellular

T. G. WATSON

1970-01-01

106

Viscosities of aqueous solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride of interest in osmotic dehydration processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration of food involves the utilization of solutions with one or several solutes that increase considerably the viscosity of the liquid phase. As commercial sugar and sodium chloride are the common solutes employed in this type of processes, kinematic viscosities of binary and ternary aqueous solutions of these solutes were measured at various concentrations (from 0 up to 4.5

F Chenlo; R Moreira; G Pereira; A Ampudia

2002-01-01

107

Emissions of oil?fired furnaces burning with sodium chloride?contained air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the increasing concern about the global environmental pollution and health problems, the burning of marine and industrial heavy oil?fired furnaces operated in atmospheric air of high sodium chloride content has long attracted much research interest. It is known that many complex compounds of oxides could be formed from the oxidation process of a degraded heavy oil containing various

1995-01-01

108

Ion selective electrodes for measurement of sodium and chloride in salinity experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of measuring sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) content of plant tissue and root uptake of these ions using ion selective electrodes (ISE) was developed and tested. Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants were grown for 52 days in solution culture with up to 50 and 100 mM NaCl added, respectively. During this time,

Mark Rieger; Paula Litvin

1998-01-01

109

Adsorption of water on sodium chloride surfaces: electrostatics guided ab initio studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water adsorption is studied on medium-sized clusters of sodium chloride representing (100) and (110) surfaces at the ab initio level. Topographical features of molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) have been employed for predicting the potent sites for binding of one to four water molecules on these surfaces. Such guess geometries are initially optimized using an electrostatics-based model, electrostatic potential for intermolecular

Amitava Pramanik; Rashmi P. Kalagi; Vishal J. Barge; Shridhar R. Gadre

2005-01-01

110

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-print Network

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone in the presence of ozone and UV light. Unlike bare Ag i.e., with no NaCl particles on the surface , Ag with Na

111

The following values were studied : pH, water retention ability, coloring, transformation yield, amount of residual nitrite, and distributior of sodium chloride in the finished product.  

E-print Network

, amount of residual nitrite, and distributior of sodium chloride in the finished product. As a general yield. Breed effect is usually highly significant, except for the amount of sodium chloride in five

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Ball Bearings for High Temperature Liquid Sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project has been conducted in support of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor development, in which ball bearings have been designed, manufactured, and tested specifically for a typical reactor application involving operation in high temperature sodium.A powder-processed tool steel was selected for rings and balls, and cages were manufactured from various candidate materials. Test bearings were made

Warren E. Jamison; James J. McVeigh

1975-01-01

113

Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices  

E-print Network

1 Using a Vadose Zone Model to Predict the Migration Depth of Zinc and Sodium Chloride in Soils. For this research, zinc and sodium chloride were chosen as the pollutants of interest because of their stormwater penetration depth of zinc and sodium chloride. High and low values for the factors were selected from

Clark, Shirley E.

114

Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Concentrations in the Schwann Cell and Axon of the Squid Nerve Fiber  

PubMed Central

Sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were determined in the sheath cells and axoplasm of the nerve fiber of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. The sheaths were obtained by slitting the nerve fiber, the extracellular electrolytes were washed out in isotonic sucrose solution, and the concentrations in the cells were determined after different soaking times in the sucrose solution. Values for the Schwann cell were calculated by extrapolation to zero time from the plots of the logarithms of the concentrations in the cells as a function of soaking time in sucrose solution. The Schwann cells made up 84 per cent of the sheath's total cellular volume. The Schwann cell concentrations in millimols per liter, are: 312 (404-241) for sodium, 220 (308-157) for potassium, and 167 (208-138) for chloride. The concentrations in the axoplasm (mean SE), in millimols per liter are: 52 10 for sodium, 335 25 for potassium, and 135 14 for chloride. The possibility that some fraction of the Schwann cell electrolytes, especially of sodium, is bound, cannot be discarded. PMID:5862502

Villegas, Jorge; Villegas, Leopoldo; Villegas, Raimundo

1965-01-01

115

The clinical use of viscoelastic artificial tears and sodium chloride in dry-eye syndrome.  

PubMed

This study was performed to test viscoelastic artificial tears (VAT) based on both subjective and clinical parameters in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Twenty-eight patients were evaluated in a randomized double-blind study. Sodium hyaluronate was used in two different concentrations (0.4%, 0.25%) and in combination with chondroitin sulfate. Each preparation was used for one week preceded by another weekly cycle using a sodium chloride solution. Before and after each cycle, clinical examinations were performed: tear film break-up time, Schirmer's test, lipid-layer thickness and fluorescein staining. Patients kept a record of the drop-frequency, subjective response and side effects. After the study, they were asked to give a rating of the various preparations. The severity of KCS was expressed based on a sicca score and correlated with response to viscoelastic treatment. Both the subjective and the clinical parameters revealed no statistically significant differences between the various viscoelastic agents or between the viscoelastics and the sodium chloride solutions. Severe side effects did not occur. There was a positive correlation of response to viscoelastic treatment with severe KCS (+ 0.36) but not with mild KCS (-0.07). The VAT seems to be indicated in severe cases of dry-eye syndrome. Sodium chloride solutions may be a useful short-term alternative to other tear formulations. PMID:11700802

Nepp, J; Schauersberger, J; Schild, G; Jandrasits, K; Haslinger-Akramian, J; Derbolav, A; Wedrich, A

2001-12-01

116

Symmetrical, unsymmetrical and bridged calix[4]arene derivatives as neutral carrier ionophores in poly (vinyl chloride) membrane sodium selective electrodes.  

PubMed

The complexing ability of a range of 19 symmetrical, unsymmetrical and bridged calix[4]arene derivatives having ester, ketone, amide, amine and thioether functionalities were determined by the picrate extraction method. On incorporating these calix[4]arene derivatives as neutral carrier ionophores in sodium-selective poly (vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes the performance was assessed on the basis of the sensitivity and selectivity over the alkali, alkaline earth metals and hydrogen and ammonium ions. The temperature dependence, response times and lifetimes were also determined. Four ionophores in particular gave excellent sensitivity and selectivity and lifetimes of > 200 days. These electrodes were then tested without additional lipophilic additives and one ionophore was incorporated into poly (vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes with plasticizing solvents of varying polarity. PMID:18966058

O'Connor, K M; Cherry, M; Svehla, G; Harris, S J; McKervey, M A

1994-07-01

117

The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log?? cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log?? cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log?? cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also reduced during storage, but by less than 1.5 log10 cfu/g after 50 d. However, cheese with a 50% reduction in sodium without KCl had higher counts than full-sodium cheese at the end of 50 d of incubation at 4 C when inoculated at 3 mo. When inoculated at 8 mo postmanufacture, this trend was only observed in 50% reduced sodium with KCl, for cheese manufactured with both cultures. This enhanced survival for 50% reduced-sodium cheese was not seen when a higher incubation temperature (12 C) was used when cheese was inoculated at 3 mo of age and monitored for 27 d (no difference in treatments was observed at this incubation temperature). In the event of postprocessing contamination during later stages of ripening, L. monocytogenes was capable of survival in Cheddar cheese regardless of which culture was used, whether or not sodium had been reduced by as much as 50% from standard concentrations, or if KCl had been added to maintain the effective S/M of full-sodium Cheddar cheese. PMID:23910550

Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

2013-10-01

118

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOEpatents

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19

119

Influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose on the aggregation behavior of aqueous 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions.  

PubMed

The influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) on the aggregation phenomena of a surface active ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements. The counterion condensation behavior of NaCMC (aq) and the premicellar ion-association behavior of C16MeImCl (aq) were also investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C16MeImCl micelles appear in C16MeImCl-NaCMC solutions have been identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the charge density parameter of NaCMC on the self-aggregation of the C16MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C16MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. The thermodynamic parameters for micellization of C16MeImCl were estimated both in absence and in the presence of NaCMC. The observed enthalpy-entropy compensation effect in C16MeImCl and C16MeImCl-NaCMC systems provided important insight as to how micellization processes are governed by the bulk structural property of the solution with respect to that of the water. PMID:25256477

Das, Bijan; Ray, Dhiman; De, Ranjit

2014-11-26

120

Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields.

R. T. Cygan; G. D. Jarrell

1992-01-01

121

A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms. PMID:22643347

Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

2012-01-01

122

Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

1974-01-01

123

Study on kinetics of cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen in 3.5% sodium chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen in seawater on metals is of great importance for corrosion studies. The present\\u000a paper studied cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen on Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions by cyclic\\u000a voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode\\u000a (RRDE). The cyclic voltammetric results demonstrated the cathodic process

Yongjuan Li; Dun Zhang; Jiajia Wu

2010-01-01

124

Thermodynamics of transfer of sodium chloride from water to aqueous sucrose at 25C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enthalpies of transfer of sodium chloride over the mixed-solvent range from pure water to mole fraction sucroseX3=0.05 (50 wt. %) were determined calorimetrically at 25C. These were combined with free energies of transfer at constant molality (per 100 g of mixed solvent) calculated from isopiestic activity coefficients to yield negative entropies of transfer. The positive free energy is approximately a

J. H. Stern; E. Lowe; M. E. O'Connor

1974-01-01

125

Density and Viscosity of Ternary Mixtures of kappa -Carrageenan, Sodium Chloride, and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viscosity and density of ternary mixtures containing kappa -carrageenan, sodium chloride, and water have been measured from (303 to 318) K at different values of pH. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The polynomial models used to correlate the viscosity and density gave good fits to the experimental data.

Ramos, Andresa V.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Giraldo-Zuniga, Abraham D.

2013-02-01

126

Salinity-resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorates sodium chloride stress on tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is one of the major anthropogenic as well as environmental stresses that reduce plant growth. Results show that even after being adapted up to 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, all selected isolates were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce phytohormones, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme. NT1 was found to exhibit the highest phosphate solubilization zones (25 mm),

Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

2010-01-01

127

Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

1973-01-01

128

[Application of a paste composed of sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide in treating of active periodontal pockets].  

PubMed

Close relationship existing between dentobacterial plaque and chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, as well as effectiveness of conservative treatments used to eliminate chronic gingivitis, is wordly known. However, several years ago, chronic destructive periodontal disease was only solved by surgical techniques, most of them bloody and of doubtful solution for some periodontal problems; for such reasons, a study was carried out in order to learn about the role played by a medicament formed with sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide, deeply applied as a paste into active periodontal pockets, after an exquisite open radicular planing. Results obtained point out that the use of this procedure effective in the therapy of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. PMID:2856151

Martnez Silveira, G; Surez Fagundo, E; Ortega Delgado, L

1988-01-01

129

Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution  

E-print Network

Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

Bellesia, Giovanni

2013-01-01

130

Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Triflates with Sodium Cyanate: A Practical Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Ureas  

E-print Network

An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N?-di- and N,N,N?-trisubstituted ureas ...

Fors, Brett P.

131

Reevaluation of the First and Second Stoichiometric Dissociation Constants of Oxalic Acid at Temperatures from 0 to 60?C in Aqueous Oxalate Buffer Solutions withorwithout Sodium or Potassium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations were developed for the calculation of the first stoichiometric (molality scale) dissociation constant (K\\u000a m1) of oxalic acid in buffer solutions containing oxalic acid, potassium hydrogen oxalate, and potassium chloride from the determined\\u000a thermodynamic values of this dissociation constant (K\\u000a a1) and the molalities of the components in the solutions. Similar equations were also developed for the second stoichiometric

Jaakko I. Partanen; Pekka M. Juusola; Arthur K. Covington

2009-01-01

132

A RESPONSE SURFACE APPROACH FOR THE PRODUCTION OF NATURAL PIGMENT ASTAXANTHIN FROM GREEN ALGA, HAEMATOCOCCUS PLUVIALIS: EFFECT OF SODIUM ACETATE, CULTURE AGE, AND SODIUM CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium acetate, sodium chloride and Haematococcus pluvialis culture age on biomass yield, astaxanthin content and astaxanthin production was investigated using response surface methodology in a batch mode of cultivation. An orthogonal experimental design, with three variables (at five coded levels of ?1.682, ?1, 0, 1 and 1.682) and three response functions, was employed to study the effect

R. Sarada; Sila Bhattacharya; Suvendu Bhattacharya; G. A. Ravishankar

2002-01-01

133

PII S0016-7037(00)00487-7 The dissolution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride solutions  

E-print Network

PII S0016-7037(00)00487-7 The dissolution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride with the introduction of NaCl to near-neutral pH solutions such that 0.05 molal sodium ion enhances rates by 21 compared

Dove, Patricia M.

134

Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved with a very low concentration of G ions in weak alkaline media. Pitting corrosion increases with increasing sodium gluconate (SG) concentrations due to a formation of soluble Fe-G complex. The critical pitting potential depends on the chloride and G ion concentrations, pH, scan rate and the composition of the steel. An increase of Mn% in the composition of the steel leads to the increase of the pitting corrosion potential towards the positive direction, i.e., increases the resistance to pitting corrosion. The presence of vanadium in the steel also increases its resistance to pitting corrosion.

Refaey, S. A. M.

2000-04-01

135

The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

2014-08-01

136

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

137

An empirical equation with tables of smoothed solubilities of methane in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions up to 25 weight percent, 360 degrees C, and 138 MPa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The total pressure for the system H2O-CH 4 is given by p(total) = P(H2O,t) + exp10[log x(CH 4) - a - b x(CH4)], where P(H2O,t) is the vapor pressure of H2O liquid at the temperature t (?C) and x(CH 4) is the molal concentration of methane in the solution. The terms a and b are functions of temperature only. Where the total pressure and temperature are known, the concentration of methane, x(CH4), is found by iteration. The concentration of methane in a sodium chloride brine, y(CH4), is estimated using the function log y(CH4) = log x(CH4) - A I, where A is the salting out constant and I is the ionic strength. For sodium chloride solutions, the ionic strength is equal to the molality of the salt. The equations are valid to 360?C, 138 MPa, and 25 weight percent sodium chloride.

Haas, John L.

1978-01-01

138

The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system.  

PubMed

To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes 4140P showed that the inhibitory effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the gelatin system was caused by the production and activity of leucocins 4010. The presence of sodium chloride (2.5% w/v) and sodium nitrite (60 mg/l) reduced the antilisterial effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the structured gel system compared to the use of Leuc. carnosum 4010 alone. Investigations carried out at 10 degrees C showed that the lag phase of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 was reduced from 71 to 58 h by the addition of sodium chloride and to 40 h by the addition of sodium nitrite. Addition of sodium chloride increased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 from 0.02 to 0.06 h(-1), whereas no change was observed by the addition of sodium nitrite. Compared to the antilisterial effect of leucocins 4010 alone, the addition of sodium chloride (2.5%, w/v) decreased the antilisterial effect at high concentrations of leucocins 4010 (5.3 and 10.6 AU/ml) as measured after 11 days of incubation at 10 degrees C. In gels with added leucocins 4010, the most pronounced reduction in growth of L. monocytogenes 4140 was observed at the highest concentration of leucocins 4010 (10.6 AU/ml) together with sodium nitrite (60 mg/l). More detailed information on the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of single colonies of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of leucocins 4010 was obtained using microscopy and image analysis. No pronounced difference in the growth of single colonies was observed in the gel system. Real-time measurements of colony growth at 10 degrees C in the gelatin matrix showed that the growth inhibiting effect of leucocins 4010, including a longer lag phase as well as a lower maximum specific growth rate for L. monocytogenes 4010, was negated in the presence of 2.5% (w/v) sodium chloride. PMID:15109790

Hornbaek, Tina; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Budde, Birgitte Bjrn

2004-04-15

139

Improved sodium pool temperature control in a sodium exposure test cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss a design change to the sodium exposure test cell (SETC) developed by JPL for evaluating alkali metal thermal to electric conversion (AMTEC) electrodes. This change, the addition of an antechamber to contain the sodium pool, was made to improve the control of the sodium pool temperature in the test, in order to improve the consistency

Michael Schuller; B. Fiebig; Patricia Hudson; Alicia Williams

2000-01-01

140

Interaction of Wide-Band-Gap Single Crystals With 248-nm Excimer Laser Radiation: XI. The Effect of Water Vapor and Temperature on Laser Desorption of Neutral Atoms From Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of water vapor and temperature on the desorption of neutral Na and Cl from cleaved, single crystal NaCl during pulsed laser irradiation at 248-nm (KrF excimer). Neutral emissions in the presence of {approx}10-5 Pa of water vapor are much more intense than in ultra high vacuum (total pressure <10-7 Pa). Emission intensities are also increased by raising the substrate temperature or the laser fluence. The neutral time-of-flight signals are well described by Maxwell Boltzmann velocity distributions for effusing particles, which we use to estimate the peak surface temperatures during the laser pulse. The neutral emission intensities display Arrhenius behavior when plotted against both the background substrate temperature and the peak surface temperature. The resulting activation energies correspond to different, rate limiting processes, one of which is enhanced in the presence of water vapor. We propose a mechanism for the effect of water on these neutral emissions and discuss the implications.

Nwe, K H.; Langford, Stephen C.; Dickinson, J T.; Hess, Wayne P.

2005-01-20

141

Structural properties of iron phases formed on low alloy steels immersed in sodium chloride-rich solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Products of corrosion were obtained from low alloy steels submitted to total immersion tests in solutions containing sodium chloride at different concentrations, during seven days. In order to properly characterize the adherent (AR) and the non-adherent rusts (NAR), a methodology including room temperature Mssbauer spectrometry, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction was addressed. The techniques showed that the AR samples were composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite, goethite, akaganeite and lepidocrocite. The composition of the NAR samples was the same, but with very small amounts of magnetite. Different cell parameters and mean crystallite sizes were found for all phases presented in AR and the NAR samples. The corrosion rates were higher than 580 ?m/y. The ratio of the abundances of goethite to the sum of lepidocrocite, akaganeite and magnetite were less than one.

Prez, F. R.; Barrero, C. A.; Arnache, O.; Snchez, L. C.; Garca, K. E.; Hight Walker, A. R.

2009-05-01

142

Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.  

PubMed

In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously. PMID:21134730

Krajinik, Danina; Dakovi?, Aleksandra; Milojevi?, Maja; Malenovi?, An?elija; Kragovi?, Milan; Bogdanovi?, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Mili?, Jela

2011-03-01

143

Self-Aggregation of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate within (Choline Chloride + Urea) Deep Eutectic Solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-11-11

144

Effect of heating temperature and sodium chloride concentration on ultrastructure and texture of gels made from giant squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) with addition of starch, l -carrageenan and egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to compare the ultrastructure of gels made from frozen muscle of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) at various temperatures with a number of different rheological parameters, with reference to a variety of added ingredients (non-muscle proteins and hydrocolloids) and to NaCl concentration. Interesting data on gel rheological properties were found where formulae containedl-carrageenan, starch and egg white, with

Carmen Gmez-Guillen; Teresa Solas; Javier Borderas; Pilar Montero

1996-01-01

145

Interaction of wide-band-gap single crystals with 248-nm excimer laser radiation. XI. The effect of water vapor and temperature on laser desorption of neutral atoms from sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

We show that low partial pressures of water vapor (10{sup -5} Pa) dramatically increase the intensity of neutral Na and Cl emissions from cleaved, single-crystal NaCl during pulsed laser irradiation at 248 nm (KrF excimer). The time-of-flight distributions of these emissions are consistent with thermal desorption from laser-heated surfaces. Significantly, introducing water vapor lowers the particle velocities and thus the effective surface temperature during emission. Transmission measurements confirm that laser absorption is reduced in the presence of water vapor. The Arrhenius analysis of the emission intensities and effective temperatures show reduced activation energies in the presence of water vapor, which more than compensate for the vapor-induced reduction in laser absorption and surface temperature. Atomic force and scanning electron microscopy of the irradiated surfaces show evidence for accelerated monolayer-scale erosion in the presence of water vapor. A mechanism for the effect of water on these emission and erosion processes is proposed and discussed.

Nwe, K.H.; Langford, S.C.; Dickinson, J.T.; Hess, W.P. [Physics Department, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States); Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2005-02-15

146

Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

147

Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1985-01-01

148

Effect of lead(II) impurity on the growth of sodium chloride crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growth kinetics of the (1 0 0) face of sodium chloride crystals were measured in aqueous solution in the presence of a trace of lead(II) as a function of supersaturation and impurity concentration. The growth kinetic data are analyzed successfully using the kinetic model proposed by Kubota and Mullin [J. Crystal Growth 152 (1995) 203]. The value of the Langmuir constant determined from analysis of the data on growth kinetics was found to be in good agreement with the value obtained from direct adsorption experiments. The estimated value of the average spacing between the adjacent adsorption-active sites and the average distance between the neighboring impurity-adsorbed sites are also reported.

Kubota, N.; Otosaka, H.; Doki, N.; Yokota, M.; Sato, A.

2000-11-01

149

Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

1986-01-01

150

A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

1985-01-01

151

Chemotaxis behavior toward an odor is regulated by constant sodium chloride stimulus in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

We studied the chemotaxis behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans toward a chemoattractant in the presence of background sensory stimulus. Chemotaxis toward an odor butanone was greater in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) than that without NaCl. By contrast, chemotaxis toward NaCl was not affected by a butanone background. The salt-sensing ASE neuron-deficient che-1(p674) mutants and worms with ASE genetically ablated showed high chemotaxis toward butanone, regardless of the presence of a NaCl background. Therefore, in wild-type worms, information from ASE in the absence of NaCl suppresses butanone chemotaxis, while the suppression is removed in the presence of NaCl. PMID:24561276

Shingai, Ryuzo; Ichijo, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Tokumitsu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Ogurusu, Tarou

2014-01-01

152

Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AP65 in 3.5% Sodium Chloride Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloy AP65 was prepared by melting and casting. The corrosion behavior of the as-cast and solid solution (T4)-treated AP65 alloys in 3.5% sodium chloride solution was investigated by corrosion morphology observation, immersion test, and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the second phase Mg17Al12 surrounded by a lead-enriched area distributes discontinuously along the grain boundaries in the as-cast AP65 alloy. The lead-enriched areas with high activity are susceptible to be attacked during immersion test and can act as places for preferential anodic dissolution. The corrosion resistance of the as-cast AP65 alloy can be improved after T4 treatment and the T4-treated alloy suffers general corrosion.

Wang, Nai-guang; Wang, Ri-chu; Peng, Chao-qun; Feng, Yan

2012-07-01

153

Thermodynamics of microemulsion systems. Part 2. Enthalpies of solution in aqueous sodium chloride + 2-propanol systems  

SciTech Connect

The effect of salinity on the energetics of dissolution of alcohol cosurfactant in the aqueous phase has been determined calorimetrically at 35 C. The standard enthalpy of solution of 2-propanol is decreasingly exothermic with increasing sodium chloride concentration. The new and existing literature data on similar systems including l-butanol, l-pentanol, l-hexanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol have been compared and analyzed in qualitative terms of the scaled particle theory. It has been postulated that in the case of branched-chain alcohols, especially tertiary ones, the solute-solvent interaction term has a more important contribution to the enthalpy changes than the term accounting for the energy of cavity formation. This is explained as being due to the fact that branched-chain alcohols form stronger hydrogen bonds with water than the normal-chain homologs. 26 references.

Kertes, A.S.; Lai, W.C.

1980-07-01

154

Nanoscale periodic modulations on sodium chloride surface revealed by tuning fork atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along <110> crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300?C) however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

Clark, Kendal W.; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, X.-G.; Li, An-Ping

2012-05-01

155

Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

2003-01-01

156

Container-grown tree seedling responses to sodium chloride applications in different substrates.  

