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1

High-temperature phase diagram of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical point is calculated and a high-temperature phase diagram is constructed for sodium chloride with allowance for the structural phase transition between B1 and B2 polymorphs of NaCl crystal.

Savintsev, A. P.; Gavasheli, Yu. O.

2011-11-01

2

A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the self-diffusion coefficient of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions. At temperatures above the freezing point of pure water, the self-diffusion coefficient is a monotonically decreasing function of salt concentration. Below the freezing point of pure water, however, the self-diffusion coefficient is a non-monotonic function of salt concentration, showing a maximum at approximately one molal salt. This suggests that sodium chloride, which is considered a structure-making salt at room temperature, becomes a structure-breaking salt at low temperatures. A qualitative understanding of this effect can be obtained by considering the effect of ions on the residence time of water molecules near other water molecules. A consideration of the freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient of water in supercooled sodium chloride solutions is always higher than that in pure (supercooled) water at the same temperature. PMID:18215033

Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

2008-01-24

3

Room-temperature luminescence properties of rho-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate-sodium chloride mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room-temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence quantum yield, triplet formation efficiency, and phosphorescence lifetime values were obtained for the anion of rho-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate and several sodium acetate-sodium chloride mixtures. From these data, rate constants for phosphorescence and for radiationless transition from the triplet state were obtained. The results revealed that several factors are important for maximum room-temperature phosphorescence

S. M. Ramasamy; R. J. Hurtubise

1987-01-01

4

Sodium sulfate solubilities in high temperature aqueous sodium chloride and sulfuric acid solutions—predictions of solubility, vapor pressure, acidity, and speciation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental measurements of the solubility of sodium sulfate in aqueous solutions containing both sodium chloride and sulfuric acid in the temperature range 250 to 374°C are reported. These measurements have been combined with previous data on the solubility of sodium sulfate in water, in aqueous sodium chloride, and in sulfuric acid solutions to produce a comprehensive model describing the solubility

M. H. Lietzke; William L. Marshall

1986-01-01

5

The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically fabricated with a thick tubular ?"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at relatively high temperatures (? 300ºC) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present work, a planar-type sodium-nickel chloride battery possessing a thin BASE (~600 ?m thick) was tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of the battery operation at low temperatures (?200°C). Electrochemical test results revealed that the battery was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175°C despite the higher cell polarization at the reduced temperature. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175°C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280°C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the performance degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride in the cathode. The cells tested at lower temperatures (e.g., 175 and 200°C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in cell voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of NaAlCl4 melt or the poor wettability of sodium on the BASE. Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of a secondary electrolyte and sodium wetting are desirable to further enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-10-01

6

Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and\\/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of

R. P. Fynn; T. H. Short; P. C. Badger; M. J. Sciarini

1980-01-01

7

Room-temperature luminescence properties of rho-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate-sodium chloride mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Room-temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence quantum yield, triplet formation efficiency, and phosphorescence lifetime values were obtained for the anion of rho-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate and several sodium acetate-sodium chloride mixtures. From these data, rate constants for phosphorescence and for radiationless transition from the triplet state were obtained. The results revealed that several factors are important for maximum room-temperature phosphorescence for the anion of rho-aminobenzoic acid. One of the most important conditions for strong room-temperature phosphorescence of the anion was how efficiently the matrix was packed with sodium acetate molecules. The same general conclusion was found for room-temperature fluorescence, but the phosphorescence quantum yield increased more dramatically than the fluorescence quantum yield.

Ramasamy, S.M.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1987-09-01

8

Room-temperature phosphorescence lifetimes and intensities of p-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate-sodium chloride mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Some of the interactions responsible for the room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of the p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) anion adsorbed on sodium acetate-sodium chloride mixtures were elucidated by relative luminescence intensity and phosphorescence lifetime measurements. The luminescence intensity and phosphorescence lifetime values varied over a relatively wide range. The results showed that at least two mechanisms were involved for inducing RTP, with maximum RTP being achieved on pure sodium acetate. Short and long decaying phosphorescent components were detected from the PABA anion. Both of these components reached constant phosphorescence lifetime values even though the phosphorescence intensity continued to change as a function of the composition of phosphorescence-inducing solid-surface material. 16 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Senthilnathan, V.P.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1985-06-01

9

Room temperature luminescence properties of benzo(f)quinoline and phenanthrene adsorbed on. cap alpha. -cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The room-temperature fluorescence (RTF) and room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) intensities of benzo(f)quinoline (B(f)Q) and phenanthrene were obtained from several ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures. The results showed the importance of the initial wet chemistry in the sample preparation procedures for the observation of luminescence signal for compounds adsorbed on ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures. The data indicated that in order to obtain the

J. M. Bello; R. J. Hurtubise

1988-01-01

10

Nulytely (polyethylene glycol 3350, sodium chloride, sodium ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Medication Guide ® NuLYTELY (Noo-lite-ly) (PEG-3350, sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride oral solution) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

11

Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement  

SciTech Connect

A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of the profile meter, its advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the day-to-day profile monitoring that the conductivity-temperature method enables, and the use of the meter during modification of the pond profiles. A program is also available to calculate the pond profile using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable calculator.

Fynn, R.P.; Short, T.H.; Badger, P.C.; Sciarini, M.J.

1980-01-01

12

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

13

Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350°C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200°C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ?”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175°C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-15

14

Room temperature luminescence properties of benzo(f)quinoline and phenanthrene adsorbed on. cap alpha. -cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The room-temperature fluorescence (RTF) and room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) intensities of benzo(f)quinoline (B(f)Q) and phenanthrene were obtained from several ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures. The results showed the importance of the initial wet chemistry in the sample preparation procedures for the observation of luminescence signal for compounds adsorbed on ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures. The data indicated that in order to obtain the optimum RTP and RTF signals, the solvent used to adsorb the analytes had to be saturated with ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin. Also, the solid-surface fluorescence and phosphorescence quantum yield, triplet formation efficiency, and phosphorescence lifetime values were obtained for B(f)Q and phenanthrene adsorbed on 0.05% and 80% ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixtures. From these data, rate constants for phosphorescence and for radiationless transition from the triplet state were obtained.

Bello, J.M.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1988-07-01

15

The Use of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum as Phase Change Materials for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized by Calorimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM) have a great deal of potential for the storage of thermal energy in a wide range of applications. The present work is aimed at developing encapsulated phase change materials capable of storing thermal energy at temperatures above 700°C for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. EPCM with a phase change material (PCM) with both a salt (sodium chloride) and a metal (aluminum) are considered here. Sodium chloride and aluminum are effective storage mediums because of their high melting points and large latent heats of fusion, 800°C and 660°C and 430kJ/kg and 397kJ/kg, respectively. Based on the heat capacities and the latent heat of fusion, for a 100 degree temperature range centered on the melting point of the PCM, 80% of the energy stored by the sodium chloride PCM can be attributed to the latent heat and 79% for the aluminum PCM. These large fractions attributed to latent heat have the potential for making EPCM based thermal energy storage devices smaller and less expensive. To study the performance of the candidate PCMs considered here, a specialized immersion calorimeter was designed, calibrated, and used to evaluate the storage capabilities of sodium chloride and aluminum based EPCMs. Additionally, the EPCMs were studied to ensure no loss of capacity would occur over the lifetime of the EPCM. While no reduction in the storage capacity of the sodium chloride EPCMs was found after repeated thermal cycles, there was a decrease in the storage capacity of the aluminum EPCMs after prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

Solomon, Laura

16

Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1–10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 °C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 °C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 °C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.

Lee, H.Y.; Chai, L.C.; Pui, C.F.; Mustafa, S.; Cheah, Y.K.; Nishibuchi, M.; Radu, S.

2013-01-01

17

The solubility of sulfur dioxide in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and ammonium chloride in the temperature range from 313 K to 393 K at pressures up to 3.7 MPa: experimental results and comparison with correlations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of sulfur dioxide in aqueous solutions of single solutes sodium chloride and ammonium chloride was measured using a static method at temperatures from 313 K to 393 K and total pressures up to 3.7 MPa corresponding to gas molalities of up to 10 mol\\/kg. Similarily to the system sulfur dioxide–water, also in systems with sodium and ammonium chloride

Jianzhong Xia; Bernd Rumpf; Gerd Maurer

1999-01-01

18

The sodium\\/metal chloride battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium\\/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature

R. M. dell; R. J. Bones

1987-01-01

19

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

20

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H. [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Materials Crystallography (CMC), Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, Langelandsgade 140, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark)

2011-07-15

21

Modeling the growth kinetics of Bacillus cereus as a function of temperature, pH, sodium lactate and sodium chloride concentrations.  

PubMed

Mathematical models describing the growth kinetic parameters (lag phase duration and growth rate) of Bacillus cereus as a function of temperature, pH, sodium lactate and sodium chloride concentrations were obtained in this study. In order to get a residual distribution closer to a normal distribution, the natural logarithm of the growth kinetic parameters were used in modeling. For reasons of parsimony, the polynomial models were reduced to contain only the coefficients significant at a level of p

Olmez, Hülya Kaptan; Aran, Necla

2005-02-01

22

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

23

Recovery of low-temperature stressed E. coli O157:H7 and its susceptibility to crystal violet, bile salt, sodium chloride and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the alteration of some characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 subjected to various periods of storage at ?5, ?18 and ?28°C. Results revealed that the low-temperature treatments increased the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to crystal violet, bile salt, sodium chloride and ethanol. In general, the susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 subjected to storage at

Cheng-Chun Chou; Shu-Jen Cheng

2000-01-01

24

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH4)1-xClx is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH4, forming Na(BH4)0.9Cl0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH4)0.43Cl0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

2011-07-01

25

The sodium/metal chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

26

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems butanols + water + sodium chloride or + potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems water + sodium chloride + 2-butanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol, water + potassium chloride + 1-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, and water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol have been measured at 25 C.

Gomis, V.; Ruiz, F.; Asensi, J.C.; Saquete, M.D. [Univ. de Alicante (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica

1996-03-01

27

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Type 304 Stainless Steel in Solutions of Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Chloride at Ambient Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic type 304 stainless steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in acidic chloride (Cl) solutions at ambient temperature. In this study, a layer of adsorbed product film enriched in chromium and nickel was found to form on the metal surface in the solutions. This product film had a protective role over the base metal. The nucleation of stress

Z. Fang; F. Xiao; Y. Wu; B. Cao; R. Zhu

1994-01-01

28

Structure of Aluminum Chloride-Sodium Chloride Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Equilibrium constants were calculated for reactions governing the species present at 175C in molten mixtures of aluminum chloride and sodium chloride. The equilibria postulated pertain to formation of the complex ions AlCl4(-), Al2Cl7(-), and Al3Cl1o(-) f...