PubMed

Seedlings of Norway maple (Acer platanoides), silver birch (Betula pendula), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were grown in selected sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations, soil types and under different watering regimes. Plants were raised from seeds, except for Scots pine plants which were obtained from a commercial source. Among the plant species tested, Scots pine was the most tolerant to soil salinity, while Norway spruce was the most susceptible. For both Norway maple and Norway spruce some half-sib families were more tolerant than others. No significant correlation was found between the tolerance of different half-sib families and the tolerance of mother trees observed in the field. The extent of leaf necrosis correlated significantly with the leaf concentrations of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Among half-sib families within the species no such correlation was found. On the other hand, the least injured progeny of Norway maples had the highest concentrations of NaCl. The extent of salt-induced leaf necrosis varied with soil type, and a significant interaction between species and soil type was observed. Seedlings of Norway spruce grown in sand showed more severe necrosis and significantly higher concentrations of Na and Cl than seedlings grown in loam, silt loam, and peat. The severity of salt-induced leaf injury varied with the watering regime. Silver birch was the most affected species by drought and autumn watering treatments. Plants of silver birch subjected to drought showed increased leaf necrosis compared to the non-treated plants, and autumn watering treatment reduced the severity of leaf necrosis. PMID:15092891

Fostad, O; Pedersen, P A

2000-08-01

157

MembFac -Scoring Sheet 1. 12% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Sodium Chloride  

E-print Network

MembFac - Scoring Sheet 1. 12% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Sodium Chloride 2. 12% PEG 4000 Sulfate 4. 12% iso-Propanol, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Sodium Chloride 5. 12% PEG 4000, 0.1 M Na Sodium Chloride 11. 12% PEG 6000, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Magnesium Chloride 12. 18% PEG 400, 0

Hill, Chris

158

The effect of furosemide on luminal sodium, chloride and potassium transport in the early distal tubule of Amphiuma kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments in the early distal tubule of the doubly perfused kidney ofAmphiuma demonstrated net reabsorption of potassium (K) which is reversed to net K secretion after K adaptation. Furthermore, it is known that this particular segment exhibits extensive chloride (Cl) net reabsorption which depends on the presence of sodium (Na) and which is inhibited by furosemide. In order to

H. Oberleithner; W. Guggino; G. Giebisch

1983-01-01

159

Modeling multicomponent mass transfer in plant material in contact with aqueous solutions of sucrose and sodium chloride during osmotic dehydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi?component mass transfer model for osmotic dehydration of carrots using aqueous solution of sucrose and sodium chloride is presented. The phenomenological approach was used to describe non?linear relationship between the fluxes and thermodynamic forces. A model for the prediction of water loss and solids gain was developed taking into account the cellular structure shrinkage during the process with the

H. Qi; Shri K. Sharma; Marc LeMaguer

1999-01-01

160

Nitrilotriacetic acid effect on the genetic activity induced by chromium chloride and sodium chromate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), a substitute of poliphosphates in laundry detergents, on mitotic gene conversion and point reverse mutation induced by sodium chromate and chromium chloride was analyzed on D7 strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.NTA determined a significant decrease of chromate convertogenic activity while the induced point reverse mutation was not affected. This can be due to a direct

A. Galli; P. Boccardo; G. Bronzetti

1988-01-01

161

Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.  

PubMed

Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component. PMID:22236112

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

2012-06-21

162

Determination of the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide chloride, Na3OCl.  

PubMed

The (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor gammainifinity (Na+) was determined by 23Na NMR spectroscopy on sodium oxide-chloride, Na3OCl. The quadrupolar coupling constant of the sodium ion in Na3OCI was determined to QCC = 11.34 MHz, which presents the largest coupling constant of a sodium nucleus observed so far. Applying a simple point charge model, the largest principal value of the electric field gradient at the sodium site was calculated to V(zz) = -6.76762 x 10(20) V/m2. From these values we calculated the (Na+) Sternheimer antishielding factor to gammainifinity (Na+)= -5.36. In sodium oxide, Na2O, we observed an isotropic chemical shift of deltaCS = 55.1 ppm, referenced to 1 M aqueous NaCI (delta = 0 ppm). PMID:10928632

Klsters, G; Jansen, M

2000-07-01

163

Oscillatory chloride current evoked by temperature jumps during muscarinic and serotonergic activation in Xenopus oocyte.  

PubMed

1. Membrane currents were recorded from voltage-clamped oocytes of Xenopus laevis, during temperature jumps imposed by a heating light. Resting oocytes usually showed little response, but large oscillatory membrane currents developed in response to cooling steps applied during activation of 'native' muscarinic receptors. 2. Similar temperature jump (Tjump) currents were seen during activation of oscillatory chloride currents mediated by muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin, glutamate and noradrenaline receptors, expressed in the oocyte following injection with messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) from rat brain. The Tjump response during muscarinic activation was selectively blocked by atropine, and that during serotonergic activation by methysergide. In contrast, the 'smooth' membrane currents elicited by nicotinic ACh, kainate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were not accompanied by Tjump responses. 3. Rapid cooling of the oocyte gave larger Tjump currents than a gradual cooling over a few seconds. The size of the Tjump current elicited by a fixed cooling step increased linearly with the preceding time of warming, becoming maximal at intervals greater than about 100 s. 4. The Tjump current was inward at a clamp potential of -60 mV and reversed direction at about -22 mV, which corresponds to the chloride equilibrium potential in the oocyte. In low-chloride solution the reversal potential was shifted to more positive potentials, but it was almost unchanged by changes in potassium and sodium concentration. The size of the Tjump current decreased as the membrane potential was made more negative than about -40 mV. 5. The period of oscillation of the Tjump current increased with decreasing temperature, following a Q10 of 3.15. Depolarization also caused a small increase in period. 6. The Tjump current was not abolished in calcium-free solution, or by addition of manganese or lanthanum to the bathing solution. However, it was abolished by intracellular injection of the calcium-chelating agent EGTA. 7. Intracellular injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate evoked an oscillatory membrane current, during which Tjump responses developed similar to those after muscarinic activation. Intracellular injection of calcium evoked a chloride current, but this was not accompanied by Tjump responses. 8. We conclude that the oscillatory currents evoked by temperature jumps arise from chloride channels activated by intracellular calcium. This calcium is probably mobilized from intracellular stores by inositol trisphosphate which is liberated as a result of activation of muscarinic receptors, and also receptors for serotonin and glutamate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2821235

Miledi, R; Parker, I; Sumikawa, K

1987-02-01

164

The physical and chemical stability of cisplatin (Teva) in concentrate and diluted in sodium chloride 0.9%  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study The subject of study was the stability of cisplatin in concentrate in glass vials and diluted in polyethylene (PE) bags stored at 1525C for up to 30 days. Material and methods Original vials of cisplatin injection (1 mg/ml, Teva) were stored at room temperature and subjected to re-piercing after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 30 days following the initial piercing. Cisplatin infusions at nominal concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride (1000 ml) in PE bags. Chemical stability was measured by means of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Physical stability was assessed by visual inspection in normal light. Results The concentration of cisplatin at each sampling time in the analysed solutions remained within 92.0100.7% of initial concentration, regardless of the container. No changes in colour or turbidity were observed in any of the vials or prepared solutions. Conclusions Cisplatin, both undiluted in glass containers and diluted with NaCl 0.9% in PE bags, remains stable (< 10% degradation) for at least 30 days at room temperature when protected from light. PMID:23788924

Szalek, Edyta; Urjasz, Hanna; Gleboka, Aleksandra; Mierzwa, Emilia; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

2012-01-01

165

Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

2012-06-01

166

Structural and antimicrobial studies of a new N-phenylamide of monensin A complex with sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex between a new N-phenylamide of monensin A (M-AM1) and sodium chloride has been synthesised and studied by X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the complex between M-AM1 and sodium chloride with acetonitrile was examined using X-ray diffraction and discussed in detail. Its structure is stabilised by coordination of the Na + cation with oxygen atoms. The Na-O bond lengths are between 2.382(2) and 2.562(2) . The chloride anion is involved in a weak intermolecular hydrogen bond between different species forming a supramolecule. The ESI-MS spectra indicate that the amide forms stable complexes of exclusively 1:1 stoichiometry with Na + cations. The FT-IR spectrum of the crystal is consistent with the results obtained by the X-ray study and provides spectroscopic evidence for the complex formation. Due to its specific structural properties N-phenylamide of monensin A efficiently binds sodium chloride. The result of the PM5 semiempirical calculation is in agreement with the spectroscopic data and allows visualisation of the structure of the M-AM1-Na + complex. The new amide of monensin A has been additionally tested in view of its antimicrobial properties. It shows great activity towards some strains of Gram-positive bacteria (MIC = 6.25-12.5 ?g/ml).

?owicki, Daniel; Huczy?ski, Adam; Ratajczak-Sitarz, Ma?gorzata; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Stefa?ska, Joanna; Brzezinski, Bogumil; Bartl, Franz

2009-04-01

167

High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses.  

PubMed

We examined, in immobilization, the effect of a diet high in sodium chloride (NaCl) on bone markers, nitrogen balance, and acid-base status. Eight healthy male test subjects participated in a 14-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) study. During the bed rest period they received, in a randomized crossover design, a high (7.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) and a low (0.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) NaCl diet. As expected, 24-h excretion of urinary calcium was significantly greater in the high-NaCl-intake HDBR phase than in the low-NaCl-intake HDBR phase (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake caused a 43-50% greater excretion of the bone resorption markers COOH- (CTX) and NH(2)- (NTX) terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in HDBR than low NaCl in HDBR (CTX/NTX: P < 0.001). Serum concentrations of the bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were identical in both NaCl intake phases. High NaCl intake led to a more negative nitrogen balance in HDBR (P < 0.001). Changes were accompanied by increased serum chloride concentration (P = 0.008), reduced blood bicarbonate (P = 0.017), and base excess (P = 0.009) whereas net acid excretion was lower during high than during low NaCl intake in immobilization (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake during immobilization exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. Changes in the acid-base status, mainly caused by disturbances in electrolyte metabolism, seem to determine NaCl-induced degradation processes. PMID:21596917

Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Fimmers, Rolf; May, Francisca; Kluge, Goetz; Heer, Martina

2011-08-01

168

Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil.  

PubMed

Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg(-1). After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments. PMID:16165192

Rasa, Kimmo; Peltovuori, Tommi; Hartikainen, Helin

2006-08-01

169

A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.  

PubMed

In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. PMID:25010468

Sherif, El-Sayed M

2014-01-01

170

Characterization of silica dissolved in sodium chloride solution using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry  

PubMed

The chemical species of silica dissolved in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution were identified by means of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (negative ion mode). The concentration of silica in 0.1 M NaCl solution is < 0.6 mmol dm(-3) (mM) and application to the identification of the silicate species at low concentrations such as in natural waters level is also possible. An apparent peak at m/z 95, which corresponds to SiO(OH)(3)(-) in 0.1 M NaCl solution, was not confirmed owing to the interference of the peaks corresponding to NaCl(2)(-); however, peaks for complexes such as Si(OH)(2)O(2)Na(-), Si(2)(OH)(5)O(2)(-), Si(2)(OH)(4)O(3)Na(-), Si(2)(OH)(3)O(4)Na(2)(-), Si(2)(OH)(2)O(5)Na(3)(-), Si(4)(OH)(7)O(5)(-), Si(4)(OH)(6)O(6)Na(-) and Si(4)(OH)(5)O(7)Na(2)(-) were detected. The existence of the trimer and its Na(+) complexes such as Si(3)(OH)(7)O(3)(-), Si(3)(OH)(6)O(4)Na(-) and Si(3)(OH)(5)O(5)Na(2)(-) was not clearly shown. These complexes can be confirmed not only in the form of the anion itself (e.g. Si(2)(OH)(5)O(2)(-)), but also in the form of some complexes with sodium ions, such as Si(2)(OH)(4)O(2)Na(-). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10934438

Tanaka; Takahashi

2000-07-01

171

Current Concepts of Sodium Chloride and Water Transport by the Mammalian Nephron  

PubMed Central

The decision of the editors to solicit a review for the Medical Progress series of this journal devoted to current concepts of the renal handling of salt and water is sound in that this important topic in kidney physiology has recently been the object of a number of new, exciting and, in some instances, quite unexpected insights into the mechanisms governing sodium excretion. These developments have come about largely as a consequence of the fact that segments of nephrons previously inaccessible to direct study are now readily accessible. Many of the findings to be discussed argue for extensive revision of a number of our current widely held views concerning the renal handling of sodium chloride and water. In the opinion of the authors, the strength of this argument rests in the fact that many of these new findings were obtained under circumstances that enabled workers to gain more direct access to the nephron than has been possible heretofore. This is not to say that areas of controversy and disagreement no longer exist. Wherever possible, these have been identified. In attempting to provide a comprehensive review of this topic, it has been necessary at times to overgeneralize and to disregard minor deficiencies in some of the studies cited. Finally, we wish to emphasize that a considerable portion of the information contained herein derives from work still under active investigation. Much of this contemporary work will undoubtedly withstand the rigors of future experimental scrutiny. It is inevitable, however, as William James so aptly noted in the quotation cited below, that some of our present ideas will need to be abandoned or revised in favor of newer, more convincing evidence. Seen in this light, the present effort is intended as nothing more than a timely survey of this active and fertile topic in renal physiology. PMID:4590888

Mercer, Paul F.; Maddox, David A.; Brenner, Barry M.

1974-01-01

172

Briquetting of fine coal using a sodium chloride binder. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A pilot scale test study has demonstrated the economic and technological feasibility of producing dense, weather-resistant briquettes from fine particulate bituminous coal. The binder, in the amount of 34/100 of 1% of the end product by weight, consisted of a sodium chloride dendritic crystalline matrix. The proclivity for liberation of pyritic sulfur and ash from fine coal particles, minus 10 Mesh x 0, has rekindled interest among producers and consumers of coal as to pre-combustion Deep Cleaning, in efforts to comply with clean air standards. Process technology as to coal beneficiation presently is producing fine sized particles. A major hurdle is handling the material after treatment. Besides being a definite safety hazard, it is extremely difficult to transport and impossible to stockpile resulting fines. Present general practice includes dewatering, if size permits, then thermal drying to some moisture level, say 10%. The dried fines are then blended with one or more produced fractions and shipped. This in itself is counter-productive as the difference in moisture content between these fines and that marketed can be as high as 8% or some 1000 Btus per pound. Reconstitution of this fine particulate seemed a reasonable solution to this situation and accordingly this study has been made. Briquettes have been produced which are equivalent to lump natural coal as to physical attributes. Generally, their heat value is greater as they contain less moisture and subjective burn tests for the product show a fouling index increase range from 10.5% for the low volatile seam to a high of 15.4% for the high volatile seam due to the sodium content of the additive. The scale-up cost for a 10 ton/hour operation including labor and capital servicing-payback is calculated to be $16.68 per ton.

Crossmore, E.Y. Jr.; Kimball, R.J.; Kimball, S.M.

1981-10-01

173

Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack, again limited to the crevice region. However, the 24 hr E{sub corr} value was higher for the Ca based solution; this is probably due to the higher acidity of this solution (Ca{sup 2+} is slightly hydrolyzing). Intermediate-term corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) measurements indicate that moderately acidic conditions are required to achieve elevated E{sub corr} values.

Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

2006-01-17

174

Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (RMA) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. Then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h E. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2) ] were tested in parallel as controls. Sorbate salt produced the largest and most significant reduction of fluorescence intensity in the RMA assay. Neither NaCl nor potassium sorbate (KS) alone induced a clinically relevant reduction of CFU counts after 1 h. Surprisingly, the combination of the two in a single solution had a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. faecalis. Potassium sorbate amplified the efficacy of NaCl. Of the salts tested, NaCl with KS eradicated E. faecalis biofilms within 1 h. This study showed that the double-hurdle strategy indeed leads to synergistic efficacy and is a possible next step in the complete disinfection of endodontic infections. PMID:22985004

van der Waal, Suzette V; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Wesselink, Paul R; Crielaard, Wim

2012-10-01

175

Effect of Sodium Chloride on Hydration Structures of PMEA and P(MPC-r-BMA).  

PubMed

The hydration structures of two different types of biomaterials, i.e., poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and a random copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate (P(MPC-r-BMA)), were investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of the addition of sodium chloride to liquid water in contact with the surfaces of the polymer films were examined. The neutral polymer of PMEA was easily dehydrated by NaCl addition, whereas the zwitterionic polymer of P(MPC-r-BMA) was hardly dehydrated. More specifically, nonfreezing water having a strong interaction with the PMEA chain and freezing bound water having an intermediate interaction were hardly dehydrated by contacting with normal saline solution, whereas freezing water having a weak interaction with the PMEA chain was readily dehydrated. In contrast, freezing water in P(MPC-r-BMA) is exchanged for the saline solution contacting with the material surface without dehydration. PMID:25133748

Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru

2014-09-01

176

Study of the corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits in a sodium chloride medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits with phosphorous contents from 12% to 14% in sodium chloride solutions was studied. The deposits were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 29 d to obtain the electrochemical parameters and were examined in a standard salt spray test for 15 d respectively. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied by potentio-dynamic scan, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The patterns of XRD and the results of FE-SEM showed that the prepared deposits were amorphous. But after a 15 d standard salt spray test, a few pinholes appeared on the surface of the deposit and the weight content of phosphorus on the surface of the deposit was higher (which was beneficial to the formation of the passivation films) than that before the standard salt spray test when the nickel content was lower because the dissolved weight of nickel was greater than that of phosphorus. The results from potentio-dynamic scan and EIS showed that passivation films formed on the Ni-P deposit after immersion in the NaCl solutions, which decreased the corrosion rate of Ni-P samples. The results of this work show their potential applications in marine corrosion.

Gao, Rongjie; Du, Min; Sun, Xiaoxia; Pu, Yanli

2007-10-01

177

[Steroid metabolism in primates. XVI. Secretion of corticosteroids in the baboon Papio hamadryas during chronic administration of sodium chloride].  

PubMed

The adrenal steroid secretion was investigated in male baboons (Papio hamadryas) treated for a long time with sodium chloride, in comparison to an untreated control group. In animals treated with NaCl, the secretion of progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone was decreased, while cortisone, pregnenolone, 7-keto-cholesterol, 7-keto-DHEA, DHEA and adrenosterone were increased. PMID:125195

Gontscharow, N P; Simarina, A J; Jefremova, S K; Schn, R; Schubert, K

1975-01-01

178

Production of sodium-chloride-tolerant Brassica juncea plants by in vitro selection at the somatic embryo level  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos, developed from hypocotyl segments of light-grown seedlings of Brassica juncea cv RLM198, were subjected to selection at varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl). Plants were developed from proliferated somatic embryos selected on NaCl-containing medium. The selections were characterized for salt tolerance, esterase isozyme pattern, and proline accumulation. It has been found that: (i) selected tolerant lines showed better

P. B. Kirti; S. Hadi; P. A. Kumar; V. L. Chopra

1991-01-01

179

Sodium Chloride-Induced Changes in Mineral Nutrients and Proline Accumulation in Indica Rice Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increasing sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 300 mM) stress was investigated on plant growth, mineral nutrients, and proline accumulation in two indica rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. The shoots and roots of Karjat-3 (salt sensitive cv.) showed greater reduction in fresh weight, dry weight, and water content under increasing salinity stress when compared to Panvel-3 (salt

Vinay Kumar; Varsha Shriram; T. D. Nikam; Narendra Jawali; M. G. Shitole

2008-01-01

180

Vapor-liquid equilibria, scaling, and crossover in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride near the critical line  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a crossover scaling model for describing the thermodynamic properties of near-critical binary fluids. We have validated this model for the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of mixtures of methane and ethane. We then apply the model to a most intriguing binary fluid, namely aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, so as to describe densities and concentrations at vapor-liquid equilibrium and

A. A. Povodyrev; M. A. Anisimov; J. V. Sengers; J. M. H. Levelt Sengers

1997-01-01

181

The effect of calcium on gill potentials and on sodium and chloride fluxes in the goldfish, Carassius auratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of electric potential and of sodium and chloride effluxes were carried out on a freshwater fish, the goldfishCarassius auratus. The potential was affected by a number of inorganic ion species but that with the most significant influence on transepithelial potential was calcium. The potential was about 10 mV negative in the absence of calcium and about 10 mV positive

F. B. Eddy

1975-01-01

182

A novel and efficient method for the immobilization of thermolysin using sodium chloride salting-in and consecutive microwave irradiation.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride salting-in and microwave irradiation were combined to drive thermolysin molecules into mesoporous support to obtain efficiently immobilized enzyme. When the concentration of sodium chloride was 3 M and microwave power was 40 W, 93.2% of the enzyme was coupled to the support by 3 min, and the maximum specific activity of the immobilized enzyme was 17,925.1 U mg(-1). This was a 4.5-fold increase in activity versus enzyme immobilized using conventional techniques, and a 1.6-fold increase versus free enzyme. Additionally, the thermal stability of the immobilized thermolysin was significantly improved. When incubated at 70C, there was no reduction in activity by 3.5h, whereas free thermolysin lost most of its activity by 3h. Immobilization also protected the thermolysin against organic solvent denaturation. The microwave-assisted immobilization technique, combined with sodium chloride salting-in, could be applied to other sparsely soluble enzymes immobilization because of its simplicity and high efficiency. PMID:22153596

Chen, Feifei; Zhang, Fangkai; Du, Fangchuan; Wang, Anming; Gao, Weifang; Wang, Qiuyan; Yin, Xiaopu; Xie, Tian

2012-07-01

183

Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g\\/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g\\/kg) was studied.2.?Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g\\/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all

S. Barbut; P. Somboonpanyakul; M. Quinton; A. Smith

2009-01-01

184

Sodium Chloride Drives Autoimmune Disease by the Induction of Pathogenic Th17 Cells  

PubMed Central

There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases in the last half-century. While the underlying genetic basis of this class of diseases has recently been elucidated implicating predominantly immune response genes1, changes in environmental factors must ultimately be driving this increase. The newly identified population of interleukin (IL)-17 producing CD4+ helper T cells (Th17 cells) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases2. Pathogenic IL-23 dependent Th17 cells have been shown to be critical for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and genetic risk factors associated with MS are related to the IL23/Th17 pathway1, 2. However, little is known regarding the environmental factors that directly influence Th17 cells. Here we show that increased salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) concentrations found locally under physiological conditions in vivo dramatically boost the induction of murine and human Th17 cells. High-salt conditions activate the p38/MAPK pathway involving the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP/NFAT5) and the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) during cytokine-induced Th17 polarization. Gene silencing or chemical inhibition of p38/MAPK, NFAT5 or SGK1 abrogates the high-salt induced Th17 cell development. The Th17 cells generated under high-salt display a highly pathogenic and stable phenotype characterized by the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, TNF? and IL-2. Moreover, mice fed with a high-salt diet develop a more severe form of EAE, in line with augmented central nervous system infiltrating and peripherally induced antigen specific Th17 cells. Thus, increased dietary salt intake might represent an environmental risk factor for the development of autoimmune diseases through the induction of pathogenic Th17 cells. PMID:23467095

Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Manzel, Arndt; Titze, Jens; Kvakan, Heda; Yosef, Nir; Linker, Ralf A.; Muller, Dominik N.; Hafler, David A.

2013-01-01

185

Compatibility and Stability of Morphine Sulphate and Naloxone Hydrochloride in 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection  

PubMed Central

Background Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. Objective: To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. Methods: The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 ?g/mL and naloxone 4 ?g/mL, 12.5 ?g/mL, and 25 ?g/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. Results: No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22C for up to 72 h or at 4C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Conclusion: Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration. PMID:23814283

Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

2013-01-01

186

The effect of dietary sodium chloride on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus, after transfer from freshwater to seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the effects of supplemental dietary sodium chloride on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed a basal diet supplemented with NaCl (8%) during three weeks in fresh water (FW) and then transferred to salt water (SW) at 15 and 20. Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma

A. Fontanhas-Fernandes; F. Russell-Pinto; Emdio Gomes; Ma. A. Reis-Henriques; Joo Coimbra

2000-01-01

187

Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.  

PubMed

Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 g/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis. PMID:24209304

Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

2013-12-15

188

Interaction of alkylmercuric compounds with sodium selenite. II. Metabolism of methylmercuric chloride administered alone and in combination with sodium selenite in rats.  

PubMed Central

Repeated doses of sodium selenite (Se) were administered to rats receiving repeated (IV or PO) doses of 0.25 or 2.5 mg Hg/kg methylmercuric chloride (Me2(203)Hg). Se (0.5 mg/kg) was observed to alter the distribution of Me203Hg among tissues as well as among subcellular fractions of kidneys and liver. An excess of selenium resulted in a twofold decrease in the mercury content of kidneys and a similar increase in the mercury content of brain. PMID:4029103

Brzeznicka, E A; Chmielnicka, J

1985-01-01

189

Sample Concentration: Temperature  

E-print Network

Sample Concentration: Date: Temperature: Grid Screen Sodium Chloride - Scoring Sheet A1. 0.1 M Citric Acid pH 4.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A2. 0.1 M Citric Acid pH 5.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A3. 0.1 M MES pH 6.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A4. 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A5. 0.1 M Tris pH 8

Hill, Chris

190

Sodium chloride-induced modulation of the activity and thermal stability of short-chain oxidoreductase from the archaeon Thermococcus sibiricus.  