A. A. Fannin D. W. Seegmiller L. A. King

1971-01-01

29

Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry. PMID:16460187

Nemec, Tomás; Marsík, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald A

2006-01-28

30

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

31

Thermoluminescence ofultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions oflithium chloride and sodium chloride (10 ?30 gc m?3) have been irra- diated by X- and -rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilu- tion beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was speci-c ofthe original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

32

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

33

A sodium/beta-alumina/nickel chloride secondary cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium/beta alumina/sodium tetrachloroaluminate/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel/sodium choride sinter. Molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte (NaAlCl4) acted as intermediate between electrode and beta alumina tube. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of low resistances and rates of discharge for cells up to 20-Ah capacity. Cells were operated over the temperature range from 230 to 400 C where the OCV of the cell reaction varied from 2.60 V to 2.56 V.

Galloway, R. C.

1987-01-01

34

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory. 415...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415...Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory....

2009-07-01

35

BAM R72: 0.2 M Sodium Chloride Solution  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM R72: 0.2 M Sodium Chloride Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R72 0.2 M Sodium Chloride Solution. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

36

A sodium\\/beta-alumina\\/nickel chloride secondary cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium\\/beta alumina\\/sodium tetrachloroaluminate\\/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel\\/sodium choride

R. C. Galloway

1987-01-01

37

Evaluation of an Alternative Deicing Chemical vs. Conventional Sodium Chloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A research project was initiated to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a proprietary, pre-blended, roadway-deicing chemical on New Hampshire highways. The evaluated material is a patented blend of sodium chloride, liquid magnesium chloride...

J. W. Hathaway R. A. Eaton

2004-01-01

38

Nonisothermal matter transport in sodium chloride and potassium chloride aqueous solutions. 1. Homogeneous system (thermal diffusion)  

SciTech Connect

Thermal diffusion of sodium chloride and potassium chloride aqueous solutions exhibits anomalous behavior in solute-specific concentration and temperature ranges. An accurate analysis is presented showing that these results are not instrumental artifacts. A physical interpretation of the experimental results is advanced, within the frame of reference of the radiation-pressure theory of thermal diffusion. Current ideas on the structure of electrolytic solutions can be fruitfully used, within the proposed approach, to describe some important thermodynamic parameters in terms of molecular organization in the liquid phase. 7 figures, 2 tables.

Gaeta, F.S. (International Inst. of Genetics and Biophysics of CNR, Naples, Italy); Perna, G.; Scala, G.; Bellucci, F.

1982-07-22

39

Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75°C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65°C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70°C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively. PMID:22062917

Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

2007-10-22

40

Occurrence of methane hydrate in saturated and unsaturated solutions of sodium chloride and water in dependence of temperature and pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of the formation of methane hydrate in dependence of temperature and pressure in unsaturated solutions of NaCl in water will be presented in a temperature range from 261.85 to 285.98 K and pressure up to 11.0 MPa. Furthermore the four-phase equilibrium NaCl X 2HâO \\/SUB s\\/ -CHâ X nHâO \\/SUB s\\/ -L-G has been calculated from the experimental

J. L. de Roo; G. A. M. Diepen; R. N. Lichtenthaler; C. J. Peters

1983-01-01

41

Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the phospholipid and fatty acid compositions of a halotolerant Planococcus sp.  

PubMed Central

The phospholipid headgroup composition and fatty acid composition of a gram-positive halotolerant Planococcus sp. (strain A4a) were examined as a function of growth temperature (5 to 35 degrees C) and NaCl content (0 to 1.5 M) of the growth medium. When the growth temperature was decreased, the relative amount of mono-unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids increased. When Planococcus sp. strain A4a was grown in media containing high NaCl concentrations, the relative amount of the major fatty acid, Ca15:0, increased. The relative amount of anionic phospholipid also increased when the NaCl concentration of the growth medium was increased. The increase in anionic phospholipid content resulted from a decrease in the relative mole percent content of phosphatidylethanolamine and an increase in the relative mole percent content of cardiolipin.

Miller, K J

1985-01-01

42

Odour and flavour perception in flavoured model systems: Influence of sodium chloride, umami compounds and serving temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of salt (0% or 0.5% of NaCl) and umami compounds (0% or 0.3% of monosodium glutamate (MSG)+0.15% of disodium salts of ribonucleotides) on odour and flavour attributes of beef broth model systems (BG) were studied at two serving temperatures (25 and 50°C). Flavoured BG samples were prepared using 1-octen-3-ol (35mgl?1) and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (100mgl?1) alone (BGO and BGD) or

Sonia Ventanas; Sari Mustonen; Eero Puolanne; Hely Tuorila

2010-01-01

43

Influence of Sodium Chloride on Growth of Neisseria meningitidis  

PubMed Central

Nasopharyngeal isolates of Neisseria meningitidis were tested for growth on nutrient agar with and without the addition of 0.8% sodium chloride. Of the 822 strains tested, 1.3% grew on the salt-free medium, and 74.1% grew on the medium supplemented with sodium chloride.

Mitzel, John R.; Hunter, Jack A.; Beam, Walter E.

1972-01-01

44

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory. 415...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory....

2010-07-01

45

Nonisothermal matter transport in sodium chloride and potassium chloride aqueous solutions. 2. Heterogeneous membrane system (thermodialysis)  

SciTech Connect

Nonisothermal membrane transport has been experimentally studied in the system sodium chloride and potassium chloride aqueous solutions/AP-20 Millipore porous partition. Anomalous behavior is found in both solvent and solute fluxes. The concentration dependence of these fluxes exhibits sharp minima and maxima, respectively. The anomalous regions occur in concentration ranges strongly influenced by the nature of the cation and by (average) temperature. When these results are compiled with the ones relative to thermal diffusion in the same solutions, stringent proof of the close affinity of processes of heat-flux-mediated matter transport in homogeneous and nonhomogeneous (membrane) systems is obtained. The physical cause of the observed anomalies can be tentatively imputed to solute-solvent interactions and to their dependence on solute nature and concentration and on solution temperature. 8 figures, 1 table.