PubMed

Recently, we have studied properties and structural features of the thermostable halotolerant alcohol dehydrogenase from archaeon Thermococcus sibiricus (TsAdh319). In the present work, the effect of sodium chloride on activity and thermostability was explored using circular dichroism, fluorescent spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The activity of TsAdh319 increased in the presence of NaCl and remained at the elevated level up to 4 M of NaCl. Sodium chloride at molar concentrations reduced the optimal reaction temperature, increased both Michaelis constant (K m) and k cat values for the substrates tested, decreased affinity for the coenzyme, and stoichiometry of coenzyme binding. No changes were revealed in a secondary or quaternary structure of the protein in the presence of NaCl up to 90 C. According to differential scanning calorimetry, the irreversible unfolding started around 90 C, the addition of NaCl decreased T m from 104.2 to 102.2 C, and reduced ?H from 438 to 348 kJ/mol. Kinetic studies revealed positive effect of NaCl on the TsAdh319 thermostability. The results are interpreted in regard to TsAdh319 structural data. PMID:24061874

Stekhanova, Tatiana N; Bezsudnova, Ekaterina Y; Mardanov, Andrey V; Gumerov, Vadim M; Artemova, Natalya; Kleymenov, Serguey Y; Popov, Vladimir O

2013-12-01

191

Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

1982-01-01

192

A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures. ?? 1983.

Fournier, R.O.

1983-01-01

193

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al) ions, cadmium (Cd) ions, copper (Cu) ions and sodium (NaCl) chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter) in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein) in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization. Our analyses revealed that both general and specific genes were induced in Arabidopsis roots exposed to various rhizotoxic ions. Several defense systems, such as the production of reactive oxygen species and disturbance of Ca homeostasis, were triggered by all stressors, while specific defense genes were also induced by individual stressors. Similar studies in different plant species could help to clarify the resistance mechanisms at the molecular level to provide information that can be utilized for marker-assisted selection. PMID:19309492

Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Ikka, Takashi; Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yuji; Hibino, Takashi; Sato, Shigeru; Sakurai, Nozomu; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

194

Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and/or underlying assumptions of OTIS.

Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

2013-12-01

195

Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

2009-04-01

196

Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams in the system water\\/sodium chloride\\/heptane\\/1-butanol\\/sodium dodecyl sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

An entirely empirical model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has been adopted. Data for the system water\\/NaCl\\/ heptane\\/1-butanol\\/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are used in the empirical model. In this paper calculated phase volumes and interfacial tensions are compared with experimental data. Further, a calculated pseudo-ternary phase diagram is compared with the data obtained from an experimental phase

E. Gilje; T. Maledal

1992-01-01

197

Interaction of sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate with N-alkylpyridinium chloride surfactants: spontaneous formation of pH-responsive, stable vesicles in aqueous mixtures.  

PubMed

The interaction of sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate (SLS) with N-cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and N-dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPC) was investigated in aqueous mixtures. A strong interaction between the anionic and cationic surfactants was observed. The interaction parameter, ? was determined for a wide composition range and was found to be negative. The mixed systems were found to have much lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) and surface tension at cmc. The surfactant mixtures exhibit synergism in the range of molar fractions investigated. The self-assembly formation in the mixtures of different compositions and total concentrations were studied using a number of techniques, including surface tension, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM). Thermodynamically stable unilamellar vesicles were observed to form upon mixing of the anionic and cationic surfactants in a wide range of composition and concentrations in buffered aqueous media. TEM as well as DLS measurements were performed to obtain shape and size of the vesicular structures, respectively. These unilamellar vesicles are stable for periods as long as 3 months and appear to be the equilibrium form of aggregation. Effect of pH, and temperature on the stability was investigated. The vesicular structures were observed to be stable at pH as low as 2.0 and at biological temperature (37C). In presence of 10 mol% of cholesterol the mixed surfactant vesicles exhibited leakage of the encapsulated calcein dye, showing potential application in pH-triggered drug release. PMID:21420688

Ghosh, Sampad; Dey, Joykrishna

2011-06-01

198

Design considerations for the development of advanced sodium/metal-chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on nickel electrode performance for the Na/NiCl2 cell were determined. Of all electrode design parameters studied, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and area specific impedance values. The impedance of thin NiCl2 electrodes can be modeled using a set of equations having just one adjustable parameter. The model suggests that most of the electrode impedance can be reduced by altering the reaction impedance. The model suggests that reducing the value of this parameter by improving electrode fabrication techniques is the key to improving electrode performance. The study is now being expanded to include thicker NiCl2 electrodes, and the model is being refined. The beta-double prime-alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive composite material. At 250 C, its resistivity is about 20 Ohm-cm. Preliminary results suggest that these materials may have the needed chemical stability against sodium.

Bloom, I.; Nelson, P. A.; Redey, L.; Orth, S. K.; Hammer, C. L.

199

High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (G). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6 HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in immobilization with low NaCl diet ( 0.34 1.2 g/d). However, high NaCl intake in HDBR exacerbated the negative nitrogen balance to 1.34 1.0 g/d (p0.001) compared to low NaCl. We conclude that high dietary NaCl intake induces low grade metabolic acidosis during HDBR. Low grade metabolic acidosis may be a reason for an increased protein turnover reflected by an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance in HDBR. Accordingly, a high dietary NaCl intake may exacerbate loss of body protein in G via low grade metabolic acidosis.

Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

200

The thermodynamic properties of solutions and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragments of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were studied experimentally at 298 and 313 K. The thermodynamic properties of sodium chloride in three-component solutions with ionic strengths up to 1.9 mol/kg and alcohol content in the solvent 4.97 and 10 wt % were measured at 298 and 323 K by the electromotive force method with ion-selective electrodes. The eNRTL (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquids) model parameters correctly describing the results of electrochemical measurements of the partial properties of NaCl and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride ternary system and binary subsystems constituting it were determined. The isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were calculated using the method of convex hulls implemented in the TernAPI package.

Veryaeva, E. S.; Bogachev, A. G.; Shishin, D. I.; Voskov, A. L.; Igumnov, S. N.; Mamontov, M. N.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2012-06-01

201

Anodic mineralization of organic substrates in chloride-containing aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical incineration of glucose in alkaline media, in the presence of sodium chloride, has been investigated. The process has been followed through the dependence of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content, on electrolysis duration, t. The influence of current density, sodium chloride concentration, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration on the rate of COD abatement has been followed.

F. Bonfatti; A. De Battisti; S. Ferro; G. Lodi; S. Osti

2000-01-01

202

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO3 transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved substitution of the aspartate at position 555 with a glutamate) produced decreasing HCO3? currents at more positive membrane voltages. Immunohistochemistry showed D555E protein expression in oocyte membranes. D555E induced Na/HCO3-dependent pH recovery from a CO2-induced acidification. Current-voltage relationships revealed that D555E produced an outwardly rectifying current in the nominally CO2/HCO3?-free solution that was abolished by Cl? removal from the bath. In the presence of CO2/HCO3?, however, the outward current produced by D555E decreased only slightly after Cl? removal. Starting from a Cl?-free condition, D555E produced dose-dependent outward currents in response to a series of chloride additions. The D555E-mediated chloride current decreased by 70% in the presence of CO2/HCO3?. The substitution of Asp555 with an asparagine also produced a Cl? current. Anion selectivity experiments revealed that D555E was broadly permissive to other anions including NO3?. Fluorescence measurements of chloride transport were done with human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells expressing NBCe1 and D555E. A marked increase in chloride transport was detected in cells expressing D555E. We conclude that Asp555 plays a role in HCO3? selectivity. PMID:19336397

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

203

Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.  

PubMed

Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis--vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

2014-12-01

204

Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved

S. A. M Refaey

2000-01-01

205

Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2000-01-01

206

The effect of different dietary ratios of sodium and chloride on the physiological responses of lactating dairy cattle in hot weather  

E-print Network

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY RATIOS OF SODIUM AND CHLORIDE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LACTATING DAIRY CATTLE IN HOT WEATHER A Thesis by PAMELA ANN GRANT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8cM Univers' ty in partial... fulfillme'nt of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY RATIOS OF SODIUM AND CHLORIDE ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF LACTATING DAIRY CATTLE IN HOT WEATHER A Thesis...

Grant, Pamela Ann

2012-06-07

207

A New Approach to Determining Gas-Particle Reaction Probabilities and Application to the Heterogeneous Reaction of Deliquesced Sodium Chloride Particles with Gas-Phase Hydroxyl Radicals  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaClaq) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with deliquesced NaCl particles in the micron size range at 70-80% RH and with OH concentrations in the range of 1 to 7?109 cm-3. The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from measurements of changes in the chloride concentration of individual particles upon reaction with OH as a function of the particle loading on the substrate. Quantitative treatment of the data using a model that incorporates both diffusion and reaction kinetics yields a lower-limit to the net reaction probability of ?net > 0.1, with an overall uncertainty of a factor of two.

Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Hai; Robertson, William H.; Cowin, James P.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2006-09-14

208

The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar size and shape of sodium dodecyl sulfate in electrolyte solutions has been investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscosity measurements. The surfactant content was kept constant throughout, at 0.04 m, and the alcohols used were 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. The data from the various techniques are qualitatively in agreement. The SANS data generally fit a model for prolate ellipsoids with varying ratios of the major to minor axis. Addition of butanol first leads to a decrease in micellar size, the major to minor axis ratio decreases from about 6 to less than 2. However, as the butanol concentration exceeds 0.5 m, the micelles starts to grow again. The same can be seen from the diffusion coefficient as measured by DLS. Addition of pentanol or hexanol do not bring about this minimum in micellar size. The minor axis decreases and the major axis increases as these alcohols are added. Thus these alcohols make the prolate ellipsoidal micelles grow continuously towards large rod-like structures. The viscosity data are less detailed, but confirm the general trend upon alcohol addition.

Foerland, G.M.; Hoeiland, H. (Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry); Samseth, J. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Mortensen, K. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

1994-04-01

209

Effect of presowing treatment of sodium chloride on the incidence of green ear disease of Pennisetum typhoides (Burm) Stapf and Hubb. Var. HB 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Seeds ofPennisetum typhoides were pretreated with varying osmolar concentrations of sodium chlorideviz 50, 100 and 200 mM of osmotic pressure of about 2.25, 4.5 and 9.0 atm. respectively. It was observed that in the leaves osmotic concentrations of the cell sap increased with the increasing concentration of sodium chloride. With the increasing concentration of cell sap in terms of

B. A. Hegde; S. M. Karande

1978-01-01

210

Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl. PMID:22499878

Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

2012-05-01

211

SOLUBILITY OF MUSTARD GAS [BIS (?-CHLOROETHYL) SULFIDE] IN WATER, MOLAR SODIUM CHLORIDE, AND IN SOLUTIONS OF DETERGENTS  

PubMed Central

1. The solubility of mustard (H) in water and in molar sodium chloride was found to be 5.8 x 103 molar and 3.2 x 103 molar respectively or 0.92 mg. per ml. and 0.5 mg. per ml. Solubility curves have been drawn and the usefulness of this method in examining the homogeneity of H preparations as well as in establishing their solubility, is discussed. 2. Certain detergents increase the solubility of H in water. The solubility was found to increase with the concentration of detergent. 3. Many detergents were found to affect the interfacial tension between H and water so that with slight agitation liquid H breaks up into minute droplets. This in turn greatly accelerates the rate of solution. PMID:19873510

Herriott, Roger M.

1947-01-01

212

Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

2010-03-01

213

Vapor-liquid equilibria, scaling, and crossover in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride near the critical line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a crossover scaling model for describing the thermodynamic properties of near-critical binary fluids. We have validated this model for the vapor-liquid equilibrium properties of mixtures of methane and ethane. We then apply the model to a most intriguing binary fluid, namely aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, so as to describe densities and concentrations at vapor-liquid equilibrium and isochoric specific heat capacities in the one-phase region. The description shows crossover from asymptotic Ising-like critical behavior to classical (mean-field) behavior. As the salt concentration increases, the region of Ising behavior decreases, although pure classical behavior is never attained. We suggest that processes of association/dissociation may be responsible for the failure of the model to describe compositions of the vapor phase of the solutions at very low concentrations.

Povodyrev, A. A.; Anisimov, M. A.; Sengers, J. V.; Levelt Sengers, J. M. H.

1997-02-01

214

Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

2014-06-01

215

Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

1999-01-01

216

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Chan, E-mail: jongchan@snu.ac.k [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

217

Temperature Variation of the Effective Gruneisen Parameter in Caesium Chloride Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic investigation of the temperature variation of the effective Gruneisen parameter, gammaeff., has been carried out for the caesium chloride structure, on a model incorporating the Coulomb potential between the ions and a nearest neighbour interaction varying as r-n. As the value of n is increased from 8 to 30, the low temperature limit gamma_0 of gammaeff. is progressively

S. Ganesan; R. Srinivasan

1963-01-01

218

Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

2014-11-01

219

Intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride differentially modulates sympathetic nerve activity to the heart and kidney.  

PubMed

Hypertonic NaCl infused into the carotid arteries increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and changes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via cerebral mechanisms. We hypothesized that elevated sodium levels in the blood supply to the brain would induce differential responses in renal and cardiac SNA via sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured renal and cardiac SNA simultaneously in conscious sheep during intracarotid infusions of NaCl (1.2 M), sorbitol (2.4 M), or urea (2.4 M) at 1 ml/min for 4 min into each carotid. Intracarotid NaCl significantly increased MAP (91 2 to 97 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) without changing heart rate (HR). Intracarotid NaCl was associated with no change in cardiac SNA (11 5.0%), but a significant inhibition of renal SNA (-32.5 6.4%, P < 0.05). Neither intracarotid sorbitol nor urea changed MAP, HR, central venous pressure, cardiac SNA, and renal SNA. The changes in MAP and renal SNA were completely abolished by microinjection of the GABA agonist muscimol (5 mM, 500 nl each side) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Infusion of intracarotid NaCl for 20 min stimulated a larger increase in water intake (1,100 75 ml) than intracarotid sorbitol (683 125 ml) or intracarotid urea (0 ml). These results demonstrate that acute increases in blood sodium levels cause a decrease in renal SNA, but no change in cardiac SNA in conscious sheep. These effects are mediated by cerebral sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier that are more responsive to changes in sodium concentration than osmolality. The renal sympathoinhibitory effects of sodium are mediated via a pathway that synapses in the PVN. PMID:24523342

Frithiof, Robert; Xing, Tao; McKinley, Michael J; May, Clive N; Ramchandra, Rohit

2014-04-15

220

Properties Model for Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions near the Critical Point of Water.  

E-print Network

??Traditional excess Gibbs energy models in terms of temperature, pressure, and concentration become progressively less effective in describing the thermodynamics of aqueous solutions at temperatures (more)

Liu, Bing 1976-

2005-01-01

221

Interim storage of sodium in ferritic steel tanks at ambient temperature  

SciTech Connect

Sodium tanks originally fabricated for elevated temperature service in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) will be used to store sodium removed from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) at ambient temperature. This report presents an engineering review to confirm that protection against brittle fracture of the ferritic steel tanks is adequate for the intended service.

Blackburn, L.D.

1994-09-30

222

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage  

E-print Network

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan, Yong-Sheng Hu* and Liquan Chen Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries have attracted great sodium-ion batteries are briefly reviewed. We compare the difference in storage behavior between Na

Wang, Wei Hua

223

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

224

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

1999-09-01

225

Mercuric chloride-, gold sodium thiomalate-, and D-penicillamine-induced antinuclear antibodies in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inducibility of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by mercuric chloride (HgCl2) was studied in various strains of mice. High response to the treatment was observed in strains A.SW (H-2s), A.CA (H-2f), A.TH (H-2t2), B10.S (H-2s), DBA\\/1J (H-2q), and P\\/J (H-2p); strains A.BY (H-2b), B10.M (H-2f), and C3H\\/HeSnJ (H-2k) showed a low response, while strains A\\/WySn (H-2a), A\\/J (H-2a), A.TL (H-2tl), BALB\\/cJ (H-2d),

C J Robinson; T Balazs; I K Egorov

1986-01-01

226

N2-broadening coefficients of methyl chloride: Measurements at room temperature and calculations at atmospheric temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopic study on methyl chloride is the first step for its accurate detection in the atmosphere. In our previous work [Barbouchi Ramchani et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2013;120:1-15], line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients of both 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl isotopologues have been studied in the 6.9 ?m spectral region. The present work is focused on measurements of N2-broadening coefficients for transitions of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl around 6.9 ?m. For that, high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of CH3Cl-N2 mixtures have been recorded at room temperature using a rapid scan Bruker IFS 120 HR interferometer at LADIR. The N2-broadening coefficients have been retrieved using a Voigt profile and a multispectrum fitting procedure. The average accuracy of the N2-broadening obtained in this work has been estimated to be between 5% and 10% depending on the transitions. The rotational J- and K-dependences of the N2-broadening coefficients have been clearly observed and modeled using empirical polynomial expansions. The 12CH335Cl-N2 line-widths of the ?5 band have also been computed using a semi-classical approach for the PR, RR and QR sub-branches. A global comparison with the experimental data from this work but also existing in the literature was then performed. Similar J- and K-rotational dependences have been observed while no clear evidence of any vibrational or isotopic dependence has been pointed out. Finally, performing theoretical calculations of the N2-broadening coefficients at various temperatures of atmospheric interest between 200 and 296 K allowed deducing the temperature exponent of the 12CH335Cl-N2 line-widths.

Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.

2014-11-01

227

Effect of algogenic organic matter (AOM) and sodium chloride on Nannochloropsis salina flocculation efficiency.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the effect of polymer molecular weight and charge density, algogenic organic matter (AOM), and salt concentration on harvesting efficiency of marine microalgae. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), chitosan, and five synthetic cationic polymers of different molecular weights and charge density levels were used as flocculation agents. Polymer flocculation of marine microalgae was most efficient when using the highest charge density polymer (FO4990). The flocculant dosage irrespectively of the agent chemistry and charge density was affected by the amount of AOM secreted into the culture media. The presence of AOM increased the amount of required flocculant 7-fold when using synthetic cationic polymers; 10-fold with chitosan; and ~3-fold with AlCl3. Salt concentration of 5 or 35 g/L NaCl alone did not significantly affect removal efficiency, indicating that AOM were the main cause for the increased flocculant dosage requirement. The synthetic cationic polymer (FO4990) was the least expensive flocculation agent. PMID:23796606

Garzon-Sanabria, Andrea J; Ramirez-Caballero, Silvia S; Moss, Francesca E P; Nikolov, Zivko L

2013-09-01

228

Effects of vasopressin and bradykinin on anion transport by the rat cortical collecting duct. Evidence for an electroneutral sodium chloride transport pathway.  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies in cortical collecting ducts isolated from rat kidneys have shown that vasopressin increases both sodium absorption and potassium secretion, while bradykinin inhibits sodium absorption without affecting potassium transport. To determine which anions are affected by these agents, we perfused cortical collecting ducts from rats treated with deoxycorticosterone and measured net chloride flux, net bicarbonate flux (measured as total CO2), transepithelial voltage, and the rate of fluid absorption. Arginine vasopressin (10(-10) M in the peritubular bath) caused a sustained sixfold increase in net chloride absorption and a two- to threefold increase in the magnitude of the lumen negative transepithelial voltage. Before addition of vasopressin, the tubules secreted bicarbonate. Vasopressin abolished the bicarbonate secretion, resulting in net bicarbonate absorption (presumably due to proton secretion) in many tubules. Bradykinin (10(-9) M added to the peritubular bath) caused a reversible 40% inhibition of net chloride absorption, but did not affect the transepithelial voltage or the bicarbonate flux. We concluded: (a) that arginine vasopressin stimulates absorption of chloride and inhibits bicarbonate secretion (or stimulates proton secretion) in the rat cortical collecting duct; and (b) that bradykinin inhibits net chloride absorption in the rat cortical collecting duct without affecting transepithelial voltage or bicarbonate flux. Combining these results with the previous observations on cation fluxes described above, we conclude that bradykinin inhibits electroneutral NaCl absorption (or stimulates electroneutral NaCl secretion) in the rat cortical collecting duct. PMID:3080471

Tomita, K; Pisano, J J; Burg, M B; Knepper, M A

1986-01-01

229

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Heart See More Healthier Kids Our Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

230

Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

1993-12-01

231

Effect of temperature gradient on the optical quality of mercurous chloride crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown at temperature gradients of 8, 11 and 17 K/cm by the physical vapor transport method. The optical quality of these crystals was evaluated by measuring bulk scattering and inhomogeneity of refractive index by birefringence interferometry. It was observed that a high temperature gradient at the solid-vapor interface induced thermal stresses and crystals showed higher scattering and irregular fringes.

Singh, N. B.; Davies, D. K.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Mazelsky, R.

1989-01-01

232

Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 Adapts to the Presence of Sodium Chloride, Monosodium Glutamate, and Benzoic Acid after Extended Culture  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli is commonly found in intestine of human, and any changes in their adaptation or evolution may affect the human body. The relationship between E. coli and food additives is less studied as compared to antibiotics. E. coli within our human gut are consistently interacting with the food additives; thus, it is important to investigate this relationship. In this paper, we observed the evolution of E. coli cultured in different concentration of food additives (sodium chloride, benzoic acid, and monosodium glutamate), singly or in combination, over 70 passages. Adaptability over time was estimated by generation time and cell density at stationary phase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/restriction fragments length polymorphism (RFLP) using 3 primers and restriction endonucleases, each was used to characterize adaptation/evolution at genomic level. The amplification and digestion profiles were tabulated and analyzed by Nei-Li dissimilarity index. Our results demonstrate that E. coli in every treatment had adapted over 465 generations. The types of stress were discovered to be different even though different concentrations of same additives were used. However, RFLP shows a convergence of genetic distances, suggesting the presence of global stress response. In addition, monosodium glutamate may be a nutrient source and support acid resistance in E. coli. PMID:23724334

Lee, Chin How; Oon, Jack S. H.; Lee, Kun Cheng; Ling, Maurice H. T.

2012-01-01

233

Sodium chloride increases the ciliary transportability of cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis sputum on the mucus-depleted bovine trachea.  

PubMed Central

Mucus retention in the lungs is an important feature of several respiratory diseases (Regnis, J.A., M. Robinson, D.L. Bailey, P. Cook, P. Hooper, H.K. Chan, I. Gonda, G. Bautovich, and P.T.P. Bye. 1994. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 150:66-71 and Currie, D.C., D. Pavia, J.E. Agnew, M.T. Lopez-Vidriero, P.D. Diamond, P.J. Cole, and S.W. Clarke. 1987. Thorax. 42:126-130). On the mucus-depleted bovine trachea, the ciliary transport rate of sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis of other causes was slow, but the rate was doubled by increasing the sodium chloride content by 90 mM. Increasing the sputum osmolality by inspissation or by the addition of nonelectrolytes had a similar effect. The viscoelasticity of sputum, but not the bovine ciliary beat frequency, was markedly saline dependent over the pathophysiological range. This suggests that low mucus salinity, not (as is generally assumed) its under-hydration, contributes to its retention in bronchiectasis due to cystic fibrosis and other causes, probably by affecting its theology. It also indicates how the genetic defect in cystic fibrosis might lead to impaired mucus clearance. Therapies that increase the osmolality of lung mucus might benefit patients with mucus retention. PMID:9011581

Wills, P J; Hall, R L; Chan, W; Cole, P J

1997-01-01

234

Long-Term Stability of 5-Fluorouracil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride after Freezing, Microwave Thawing, and Refrigeration  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the stability of 5-fluorouracil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after freezing, microwave thawing, and storage for 28 days at 5C 3C. Methods: Polyvinylchloride (PVC) infusion bags (n = 5) containing 5-fluorouracil 800 mg/100 mL were frozen for 79 days at ?20C. The bags were then thawed in a microwave oven and stored at 5C 3C for 28 days. The concentration of 5-fluorouracil was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Visual and microscopic inspections were performed and pH was measured periodically during storage. Solutions were considered stable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval of the concentration versus time profile remained greater than 90% of the initial concentration. Results: No colour change or precipitation was observed in any of the solutions. Slight changes in pH were observed during refrigeration. 5-Fluorouracil solutions were stable during storage at 5C 3C for 28 days, as indicated by the results of high-performance liquid chromatography. Conclusion: 5-Fluorouracil 8 mg/mL in NS may be prepared in advance, frozen and stored in PVC bags, and thawed before use. The solutions remained stable after freezing at ?20C for 79 days followed by storage at 5C 3C for up to 28 days. PMID:22478863

Galanti, Laurence; Lebitasy, Massin P; Hecq, Jean-Daniel; Cadrobbi, Julie; Vanbeckbergen, Danielle; Jamart, Jacques

2009-01-01

235

Gitelman syndrome and glomerular proteinuria: a link between loss of sodium-chloride cotransporter and podocyte dysfunction?  