Mita, D.G. (International Inst. of Genetics and Biophysics of CNR, Naples, Italy); Bellucci, F.; Cutuli, M.G.; Gaeta, F.S.

1982-07-22

46

Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)

1994-04-01

47

Sodium Chloride Battery Development Program for Load Leveling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers work performed between January 1 - December 31, 1975 toward the development of a molten sodium chloride battery for load leveling. A cell has been developed which offers considerable promise for lightweight, long life, and low cost batt...

J. R. Birk J. Werth

1975-01-01

48

CHRONIC SODIUM CHLORIDE TOXICITY IN THE ALBINO RAT  

PubMed Central

Sustained arterial hypertension developed in male, albino rats chronically fed diets rich in sodium chloride with demineralized drinking water available ad libitum. After 12 months of the experimental regimen a positive, linear correlation (r = 0.91) was found between the systolic blood pressure and the concentration of sodium chloride in the diet. A syndrome of edema and renal failure was observed in 18 per cent of the group fed at the level of 7.0 to 9.8 per cent of sodium chloride. Significant histologic changes occurred in the kidneys and certain other organs in rats consuming rations containing these levels of NaCl. The relative volume of the radiosodium space was increased in the rat by high dietary sodium chloride.

Meneely, George R.; Tucker, Robert G.; Darby, William J.; Auerbach, Stewart H.

1953-01-01

49

Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlClâ) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium\\/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using

Gary E. Gray; P. A. Kohl; J. Winnick

1995-01-01

50

Molecular dynamics simulations of threadlike cetyltrimethylammonium chloride micelles: effects of sodium chloride and sodium salicylate salts.  

PubMed

We use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to probe the effects of added sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) salts on the spherical-to-threadlike micelle shape transition in aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) surfactants. Long threadlike micelles are found to be unstable and break into spherical micelles at low concentrations of NaCl, but remain stable for 20 ns above a threshold value of [NaCl] approximately 3.0 M, which is about 2.5 times larger than the experimental salt concentration at which the transition between spherical and rodlike micelles occurs. The chloride counterions associate weakly on the surface of the CTAC micelles with the degree of counterion dissociation decreasing slightly with increasing [NaCl] on spherical micelles, but dropping significantly on the threadlike micelles at high [NaCl]. This effect indicates that the electrolyte ions drive the micellar shape transition by screening the electrostatic repulsions between the micellar headgroups. The aromatic salicylate counterions, on the other hand, penetrate inside the micelle with their hydrophilic groups staying in the surfactant headgroup region and the hydrophobic groups partially embedded into the hydrophobic core of the micelle. The strong association of the salicylate ions with the surfactant headgroups leads to dense packing of the surfactant molecules, which effectively reduces the surface area per surfactant, and increases intramicellar ordering of the surfactant headgroups, favoring the formation of long threadlike micelles. Simulation predictions of the geometric and electrostatic properties of the spherical and threadlike micelles are in good agreement with experiments. PMID:19476369

Wang, Zuowei; Larson, Ronald G

2009-10-22

51

Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

52

Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Carlin, R.T.

1995-11-01

53

Injection of beef strip loins with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride to enhance palatability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef strip loins (46 U.S. Choice loins and 49 U.S. Select loins) were used to evaluate the potential for enhancing beef tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by injecting fresh cuts with solutions containing sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium lactate, and sodium chloride. One half of each loin served as an untreated control, and the other half was injected with either distilled water (110%

D. J. Vote; W. J. Platter; J. D. Tatum; G. R. Schmidt; K. E. Belk; G. C. Smith; N. C. Speer

2010-01-01

54

Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained

Chizuko Morita; Kouichi Sano; Shinichi Morimatsu; Hiromasa Kiura; Toshiyuki Goto; Takehiro Kohno; Wu Hong; Hirofumi Miyoshi; Atsuo Iwasawa; Yoshiko Nakamura; Masami Tagawa; Osamu Yokosuka; Hiromitsu Saisho; Toyoyuki Maeda; Yoji Katsuoka

2000-01-01

55

UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactobacillus gasseri, one of the predominant lactobacilli in human intestinal tracts, is utilized for probiotics and dairy starter cultures. However, since L. gasseri is relatively sensitive to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite (essential compounds for meat products), it is difficult to utilize this species for conventional fermented meat products. In this study, efforts were directed to generate mutants of L.

Keizo Arihara; Makoto Itoh

2000-01-01

56

Diffusion of Sodium Chloride in Cellulose and Amylose Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for measuring the resistance change of a film with time was used to determine the diffusion and apparent permeability coefficients of sodium chloride in the two polymeric films. The results with cellulose diacetate (CDA, 39.8% acetyl) were compar...

M. Barnes C. Skaar P. Luner

1972-01-01

57

Briquetting of Fine Coal Using a Sodium Chloride Binder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot-scale test study was carried out to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of producing dense, weather-resistant briquettes from fine bituminous coal. The binder, a sodium chloride dendritic crystalline matrix, amounted to 0.34% of the...