PubMed

We report on a 27-year-old patient presenting with chronic hypokalaemia, inappropriate kaliuresis, hypomagnesaemia and alkalosis, associated with moderate proteinuria. Genetic analysis evidenced a homozygous mutation (p.Arg399Cys) in the SLC12A3 gene coding for the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), confirming the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome. Further genetic testing did not show any mutation in NPHS2. A renal biopsy was performed in view of the unusual association with proteinuria. Light microscopy showed hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and discrete mesangial thickening. In addition to possible focal segmental glomerular sclerosis lesions, electron microscopy showed extensive segments of variably thickened glomerular basement membrane (GBM), contrasting with segments of regular GBM of low range thickness, and effacement of podocyte foot processes. Of interest, alterations of the GBM were also observed in a Slc12a3 knock-out mouse model for Gitelman syndrome. These data suggest that the association between Gitelman syndrome and secondary changes of the GBM is probably not coincidental. Possible mechanisms include angiotensin II- or renin-induced podocyte lesions, as well as chronic hypokalaemia. PMID:25165177

Demoulin, Nathalie; Aydin, Selda; Cosyns, Jean-Pierre; Dahan, Karin; Cornet, Georges; Auberger, Ines; Loffing, Johannes; Devuyst, Olivier

2014-09-01

236

Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987-September 1998 (water years 1988-98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley began in 1987.

Watts, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

237

Identification of a cDNA encoding a thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter from the human and its mRNA expression in various tissues.  

PubMed

We report here the identification of a cDNA encoding a human thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (hTSC) using a PCR-based method. The homology of the hTSC with rat TSC (rTSC) and rat bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (rBSC) was 86% and 64%, respectively, at the nucleotide level, and 92% and 61%, respectively, at the amino acid level. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the hTSC gene has been mapped to chromosome 16q13. Northern blot analysis using polyA+RNA from various human tissues, revealed a major 4.5 kb transcript and a minor 6.5 kb specifically in the kidney, but low level of expression was also observed in small intestine, placenta, prostate, colon, and spleen. PMID:8670281

Chang, H; Tashiro, K; Hirai, M; Ikeda, K; Kurokawa, K; Fujita, T

1996-06-14

238

Creep substructure formation in sodium chloride single crystals in the power law and exponential creep regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Creep tests conducted on NaCl single crystals in the temperature range from 373 to 1023 K show that true steady state creep is obtained only above 873 K when the ratio of the applied stress to the shear modulus is less than or equal to 0.0001. Under other stress and temperature conditions, corresponding to both power law and exponential creep, the creep rate decreases monotonically with increasing strain. The transition from power law to exponential creep is shown to be associated with increases in the dislocation density, the cell boundary width, and the aspect ratio of the subgrains along the primary slip planes. The relation between dislocation structure and creep behavior is also assessed.

Raj, S. V.; Pharr, G. M.

1989-01-01

239

Monolayer Properties of Long-Chain Alkylammonium Perfluorohexanoates on the Concentrated Sodium Chloride Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface pressure (?) and surface potential (?V)area (A) isotherms were obtained for monolayers of alkylammonium perfluorohexanoates of four different alkyl chains (m) on water and 4.4MNaCl solutions as a function of molecular area of various temperatures by the Langmuir and the ionizing electrode methods. As for octadecylammonium perfluorohexanoate (C18F11), the ?Acurves of these long-hydroshort-fluoro chain salt showed three phase transition

Osamu Shibata; Yoshikiyo Moroi; Masahiko Saito; Ryohei Matuura

1996-01-01

240

The thermodynamic properties of solutions of sodium chloride, water, and 1-propanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-concentration dependences of the activity coefficient of NaCl in aqueous solutions of 1-propanol at 298 and 318 K, solution ionic strength up to 3 m, and alcohol contents of 10-40 wt % were determined by the method of electromotive forces with ion-selective electrodes. The results were used to estimate interaction parameters in the Pitzer model. The Darken method was used to calculate the integral Gibbs energy of solutions.

Mamontov, M. N.; Konstantinova, N. M.; Veryaeva, E. S.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2010-07-01

241

Reactions occurring during the sulfation of sodium chloride deposited on alumina substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction between solid NaCl and air containing 1 pct SO2 has been studied between 500 and 700 C. The reaction product, Na2SO4, forms not only on the surface of the NaCl but also on surrounding areas of the substrate due to the volatility of the NaCl at these temperatures. At the higher temperatures, the vapor pressure of NaCl is so high that the majority of the reaction product is distributed on the substrate. Above 625 C, the reaction product is a liquid solution of NaCl and Na2SO4 that exists only so long as NaCl is supplied from the original crystal source. Eventually, the liquid solidifies by constitutional solidification as the NaCl is converted to Na2SO4. While it exists, the liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 solution is shown to be highly corrosive to Al2O3 and, on a scale of Al2O3 growing on alloy HOS 875, particularly attacks the grain boundaries of the scale at preferred sites where chromium and iron oxides and sulfides rapidly develop. This is proposed as one mechanism by which NaCl deposition contributes to the initiation of low temperature hot corrosion.

Wu, C. S.; Birks, N.

1986-01-01

242

Effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol on root-hair infection and nodulation of Vicia faba L. plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the interaction between Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 29d and root hairs of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Maris Bead) plants were investigated. Two levels each of NaCl (50 and 100 molm-3) and PEG (100 and 200 molm-3) were given at the time of root-hair formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed rhizobial

H. H. Zahran; J. I. Sprent

1986-01-01

243

The Effect of Intravenous Lactated Ringer??s Solution Versus 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution on Serum Osmolality in Human Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal studies have shown that large volumes of IV lactated Ringer's solution (LR) decrease serum osmola- lity, thereby increasing cerebral water. These studies have led to recommendations to limit LR to avoid cere- bral edema in neurosurgical patients. Eighteen healthy human volunteers aged 20 - 48 yr received 50 mL\\/kg LR over 1ho n oneoccasion and 0.9% sodium chloride (NS)

E. Lynne Williams; Kathy L. Hildebrand; Shelley A. McCormick; M. Jay Bedel

1999-01-01

244

Effect of polymer charge density and ionic strength on the formation of complexes between sodium arylamido-2-methyl-1-propane-sulfonate-co-acrylamide gels and cetylpyridinium chloride.  

PubMed

The effects of sodium chloride on the composition and structure of polyelectrolyte gel-surfactant complexes (PSCs) formed by the sodium salt of acrylamide-2-methyl-1-propane-sulfonic acid-co-acrylamide gels and cetylpyridinium chloride have been studied. At a low ionic strength of the solution, the composition of all the complexes is close to stoichiometric by charge. In the presence of 0.3 M sodium chloride, the composition of the complexes formed by the gel with 99 mol % charged groups is close to stoichiometric, while for the gel with 33 mol % charged monomer units, a nonstoichiometric complex with a high excess of the surfactant is formed. Further decrease of the charge density up to 10 mol % leads to partial or complete dissociation of the PSCs. The study of PSCs by the method of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) shows that the complexes formed by the gels with high and intermediate charge densities are highly ordered. The decrease of the charge density of the swollen networks at first leads to a change in symmetry of the ordered domains in the PSCs and then to their disordering. The formation of nonstoichiometric PSCs at a high enough concentration of salt is explained by the effect of fitting, when the packing of the surfactant and polymer components in the PSCs is improved due to the inclusion of extra surfactant molecules together with their counterions in the ordered domains. PMID:15274561

Starodubtsev, Sergey G; Dembo, Alexander T; Dembo, Kirill A

2004-08-01

245

Compatibility and stability of ondansetron hydrochloride with morphine sulfate and with hydromorphone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C.  

PubMed

The physical compatibility and chemical stability of ondansetron hydrochloride 0.1 and 1 mg/mL with morphine sulfate 1 mg/mL and with hydromorphone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were studied. Test solutions of the drugs in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in triplicate and stored at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C. Samples were removed immediately and at various time points over 31 days and stored at -70 degrees C until analyzed. Physical compatibility was assessed visually and by measuring turbidity with a color-correcting turbidimeter and particle content with a light-obscuration particle sizer and counter. Chemical stability was determined by measuring the concentration of each drug in duplicate with stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no visual or subvisual changes in turbidity or particle content in any of the test solutions at any of the time points. There was little or no loss of any of the drugs. When admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, ondansetron hydrochloride 0.1 and 1 mg/mL plus morphine sulfate 1 mg/mL or hydromorphone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/mL were compatible and stable for at least 7 days at 32 degrees C and for at least 31 days at 4 and 22 degrees C. PMID:7527184

Trissel, L A; Xu, Q; Martinez, J F; Fox, J L

1994-09-01

246

Evaporation of water from sodium chloride solutions under controlled climatic conditions  

E-print Network

, wind speed and salt concentration. air temperature, air Air Temp. Wind speed R. H. 'C m/sec /. H 0 Evap, cm/day Temp . 00 50 000 Evap, cm/day ppM Temp . 'C 150 000 Evap. cm/day PMM 300 000 PPM Evap. cm/day Temp. oC Temp . oC 32... PPM Temp. Mind Speed R. H, 'C m/sec / Evap. Temp. Evap. Temp. Evap. Temp. Evap. Temp. cm/day 'C cm/day 'C cm/day 'C cm/day 'C 4. 4 3. 8 5. 0 5. 0 5. 5 4. 4 5. 0 4. 4 4. 4 4. 4 3, 8 2. 2 2. 2 6. 6 7. 7 4. 4 4. 4 2. 7 4. 4 5. 5 4...

Moore, Jaroy

2012-06-07

247

Chloride assisted leaching of chalcocite by oxygenated sulphuric acid via Cu(II)OHCl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of the addition of sodium chloride upon the leaching kinetics of complex ironnickelcopper sulphides at elevated temperatures and oxygen pressures has been widely reported since the late 1970s, but the role of chloride is still being investigated or debated. Previous researchers have considered chloride as: (i) a complexing agent for cuprous ions; (ii) a surfactant that disperses

Gamini Senanayake

2007-01-01

248

Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10?4mM SA, 50mM NaCl, 100mM NaCl, 150mM NaCl, SA+50mM NaCl, SA+100mM NaCl and SA+150mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50mM and 100mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control.

Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

2014-01-01

249

Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10(-4)mM SA, 50mM NaCl, 100mM NaCl, 150mM NaCl, SA+50mM NaCl, SA+100mM NaCl and SA+150mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50mM and 100mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

2014-11-01

250

Use of Sodium-Chloride Difference and Corrected Anion Gap as Surrogates of Stewart Variables in Critically Ill Patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction To investigate whether the difference between sodium and chloride ([Na+] [Cl?]) and anion gap corrected for albumin and lactate (AGcorr) could be used as apparent strong ion difference (SIDapp) and strong ion gap (SIG) surrogates (respectively) in critically ill patients. Methods A total of 341 patients were prospectively observed; 161 were allocated to the modeling group, and 180 to the validation group. Simple regression analysis was used to construct a mathematical model between SIDapp and [Na+] [Cl?] and between SIG and AGcorr in the modeling group. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was also measured. The mathematical models were tested in the validation group. Results in the modeling group, SIDapp and SIG were well predicted by [Na+] [Cl?] and AGcorr (R2?=?0.973 and 0.96, respectively). Accuracy values of [Na+] [Cl?] for the identification of SIDapp acidosis (<42.7 mEq/L) and alkalosis (>47.5 mEq/L) were 0.992 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9631) and 0.998 (95%CI, 0.9721), respectively. The accuracy of AGcorr in revealing SIG acidosis (>8 mEq/L) was 0.974 (95%CI: 0.9360.993). These results were validated by showing excellent correlations and good agreements between predicted and measured SIDapp and between predicted and measured SIG in the validation group (R2?=?0.977; bias?=?01.5 mEq/L and R2?=?0.96; bias?=??0.21.8 mEq/L, respectively). Conclusions SIDapp and SIG can be substituted by [Na+] [Cl?] and by AGcorr respectively in the diagnosis and management of acid-base disorders in critically ill patients. PMID:23418590

Mallat, Jihad; Barrailler, Stephanie; Lemyze, Malcolm; Pepy, Florent; Gasan, Gaelle; Tronchon, Laurent; Thevenin, Didier

2013-01-01

251

Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of europium(III) chloride in aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption spectroscopy and titration experiments suggest that the addition of EuCl to basic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt produces [EuCl]³⁻, and this species can be reduced at a glassy carbon electrode via a one-electron, quasi-reversible electrode reaction to produce Eu(II) species. The standard heterogeneous rate constant and the cathodic transfer coefficient in the 44.4\\/55.6 mole percent melt are 2.85

Wei-Jyh Gau; I. W. Sun

1996-01-01

252

Vapour pressure of water over saturated solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate, calcium tartrate, barium tartrate, citric acid, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate at temperatures from 277 K to 317 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate, calcium tartrate, barium tartrate, citric acid, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate, and potassium citrate were determined in the temperature range (277 to 317)K using an electronic hygrometer. Only for tartaric acid, sodium tartrate, potassium tartrate and citric acid was it possible to compare the

Emanuel Manzurola; Alexander Apelblat

2003-01-01

253

Aqueous Electrolyte Ionization over Extreme Ranges as Simple Fundamental Relation with Density and Believed Universal; Sodium Chloride Ionization for 0o to 1000oC and to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm.).  

SciTech Connect

The chemical nature of aqueous electrolyte ionization is illustrated by a simple relationship with water as a reactant believed to correlate ionization of aqueous sodium chloride approaching infinite dilution over the entire range of temperature and pressure [0 to 1000oC; 0.1 to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm)]. The derived equation accurately and smoothly describes the ionization constant of sodium chloride [K(NaCl)] in both water and water strongly diluted by inert solvent. Effects of water density on ionization are quantitatively and simply described that oppose conventional theory that ionization is a function only of dielectric constant, and theorists should apply this simplicity with density in understanding aqueous electrolyte ionization. There appears to be no substantive evidence for Pitzer's earlier proposal (1983) that K(NaCl) with decreasing very low densities (if known) would diverge sharply downward by several orders of magnitude. Classical ionization theories are limited in universal application, and it seems that theory must adjust to this observed simple fundamental relationship.

Marshall, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2008-01-01

254

Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

2014-05-01

255

Intracellular chloride activities in rabbit gallbladder: Direct evidence for the role of the sodium-gradient in energizing Uphill chloride transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Intracellular chloride activities, (Cl)c, in rabbit gallbladder were determined by using conventional (KCl-filled) microelectrodes and Cl-selective, liquid ionexchanger, microelectrodes. The results indicate that in the presence of a normal Ringer's solution, (Cl)c averages 35 mM; this value is 2.3 times that predicted for an equilibrium distribution across the mucosal and baso-lateral membranes. On the other hand, when the tissue

Michael E. Duffey; Klaus Turnheim; Raymond A. Frizzell; Stanley G. Schultz

1978-01-01

256

Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.  

PubMed

Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodiumpotassiumchloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 2732% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the degree of change in extracellular osmolarity, is muscle specific, and is dependent on the functioning of the NKCC and Na+, K+-ATPase. PMID:21486779

Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

2011-06-01

257

Stability of Droperidol 0.625 mg/mL Diluted with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection and Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the stability of droperidol 0.625 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride solution that was packaged in polypropylene syringes and stored at controlled ambient conditions. Samples of droperidol 0.625 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared and assessed for chemical stability using a validated, stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay. A total of 18 syringe samples were submitted for chemical stability testing by high-performance liquid chromatography. The syringes were protected from light and stored under controlled ambient conditions (23*C to 27*C; 55% to 65% relative humidity) in an environmental chamber. Three samples were tested initially and at 14-, 30-, 60-, 90-, and 180-day intervals. Each syringe sample assayed once. Additional samples were assessed for pH and inspected for color and visible particulate matter. Stability was defined as the retention of 90% to 110% of the initial drug concentration. Droperidol injection maintained the appearance of a clear, colorless solution, with mean +/- standard deviation. Throughout the study period, pH values ranged from 2.87 +/- 0.02 to 3.29 +/- 0.04. Recovery of fentanyl ranged from 99.9% +/- 0.1% to 103.2% +/- 0.6% of the initial concentration, with no detectable changes in the chromatographic profiles of all tested samples. Droperidol 0.625 mg per milliliter in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, packaged in 1.1-ml aliquots in polypropylene syringes and stored protected from light was stable for 180 days under controlled ambient conditions. PMID:23696086

McClusky, Susan V; Lovely, Jenna K

2011-01-01

258

Quantitative determination of paraquat in meconium by sodium borohydride-nickel chloride chemical reduction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for the GC/MS assay of paraquat in meconium as a biomarker of fetal exposure to paraquat. The method involved a sodium borohydride-nickel chloride reduction procedure, liquid-liquid extraction of the perhydrogenated product, concentration, and GC/MS assay. The method demonstrated good overall recovery (102.56%) with %CV (inter-assay) of less than 13%, and a limit of detection of 0.0156microg/g. Analysis of meconium samples from a study population in the Philippines (n=70) showed a 2.8% prevalence of fetal exposure to paraquat. PMID:18037033

Posecion, Norberto C; Ostrea, Enrique M; Bielawski, Dawn M

2008-02-01

259

Aqueous room temperature metal-catalyzed living radical polymerization of vinyl chloride.  

PubMed

This paper describes the room-temperature living radical polymerization (LRP) of vinyl chloride in H2O/THF in the presence of Cu0 or CuI salts as catalysts, tren or PEI as ligands, and iodoform as initiator. The disproportionation reaction 2CuI + L --> Cu0 + CuII(L) is the crucial step, as it continuously provides the active species for both the initiation (Cu0) and the reversible termination step (CuII). Mn was found to increase linearly with conversion and is in good agreement with Mth, with the Mw/Mn being approximately 1.5. PMID:11982341

Percec, Virgil; Popov, Anatoliy V; Ramirez-Castillo, Ernesto; Monteiro, Michael; Barboiu, Bogdan; Weichold, Oliver; Asandei, Alexandru D; Mitchell, Catherine M

2002-05-01

260

Chlorination of Si surfaces with gaseous hydrogen chloride at elevated temperatures [rapid communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon wafers of different orientations were treated with gaseous hydrogen chloride at elevated temperatures in a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactor to generate chlorinated surfaces. After the chlorination process, a smooth surface morphology with single layer steps was observed on Si(1 1 1) surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) measurements showed that the chlorine coverage is directly affected by the Si surface orientation. The surface chlorine is highly reactive with moisture and alcoholic compounds, which provides a new route for organic molecular functionalization of silicon surfaces.

Li, Zhiyong; Kamins, Theodore I.; Li, Xuema; Williams, R. Stanley

2004-04-01

261

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23

262

Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales  

E-print Network

and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist in acidi- ®cation research in the early 1980s (Mason, 1990). This model described temporal changes

Kirchner, James W.

263

NiXantphos: a deprotonatable ligand for room-temperature palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings of aryl chlorides.  

PubMed

Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd-NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-?-, and C(sp(2))-H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd-NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

Zhang, Jiadi; Bellomo, Ana; Trongsiriwat, Nisalak; Jia, Tiezheng; Carroll, Patrick J; Dreher, Spencer D; Tudge, Matthew T; Yin, Haolin; Robinson, Jerome R; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J

2014-04-30

264

Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride\\u000a concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer\\u000a has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures,\\u000a and then by chloride concentrations. The model was

J. D. Hughes; H. L. Vacher; Ward E. Sanford

2009-01-01

265

The Chemistry of Mixed Sodium Chloride and Sodium Nitrate Aerosol Particles: Impacts of a Secondary Inorganic Ion on Gas Phase Chlorine Production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unique chemistry at the air-water interface from the reaction of the chloride ion and the hydroxyl radical has been suggested to play a major role in the production of increased levels of molecular chlorine in the marine boundary layer, including coastal regions. Molecular chlorine can then be photolyzed by solar radiation to produce the highly reactive atomic chlorine radical. Laboratory studies have shown that an interfacial reaction between chloride ion and the hydroxyl radical is responsible for generation of molecular chlorine at concentrations which cannot be explained by well-known bulk aqueous chemistry. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of chloride ion solutions as well as sum frequency generation studies have shown that the chloride ion has a propensity for the air-water interface. We examine here how the addition of nitrate ion to the aerosol, which is also believed to have a significant interfacial concentration in pure nitrate particles, affects the production of molecular chlorine. Laboratory experiments using mixed NaCl/NaNO3 aerosol particles were performed in a 561 L aerosol chamber at 298 K, 1 atm, and ~85% relative humidity, above the deliquescence points for both salts. Aerosol particles were generated using a commercial atomizer and Cl2 production was measured using atmospheric pressure chemical-ionization mass spectrometry; long path FTIR and DOAS were also used for monitoring ozone and the formation of reaction products. Ozone photolysis at 254 nm was used as a hydroxyl radical source. Molecular chlorine formation is observed from the reaction of the mixed NaCl/NaNO3 aerosol with OH, suggesting that at least some of the chloride remains at the interface in the mixed NaCl/NaNO3 particles. The results of chamber experiments with varying aerosol composition and size will be presented and interpreted in the context of molecular dynamics simulations of pure chloride, pure nitrate and mixed composition aerosol. The implications of this work for the production of reactive chlorine atoms in the troposphere will be discussed.

Wingen, L. M.; Moskun, A. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Roeselova, M.; Tobias, D. J.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

2005-12-01

266

Glass transition temperature and topological constraints of sodium borophosphate glass-forming liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium borophosphate glasses exhibit intriguing mixed network former effect, with the nonlinear compositional dependence of their glass transition temperature as one of the most typical examples. In this paper, we establish the widely applicable topological constraint model of sodium borophosphate mixed network former glasses to explain the relationship between the internal structure and nonlinear changes of glass transition temperature. The application of glass topology network was discussed in detail in terms of the unified methodology for the quantitative distribution of each coordinated boron and phosphorus units and glass transition temperature dependence of atomic constraints. An accurate prediction of composition scaling of the glass transition temperature was obtained based on topological constraint model.

Jiang, Qi; Zeng, Huidan; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi; Zhao, Donghui

2013-09-01

267

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt...Ammonium chloride is crystallized from the solution. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981),...

2014-04-01

268

Raman distributed sensor system for temperature monitoring and leak detection in sodium circuits of FBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leak detection in coolant loops of nuclear reactors is critical for the safety and performance of the reactors. The feasibility of using Raman distributed temperature sensor (RDTS) has been studied on a 30m test loop. Temperature in sodium circuits of fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) exceeds 550C, gold coated fiber is chosen as sensor fibers. Leak is simulated through an artificial

C. Pandian; M. Kasinathan; S. Sosamma; C. Babu Rao; T. Jayakumar; N. Murali; V. Paunikar; S. Kumar; K. K. Rajan; B. Raj

2009-01-01

269

Concurrent OH imager and sodium temperature//wind lidar observation of localized ripples over northern Colorado  

E-print Network

Concurrent OH imager and sodium temperature//wind lidar observation of localized ripples over by a dynamic instability at 88.5 km. The ripples clearly advected as packets with the background wind. Lidar temperature/wind lidar observation of localized ripples over northern Colorado, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D13110

270

Bleaching of F-centers in sodium chloride at room temperature by electron tunneling  

E-print Network

would be irradiated and ths process repeated. 3 ~PIZ CAJZJLATIONS Ai~~~ I:VMCLUSIOH3 tac ?-cantor conrcntrretion va". n1cu'~ted using, '~~A~::Qz'" whore f ? cacti'ator etrcruth for ti c '. '-con+ex tn ilaC'l. fbiLi. width of t, he absorption ~~cl... would be irradiated and ths process repeated. 3 ~PIZ CAJZJLATIONS Ai~~~ I:VMCLUSIOH3 tac ?-cantor conrcntrretion va". n1cu'~ted using, '~~A~::Qz'" whore f ? cacti'ator etrcruth for ti c '. '-con+ex tn ilaC'l. fbiLi. width of t, he absorption ~~cl...

Carroll, Herbert Burnett

2012-06-07

271

Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

2009-06-01

272

Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick. ?? US Government 2008.

Hughes, J.D.; Vacher, H.L.; Sanford, W.E.

2009-01-01

273

Pessimum effect of externally applied chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation: Proposed mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Mortars and concretes were subjected to a heat treatment cycle consisting of a pre-set period of 4 h at 23 deg. C followed by accelerated curing at 95 deg. C prior to storage at room temperature in water or limewater, 0.5 M, 2.8 M sodium chloride solutions. It was found that the specimens stored in 0.5 M sodium chloride solution gave a much greater expansion than those stored in limewater or 2.8 M sodium chloride solution. This pessimum influence of chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation deviates from the commonly held view that chlorides mitigate sulphate attack in concretes. The mechanism of the pessimum effect of chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation, and the final products of the associated phase transformations have been proposed. X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques were used to follow phase transformations.

Ekolu, S.O. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Str, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: s.ekolu@utoronto.ca; Thomas, M.D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, N.B., E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hooton, R.D. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Str, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

2006-04-15

274

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? FIRING TEMPERATURE REDUCTION FOR RATCHABURI POTTERY BY SODIUM CARBONATE ADDITION ????? ??????????????, ???? ???????, ????????? ???????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ratchaburi plastic clay has been widely used extensively for the production of dragon jar and other potteries. These wares were normally fired between 1200-1250oC to get a serviceable strong vitreous body. Research for lower firing temperature bodies will be more economical benefit since firing time and fuel consumption are lessened. This study was focused on decreasing the firing temperature of

Thanakorn Wasanapiarnpong; Thossaporn Assavachai; Adisak Thueploy; Karn Serivalsatit; Danai Arayaphong

275

Evaluation of sodium bicarbonate, chloride, or sulfate with a coccidiostat in corn-soy or corn-soy-meat diets for broiler chickens.  

PubMed

During the period from January to June, combined-sex broiler chickens were inoculated with coccidia via drinking water at 14 d of age. In a completely randomized design (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) using built-up litter, experimental diets contained monensin plus 0.20% dietary sodium bicarbonate (SBC), which provided 0.054% sodium and 0.144% bicarbonate. Treatment with SBC significantly improved coccidial lesion score, 45-d body weight, and feed efficiency compared with monensin alone. In a 2 x 5 factorial trial using built-up litter pens (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) vs. each ionophore alone, 0.20% dietary SBC with monensin significantly improved body weight, uniformity, and feed efficiency; 0.20% SBC with halifuginone, lasalocid, monensin, or salinomycin significantly reduced mortality; and 0.20% SBC with lasalocid, monensin, or salinomycin significantly increased breast meat yield. In a 2x4 factorial trial (12 replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) on built-up litter, corn-soy and corn-soy-meat diets (higher potassium, lower chloride) with monensin were evaluated using 0.054% sodium from SBC, NaCl, or sodium sulfate decahydrate (SSD). With both diet types, SBC (0.20%) or NaCl (0.139% extra) significantly improved weight uniformity, feed efficiency, mortality, and breast meat yield; however, the SSD results were closer to controls. In a 21-d battery brooder test using similar diets and design (2x4 factorial; 4 replicate pens; 10 chicks per pen), SBC and NaCl significantly reduced coccidial lesion scores; SSD produced a significant, but weaker effect. Extra NaCl significantly increased water intake (approximately 37%), water excretion (approximately 27%), and litter moisture (approximately 22%) with both diet types. The SSD did not affect water intake. PMID:10515361

Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R; McNaughton, J L

1999-09-01

276

Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution.  

PubMed Central

Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol/kg; 200 kcal). The daily stomal output remained constant for each patient during the four test periods but varied between patients from 0.60 to 2.84 kg (daily intestinal fluid balance 0.74-2.61 kg). Without a salt supplement, three patients lost more sodium from the stoma than they took in by mouth (-25, -94, and -101 mmol/day) and the mean sodium balance for all six subjects was -16 mmol (range -101 to 79) daily. Extra salt was absorbed with each form of supplement (p less than 0.05); no patient with the glucose electrolyte solution (mean 96, range 0 to 226 mmol), but one patient with the glucose-polymer solution (mean 96, range -25 to 164 mmol) and two with the salt capsules (mean 66, range -8 to 145 mmol) were in negative balance. Two patients vomited with the salt capsules. There was only a small increase in energy absorption (mean 115 kcal) with the glucose polymer solution compared with the glucose electrolyte solution. A sipped glucose electrolyte solution seems to be the optimal mode of sodium replacement in patients with a high output jejunostomy. PMID:1624155

Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Walker, E R; Farthing, M J

1992-01-01

277

The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

2014-05-01

278

Production of concentrated caustic soda and hydrochloride acid solutions from sodium chloride by electrodialysis with the aid of bipolar ion-exchange membranes  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a comparative analysis of the action of electrodialyzers containing three and five compartments in the structural unit, and equipped with bipolar, cation-exchange, and anion-exchange membranes, used for production of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda from sodium chloride solutions. It was shown that an electrodialyzer with five compartments gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda for 2.5-3 M concentration with 0.2-0.3 current efficiency, whereas an electrodialyzer with three compartments in the structural unit gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda concentrations of about 1.2 M at the same current efficiency. The performance of the electrodialyzers was analyzed and equations were derived for calculating the current efficiencies for acid and alkali under conditions of acidification of the salt solution; this was based on determination of the transport numbers of ions passing through the membranes.

Greben', V.P.; Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Latskov, V.L.

1988-10-20

279

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L.

2012-05-01

280

Mixed Micelles of Sodium Cholate and Sodium Dodecylsulphate 1:1 Binary Mixture at Different Temperatures - Experimental and Theoretical Investigations  

PubMed Central

Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1?1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 050C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 025C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (?1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 s long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed. PMID:25004142

Jojart, Balazs; Posa, Mihalj; Fiser, Bela; Szori, Milan; Farkas, Zita; Viskolcz, Bela

2014-01-01

281

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15C) and high temperature (HT; 28C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

282

Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment. PMID:21807190

Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

2011-09-15

283

Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825C to 1300C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

1983-10-01

284

Design of High Temperature Ultrasonic Linear Arrays for Under-Sodium Viewing  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the design process for high temperature ultrasonic phased array transducers for imaging in liquid sodium at temperatures up to 260C. The project is funded by the USDOE Generation IV Reactor Program and includes collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency. The transducer system is being designed to be able to provide images inside a sodium cooled fast reactor, to support operation and maintenance activities including potentially location of looseor damaged parts during service outages. The prototype transducer array is being designed for 8 to 16, 3MHz rectangular lead niobate (K-81) or bismuth titanate (K-15) piezoelectric elements spaced at ?/2 (wavelength in sodium). A nickel or nickel alloy faceplate serves as the sodium wetting surface. Scan angle of the focused ultrasonic beam is 30 degrees. Imaging spatial resolution is ? 1mm. The array is designed to be operated using a commercial phased array control system and it is planned that array testing will be performed in room temperature water, hot oil (260C), and molten sodium (260C).

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Bond, Leonard J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Peters, Timothy J.

2010-11-07

285

Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind.  

PubMed

We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China (31.5 N, 117 E). Patterned after the Colorado State University (CSU) narrowband sodium lidar with a dye laser-based transmitter, the USTC sodium temperature/wind lidar was deployed with a number of technical improvements that facilitate automation and ease of operation; these include a home constructed pulsed dye amplifier (PDA), a beam-steering system, a star-tracking program, and an electronic timing control. With the averaged power of ?1.2 W output from PDA and the receiving telescope diameter of 0.76 m, our lidar system has a power aperture product of ?0.55 Wm(2) and is comparable to the CSU and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) sodium lidar systems. The uncertainties of typical measurements induced by photon noise and laser locking fluctuation for the temperature and wind with a 2 km vertical and 15 min temporal resolutions under the nighttime clear sky condition are estimated to be ?1.0 K and ?1.5 m/s, respectively, at the sodium peak (e.g., 91 km), and 8 K and 10 m/s, respectively, at both sodium layer edges (e.g., 81 km and 105 km). The USTC narrowband sodium lidar has been operated regularly during the night since November 2011. Using the initial data collected, we demonstrate the reliability and suitability of these high resolution and precision datasets for studying the wave perturbations in the mesopause region. PMID:22859028

Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

2012-08-01

286

Microscopic evidence of "necklace and bead"-like morphology of polymer-surfactant complexes: a comparative study on poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-sodium dodecyl sulfate systems.  

PubMed

Here, we report the microscopic evidence of "necklace and bead"-like morphology, which has long been the most widely accepted model for polymer-surfactant complexes. The lack of microscopic evidence of the initial complexation between surfactant and polymer has resulted in many contradictory reports in the literature. In this paper, we visualized these initial complexes formed between negatively charged surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with neutral poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) polymer through photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) using silicon quantum dot (Si QD) as an external PL marker. It is observed that, for the PVP-SDS system, SDS molecules bind at the hydrophobic sites on the random-coiled PVP chain through their hydrocarbon tails, while for the PDADMAC-SDS system, SDS head groups are associated with the positively charged nitrogen centers of the polymer, where the polymer chain wraps around the surfactant head groups. PMID:25105837

Chatterjee, Surajit; Prajapati, Roopali; Bhattacharya, Arpan; Mukherjee, Tushar K

2014-08-19

287

Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganitesA potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300 K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5 J.kg-1.K-1 was observed near 300 K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300 K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300 K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62 K at 280 K.

Sethulakshmi, N.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Suresh, K. G.; Anantharaman, M. R.

2014-03-01

288

Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

1993-09-01

289

Glass transition temperature and topological constraints of sodium borophosphate glass-forming liquids.  

PubMed

Sodium borophosphate glasses exhibit intriguing mixed network former effect, with the nonlinear compositional dependence of their glass transition temperature as one of the most typical examples. In this paper, we establish the widely applicable topological constraint model of sodium borophosphate mixed network former glasses to explain the relationship between the internal structure and nonlinear changes of glass transition temperature. The application of glass topology network was discussed in detail in terms of the unified methodology for the quantitative distribution of each coordinated boron and phosphorus units and glass transition temperature dependence of atomic constraints. An accurate prediction of composition scaling of the glass transition temperature was obtained based on topological constraint model. PMID:24089781

Jiang, Qi; Zeng, Huidan; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi; Zhao, Donghui

2013-09-28

290

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2011-04-01

291

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2011-04-01

292

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2013-04-01

293

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2014-04-01

294

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2010-04-01

295

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2012-04-01

296

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2010-04-01

297

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2013-04-01

298

21 CFR 175.360 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for nylon film.  

...units derived from vinylidene chloride. The finished coating produced from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with methyl methacrylate...desired properties may include sodium...

2014-04-01

299

21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...prepared from vinylidene chloride copolymers produced by copolymerizing vinylidene chloride with acrylonitrile, methyl...units derived from vinyldene chloride. (c) Optional adjuvant...desired properties may include sodium...

2012-04-01

300

Reaction of Chlorine Nitrate with Hydrogen Chloride and Water at Antarctic Stratospheric Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) with H2O and hydrogen chloride (HCl) on surfaces that simulate polar stratospheric clouds [ice and nitric acid (HNO3)--ice and sulfuric acid] are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The reaction of ClONO2 on ice and certain mixtures of HNO3 and ice proceeded readily. The sticking coefficient of ClONO2 on ice of 0.009 0.002 was observed. A reaction produced gas-phase hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and condensed-phase HNO3; HOCl underwent a secondary reaction on ice producing dichlorine monoxide (Cl2O). In addition to the reaction with H2O, ClONO2 reacted with HCl on ice to form gas-phase chlorine (Cl2) and condensed-phase HNO3. Essentially all of the HCl in the bulk of the ice can react with ClONO2 on the ice surface. The gaseous products of the above reactions, HOCl, Cl2O, and Cl2, could readily photolyze in the Antarctic spring to produce active chlorine for ozone depletion. Furthermore, the formation of condensed-phase HNO3 could serve as a sink for odd nitrogen species that would otherwise scavenge the active chlorine.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

1987-11-01

301

Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate in the ferroelectric phase  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate disordered with respect to the B sublattice. Sodium bismuth titanate Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) is among the group- temperature phase in these relaxors because the suggested models, such as glass-like phase [13], nanodomain

302

Blastocoel expansion in the preimplantation mouse embryo: role of extracellular sodium and chloride and possible apical routes of their entry.  

PubMed

The trophectoderm of the mouse blastocyst is a fluid transporting epithelium that is responsible for generating a fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoel. Vectorial transport of ions from the medium into the blastocoel generates an osmotic gradient that drives fluid across this epithelium. We report here that substitution of Na+ or Cl-, but not K+, in the medium halves the rate of blastocoel expansion in the mouse blastocyst. Entrance of Na+ into the trophectoderm may involve several routes, since both blastocoel expansion and 22Na+ uptake are decreased in the presence of the highly specific Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, and to a lesser extent with the amiloride-sensitive Na+-channel blocker, benzamil. Uptake of 22Na+ manifests saturation kinetics as a function of extracellular Na+ concentration, whereas uptake of 36Cl- is linear. Furthermore, neither 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, which is an inhibitor of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, nor 2-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-nitrobenzoic acid, which is a Cl- -channel blocker, affect either blastocoel expansion or 36Cl- uptake. These results suggest that Na+ entry into the mouse blastocyst is carrier-mediated and probably involves several routes that include the Na+/H+ exchanger and possibly the Na+-channel. Chloride entry, however, may not be carrier-mediated and may occur through a paracellular route, i.e., between the trophectodermal cells. PMID:2540052

Manejwala, F M; Cragoe, E J; Schultz, R M

1989-05-01

303

Influence of nickel chloride, chlorpyrifos, and imidacloprid in combination with different temperatures on the embryogenesis of the zebrafish Danio rerio.  

PubMed

Two independent types of stressors, chemicals and high temperatures, which frequently act together in the environment, are addressed in this study. Pesticides (imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos) as well as a metal salt (nickel chloride) were investigated for their toxic effect at different temperatures. Tests focused on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae (from fertilization up to 168 h postfertilization) when exposed to the three respective chemicals at an optimum temperature (26 degrees C) and three higher temperatures (up to 33.5 degrees C). At all temperatures tested, the two pesticides did not have a significant impact on the early development of the zebrafish at the highest test concentrations (imidacloprid, 50 mg/l; chlorpyrifos, 1 mg/l). Nickel led to a significant decrease of hatching success at all temperatures; the combination of elevated temperature and nickel exposure revealed a synergistic effect of both stressors. PMID:18661094

Scheil, Volker; Khler, Heinz-R

2009-02-01

304

Effect of Temperature and Chloride Ion Concentration on Corrosion of Passive Films on Nano/Ultrafine Grained Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solution temperature, concentration of chloride ions, and grain refinement on the corrosion resistance of the passive film formed on 304 stainless steels in borate buffer solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results showed that the passive films formed on the surface of 304 stainless steels possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature, the corrosion resistance of the passive film of coarse and nano/ultrafine grained stainless steels decreased. However, the corrosion resistance of the passive film in nano/ultrafine grained stainless steel was higher than that in the coarse grained one. Moreover, in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests, chloride ions changed semiconductor characteristics of the passive film formed on the surface of stainless steel.

Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

2014-09-01

305

Corrosion of high-temperature alloys in chloride-containing supercritical water oxidation systems  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising and effective method for the oxidation of organic wastes. Its high solubility for organic compounds and its special physical properties (i.e., density and viscosity) result in a key advantage over standard processes such as incineration. During oxidation of chlorine organics, severe corrosion attack of most of the materials have been observed as a result of the formation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). An investigation was conducted of corrosion of high-temperature alloys such as alloy 214 (UNS N07214), alloy 602CA (UNS N06602), alloy G-30 (UNS N06030), alloy 625 (UNS N06625), and alloy 686 (UNS N06686), exposed at 400 bar (40 MPa) and 420 C for 24 h in a dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) mixture with {approximately}2,000 wppm chloride (Cl{sub 2}). Weight losses of all the samples varied between 1.3 mm/y for alloy G-30 and {approximately}31.6 mm/y for alloy 686. Alloy 214 showed increased corrosion for the preoxidized material, whereas the corrosion rate of alloy 602CA was reduced by a factor of three as a result of preoxidation at 900 C prior to SCWO exposure. Analysis revealed that alloy 686 lost most of its nickel down to a depth of {approximately}150 {micro}m. Alloy G-30 showed good corrosion behavior as a result of formation of a protective oxide layer during the exposure. The layer was homogeneous, with a thickness of {approximately}12 {micro}m, but slight nickel leaching was observed.

Konys, J.; Fodi, S.; Hausselt, J.; Schmidt, H.; Casal, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

1999-01-01

306

Reaction of solid sorbents with hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curves in the fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the prediction of these factors a difficult problem. In this study, the reaction rate between solid sorbents and hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature was first investigated. On the basis of a fixed-bed reactor, the experimental results

Binlin Dou; Bingbing Chen; Jinsheng Gao; Xingzhong Sha

2005-01-01

307

Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of a thermocouple installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 degrees F. was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 r.p.m. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear-spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

Sanders, J C; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

1943-01-01

308

Hypotonicity Stimulates Potassium Flux through the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 Kinase Cascade and the Ncc69 Sodium-Potassium-2-Chloride Cotransporter in the Drosophila Renal Tubule.  

PubMed

The ability to osmoregulate is fundamental to life. Adult Drosophila melanogaster maintain hemolymph osmolarity within a narrow range. Osmolarity modulates transepithelial ion and water flux in the Malpighian (renal) tubules of the fly, which are in direct contact with hemolymph in vivo, but the mechanisms causing increased transepithelial flux in response to hypotonicity are unknown. Fly renal tubules secrete a KCl-rich fluid. We have previously demonstrated a requirement for Ncc69, the fly sodium-potassium-2-chloride cotransporter (NKCC), in tubule K(+) secretion. Mammalian NKCCs are regulated by a kinase cascade consisting of the with-no-lysine (WNK) and Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich (SPAK)/oxidative stress response (OSR1) kinases. Here, we show that decreasing Drosophila WNK activity causes a reduction in K(+) flux. Similarly, knocking down the SPAK/OSR1 homolog fray also decreases K(+) flux. We demonstrate that a hierarchical WNK-Fray signaling cascade regulates K(+) flux through Ncc69, because (i) a constitutively active Fray mutant rescues the wnk knockdown phenotype, (ii) Fray directly phosphorylates Ncc69 in vitro, and (iii) the effect of wnk and fray knockdown is abolished in Ncc69 mutants. The stimulatory effect of hypotonicity on K(+) flux is absent in wnk, fray, or Ncc69 mutant tubules, suggesting that the Drosophila WNK-SPAK/OSR1-NKCC cascade is an essential molecular pathway for osmoregulation, through its effect on transepithelial ion flux and fluid generation by the renal tubule. PMID:25086033

Wu, Yipin; Schellinger, Jeffrey N; Huang, Chou-Long; Rodan, Aylin R

2014-09-19

309

Evidence of a two-step process and pathway dependency in the thermodynamics of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(sodium acrylate) complexation.  

PubMed

Recent studies have pointed out the importance of polyelectrolyte assembly in the elaboration of innovative nanomaterials. Beyond their structures, many important questions on the thermodynamics of association remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the complexation between poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PANa) chains using a combination of three techniques: isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), static and dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis. Upon addition of PDADMAC to PANa or vice-versa, the results obtained by the different techniques agree well with each other, and reveal a two-step process. The primary process is the formation of highly charged polyelectrolyte complexes of size 100 nm. The secondary process is the transition towards a coacervate phase made of rich and poor polymer droplets. The binding isotherms measured are accounted for using a phenomenological model that provides the thermodynamic parameters for each reaction. Small positive enthalpies and large positive entropies consistent with a counterion release scenario are found throughout this study. Furthermore, this work stresses the importance of the underestimated formulation pathway or mixing order in polyelectrolyte complexation. PMID:25347132

Vitorazi, L; Ould-Moussa, N; Sekar, S; Fresnais, J; Loh, W; Chapel, J-P; Berret, J-F

2014-12-21

310

The dye or humic acid water treatment and membrane fouling by polyaluminum chloride composited with sodium alginate in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.  

PubMed

Composite flocculants have been extensively studied and applied in recent years in order to improve the water treatment efficiency. In this study, a new composite flocculant prepared by polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and sodium alginate (SA) was used to treat dye and humic acid water in the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. The subsequent effects of PAC/SA on ultrafiltration membrane fouling were investigated by calculating the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). The results showed that the application of PAC/SA could not only restrict the membrane fouling but also improve the removal efficiency of the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. MFI of PAC/SA was the lowest, followed by PAC and the raw water for coagulated effluents filtered by ultrafiltration membrane. For example, MFI of PAC/SA was 0.40 s mL(-2) for reactive blue KGL (denoted as RB-KGL) treatment, while that of PAC was 2.26 s mL(-2). The removal efficiencies were improved as coagulation was used as pretreatment of ultrafiltration membrane. And PAC/SA could form the higher removal efficiency than PAC, especially for RB-KGL. The color removal efficiency of PAC/SA was 96.36% for RB-KGL treated by coagulation-ultrafiltration process, which was higher than that of PAC (85.62%). PMID:23676389

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

2013-01-01

311

Corrosion fatigue of a precipitation-hardened Al-Li-Zr alloy in a 0.5 M sodium chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion fatigue (CF) experiments have been performed on a high-purity Al-2.5Li-0.12Zr alloy in a deaerated 0.5 M sodium chloride solution as a function of aging time. The results of these tests were compared to the results of fatigue tests performed in dry air to investigate the effect of aging on the CF susceptibility of the alloy. It was found that the high cycle fatigue strength of the alloy was dramatically reduced by the aqueous environment. Examinations of the relative fatigue strength (??NaCl/??air) indicated that the underaged (UA) alloys were more susceptible to CF than the overaged (OA) alloys over the stress ranges studied, but the difference of the susceptibility between the UA and the OA alloys was reduced by decreasing the applied cyclic stress. The evidence suggests that, for the UA Al-Li-Zr alloys, the CF resistance is determined by both slip-enhanced dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement at high stress ranges, while at low stress ranges, the CF life is predominantly controlled by pitting-induced crack initiation regardless of the aging condition of the alloy.

Chen, G. S.; Duquette, D. J.

1992-05-01

312

"Worst case" aerosol testing parameters: I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate.  

PubMed

The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called "worst case" set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory. PMID:2729101

Stevens, G A; Moyer, E S

1989-05-01

313

Effect of chlorine, sodium chloride, trisodium phosphate, and ultraviolet radiation on the reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and mesophilic aerobic bacteria from eggshell surface.  