E. Y. Crossmore R. J. Kimball S. M. Kimball

1983-01-01

58

Diffusion of air (1); water (2); sodium chloride (3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) water; (3) sodium chloride

J. Winkelmann

2007-01-01

59

Hygroscopicity of sub-6 nm sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the hygroscopic growth of Sodium Chloride particles in a size range from 2.5 nm to 6 nm in a relative humidities ranging from 10% to 95% with a nano hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer The aim of this study was to investigate how accurately the Köhler theory describes the hygroscopic growth of particles with a diameter of few nanometers.

Hakala, Jani; Kangasluoma, Juha; Petäjä, Tuukka

2013-05-01

60

Measurement of Cherenkov light from a solution of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured Cherenkov light from a solution of sodium chloride with a concentration from 0 to 25% in weight. The light decreases from 100 to 92% linearly between the concentrations. The number of Cherenkov photons generated in the electrolyte is not determined by its refractive index only, which is in contrast to the situation in a dielectric medium.

Nishijima, Hisashi; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Shirakura, Hatsuo; Chiba, Masami

1987-02-01

61

SODIUM AND CHLORIDE INJURY OF FUERTE AVOCADO LEAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Tip burn of avocados may be caused by an accumulation of chloride within the mature leaf and the severity of the injury is proportional to accumulation. Accumulation of sodium within the leaf causes a different type of burn where injury starts as necrotic spots within or along the leaf perimeter rather than at the tip of the leaf. Soil

A. D. Ayers; D. G. Aldrich; J. J. Coony

62

Effect of orthoaminothiophenol on nickel in 3% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The use of thiol compounds as inhibitors against corrosion of nickel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Stationary and transient measurements were made. Results implied the formation of a thick and compact inhibitor film. A correlation between the inhibiting film and the structure of orthoaminothiophenol (OATP) was shown.

Srhiri, A. [Electrochemistry Lab., Kenitra City (Morocco); Derbali, Y. [National High School of Sciences and Technics, Tunis City (Tunisia). Applied Chemistry Lab.; Picaud, T. [National High School of Chemistry, Toulouse (France). Metallurgy Lab.

1995-10-01

63

Heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has been used to quantify the deposition mode ice nucleation ability of airborne crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate (NaCl • 2H2O) particles with median diameters between 0.06 and 1.1 µm. For this purpose, expansion cooling experiments with starting temperatures from 235 to 216 K were conducted. Recently, supermicron-sized NaCl • 2H2O particles deposited onto a surface have been observed to be ice-active in the deposition mode at temperatures below 238 K, requiring a median threshold ice saturation ratio of only 1.02 in the range from 238 to 221 K. In AIDA, heterogeneous ice nucleation by NaCl • 2H2O was first detected at a temperature of 227.1 K with a concomitant threshold ice saturation ratio of 1.25. Above that temperature, the crystallized salt particles underwent a deliquescence transition to form aqueous NaCl solution droplets upon increasing relative humidity. At nucleation temperatures below 225 K, the inferred threshold ice saturation ratios varied between 1.15 and 1.20. The number concentration of the nucleated ice crystals was related to the surface area of the seed aerosol particles to deduce the ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) density of the aerosol population as a function of the ice supersaturation. Maximum INAS densities of about 6 ? 1010 m-2 at an ice saturation ratio of 1.20 were found for temperatures below 225 K. These INAS densities are similar to those recently derived for deposition mode ice nucleation on mineral dust particles.

Wagner, Robert; MöHler, Ottmar

2013-05-01

64

Ion transport in proximal colon of the rat. Sodium depletion stimulates neutral sodium chloride absorption.  

PubMed Central

The model of sodium and chloride transport proposed for the colon is based on studies performed in the distal segment and tacitly assumes that ion transport is similar throughout the colon. In rat distal colon, neutral sodium-chloride absorption accounts for the major fraction of overall sodium absorption and aldosterone stimulates electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Since we have demonstrated qualitative differences in potassium transport in proximal and distal segments of rat colon, unidirectional 22Na and 36Cl fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated proximal colon of control and sodium-depleted rats with secondary hyperaldosteronism. In the control group, net sodium absorption (JNanet) (7.4 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2) was greater than Isc (1.4 +/- 0.1 mu eq/h . cm2), and JClnet was 0 in Ringer solution. Residual flux (JR) was -5.2 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2 consistent with hydrogen ion secretion suggesting that neutral sodium absorption may represent sodium-hydrogen exchange. 1 mM mucosal amiloride, which inhibits sodium-hydrogen exchange in other epithelia, produced comparable decreases in JNanet and JR (4.1 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively) without a parallel fall in Isc. Sodium depletion stimulated JNanet, JClnet, and Isc by 7.0 +/- 1.4, 6.3 +/- 1.9, and 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, and 1 mM amiloride markedly inhibited JNanet and JClnet by 6.0 +/- 1.1 and 4.0 +/- 1.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, with only a minimal reduction in Isc. Conclusions: the predominant neutral sodium-absorptive mechanism in proximal colon is sodium-hydrogen exchange. Sodium depletion stimulates electroneutral chloride-dependent sodium absorption (most likely as a result of increasing sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchanges), not electrogenic chloride-independent sodium transport. The model of ion transport in the proximal colon is distinct from that of the distal colon.

Foster, E S; Budinger, M E; Hayslett, J P; Binder, H J

1986-01-01

65

Regularities of the filling of Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 hydrosilicate nanotubes with solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filling of nanotubes of the synthetic magnesium hydrosilicate Mg3Si2O5(OH)4 with a chrysotile structure by solutions of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride has been investigated under different temperature-time\\u000a conditions.

T. P. Maslennikova; E. N. Korytkova

2011-01-01

66

Effect of Total and Partial Substitution of Sodium Chloride on the Quality of Cheddar Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was manufactured to give 1.6% residual sodium chloride or equivalent amounts (ionic strength basis) of magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, or 1:1 mixtures of sodium chloride and the chloride salt of magnesium, calcium, or potassium from two split batches of curd. Sensory evalua- tion after 4 mo ripening at 4°C showed that cheese salted solely with magnesium

E. Fitzgerald; J. Buckley

1985-01-01

67

High temperature oxidation and sodium chloride-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9chromium-1molybdenum and 310 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological development were investigated by weight gain kinetics, metallographs, depths of attack, metal losses, and X-ray analyses. The results of 310SS deposited with salt mixtures show that weight gain kinetics in simple oxidation reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law after 3 hr, while the kinetics with salt deposits display multi-stage growth rates. NaCl is the main corrosive specie in high-temperature corrosion involving mixtures of NaCl/Na2SO 4 and is responsible for the formation of internal attack. Uniform internal attack is the typical morphology of NaCl-induced hot corrosion, while the extent of intergranular attack is more pronounced as the content of Na 2SO4 in the mixture is increased. The thermal-cycling test results of 310SS deposited NaCl and coated 7wt%Si/93wt%Al show that the aluminized layers have good corrosion resistance during the first four cycles of testing, while degradation occurs after testing for five cycles. The reason for degradation of aluminized layers is attributed to the formation of inter-connecting voids caused by aluminum inward diffusion, chloridation/oxidation cyclic reactions and the penetration of molten NaCl through the voids into the alloy substrate. The 9Cr-1Mo steels coated with 7wt%Si/93wt%Al oxidized at 750, 850, and 950°C in static air show that oxidation kinetics followed a parabolic rate law at 750 and 850°C. The cracks propagated through the Fex Aly layer due to the growth of brittle FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 at 750 and 850°C. The voids condensed in the interface of intermetallics and substrate are attributed to the Kirkendall effect. At 950°C, the fast growing aluminide layer has a different expansion coefficient than oxide scale, leading to scale cracking, oxygen penetration, and internal oxidized, evidenced by a rapid mass gain.

Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

68

Sodium chloride on Si(100) grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl) films were grown on an Si(100)-(2 × 1) surface at near room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The atomic structure and growth mode of the prototypical ionic materials on the covalent bonded semiconductor surface is examined by synchrotron core-level x-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles calculations. The Si 2p, Na 2p, and Cl 2p core-level spectra together indicate that adsorbed NaCl molecules at submonolayer coverage [i.e., below 0.4 monolayer (ML)] partially dissociate and form Si-Cl species, and that a significant portion of the dangling-bond characteristics of the clean surface remains after NaCl deposition of 1.8 MLs. The deposition of 0.65-ML NaCl forms a partially ordered adlayer, which includes NaCl networks, Si-Cl species, adsorbed Na species, and isolated dangling bonds. The STM results revealed that the first adlayer consists of bright protrusions which form small c(2 × 4) and (2 × 2) patches. Above 0.65 ML, the two-dimensional NaCl double-layer growth proceeds on top of the first adlayer.

Chung, Jen-Yang; Li, Hong-Dao; Chang, Wan-Heng; Leung, T. C.; Lin, Deng-Sung

2011-02-01

69

Water use and sodium chloride uptake by apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Apple trees grown with their root systems split into halves were used to study the effects of non-uniform salinity stress\\u000a within a root system upon salt and water uptake.\\u000a \\u000a Water uptake declined rapidly when sodium chloride solution (90 meq l?1) was added to any root zone but uptake increased correspondingly in the non-saline root zone of each tree. This changed

D. W. West

1978-01-01

70

Aluminum chloride for accelerating hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research paper reports preliminary results about the utilization of anhydrous aluminum chloride (AlCl3) for accelerating hydrogen generation through hydrolysis of aqueous solution of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) at 80°C. To the best of our knowledge, AlCl3 has never been considered for that reaction although many transition metal salts had already been assessed. AlCl3 reactivity was compared to those of

U. B. Demirci; O. Akdim; P. Miele

2009-01-01

71

Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding

Weifeng Li; Yuguang Mu

2011-01-01

72

Complex permittivity of sodium chloride solutions at microwave frequencies.  

PubMed

The complex permittivity of aqueous solutions at 20 degrees C has been measured at concentrations between 0.001 and 5 mol/L and over a frequency range 0.13-20 GHz. The results were combined with literature values to derive empirical equations to predict the dielectric behavior of sodium chloride solutions between 0 and 5 mol/L and 5 degrees C-35 degrees C. PMID:17203479

Peyman, A; Gabriel, C; Grant, E H

2007-05-01

73

TOXICITY OF SODIUM CHLORIDE TO HOUSE SPARROWS (PASSER DOMESTICUS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is widely used as a deicing agent on roadways. There are numerous anecdotal reports of poisoning of passerine birds by road salt in the United States and Canada, but little is known about the toxicity of NaCl to songbirds. The objectives of this study were to determine the lethal dose range for NaCl in a representative passerine

Trent K. Bollinger; Pierre Mineau; Mark L. Wickstrom

74

Effects of potassium lactate, sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium acetate on colour, colour stability, and oxidative properties of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the effects of potassium lactate (KL), sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium acetate on colour, colour stability, and oxidative properties of injection-enhanced beef rib steaks. Enhancement solutions (8.5% pump) contained combinations of KL (0% or 1.5%), sodium chloride (0.3% or 0.6%), sodium tripolyphosphate (0% or 0.3%), and sodium acetate (0% or 0.1%). Steaks were packaged in a