PubMed

Eggshell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh hen eggs and their products. In this work, the effects of 100 mg/liter free chlorine (chl), 3% sodium chloride (NaCl), 1, 5, and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) in wash solutions, and UVR (ultraviolet radiation; 4.573 microW/cm2) were studied at different times on uninoculated and Yersinia enterocolitica-inoculated eggs. On uninoculated eggs, the best results were obtained with 100 mg/liter chlorine and UV exposure for >25 min, with reductions of 1.28 and 1.60 log cycles, respectively, compared to the average bacterial count (4.55 log CFU/egg) on the control (untreated eggs). On Y. enterocolitica-inoculated eggs, highest reductions of the average bacterial count (7.35 log CFU/egg) were obtained with 5 and 12% TSP and 100 mg/liter chl. The decrease obtained with 12% TSP (3.74-log reduction) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained with the remaining treatments. Y. enterocolitica was more resistant to UVR than the eggshell natural mesophilic aerobic microflora, except when low inoculum (4.39 log CFU/egg) was assayed. Changes in eggshell microstructure were measured by the blue lake staining method. The presence of Yersinia and Salmonella in eggshell natural flora was also investigated. PMID:11601717

Favier, G L; Escudero, M E; de Guzman, A M

2001-10-01

314

Sensory neuron sodium channel Nav1.8 is essential for pain at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory acuity and motor dexterity deteriorate when human limbs cool down, but pain perception persists and cold-induced pain can become excruciating. Evolutionary pressure to enforce protective behaviour requires that damage-sensing neurons (nociceptors) continue to function at low temperatures. Here we show that this goal is achieved by endowing superficial endings of slowly conducting nociceptive fibres with the tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium

Katharina Zimmermann; Andreas Leffler; Alexandru Babes; Cruz Miguel Cendan; Richard W. Carr; Jin-Ichi Kobayashi; Carla Nau; John N. Wood; Peter W. Reeh

2007-01-01

315

Temperature dependence of non-electrolyte and sodium permeability in giant axon of squid  

PubMed Central

1. The efflux of [14C]urea was measured in micro-injected axons at 18 C. A permeability constant for urea of (055 018) 10-6 cm/sec was calculated from these experiments. 2. The influxes of urea, thiourea, ethylene glycol, urethane and toluene were measured in perfused axons at 18 1 C. The permeability constants obtained from these determinations increased in the order listed, from (076 019) 10-6 cm/sec for urea to 080 10-4 cm/sec for toluene. 3. The influxes of tritiated water and sodium ions at 18 C were measured in perfused axons. An average permeability of (078 022) 10-4 cm/sec for titriated water and an average influx of 23 6 p-mole/cm2 sec for sodium were obtained. 4. Lowering the temperature of the external sea-water bathing the axon from 18 to 5 C produced a decrease of 12% in the permeability of toluene, 30% for tritiated water and urethane, 55% for ethylene glycol and urea and 60% for thiourea. There was a 50% reduction in the influx of sodium for this same temperature change. 5. The results obtained with the effect of temperature on permeabilities suggest that the axonal membrane has a non-homogeneous composition. A model based on the assumption of structured aqueous channels in the membrane is postulated. PMID:5500990

Hidalgo, Cecilia; Latorre, Ramn

1970-01-01

316

Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

2010-04-15

317

Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas  

SciTech Connect

Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-01-01

318

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pschl

2008-01-01

319

The interrelations of mineral colloids and sodium chloride as measured by pH, conductivity, and water-soluble cations  

E-print Network

related to the fora ation of a hard nineral known as spinel. The gronp of clay ninsrals corresponding to nice is kxws?n as the illite or hydrated nice groap. The atonic arrangenent of illite is the ssxe fcr nnntnorillonite? being based m, axxd said... smaller emfothermic effect at about 150 C vith illite than vith the aoetmmillonftic soils. Also the loss of lattice hydrcayl seems to be spread over a vidar temperature raage. The effect associa+M with the removal of lattice hydrozyl is found at shoat...

Crozier, Baalis B

2012-06-07

320

Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the French R&D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlabin order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

2013-01-01

321

Gold-chloride complexes in very acidic aqueous solutions and at temperatures 25-300 C: A laser Raman spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectra of gold-chloride complexes in very acidic solutions ( m hcl = 2-5) have been recorded at temperatures 25-300C and at pressures on the liquid vapor curve for the system. At temperatures 100C, the square planar Au(III)-chloride complex, AuCl - 4 , is predominant in solution, showing bands at approximately 171, 324, and 347 cm -1 . However, in

Pujing Pan; Scott A. Wood

1991-01-01

322

DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

2005-12-01

323

Hypertension from chronic central sodium chloride in mice is mediated by the ouabain-binding site on the Na,K-ATPase ?2-isoform  

PubMed Central

A chronic increase in the concentration of sodium chloride in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (?CSF [NaCl]) appears to be critically important for the development of salt-dependent hypertension. In agreement with this concept, increasing CSF [NaCl] chronically by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of NaCl-rich artificial CSF (aCSF-HiNaCl) in rats produces hypertension by the same mechanisms (i.e., aldosterone-ouabain pathway in the brain) as that produced by dietary sodium in salt-sensitive strains. We first demonstrate here that icv aCSF-HiNaCl for 10 days also causes hypertension in wild-type (WT) mice. We then used both WT and gene-targeted mice to explore the mechanisms. In WT mice with a ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase ?2-isoform (?2S/S), mean arterial pressure rose by ?25 mmHg within 2 days of starting aCSF-HiNaCl (0.6 nmol Na/min) and remained elevated throughout the study. Ouabain (171 pmol/day icv) increased blood pressure to a similar extent. aCSF-HiNaCl or ouabain given at the same rates subcutaneously instead of intracerebroventricularly had no effect on blood pressure. The pressor response to icv aCSF-HiNaCl was abolished by an anti-ouabain antibody given intracerebroventricularly but not subcutaneously, indicating that it is mediated by an endogenous ouabain-like substance in the brain. We compared the effects of icv aCSF-HiNaCl or icv ouabain on blood pressure in ?2S/S versus knockout/knockin mice with a ouabain-resistant endogenous ?2-subunit (?2R/R). In ?2R/R, there was no pressor response to icv aCSF-HiNaCl in contrast to WT mice. The ?2R/R genotype also lacked a pressor response to icv ouabain. These data demonstrate that chronic ?CSF [NaCl] causes hypertension in mice and that the blood pressure response is mediated by the ouabain-like substance in the brain, specifically by its binding to the ?2-isoform of the Na,K-ATPase. PMID:21856907

Dostanic, Iva; Lingrel, Jerry B.; Hou, Xiaohong; Wu, Hengwei

2011-01-01

324

The Effect of Different Topical Agents (Silver Sulfadiazine, Povidone-Iodine, and Sodium Chloride 0.9%) on Burn Injuries in Rats  

PubMed Central

It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2??1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

Yksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Kuloglu, Tuncay

2014-01-01

325

Realgar- and cinnabar-containing an-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is much less acutely toxic than sodium arsenite and mercuric chloride.  

PubMed

An-gong-niu-huang wan (AGNH) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used for brain trauma, hemorrhage, and coma. AGNH contains 10% realgar (As?S?) and 10% cinnabar (HgS). Both As and Hg are well-known for their toxic effects, and the safety of AGNH is of concern. To address this question, the acute toxicity of AGNH, realgar and cinnabar were compared to sodium arsenite (NaAsO?) and mercuric chloride (HgCl?). Mice were administrated orally AGNH at 1, 3 and 6g/kg. AGNH at 3g/kg contains 2.8mmol As/kg as realgar and 1.18mmol Hg/kg as cinnabar. Realgar, cinnabar, arsenite (0.28 mmol/kg, 10% of realgar) and HgCl? (0.256 mmol/kg, 20% of cinnabar) were orally given to mice for comparison. Blood and tissues were collected 8h later for toxicity evaluation. Serum alanine aminotransferase was increased by arsenite and blood urea nitrogen was increased by HgCl?. Total As accumulation after arsenite in liver (100-fold) and kidney (13-fold) was much higher than that after realgar. The accumulation of Hg after HgCl? in liver was 400-fold higher and kidney 30-fold higher than after cinnabar. Histopathology showed moderate liver and kidney injuries after arsenite and HgCl?, but injuries were mild or absent after AGNH, realgar, and cinnabar. The expression of metallothionein-1, a biomarker of metal exposure, was increased 4-10-fold by arsenite and HgCl?, but was unchanged by AGNH, realgar and cinnabar. Thus, AGNH, realgar and cinnabar are much less toxic acutely than arsenite and HgCl?. The chemical forms of As and Hg are extremely important factors in determining their disposition and toxicity. PMID:21094152

Lu, Yuan-Fu; Yan, Jun-Wen; Wu, Qin; Shi, Jing-Zhen; Liu, Jie; Shi, Jing-Shan

2011-01-15

326

Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths.  

PubMed

Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.833.2, 403.5107.9, and 239.321.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of <195.9 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of freshwater aspiration and that of >282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.840.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings. PMID:24314517

Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

2013-12-10

327

Chloride regulatory mechanisms and their influence on neuronal excitability.  

E-print Network

??The chloride concentration in neurons is in general established by the precise functional expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter one (NKCC1) and the potassium-chloride cotransporter two (more)

Rinke, Ilka

2010-01-01

328

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

329

Research notes: Sodium bicarbonate supplementation in diets for guinea fowl raised at high environmental temperatures.  

PubMed

An experiment was designed to verify the effect of dietary NaHCO3 supplementation on performance of guinea fowl raised under high environmental temperatures (23.8 to 33.9 C) and average relative humidity of 78.7%. One hundred and forty guinea fowl in their final period of growth (56 to 84 d of age) were allotted to individual wire cages. Five isocaloric (3,000 kcal ME/kg) 16% CP diets based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4% sodium bicarbonate were fed to the birds. The experiment followed a randomized block design with 28 birds per treatment (14 of each sex) with each bird being considered as one repetition. Results showed that weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality, blood pH, carcass yield, and carcass composition were not affected (P > 0.05) by dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation. Weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion, carcass moisture, and fat content, however, were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by sex. Females showed 17.49% better weight gain, 7.16% greater feed intake, and 9.6% better feed conversion than males. These differences were exacerbated at supplementation levels of 1.2 and 1.8% sodium bicarbonate in the diet. Male birds showed carcass moisture values significantly (P < 0.05) greater than those of female birds; the opposite occurred with carcass fat levels. The use of sodium bicarbonate in levels up to 2.4% of the diet did not affect the performance of guinea fowl raised under the environmental conditions registered in this study. PMID:9603359

Fuentes, M F; Zapata, J F; Espndola, G B; Freitas, E R; Santos, M G; Sousa, F M

1998-05-01

330

The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony and their aluminum alloys from acidic aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room-temperature molten salt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony, and their aluminum alloys was investigated in the room-temperature molten salt, aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Solutions of Co(II), Fe(II), and Sb(III) were prepared by controlled-potential coulometric anodization of the respective metal in Lewis acidic melt. The plating and stripping of these metals was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk and rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry, and potential step chronoamperometry. Bulk deposits of the pure and aluminum-alloyed metals were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The underpotential co-deposition of aluminum was observed during the electrodeposition of cobalt and iron; however, this phenomenon did not occur during the electrodeposition of antimony. The results of this investigation suggest that both a positive work function difference between the transition metal and aluminum and the mutual solubility of these components determine whether or not the co-deposition of aluminum takes place. Two electroanalytical techniques were developed for the analysis of co-deposited aluminum alloys: the first was based on anodic linear sweep voltammetry at a rotating-ring-disk electrode. The second was derived from the transition metal ion concentration changes observed during bulk deposition experiments. In the first technique, an alloy deposit was stripped from the disk electrode while the ring potential was held at a value where only one of the ions oxidized from the alloy could be reduced. In the second technique, the concentration of transition metal ions was monitored in an undivided cell with an anode made from the depositing metal. The co-deposition of aluminum was signalled by an increase in the transition metal ion concentration. The alloy composition data resulting from both techniques were in excellent agreement with that obtained from the analysis of partial currents by means of sampled-current voltammetry. Chronoamperometry was used to study the nucleation of antimony and iron on glassy carbon substrates. The electrodeposition of these metals was found to involve three-dimensional nucleation with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. Comparison of the experimental dimensionless current-time transients with theoretical transients indicated that the nucleation of iron followed a progressive mechanism whereas the nucleation of antimony followed a progressive mechanism at a finite number of active sites. Analysis of the potential dependence of the nucleation rate according to the Atomistic Theory of Nucleation suggested that active sites on the glassy carbon substrate act as critical nuclei. The formal potentials of the Co(II)/Co, Fe(II)/Fe, and Sb(III)/Sb couples were found to be: 0.86 0.02, 0.52 0.01, and 1.02 0.03 V, respectively, in the 60.0-40.0 m/o AlClsb3-MeEtimCl molten salt at 25spC. The diffusion coefficients of cobalt(II), iron(II), and antimony(III) were found to be: (3.40.1)10sp{-7}; (2.60.3)10sp{-6}; and (1.10.1)10sp{-6} cmsp2\\ ssp{-1}, respectively.

Mitchell, John Anthony

331

RESCUE OF THE MUTANT CFTR CHLORIDE CHANNEL BY PHARMACOLOGICAL CORRECTORS AND LOW TEMPERATURE ANALYZED BY GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING  

PubMed Central

The F508del mutation, the most frequent in cystic fibrosis (CF), impairs the maturation of the CFTR chloride channel. The F508del defect can be partially overcome at low temperature (27 C) or with pharmacological correctors. However, the efficacy of correctors on the mutant protein appears to be dependent on the cell expression system. We have used a bronchial epithelial cell line, CFBE41o-, to determine the efficacy of various known treatments and to discover new correctors. Compared to other cell types, CFBE41o- shows the largest response to low temperature and the lowest one to correctors such as corr-4a and VRT-325. A screening of a small molecule library identified 9-aminoacridine and ciclopirox, which were significantly more effective than corr-4a and VRT-325. Analysis with microarrays revealed that 9-aminoacridine, ciclopirox, and low temperature, in contrast to corr-4a, cause a profound change in cell transcriptome. These data suggest that 9-aminoacridine and ciclopirox act on F508del-CFTR maturation as proteostasis regulators, a mechanism already proposed for the histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA. However, we found that 9-aminoacridine, ciclopirox, and SAHA, in contrast to corr-4a, VRT-325, and low temperature, do not increase chloride secretion in primary bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. These conflicting data appeared to be correlated with different gene expression signatures generated by these treatments in the cell line and in primary bronchial epithelial cells. Our results suggest that F508del-CFTR correctors acting by altering the cell transcriptome may be particularly active in heterologous expression systems but markedly less effective in native epithelial cells. PMID:21753184

Sondo, Elvira; Tomati, Valeria; Caci, Emanuela; Esposito, Alessia Isabella; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Galietta, Luis J.V.

2012-01-01

332

Gutmann acceptor properties of LiCl, NaCl, and KCl buffered ambient-temperature chloroaluminate ionic liquids  

SciTech Connect

Ambient temperature chloroaluminate ionic liquids are an important class of nonaqueous solvents; they have been used in many process and show promise in high-energy density batteries. The properties of lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride buffered liquids are described.

Mantz, R.A.; Trulove, P.C.; Carlin, R.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)] [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1997-03-12

333

Characterization of the high-pressure structural transition and thermodynamic properties in sodium chloride: a computational investigation on the basis of the density functional theory.  

PubMed

Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, the thermodynamic properties, and the structural phase transition between the B1 (rocksalt) and the B2 (cesium chloride) phases of NaCl are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method. The calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. On the basis of the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure Pt between the B1 phase and the B2 phase of NaCl is determined. The calculated values are generally speaking in good agreement with experiments and with similar theoretical calculations. From the theoretical calculations, the shear modulus, Young's modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio of NaCl are derived. According to the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we estimated the Debye temperature of NaCl from the average sound velocity. Moreover, the pressure derivatives of elastic constants, partial differentialC11/partial differentialP, partial differentialC12/partial differentialP, partial differentialC44/partial differentialP, partial differentialS11/partial differential P, partial differentialS12/partial differentialP, and partial differentialS44/partial differentialP, for NaCl crystal are investigated for the first time. This is a quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of NaCl, and it still awaits experimental confirmation. PMID:18855434

Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Qin-Sheng

2008-11-01

334

A rechargeable room-temperature sodium superoxide (NaO2) battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the search for room-temperature batteries with high energy densities, rechargeable metal-air (more precisely metal-oxygen) batteries are considered as particularly attractive owing to the simplicity of the underlying cell reaction at first glance. Atmospheric oxygen is used to form oxides during discharging, whichideallydecompose reversibly during charging. Much work has been focused on aprotic Li-O2 cells (mostly with carbonate-based electrolytes and Li2O2 as a potential discharge product), where large overpotentials are observed and a complex cell chemistry is found. In fact, recent studies evidence that Li-O2 cells suffer from irreversible electrolyte decomposition during cycling. Here we report on a Na-O2 cell reversibly discharging/charging at very low overpotentials (< 200?mV) and current densities as high as 0.2?mA?cm-2 using a pure carbon cathode without an added catalyst. Crystalline sodium superoxide (NaO2) forms in a one-electron transfer step as a solid discharge product. This work demonstrates that substitution of lithium by sodium may offer an unexpected route towards rechargeable metal-air batteries.

Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L.; Vra?ar, Milo; Drr, Anna Katharina; Garsuch, Arnd; Janek, Jrgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-03-01

335

Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

Rashad, A.M., E-mail: alaarashad@yahoo.com [Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC, 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza 11511, P.O. Box: 1770, Cairo (Egypt); Bai, Y., E-mail: y.bai@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Basheer, P.A.M. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

336

Author's personal copy Differential expression of absorptive cation-chloride-cotransporters in the  

E-print Network

only significantly in silver eels. This suggests that any changes in renal sodium chloride re was only found in the posterior intestine/rectum. Together these results suggest intestinal sodium chloride chloride cotransporter); NCC (Sodium chloride cotransporter); mRNA expression; RACE (Rapid amplification

Cutler, Chris

337

Benzalkonium chloride and sulfamethoxazole adsorption onto natural clinoptilolite: effect of time, ionic strength, pH and temperature.  

PubMed

The influence of different physical factors on the adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzalkonium chloride (BC) and the model drug sulfamethoxazole by a purified natural clinoptilolite (NZ) has been studied in order to employ zeolite-surfactant-drug composites as drug deliverer. It has been demonstrated that the adsorption of BC and sulfamethoxazole onto NZ depends of the time, the temperature, the ionic strength and the pH of the aqueous medium. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the zeolite-surfactant and zeolite-surfactant-drug composite materials are established. The results of the composite characterization support the presence of BC and sulfamethoxazole, as well as the structural stability of NZ during the treatments performed. The release experiments in acid medium demonstrate that the adsorption of sulfamethoxazole is reversible. It is also confirmed that the drug release profile corresponds to a diffusion or zero-order mechanism as a function of the compression pressure. PMID:21855887

Faras, Tania; de Mnorval, Louis Charles; Zajac, Jerzy; Rivera, Aramis

2011-11-15

338

Emergence of ambient temperature ferroelectricity in meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we demonstrate that the meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride, [H2TMPyP]4+Cl4, with a face-to-face orientation directed along a single direction displays ferroelectric properties at room temperature. This is attributed to its spontaneous polarization, due to an extensive hydrogen-bonded network. From C-V measurements, a remnant polarization of approximately 0.5 ?C cm-2 was estimated for pristine porphyrin film, which increases linearly up to about 1.7 ?C cm-2 after applying 2 V at the top electrode and further to 9.6 ?C cm-2 after 5 V positive poling. This largefor practical utilizationlevel of remnant polarization of [H2TMPyP]4+Cl4 makes it promising for future applications.

Vasilopoulou, Maria; Dimitrakis, Panagiotis; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Velessiotis, Dimitrios; Papadimitropoulos, Georgios; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G.; Argitis, Panagiotis

2013-07-01

339

Flow and Temperature Distribution Evaluation on Sodium Heated Large-sized Straight Double-wall-tube Steam Generator  

SciTech Connect

The sodium heated steam generator (SG) being designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems is a straight double-wall-tube type. The SG is large sized to reduce its manufacturing cost by economics of scale. This paper addresses the temperature and flow multi-dimensional distributions at steady state to obtain the prospect of the SG. Large-sized heat exchanger components are prone to have non-uniform flow and temperature distributions. These phenomena might lead to tube buckling or tube to tube-sheet junction failure in straight tube type SGs, owing to tubes thermal expansion difference. The flow adjustment devices installed in the SG are optimized to prevent these issues, and the temperature distribution properties are uncovered by analysis methods. The analysis model of the SG consists of two parts, a sodium inlet distribution plenum (the plenum) and a heat transfer tubes bundle region (the bundle). The flow and temperature distributions in the plenum and the bundle are evaluated by the three-dimensional code 'FLUENT' and the two dimensional thermal-hydraulic code 'MSG', respectively. The MSG code is particularly developed for sodium heated SGs in JAEA. These codes have revealed that the sodium flow is distributed uniformly by the flow adjustment devices, and that the lateral tube temperature distributions remain within the allowable temperature range for the structural integrity of the tubes and the tube to tube-sheet junctions. (authors)

Kisohara, Naoyuki; Moribe, Takeshi; Sakai, Takaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4002, Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)

2006-07-01

340

Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

1975-01-01

341

Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?2225 C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7??1.9%, 59.8??1.9%, and 77.4??1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5??3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

Tomasso J. R., Simco, B. A.; Davis, K. B.

1979-01-01

342

Differential response of chloride binding sites to elevated temperature: a comparative study in spinach thylakoids and PSII-enriched membranes.  

PubMed

A study of heat effects was performed in thylakoids and photosystem II (PSII)-enriched membranes isolated from spinach in relation to Cl(-)-induced activation of PSII catalyzed oxygen evolution and the retention of Cl(-) in the PSII complex. For this, Cl(-)-sufficient membranes and low-Cl(-) membranes were used. The presence of Cl(-) in the reaction medium did accelerate oxygen evolution, which remained unaffected by heat treatment up to 40 degrees C in PSII membranes and up to 42.5 degrees C in thylakoids. Heat resistance of Cl(-)-induced activation of oxygen evolution was found to be independent of the presence of 'bound Cl(-)' in the preparations. However, the functional stability of the PSII complex during heat treatment showed a marked dependence on the presence of bound Cl(-) in PSII. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of manganese (Mn) release per reaction center/Y (D) (+) showed that there was little loss of Mn(2+) up to 42 degrees C in our preparations, although the PSII activity was significantly lowered. These observations together with data from steady state chlorophyll a fluorescence imply that the site of action of Cl(-) causing direct activation of oxygen evolution was different from the site of primary heat damage. A differential response of chloride binding sites to heat stress was observed. The high-affinity (tightly bound, slow exchanging) site of chloride is affected earlier ( approximately 37 degrees C) while low-affinity (loosely bound, fast exchanging) site gets affected at higher temperatures (42.5 degrees C in thylakoids and 40 degrees C in the case of PSII-enriched membranes). PMID:17340213

Tiwari, Arjun; Jajoo, Anjana; Bharti, Sudhakar; Mohanty, Prasanna

2007-01-01

343

The influence of temperature and salinity on the structure and function of mitochondria in chloride cells in the skin of the larvae of the turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six separate groups of the larvae of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from the same brood stock were incubated in three salinities (24, 34 and 44 ppt) and at three temperatures (12, 15 and 17C). Relative levels in mitochondrial protein and mitochondrial membrane potentials in the cutaneous chloride cells of these larvae were then measured by confocal microscopy, as changes in

Peter Tytler; Jacqueline Ireland

1995-01-01

344

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31

345

Transtubular electrochemical potentials of sodium and chloride in proximal and distal renal tubules of rats during antidiuresis and water diuresis (diabetes insipidus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropuncture studies on rats and guinea pigs have demonstrated that approximately '70 \\/0 of the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule 7,19. During the course of this reabsorption, the tubular cont, ents rem~in isotonie to plasmaS,la,19, 23, and the sodium concentration in both fluids is usually identica113, 20. It has been shown, however, that sodium reabsorption proceeds

Michael Kashgarian; Hartmut Stckle; Carl W. Gottschalk; Karl J. Ullrich; Gerhard Rumrich

1963-01-01

346

Evaluation of Sodium Bicarbonate, Chloride, or Sulfate with a Coccidiostat in Corn-Soy or Corn-Soy-Meat Diets for Broiler Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period from January to June, combined-sex broiler chickens were inoculated with coc- cidia via drinking water at 14 d of age. In a completely randomized design (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) using built-up litter, experimental diets contained monensin plus 0.20% dietary sodium bicarbonate (SBC), which provided 0.054% sodium and 0.144% bicarbonate. Treatment with SBC significantly improved

D. M. HOOGE; K. R. CUMMINGS; J. L. McNAUGHTON

347

A Novel Flexible Room Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on SnO2 Doped Poly-Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride  

PubMed Central

A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

348

Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 80-100 km altitude region, free sodium atoms are abundant enough to allow the probing of the Doppler-widened hyperfine structure (hfs) of the D2 resonance transition by ground-based lidar and hence to deduce atmospheric temperatures. The dependence of the observed shape of the hfs on the temperature, on geographic location and on polarization of the lidar, on differential extinction,

K. H. Fricke; U. von Zahn

1985-01-01

349

Galvanic currents and corrosion rates of reinforcements measured in cells simulating different pitting areas caused by chloride attack in sodium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorides induce localized corrosion in the reinforcement. The pits formed a substantial reduction in the cross-sectional area. The smaller is the ratio between the size of the corrosion spot and the surrounding passive metal area acting as cathode, the higher is the corrosion rate or the progression in the pit depth. This, however, is not always the case. To understand

C. Andrade; P. Garcs; I. Martnez

2008-01-01

350

Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.  

PubMed

A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (15 or 25 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 32?g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (?30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 15 to 25?g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect. PMID:22029789

Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

2011-10-01

351

Interaction of hydrogen chloride with alumina. [influence of outgas and temperature conditions on adsorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of outgas conditions and temperature on the adsorptive properties of two aluminas Alon-c and Al6sG were studied using adsorption isotherm measurements. Alon-C and Al6SG were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET nitrogen surface areas. Some of these techniques were applied to two other aluminas but no isotherm data was obtained. Isotherm data and techniques applied to each alumina are summarized in tabular form.

Bailey, R. R.; Wightman, J. P.

1975-01-01

352

Growth of (NaxKy)FezSe2 crystals by chlorides flux at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(NaxKy)FezSe2 crystals are prepared by Na, Fe, and Se as starting materials in NaCl/KCl flux at low temperatures~720 C. It is found that K is more preferred than Na to enter in between FeSe layers and forms the phase. Thus-obtained crystals contain more superconducting phase in volume fraction and exhibit new features in transport property. Our results provide a promising new synthetic route for preparing quality crystals of iron selenide superconductors.

Wang, Gang; Ying, Tianping; Huang, Yaobo; Jin, Shifeng; Yan, Lei; Ding, Hong; Chen, Xiaolong

2014-11-01

353

Reaction of chlorine nitrate with hydrogen chloride and water at Antarctic stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) with H2O and HCl on surfacers that simulate polar stratospheric clouds are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The gaseous products of the resulting reactions, HOCl, Cl2O, and Cl2, could readily photolyze in the Antarctic spring to produce active chlorine for ozone depletion. Furthermore, the additional formation of condensed-phase HNO3 could serve as a sink for odd nitrogen species that would otherwise scavenge the active chlorine.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

1987-01-01

354

Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A. [and others

1995-11-01

355

Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant  

SciTech Connect

High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization.

Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.

2003-04-16

356

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc . 2004:79(8);1065-1069. ... Zero efficacy with cesium chloride self-treatment for brain cancer. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1588. Sartori HE. ...

357

Efferent renal nerve activity during intracarotid and intracerebroventricular infusions of hypertonic sodium chloride solutions and isotonic volume expansion in the rat.  

PubMed

The change in renal nerve activity under conditions known to increase renal sodium excretion was studied. In adult Sprague Dawley rats, anaesthetized with Inactin, normotonic and hypertonic NaCl solutions were infused into 1) a vein, 2) a carotid artery and 3) the third ventricle. The left kidney was freed and placed in a plastic cup. A renal nerve was dissected free and placed on a stainless bipolar electrode. The nerve was cut distal to the electrode. The nerve signals were amplified and recorded on a tape recorder. Simultaneously integrated nerve signals and also atrial and venous pressures were recorded. Intracarotid infusion of a 1 M NaCl solution increased sodium output and temporarily decreased renal nerve activity by some 35%. Corresponding intravenous (i.v.) infusion gave an increase in renal nerve activity and also in sodium output. The latter increase was delayed compared with that caused by the intracarotid infusion. No variations in blood pressure were noted. In control experiments with a slow i.v. infusion of physiological saline, renal nerve activity increased throughout the experiment, while sodium excretion remained constant. During infusion of a 1 M NaCl solution into the third ventricle, renal nerve activity decreased in about half of the cases. This reduction was often accompanied by an increased arterial blood pressure and an increased sodium output. Arterial blood pressure increases were especially pronounced at the highest infusion rats, i.e. 800 ml-min-1. Isotonic volume expansion of 2% of the body weight resulted in a transient decrease in renal nerve activity by about 30%. Venous blood pressure rose and sodium output increased six-fold. The decrease in nerve activity was observed both when the vagal nerves were intact and when they were cut. PMID:7136749

Ericson, A C; Sjquist, M

1982-01-01

358

Guidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day. Almost one-fourth of that  

E-print Network

or is added when foods are made or processed. Salt is sodium chloride. All of us should be aware of the amount substitutes. Table salt is sodium chloride. Many times salt substitutes are potassium chloride. AnyoneGuidelines for a Low Sodium Diet Many of us eat about 3500 milligrams (mg) of sodium every day

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

359

Temperature dependencies of the Henry's law constant and the aqueous phase dissociation constant of bromine chloride  

SciTech Connect

Modeling ozone depletion observed in the Arctic troposphere requires mass transport of halogen species between the aqueous and the gas phases, which is proportional to its Henry's Law constant (H{sub x}). UV measurements are made in both the aqueous and gas phases to determine the solubility (H{sub BrCl} = [BrCl(aq)]/[BrCl(g)]RT) of BrCl (279--299 K). The gas-phase absorbance spectrum (330--450 nm, 1 nm intervals) is fit for [BrCl(g)], [Br{sub 2}(g)], and [Cl{sub 2}(g)], while the absorbance value at 343 nm is used to determine [BrCl(aq)] (and [BrCl{sub 2}{sup {minus}}]). Dissociation (K{sub aq} = [Br{sub 2}(aq)][Cl{sub 2}(aq)]/[BrCl(aq)]{sup 2}) data are obtained from K{sub aq} = H{sub Cl2}H{sub Br2}K{sub g}/H{sub BrCl}{sup 2} where H{sub Cl2}, H{sub Br2}, and K{sub g} have analogous definitions to H{sub BrCl} and K{sub aq}. Comparison of Henry's Law constants in Table 2 reveals that the order of solubility at 298.2 is BrCl > Br{sub 2} {much{underscore}gt} Cl{sub 2}. At temperatures relevant to the Arctic, BrCl is much more soluble than Br{sub 2} because of differences in {Delta}H{degree}. Consequently, the relative flux of BrCl from the aqueous to the gas phase should not be as large as that of Br{sub 2}. Comparison of dissociation constants in Table 2 reveals the relatively high degree of association of BrCl with H{sub 2}O molecules in the aqueous phase.

Bartlett, W.P.; Margerum, D.W.

1999-10-01

360

Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-07-01

361

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

362

A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W. [Rapidly Solidified Materials Research Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-08-01

363

Dietary chloride as a possible determinant of the severity of exercise-induced asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) has been shown to alter the severity of exercise-induced asthma, but it is not known if the\\u000a sodium and chloride ions have independent effects in this regard. The hypothesis tested in the present study was that both\\u000a a low sodium, low chloride diet and a high sodium, low chloride diet would improve post-exercise pulmonary function

T. D. Mickleborough; R. W. Gotshall; E. M. Kluka; C. W. Miller; L Cordain

2001-01-01

364

A room temperature beta-alumina primary cell employing sodium\\/potassium alloy as anodic reactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of sodium\\/potassium alloy as anodic reactant in a beta-alumina primary cell was studied to determine if the alloy provides better performance than does sodium amalgam. The battery contains CrO3 and graphite, and measurements of the open circuit voltage (3.75 V at 20 C) and of the p.d. on 10 kiloohms (2.60 V) indicates a nominal cathode composition C14CrO3.

J. Turner; A. F. Povey

1978-01-01

365

Chloride transport by intact rat liver and cultured rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Chloride is the predominant inorganic anion in bile, and it has been proposed that active chloride transport, possibly via a sodium-coupled mechanism, may contribute to that portion of canalicular bile formation not directly related to bile acid transport (bile acid-dependent bile formation or BAIBF). We have therefore examined the anion specificity of BAIBF using the isolated perfused rat liver and have studied sodium-chloride flux coupling and the sodium dependence of intracellular chloride content using 22Na and 36Cl transport by cultured rat hepatocytes. BAIBF by the isolated rat liver was unaltered by replacement of chloride with nitrate or benzenesulfonate but was significantly reduced by replacement of chloride with sulfate or thiocyanate. In cultured hepatocytes, sodium entry rate was reduced when chloride in the incubation medium was replaced by cyclamate, benzenesulfonate, or sulfate and mannitol but was unaffected when chloride was replaced by nitrate, gluconate, or thiocyanate. Conversely, chloride entry rate was decreased when sodium was replaced with choline but was unaffected when sodium was replaced by lithium or when ouabain was added to the medium. Thus no consistent evidence of sodium-chloride flux coupling was observed. Steady-state exchangeable intracellular chloride in the cultured hepatocytes was unaffected by ouabain or by replacement of sodium with choline and was increased when sodium was replaced by lithium. These findings indicate that basal BAIBF exhibits no specific chloride requirement. Although they do not exclude the possible existence in rat liver of sodium-coupled chloride transport, they provide no evidence that such a mechanism accounts for a major portion either of chloride transport by individual rat hepatocytes or of basal BAIBF by intact rat liver. PMID:7091336

Scharschmidt, B F; Van Dyke, R W; Stephens, J E

1982-06-01

366

Bleaching with sodium hypochlorite: Interactions of temperature, time, pH and concentration with stain removal and fabric strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to recent concern for energy conservation while launder-ing at lowered temperatures, this study investigated stain\\u000a removal and fabric degradation effects of sodium hypochlorite bleach on stained cotton fabrics. Blue and green reflectance\\u000a readings were used to calculate both whiteness values and percentage of stain removal values, while tensile strength measurements\\u000a were used to determine fabric degradation. An acceptable

L. Palmer Simpson; C. Riggs

1983-01-01

367

Watching the world sweat: Development and utilization of an in-situ conductivity sensor for monitoring chloride dynamics in high temperature hydrothermal fluids at divergent plate boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magmatic upwelling that drives plate tectonic motion at divergent plate boundaries also heats seawater circulating within the Earth's crust. The seawater undergoes physical and chemical changes beneath the surface and the resulting buoyant hydrothermal fluid ascends to the seafloor where it is comes out of structures called hydrothermal vents. One subsurface process of particular interest is phase separation, which is the transformation of a homogenous fluid into two phases, each with properties different from the original fluid. Phase separation is the dominant control on chloride in hydrothermal systems and chloride controls the distribution of all other chemical species. Thus, the measurement of chloride in hydrothermal fluids gives insight into extreme subsurface processes that are inherently difficult to probe. Since these processes evolve with time, measurements must be taken on a continuous basis. The research presented herein discusses the development and utilization of an instrument capable of continuously monitoring the hot salty solutions that flow out of hydrothermal pores in the Earth's crust. Instruments were deployed at two different mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. An array of instruments was deployed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge at the Main Endeavour Field 12-15 months after a magmatic intrusion. Tidal changes and non-tidal changes on timescales of minutes to hours were observed. Chloride data were also used to infer subsurface mixing between two non-seawater fluids at depths below the seafloor between 486 and 695 meters. Another instrument was deployed at Bio 9' vent at 950'N on the East Pacific Rise in the immediate vicinity of seismometers monitoring earthquake activity. The hydrothermal response to intense seismicity was observed on two separate occasions. On the basis of these observations, conditions of subsurface phase separation were estimated at pressures between 269 and 288 bars and temperatures between 369.7 and 403.5C. Recurrent chloride spikes were also observed, with magnitudes up to 720 mmol/kg and durations up to 7 minutes. At both study sites, data indicate the influence of subsurface fluids with chloride concentrations greater than seawater. These observations may help resolve the apparent chloride deficit indicated by venting of chloride-depleted fluids over decadal timescales.

Larson, Benjamin Isaac

368

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2012-04-01

369

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2014-04-01

370

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2010-04-01

371

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2011-04-01

372

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed....

2013-04-01

373

Temperature influence on the voltage-controlled diffractive property of Mn-doped potassium sodium tantalate niobate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the temperature influence on the voltage-controlled diffractive property of Mn-doped potassium sodium tantalate niobate crystal. The crystal was grown by the top seeded solution growth method. Its quadratic electro-optic coefficients achieved as high as R11 = 3.50 10-15 m2/V2 and R12 = -0.44 10-15 m2/V2 near the Curie temperature, while they declined with the increasing temperature. The external electric field which correspond to the maximum diffraction efficiency of photorefractive grating moved from 166 V/mm to 512 V/mm as the temperature increased from 25 C to 32.5 C. The maximum diffraction efficiencies all reached the maximum value of 60% at different temperatures. The results were discussed and compared with the theoretical equations.

Tian, Hao; Jia, Jieshu; Cui, Xuan; Yao, Bo; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Chen, Deying

2013-10-01

374

Sodium-sulfur thermal battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a sodium-sulfur thermal battery for generating electrical energy at temperatures above the melting point of sodium metal and sulfur. It comprises a sodium electrode comprising sodium metal; a sulfur electrode comprising sulfur; and a separator located between the sodium and sulfur electrodes. The separator having sufficient porosity to allow preliminary migration of fluid sodium metal and fluid

Ludwig

1990-01-01

375

Temperature dependence and anharmonicity of the Debye-Waller factor in sodium metal using Moessbauer. gamma. -ray diffraction  

SciTech Connect

The Debye-Waller factor of sodium has been measured as a function of temperature from 80 to 295 K using Moessbauer ..gamma..-ray scattering. The high energy resolution provided by this technique allowed experimental separation of the elastic scattering from the inelastic thermal diffuse scattering. The results were compared with the harmonic model using integrations over dispersion curves from the neutron-scattering measurements of Woods et al. and the lattice-dynamics calculations of Glyde and Taylor. The Debye-Waller exponent was shown to exceed the harmonic prediction by 23% at room temperature. This difference is attributed to anharmonic terms in the interatomic potential.

Crow, M.L.; Schupp, G.; Yelon, W.B.; Mullen, J.G.; Djedid, A.

1989-01-15

376

Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

2012-07-01

377

Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of ManzanillaAlorea table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite

R. Echevarria; J. Bautista-Gallego; F. N. Arroyo-Lpez; A. Garrido-Fernndez

2010-01-01

378

Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (15 or 25?g\\/kg), phytate-P (0 or 32?g\\/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU\\/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method.2. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (?30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous

A. J. Cowieson; M. R. Bedford; V. Ravindran; P. H. Selle

2011-01-01

379

Standpipe-bubbler pump level-control study sodium temperature distribution (task B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermal analysis was performed to establish requirements for a heating system for the standpipe bubbler sufficient to maintain the sodium in the standpipe in a liquid condition over the range of operating conditions. There are very few formal requirements on operating limits or hardware selection. Therefore, consideration was given to standard types of equipment employed in a conventional manner.

1976-01-01

380

Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often in several oxidation states, and chlorides generally are among the  

E-print Network

Chlorides Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often of the elements: for chlorides of transition metals, elevated temperatures are usually necessary in dry conditions Most chlorides are soluble in water. Mercury(I) chloride, Hg2Cl2, silver chloride, AgCl, lead chloride

Csonka, Gábor István

381

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

382

A relationship between the occurrence of sporadic sodium layers and temperatures over Hefei (31.8N, 117.3E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sporadic sodium layer is a narrow layer in which a sudden increase of sodium (Na) is occurring. The mechanism of sporadic sodium layers(SSLs) is unclear although several theories have been proposed. In our study, we compare the sodium density data of the Rayleigh-Sodium fluorescence lidar system of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) at Hefei, China (31.8N,117.3E) with the temperature data of the SABER satellite. We find that there is a strong correlation between the occurrence of sporadic sodium layers and low temperatures below 150K generally two or three days before the SSLs. A few hours before the an SSL event there is always an unusual heating process detected at the altitude where the SSL occurs. From Jan 2006 to Dec 2009, 29 typical SSL events are clearly identified , 22 of which occur following low temperatures below 150K and another 6 of which have no temperature data over night. We also present a new possible mechanism of SSLs called the low-and-high temperature model: in the altitude between 95~100km, the sodium bicarbonate clusters are absorbed by the cold vapour particles for nucleation and the ice grains also adsorb sodium atoms as a thin metal film, then the heavy ice grains sink to down altitudes near 93km. When the temperature is high enough the ice grains vapour, and the NaHCO3 break down to Na to create a sudden increase of the sodium layer.

Qiu, S.; Dou, X.

2011-12-01

383

Monitoring chloride concentrations in hardened cement pastes using ion selective electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper (1) it has been shown that silver\\/silver chloride ion selective electrodes are stable in a simulated pore solution and that the potential of these electrodes is a function of chloride ion activity. This has now been compared with chloride concentrations in the pore water, found using a pressure extraction technique, with chlorides added as sodium chloride

C. P. Atkins; J. D. Scantlebury; P. J. Nedwell; S. P. Blatch

1996-01-01

384

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

385

Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 ?L) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

2013-10-01

386

Phase stability and structural temperature dependence in sodium niobate: A high-resolution powder neutron diffraction study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an investigation of structural phase transitions in the technologically important material sodium niobate as a function of temperature on heating over 300-1075 K. Our high-resolution powder neutron diffraction data show a variety of structural phase transitions ranging from nonpolar antiferrodistortive to ferroelectric and antiferroelectric in nature. A discontinuous jump in lattice parameters is found only at about 680 K. This observation along with the reported thermal hysteresis in the dielectric anomaly indicate that the transition of the orthorhombic P to R phase is first order in nature, while other successive phase transitions are of second order. Additional superlattice reflections appear at 680 K (R phase) and 770 K (S phase) that could be indexed using an intermediate long-period modulated orthorhombic structure whose lattice parameter along the <001> direction is three and six times, respectively, that of the CaTiO3-like Pbnm structure. The correlation of superlattice reflections with the phonon instability is discussed. The critical exponent (?) for the second-order tetragonal to cubic phase transition at about 950 K corresponds to a value ??1/3, as obtained from the temperature variation of order parameters (tilt angle and intensity of superlattice reflections). It is argued that this exponent is due to a second-order phase transition close to a tricritical point. Based on our detailed temperature-dependent neutron diffraction studies, a phase diagram of sodium niobate is presented that resolves existing ambiguities in the literature.

Mishra, S. K.; Mittal, R.; Pomjakushin, V. Yu.; Chaplot, S. L.

2011-04-01

387

Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mercury using sodium tetrahydroborate reduction and collection on gold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium tetrahydroborate(III) is equivalent to or better than tin(II) chloride as a reducing agent for mercury in cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry using collection on gold. Concentrations of copper, silver, nickel, iodide, antimony, arsenic, bismuth and selenium typically found in water or waste water do not interfere. Prerequirements for satisfactory performance are that the gold is at a temperature below

Bernhard Welz; Marianne Schubert-Jacobs

1988-01-01

388

An experimental investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on talc solubility and complexing of aqueous magnesium in supercritical hydrothermal fluids  

E-print Network

28 29 30 30 INTRODUCTION The fluid phases involved in high pressure and temperature metasomatic and hydrothermal processes are chemically complex aqueous solutions, many of which occur in the supercritical region. If these processes... 28 29 30 30 INTRODUCTION The fluid phases involved in high pressure and temperature metasomatic and hydrothermal processes are chemically complex aqueous solutions, many of which occur in the supercritical region. If these processes...

Grabman, Kenneth Bryan

2012-06-07

389

The use of sodium and/or potassium lactate to extend shelf-life and reduce sodium levels in precooked beef systems  

E-print Network

% KL; 1. 6% NaL/2. 4% KL; . 8% NaL/3. 2% KL; and 4. 0% KL). The final product contained . 5% sodium chloride and . 3% sodium tripolyphosphate. Rounds were cooked (63'C) and stored for 0, 28, 56, and 84 days. TBA, pH, sodium and potassium..., ABSTRACT DEDICATION. . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS. LIS T OF TAB LES . . LIST OF FIGURES. . INTRODUCTION, LITERATURE REVIEW. Sodium Chloride. Potassium Chloride Lactic Acid. . Sodium Lactate. Potassium Lactate...

Pagach, Denise Ann

2012-06-07

390

Thermodynamics and cell chemistry of room temperature sodium/sulfur cells with liquid and liquid/solid electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell chemistry of sodium/sulfur cells operating at room temperature (RT-Na/S cells) is being studied electrochemically and structurally. We show by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that the cell reaction is incomplete but prove that the end members of the cell reaction (S and Na2S) form among the expected polysulfide species Na2Sx. The sulfur utilization can be improved by employing a solid electrolyte membrane (beta?-alumina) that prevents the diffusion of the soluble polysulfide species toward the sodium side. As an important finding, the Na+ conduction within the solid electrolyte phase and across the two liquid/solid interfaces results in only small overpotentials. Nevertheless the utilization of sulfur in the present RT-Na/S (475 mAh g-1) cells is lower than the theoretical value (1675 mAh g-1). One probable reason is the chemical instability of the widely used PVDF binder. Also, the thermodynamic properties of RT-Na/S cells operating at room temperature are discussed and compared with the currently much more studied RT-Li/S cells.

Wenzel, Sebastian; Metelmann, Hauke; Rai, Christine; Drr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jrgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-12-01

391

Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.  

PubMed

The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress. PMID:15833625

Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Vronique; Zanni, Hlne; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

2005-02-01

392

Thermodynamic properties of aqueous-alcoholic solutions of sodium chloride. H2O-2-C3H7OH-NaCl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-concentration dependences of the NaCl activity coefficient in aqueous solutions of isopropanol (propanol-2) at temperatures of 298.15 and 323.15 K (solution ionic force, 0.01 to 3 m; alcohol content, 10-60 wt %) were determined through the electromotive force method with an ion-selective electrode. A Pitzer model was used to mathematically describe the thermodynamic properties. The integral Gibbs energy of the solution formation of the H2O-2-C3H7OH-NaCl ternary system was performed according to Darken's method. The dissociation degree of salt in the investigated solutions was estimated using the literature data on the association constant of NaCl in aqueous-isopropanol solution.

Veryaeva, E. S.; Konstantinova, N. M.; Mamontov, M. N.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2010-11-01

393

Ionic Liquid Electrolytes with Various Sodium Solutes for Rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 Batteries Operated at Elevated Temperatures.  

PubMed

NaFePO4 with an olivine structure is synthesized via chemical delithiation of LiFePO4 followed by electrochemical sodiation of FePO4. Butylmethylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with various sodium solutes, namely NaBF4, NaClO4, NaPF6, and NaN(CN)2, is used as an electrolyte for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 cells. The IL electrolytes show high thermal stability (>350 C) and nonflammability, and are thus ideal for high-safety applications. The highest conductivity and the lowest viscosity of the electrolyte are obtained with NaBF4. At an elevated temperature (above 50 C), the IL electrolyte is more suitable than a conventional organic electrolyte for the sodium cell. At 75 C, the measured capacity of NaFePO4 in a NaBF4-incorporated IL electrolyte is as high as 152 mAh g(-1) (at 0.05 C), which is near the theoretical value (154 mAh g(-1)). Moreover, 60% of this capacity can be retained when the charge-discharge rate is increased to 1 C. PMID:25295391

Wongittharom, Nithinai; Wang, Chueh-Han; Wang, Yi-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

2014-10-22

394

Piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid and (4-phosphono-piperazin-1-yl) phosphonic acid: A new class of iron corrosion inhibitors in sodium chloride 3% media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibiting effect of the piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid (PPA) and (4-phosphono-piperazin-1-yl) phosphonic acid (PPPA) on the behavior of iron in 3% NaCl media has been examined by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal the fact that the addition of increasing concentrations of phosphonic acids moves the corrosion potential towards negative values and reduces the corrosion rate. In uninhibited and inhibited solutions, the increasing of temperature reduces the inhibition efficiency. Changes in impedance parameters ( Rt and Cdl) are indicative of adsorption of PPA and PPPA on the metal surface leading to the formation of protective films. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the presence of PPA and PPPA increases the inhibition efficiency by decreasing the corrosion rate. The results obtained by corrosion weight loss tests reveal that adsorption of compounds tested on the ARMCO iron surface obeys to Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Amar, H.; Benzakour, J.; Derja, A.; Villemin, D.; Moreau, B.; Braisaz, T.

2006-07-01

395

A high-energy room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery.  