R. C. Knock; M. Seyfert; M. C. Hunt; M. E. Dikeman; R. A. Mancini; J. A. Unruh; J. J. Higgins; R. A. Monderen

2006-01-01

75

Thermodynamics of sodium chloride solutions in steam  

SciTech Connect

Gas-phase data from mass spectrometry are used to calculate the Gibbs energy of hydration of Na/sup +/ and Cl/sup -/ ions in steam. A similar hydration model for the ion pair NaCl is fitted to the experimental measurements of the solubility of NaCl in steam. The ionization constant calculated from these sources fits the directly measured values at 1073K and densities above 0.3g cm/sup -3/. At lower temperatures reasonable curves interpolate between the calculated values for low density and the direct measurements at higher density. Other thermodynamic properties are calculated for Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, and NaCl in steam. The partial molal heat capacity of the ions is very large in the range 700-1000K; this arises from the enthalpy of dissociation of water from the hydrated ions. The Born equation is compared with these results. A practical application to steam turbine technology is also considered.

Pitzer, K.S.

1983-03-31

76

Effect of Sodium Chloride on a Lipid Bilayer  

PubMed Central

Electrostatic interactions govern structural and dynamical properties of membranes and can vary considerably with the composition of the aqueous buffer. We studied the influence of sodium chloride on a pure POPC lipid bilayer by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Increasing sodium chloride concentration was found to decrease the self-diffusion of POPC lipids within the bilayer. Self-diffusion coefficients calculated from the 100 ns simulations agree with those measured on a millisecond timescale, suggesting that most of the relaxation processes relevant for lipid diffusion are faster than the simulation timescale. As the dominant effect, the molecular dynamics simulations revealed a tight binding of sodium ions to the carbonyl oxygens of on average three lipids leading to larger complexes with reduced mobility. Additionally, the bilayer thickens by ?2 Å, which increases the order parameter of the fatty acyl chains. Sodium binding alters the electrostatic potential, which is largely compensated by a changed polarization of the aqueous medium and a lipid dipole reorientation.

Bockmann, Rainer A.; Hac, Agnieszka; Heimburg, Thomas; Grubmuller, Helmut

2003-01-01

77

The diffusivity of potassium chloride and sodium chloride in concentrated, saturated, and supersaturated aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride and sodium chloride were measured in concentrated, saturated, and supersaturated solutions at 25/sup 0/C employing Gouy interferometry. The results indicate a maximum in the diffusivity vs. concentration curve near saturation followed by a rapid decline in diffusivity toward zero with increasing concentration in the supersaturated region. This behavior supports the idea that the diffusion coefficient approaches zero at the spinodal concentration. The data were successfully correlated by modifying an empirical activity coefficient equation (Robinson and Stokes, 1955) to account for molecular cluster effects and employing the calculated activity coefficients along with a predictive equation for diffusivity in electrolytes (Robinson and Stokes, 1955).

Chang, Y.C.; Myerson, A.S.

1985-06-01

78

Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B. A.; Davis, K. B.

1980-01-01

79

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

80

Molal volume of aqueous boric acid-sodium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent molal volume ?\\u000a v\\u000a of boric acid has been determined in various sodium chloride solutions at 0 and 25°C from precise density measurements. Similar\\u000a to its behavior in pure water, the ?\\u000a v\\u000a of boric acid in NaCl solutions is a linear function of the concentration. The infinite dilution ?\\u000a \\u000a v\\u000a \\u000a °\\u000a and the slope S\\u000a v\\u000a *

Gary K. Ward; Frank J. Millero

1974-01-01

81

Briquetting of fine coal using a sodium chloride binder  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale test study was carried out to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of producing dense, weather-resistant briquettes from fine bituminous coal. The binder, a sodium chloride dendritic crystalline matrix, amounted to 0.34% of the final product. The briquettes produced had physical attributes similar to natural lump coal. Generally, their heating value was greater because they contained less moisture. Subjective burn tests for the product were performed. The briquettes showed a fouling index increase ranging from 0.15 to 0.73 for the low volatile seam, and 0.39 to 1.18 for the high volatile seam due to the sodium content of the additive. The scale-up cost for a 10 ton per hour operation including labor and capital amortization was calculated to be $16.68 per ton in 1981 dollars. 6 references, 32 figures, 22 tables.

Crossmore, E.Y. Jr.; Kimball, R.J.; Kimball, S.M.

1983-04-01

82

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar evaporation...

2012-07-01

83

Gelatinisation of sago starch in the presence of sucrose and sodium chloride as assessed by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effect of sucrose and sodium chloride on sago starch gelatinisation was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The temperature of gelatinisation of starch in the presence of low levels of water and high levels of sucrose was found to increase in the presence of sucrose, whereas the gelatinisation enthalpy was unaffected. The gelatinisation temperature range was not as

A. G Maaurf; Y. B Che Man; B. A Asbi; A. H Junainah; J. F Kennedy

2001-01-01

84

[The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].  