PubMed

Employing small sulfur molecules as the active cathode component for room-temperature Na-S batteries, reveals a novel mechanism that is verified for the batteries' electrochemistry. The sulfur cathode enables a complete two-electron reaction to form Na2 S, bringing a tripled specific capacity and an increased specific energy compared with traditional high-temperature Na-S batteries. At the same time, it offers better cycling stability endowing the batteries with a longer lifespan. PMID:24338949

Xin, Sen; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

2014-02-26

396

Sodium-immersed self-cooled electromagnetic pump design and development of a large-scale coil for high temperature  

SciTech Connect

A sodium-immersed, self-cooled electromagnetic (EM) pump was recently studied as a prospective innovative technology to simplify a fast breeder reactor plant system. The EM pump for a primary pump, a pump type, was designed, and the structural concept and the system performance were clarified. For the flow control method, a constant voltage/frequency method was preferable from the point of view of pump performance and efficiency. The insulation life was tested on a large-scale coil at high temperature as part of the development of a large-capacity EM pump. Mechanical and electrical damage were not observed, and the insulation performance was quite good. The insulation system could also be applied to large-scale coils.

Oto, Akihiro [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Naohara, Nobuyuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Ishida, Masayoshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan). Yokosuka Research Laboratory; Kuroki, Toshitaka [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Katsuki, Kenji; Kumazawa, Ryouji [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1995-05-01

397

The electrochemical behaviors of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn in sodium chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn electrodes in 0.7 mol L-1 NaCl solution are investigated by methods of potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic oxidation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The phase composition of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn alloys is analyzed conducted by X-ray diffraction. The performances of Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn and Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn as the anode of Mg-H2O2 semi fuel cells are determined. The effect of Zn content on the corrosion resistant of these Mg-Li-based alloys is studied. It is found that the Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn electrode has higher discharge activity and less corrosion resistance than that of Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn electrode in 0.7 mol L-1 NaCl solution. The Mg-H2O2 semi fuel cell with Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn anode presents a maximum power density of 100 mW cm-2 at room temperature, which is higher than that of Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn anode (80 mW cm-2). The performance of semi fuel cell with the Mg-8Li-3Al-0.5Zn electrode is better than that with Mg-8Li-3Al-1.0Zn electrode, especially at higher current density (>30 mA cm-2).

Lv, Yanzhuo; Liu, Min; Xu, Yan; Cao, Dianxue; Feng, Jing

2013-03-01

398

XPS of fast-frozen hematite colloids in NaCl aqueous solutions: I. Evidence for the formation of multiple layers of hydrated sodium and chloride ions induced by the {001} basal plane  

SciTech Connect

The influence of the {001} basal plane of hematite on the composition of fast-frozen centrifuged wet pastes of hematite prepared at pH 4 and 9 and at ionic strengths of 0, 10 and 100 mM NaCl was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two hematite preparations consisted of micrometer-sized platelets with 42% (HEM-1) and 95% (HEM-8) of the surface terminated by the {001} basal plane. A third preparation of spherical shape with no recognizable crystal plane (HEM-control) was used as a control to these experiments. All hematite samples responded to changes in pH and ionic strength, showing that acid/base reactions of surface hydroxyl groups control the composition of the paste. The HEM-1 and HEM-8 sample exhibited divergent properties at the highest ionic strength (100 mM) with energy loss features in the Na 1s and Cl 2p spectra and an important water content. As the spectra were typical of hydrated Na+ and Cl- ions and that the surface concentrations were unusually large, the HEM-1 and HEM-8 samples are proposed to induce the formation of a three-dimensional distribution of these ions in the paste. The sodium, chloride and water content was also correlated to the fraction of the {001} basal plane present in the sample and provided evidence for an approximate stochiometric Na:Cl:H2O ratio of 1:1:2. The {001} basal plane of hematite is consequently proposeD to be the cause of this feature.

Shchukarev, Andrei; Boily, Jean F.; Felmy, Andrew R.

2007-12-13

399

Effects of sodium and temperature on naloxone binding in brain tissues of a urodele amphibian.  

PubMed

1. Partially purified brain membranes obtained from male rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) were used to determine the effects of NaCl and temperature on the specific binding of the opioid receptor antagonist [3H]naloxone. 2. The addition of NaCl to the incubation medium at concentrations up to 400 mM produced a dose-related increase of the specific binding of [3H]naloxone. 3. The addition of other salts to the incubation medium had less pronounced effects: KCl and MgCl2 slightly increased and decreased, respectively, the specific binding of naloxone, and CaCl2 had no effect. 4. Results of an equilibrium saturation experiment showed that the addition of 200 mM NaCl resulted in over a 10-fold increase in the number of high affinity (KD = 0.61 nM) binding sites for naloxone, with no changes in the number of low affinity (KD = 21.8 nM) binding sites. 5. Changes in NaCl concentrations did not significantly affect either dissociation constant. 6. The binding of [3H]naloxone was temperature-dependent; it increased when the incubation temperatures were elevated from 0 degree C to 37 degrees C. 7. Results obtained for this urodele amphibian are compared with those available for other vertebrate species. PMID:1980449

Deviche, P; Murray, T F; Moore, F L

1990-01-01

400

Chemical modification of poly (vinyl chloride) sheet with thiourea for cell study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) has been used as biomaterial to make medical equipment. An appropriate reaction situation by temperature at 60-85C for the surface modification of PVC sheet with sodium thiourea has been investigated. Although, the use of a phase-transfer catalyst (Tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate-TBHAS) makes it feasible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to take place, the morphology of the film is changed by the reaction, leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film. According to this study, the reaction with sodium thiourea occurs consistently through the sheets, and modified surface have antibacterial capacity.

Monika, Mishra, R. R.; Jaiswal, S.; Kapusetti, G.; Misra, N.

2013-06-01

401

Gustatory adaptation to saliva and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human NaCl thesholds were measured under 2 conditions: (a) salivary influence excluded by rinse with distilled water or 1 of 3 weak concentrations of NaCl between stimulations, and (b) salivary influence maximized by using no rinse. Adaptation to distilled water yielded a median threshold for 4 Ss of .00014 M vs. .0043 M for adaptation to saliva. The latter value

Donald H. McBurney; Carl Pfaffmann

1963-01-01

402

Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements of the osmotic and activity coefficients, the enthalpy, and the heat capacity were used to derive a semiempirical equation for the thermodynamic properties of NaCl(aq) at constant pressure. This equation may be combined with results contained in the previous paper on the volumetric properties to yield a complete equation of state valid in the region 273 K?T?573 K,

Kenneth S. Pitzer; J. Christopher Peiper; R. H. Busey

1984-01-01

403

USE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN GRANULAR BASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this work is to study the mechanical properties of granular bases added with NaCl. After conventional characterization tests, including Atterberg limits and grain size distribution, compaction tests were carried out to find optimal water contents and maximum dry densities. Finally, by use of mechanical tests such as CBR, non-confined compression and diametral compression tests, strength differences between

Oscar Javier; Reyes Ortiz; Javier Fernando; Camacho Tauta; Juan Ricardo Troncoso Rivera

404

Behavior of bromide, chloride, and phosphate during low-temperature aqueous Fe(II) oxidation processes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

behaviors of bromide, chloride, and phosphate were studied experimentally under previously proposed Martian diagenetic conditions, involving jarosite (KFe3(OH)6(SO4)2), goethite (?-FeOOH), and hematite (?-Fe2O3). Experiments evaluated (1) the behavior of Cl-/Br- with and without aqueous phosphate during oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+, (2) the stability of halogen-bearing jarosite, and (3) the uptake of Cl-, Br-, H2PO4-, and SO42- by halogen-free-hematite, -goethite, and -jarosite through adsorption. Our results demonstrate that when precipitated from a solution, in which Cl- is higher than Br-, jarosite preferentially incorporated at least an order of magnitude more Br- than Cl-. Such enrichment of Br- over Cl- in the solids compared to initial solutions suggests that jarosite could be a host for elevated Br on the Martian surface, and the fluids from which jarosite forms could be depleted in Br- with respect to Cl-. Moreover, the incorporation of halogens in jarosite would affect its stability during aqueous alteration, and the dissolution rates of four types of jarosite at both 25C and 70C were in the same order: Br,Cl bearing > Br only > halogen free > Cl only. In addition, competitive adsorption of Cl-, Br-, SO42-, and H2PO4- on halogen-free-hematite, -goethite, and -jarosite demonstrates that in a sulfate-dominant aqueous system, Cl-, Br-, and H2PO4- could not compete with SO42-. This observation suggests that the adsorption may not result in an enrichment of phosphate or halogens in Fe oxides in a sulfate-dominant aqueous system like Meridiani Planum, consistent with the absence of significant correlations of Cl and P with nanoparticle Fe oxides found in Martian soils.

Zhao, Yu-Yan Sara; McLennan, Scott M.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

2014-05-01

405

Temperature-pressure profile of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b from HST sodium observations: detection of upper atmospheric heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present transmission spectra of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The spectra cover the wavelength range 5808-6380 with a resolving power of R= 5000. We detect absorption from the Na I doublet within the exoplanet's atmosphere at the 9? confidence level within a 5 band (absorption depth 0.09 0.01 per cent) and use the data to measure the doublet's spectral absorption profile. We detect only the narrow cores of the doublet. The narrowness of the feature could be due to an obscuring high-altitude haze of an unknown composition or a significantly sub-solar Na I abundance hiding the line wings beneath an H2 Rayleigh signature. These observations are consistent with previous broad-band spectroscopy from Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and STIS, where a featureless spectrum was seen. We also investigate the effects of starspots on the Na I line profile, finding that their impact is minimal and within errors in the sodium feature. We compare the spectral absorption profile over 5.5 scale heights with model spectral absorption profiles and constrain the temperature at different atmospheric regions, allowing us to construct a vertical temperature profile. We identify two temperature regimes: a 1280 240 K region derived from the Na I doublet line wings corresponding to altitudes below 500 km, and a 2800 400 K region derived from the Na I doublet line cores corresponding to altitudes from 500 to 4000 km. The zero altitude is defined by the white-light radius of RP/R?= 0.15628 0.00009. The temperature rises with altitude, which is likely evidence of a thermosphere. The absolute pressure scale depends on the species responsible for the Rayleigh signature and its abundance. We discuss a plausible scenario for this species, a high-altitude silicate haze and the atmospheric temperature-pressure profile that results. In this case, the high-altitude temperature rise for HD 189733b occurs at pressures of 10-5 to 10-8 bar.

Huitson, C. M.; Sing, D. K.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Ballester, G. E.; Lecavelier des Etangs, A.; Dsert, J.-M.; Pont, F.

2012-05-01

406

Mssbauer studies of frozen aqueous solutions of iron-II chloride in the temperature range 10K to 255K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mssbauer spectra were taken from thermally quenched solutions of 2 mole % FeCl2\\/H2O in small temperature steps from 10K to 255K. The Mssbauer data, especially the quadrupole splitting, show again the existence of three different phases, connected by irreversible transitions. The temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting delivers the field parameters of the crystalline field at the iron atom in

Wolfgang Neuwirth; Hans-Joachim Schrder

1976-01-01

407

Thermodynamic properties of surfactant sodium n-heptyl sulfonate in water and in aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene glycol) at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volumetric, compressibility and electrical conductivity properties of sodium n-heptyl sulfonate (C7SO3Na) in pure water and in aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) solutions were determined at different temperatures below and above the micellar composition range. At each temperature, the infinite dilution apparent molar volumes of the monomer and micellar state of C7SO3Na in aqueous PEG solutions respectively are smaller and larger

Rahmat Sadeghi; Rahim Hosseini

2009-01-01

408

Implications of Salt and Sodium Reduction on Microbial Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess sodium consumption has been cited as a primary cause of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Salt (sodium chloride) is considered the main source of sodium in the human diet, and it is estimated that processed foods and restaurant foods contribute 80% of the daily intake of sodium in most of the Western world. However, ample research demonstrates the efficacy of

Peter J. Taormina

2010-01-01

409

Solubility of sodium soaps in aqueous salt solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of sodium soaps in dilute aqueous salt solutions has been systematically investigated by direct visual phase behavior observations. The added electrolytes, including simple inorganic salts and bulky organic salts, influence the solubility of sodium soaps in water, as represented by the varied soap Krafft point. Two inorganic salts, sodium chloride and sodium perchlorate, demonstrate a salting-out property. On

Bin Lin; Alon V. McCormick; H. Ted Davis; Reinhard Strey

2005-01-01

410

A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes  

SciTech Connect

This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

2007-06-08

411

Effect of Sodium Metabisulphite and Storage Temperature on the Survival of Vibrio cholerae on Prawns ( Penaeus monodon )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium metabisulphite is traditionally used to control a non-microbiological spoilage symptom of prawns known as blackspot. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of sodium metabisulphite, at levels currently used to control blackspot, on the survival of V. cholerae on prawns during simulated commercial storage. Fresh prawns (Penaeus monodon) were divided into two batches, one of which was exposed

F. E. S. Janurio; G. A. Dykes

2005-01-01

412

Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect  

PubMed Central

Due to genetic defects in apical membrane chloride channels, the cystic fibrosis (CF) intestine does not secrete chloride normally. Depressed chloride secretion leaves CF intestinal absorptive processes unopposed, which results in net fluid hyperabsorption, dehydration of intestinal contents, and a propensity to inspissated intestinal obstruction. This theory is based primarily on in vitro studies of jejunal mucosa. To determine if CF patients actually hyperabsorb fluid in vivo, we measured electrolyte and water absorption during steady-state perfusion of the jejunum. As expected, chloride secretion was abnormally low in CF, but surprisingly, there was no net hyperabsorption of sodium or water during perfusion of a balanced electrolyte solution. This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption. Although Na+-glucose cotransport was normal in the CF jejunum, absence of passive chloride absorption completely blocked glucose-stimulated net sodium absorption and reduced glucose-stimulated water absorption 66%. This chloride absorptive abnormality acts in physiological opposition to the classic chloride secretory defect in the CF intestine. By increasing the fluidity of intraluminal contents, absence of passive chloride absorption may reduce the incidence and severity of intestinal disease in patients with CF. PMID:12840066

Russo, Michael A.; Hogenauer, Christoph; Coates, Stephen W.; Santa Ana, Carol A.; Porter, Jack L.; Rosenblatt, Randall L.; Emmett, Michael; Fordtran, John S.

2003-01-01

413

Temperature dependence of electric conductivity of molten binary mixtures of alkali and rare-earth metals chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature dependences of the specific and molar electric conductances of CeCl3-MCl and LnCl3-KCl (M=Li, Na, K, and Cs; Ln=Er and Yb) molten binary mixtures of various compositions were studied. The size of the cations\\u000a of alkali and rare-earth metals was demonstrated to affect the intensity of the interactions of the components of the systems.\\u000a Deviations of the molar conductance

A. V. Kovalevskii; V. I. Shishalov

2006-01-01

414

Heterogeneous interactions of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen chloride, and nitric acid with sulfuric acid surfaces at stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous interactions of ClONO2, HCl, and HNO3 with sulfuric acid surfaces were studied using a Knudsen cell flow reactor. The surfaces studied, chosen to simulate global stratospheric particulate, were composed of 65-75 percent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures in the range -63 to -43 C. Heterogeneous loss, but not reaction, of HNO3 and HCl occurred on these surfaces; the measured sticking coefficients are reported. Chlorine nitrate reacted on the cold sulfuric acid surfaces, producing gas-phase HOCl and condensed HNO3. CLONO2 also reacted with HCl dissolved in the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C, forming gaseous Cl2. In all cases studied, the sticking and/or reaction coefficients were much larger for the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C than for the 75-percent solution at -43 C.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Golden, David M.

1988-01-01

415

Stability of cefazolin sodium admixtures in plastic bags after thawing by microwave radiation  

SciTech Connect

The effect on antibiotic stability of thawing, with microwave radiation, cefazolin sodium admixtures frozen in polyvinyl chloride minibags was studied. Two brands of cefazolin sodium (Ancef and Kefzol) were reconstituted and placed in 50- and 100-, and 250-ml polyvinyl chloride minibags of 5% dextrose in water or 0.9% sodium chloride. The resulting solutions were assayed for antibiotic stability, using an agar disk diffusion technique, and for pH. The solutions were then stored at -20/sup 0/C for 48 hours, thawed to room temperature in a microwave oven, and kept at room temperature for four hours, after which they were reassayed for potency and pH. The results indicated that after the freeze-thaw process, the cefazolin sodium minibag admixtures retained at least 90% of their initial antimicrobial activity. The minimal pH changes could not be related to changes in antimicrobial activity, and no color changes could be detected visually. Using a microwave oven can greatly reduce thawing time of antibiotic admixtures. To maintain solution stability and prevent accidents, it is important to calibrate the oven, avoid solution overheating, and observe full precautions in oven operation.

Tomecko, G.W. Jr.; Kleinberg, M.L.; Latiolais, C.J.; Prior, R.B.; Pesko, L.J.; Jones, B.C.

1980-02-01

416

Effects of water vapor pretreatment time and reaction temperature on CO 2 capture characteristics of a sodium-based solid sorbent in a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 capture from flue gas using a sodium-based solid sorbent was investigated in a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor. Carbonation and regeneration temperature on CO2 removal was determined. The extent of the chemical reactivity after carbonation or regeneration was characterized via 13C NMR. In addition, the physical properties of the sorbent such as pore size, pore volume, and surface area after carbonation

Yongwon Seo; Sung-Ho Jo; Chong Kul Ryu; Chang-Keun Yi

2007-01-01

417

Regiospecific and highly stereoselective coupling of 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)purines with 2-deoxy-3,5-di-O-(p-toluoyl)-alpha-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl chloride. Sodium-salt glycosylation in binary solvent mixtures: improved synthesis of cladribine.  

PubMed

Glycosylation of 6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)purine sodium salts with 2-deoxy-3,5-di-O-(p-toluoyl)-alpha-D-erythro-pentofuranosyl chloride proceeds with regiospecific formation of the N9 isomers. Base substrates with lipophilic substituents on the C6-linked imidazole moiety are more soluble in organic solvents, and the solubility is further increased with binary solvent mixtures. Selective solvation also diminishes the extent of anomerization of the chlorosugar. Stirred reaction mixtures of the modified-purine sodium salts generated in a polar solvent and cooled solutions of the protected 2-deoxysugar chloride in a nonpolar solvent give 2'-deoxynucleoside derivatives with N9 regiochemistry and enhanced beta/alpha configuration ratios. Application of the binary-solvent methodology with 2-chloro-6-(substituted-imidazol-1-yl)purine salts in cold acetonitrile and the chlorosugar in cold dichloromethane gives essentially quantitative yields of the N9 isomers of beta-anomeric 2'-deoxynucleoside intermediates. Direct ammonolysis (NH(3)/MeOH) of such intermediates or benzylation of the imidazole ring followed by milder ammonolysis of the imidazolium salt gives high yields of the clinical anticancer drug cladribine (2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine). PMID:16995685

Zhong, Minghong; Nowak, Ireneusz; Robins, Morris J

2006-09-29

418

Study of chloridizing volatilization roasting of cinnabar as a basis for a process to obtain mercuric and mercurous chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the chloridizing volatilization reaction of concentrated cinnabar ore from Almadn, Spain in\\u000a an air atmosphere in order to obtain mercuric and mercurous chlorides in a single step. The chloridizing agents used were\\u000a ferric or aluminum chloride 6-hydrates. These chlorides decompose to HC1 at temperatures lower than required to break down\\u000a cinnabar. According to the

A. Roca; M. Cruells; C. Nez

1990-01-01

419

Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp  

E-print Network

brine immersion tank was direct addition of sodium bisulfite to the brine mixture at a concentration of 8. 75(I. Shrimp frozen in 23% sodium chloride with 8. 75% sodium bisulfite produced initial residual sulfur dioxide close to the maximum level..., sodium chloride and sodium bisulfite must be replenished on a regular basis. Background information for shrimp frozen in brine immersion tanks were obtained on the Ramona Cruz, IV a brine immersion vessel. It was recommended that 3. 5...

Broussard, Suzanne Rene

2012-06-07

420

Advanced high-temperature batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The promise of very high specific energy and power was not yet achieved for practical battery systems. Some recent approaches are discussed for new approaches to achieving high performance for lithium/DeS2 cells and sodium/metal chloride cells. The main problems for the development of successful LiAl/FeS2 cells were the instability of the FeS2 electrode, which has resulted in rapidly declining capacity, the lack of an internal mechanism for accommodating overcharge of a cell, thus requiring the use of external charge control on each individual cell, and the lack of a suitable current collector for the positive electrode other than expensive molybdenum sheet material. Much progress was made in solving the first two problems. Reduction of the operating temperatures to 400 C by a change in electrolyte composition has increased the expected life to 1000 cycles. Also, a lithium shuttle mechanism was demonstrated for selected electrode compositions that permits sufficient overcharge tolerance to adjust for the normally expected cell-to-cell deviation in coulombic efficiency. Sodium/sulfur batteries and sodium/metal chloride batteries have demonstrated good reliability and long cycle life. For applications where very high power is desired, new electrolyte coinfigurations would be required. Design work was carried out for the sodium/metal chloride battery that demonstrates the feasibility of achieving high specific energy and high power for large battery cells having thin-walled high-surface area electrolytes.

Nelson, Paul A.

1989-01-01

421

Additive Screen HTTM -HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride  

E-print Network

Lithium Chloride 18. (B6) 2.0 M Sodium Chloride 19. (B7) 0.5 M Sodium Fluoride 20. (B8) 1.0 M Sodium Citrate 24. (B12) 1.0 M Cesium Chloride 25. (C1) 1.0 M Sodium Malonate pH 7.0 26. (C2) 0.1 M L-Proline 27Additive Screen HTTM - HR2-138 Scoring Sheet 1. (A1) 0.1 M Barium Chloride 2. (A2) 0.1 M Cadmium

Hill, Chris

422

Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar  

SciTech Connect

In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

1999-09-01

423

STUDIES OF POINT DEFECTS IN SILVER CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were made on excess point defects introduced into single ; crystals of silver chloride by pulsed elastic extension or by rapid cooling from ; high temperature. Point defects are created by plastic deformation much less ; efficiently in silver chloride than in other substances that have been studied. ; Interstitial silver ions so produced have a lifetime of the

Howard Layer; Lawrence Slifkin

1962-01-01

424

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01

425

Sodium deprivation alters neural responses to gustatory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The effects of sodium deprivation for 10 d, a period sufficient to induce sodium appetite, on gustatory nerve discharges in rats were determined. Chorda tympani responses to concentration series of sodium chloride, sucrose, hydrochloric acid, and quinine hydrochloride were recorded and analyzed without the experimenter knowing the animal's deprivation condition. After deprivation,

R. J. Contreras

1979-01-01

426

Experimental determination of the stability constants of NaSO 4 ? and NaB (OH) 4 0 in hydrothermal solutions using a new high-temperature sodium-selective glass electrode Implications for boron isotopic fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new sodium-selective glass electrode was used to measure the association constants of the sodium-sulfate (NaSO4?) and sodium-borate (NaB(OH)40) ion pairs at temperatures from 50 to 200C. These data were used to generate, within the framework of the revised HKF model, NaSO4? and NaB(OH)40 equation of state parameters. Calculation of NaB(OH)40 association constants at temperatures up to 500C and pressures

Gleb S. Pokrovski; Jacques Schott; Alexandre S. Sergeyev

1995-01-01

427

Effect of temperature on the properties of mixed normal micelles in sodium octanoate-1-pentanol-water systems studied by positron annihilation technique  

SciTech Connect

Positron annihilation technique was applied to the study of structural properties of mixed normal micelles in sodium octanoate-1-pentanol-water systems. Measurements of positron annihilation parameters over a wide range of temperature and surfactant concentrations demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of the technique toward the structural changes associated with the second and third critical concentrations. While the third critical concentration appears to be temperature independent, the second critical concentration is shifted to slightly lower values at higher temperatures (from approx. 1.4 m to approx. 1.0 m on going from 21 to 51/sup 0/C). The plot of the Arrhenius activation energies of positronium formation as a function of surfactant molality indicates some continuous changes in the properties of the micelles below and above the third concentration.

Boussaha, A.; Ache, H.J.

1981-08-20

428

Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175C  

SciTech Connect

Operation of the sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures below 200C reduces cell degradation and improves cyclability. One of the main technical issues with operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on ?-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which causes reduced active area and limits charging. In order to overcome the poor wettability of molten sodium on BASE at 175C, a Pt grid was applied on the anode side of the BASE using a screen printing technique. Cells with their active area increased by metallized BASEs exhibited deeper charging and stable cycling behavior.