PubMed

Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. PMID:9889712

Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

85

Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols  

SciTech Connect

The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pentecost, G. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1993-12-01

86

Energy-gap law and room-temperature phosphorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on cyclodextrin\\/sodium chloride solid matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy-gap law was shown to be applicable to the room-temperature solid-matrix phosphorescence of polycyclic aromatic compounds adsorbed on cyclodextrin\\/salt matrices. No heavy atom was used to enhance the phosphorescence signals. As the energy gap between the lowest excited triplet state and ground state increased, the phosphorescence lifetime of the phosphor increased. The changes in the phosphorescence lifetimes were correlated

S. M. Ramasamy; R. J. Hurtubise

1996-01-01

87

Model for the combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on survival of Shigella flexneri strain 5348 under aerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shigella is recognized as a major foodborne pathogen; however, relatively few studies have been reported on its growth and survival characteristics, particularly under conditions relevant to food. A fractional factorial design was used to measure the effects and interactions of temperature (4–37 °C), pH (2–6) and NaCl (0.5–9%) on survival kinetics of Shigella flexneri strain 5348 in BHI broth. Stationary-phase

Laura L. Zaika; John G. Phillips

2005-01-01

88

The influence of the chloride gradient across red cell membranes on sodium and potassium movements  

PubMed Central

1. A study has been made to see whether active and passive movements of sodium and potassium in human red blood cells are influenced by changing the chloride gradient and hence the potential difference across the cell membrane. 2. Chloride distribution was measured between red cells and isotonic solutions with a range of concentrations of chloride and non-penetrating anions (EDTA, citrate, gluconate). The cell chloride concentration was greater than that outside with low external chloride, suggesting that the sign of the membrane potential was reversed. The chloride ratio (internal/external) was approximately equal to the inverse of the hydrogen ion ratio at normal and low external chloride, and inversely proportional to external pH. These results show that chloride is passively distributed, making it valid to calculate the membrane potential from the chloride ratio. 3. Ouabain-sensitive (pump) potassium influx and sodium efflux were decreased by not more than 20 and 40% respectively on reversing the chloride gradient, corresponding to a change in membrane potential from -9 to +30 mV. In contrast, passive (ouabain-insensitive) movements were reversibly altered — potassium influx was decreased about 60% and potassium efflux was increased some tenfold. Sodium influx was unaffected by the nature of the anion and depended only on the external sodium concentration, whereas ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux was increased about threefold. When external sodium was replaced by potassium there was a decrease in ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux with normal chloride, but an increase in low-chloride medium. 4. Net movements of sodium and potassium were roughly in accord with the unidirectional fluxes. 5. The results suggest that reversing the chloride gradient and, therefore, the sign of the membrane potential, had little effect on the sodium pump, but caused a marked increase in passive outward movements of both sodium and potassium ions.

Cotterrell, D.; Whittam, R.

1971-01-01

89

Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

2007-08-11

90

Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline–polyvinyl chloride (PANI–PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline–polyvinyl chloride (PANI–PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300–400K. Mott's parameters

Sadia Ameen; Vazid Ali; M. Zulfequar; M. Mazharul Haq; M. Husain

2008-01-01

91

Energy-gap law and room-temperature phosphorescence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on cyclodextrin/sodium chloride solid matrices  

SciTech Connect

The energy-gap law was shown to be applicable to the room-temperature solid-matrix phosphorescence of polycyclic aromatic compounds adsorbed on cyclodextrin/salt matrices. No heavy atom was used to enhance the phosphorescence signals. As the energy gap between the lowest excited triplet state and ground state increased, the phosphorescence lifetime of the phosphor increased. The changes in the phosphorescence lifetimes were correlated with the magnitude of the nonradiative rate constants which, in turn, were related to the energy gap between the excited triplet state and ground state. With the correlations developed, it is possible to predict which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons will give strong solid-matrix phosphorescence. {copyright} {ital 1996 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.}

Ramasamy, S.M.; Hurtubise, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

1996-01-01

92

Effect of sodium chloride on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471.  

PubMed

A kinetic investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on cell growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 and amylovorin L471 production was carried out through in vitro experiments using a temperature and pH prevailing during sourdough fermentations. Sodium chloride interfered both with cell growth and bacteriocin production. Biomass formation and amylovorin L471 production decreased in the presence of increasing salt concentrations. Maximum bacteriocin activities were observed after the addition of 10 g l(-1) of NaCl, while the maximum specific growth rate reached an optimum at 5 g l(-1) of NaCl. High salt concentrations (20-40 g l(-1)) resulted in biphasic fermentation profiles. Based on these results, incorporation of 5-10 g l(-1) of sodium chloride in the water phase of type II sourdough preparations might be beneficial to enhance bacterial growth and amylovorin L471 production, and so contribute to the competitiveness of the strain in a sourdough environment. PMID:14527783

Neysens, Patricia; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

2003-11-15

93

Reaction kinetics of hydrogen chloride with sodium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study, conducted in a fixed bed multilayer reactor, investigates the influence of temperature (200–600°C), HCl concentration (3000, 6000 and 9000ppm) and particle size (120 and 209?m) on the HCl collection efficiency of sodium carbonate. Results show that the carbonate conversion and the HCl collection efficiency reach the maximum values in the temperature range of 400–500°C, while the HCl concentration

N. Verdone; P. De Filippis

2006-01-01

94

Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

2011-10-01

95

Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges  

SciTech Connect

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

Clark, Kendal W [ORNL; Qin, Shengyong [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

2012-01-01

96

Method of determining sodium chloride equivalency for improved oil recovery processes using surfactant compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium chloride equivalency of brine from a subterranean oil bearing reservoir is determined by equilibrating said brine with a known surfactant system and a standard hydrocarbon to give a multiphase system which is compared with known phase volume diagrams using the same ingredients at various sodium chloride concentrations to determine the salinity of the known systems at which the

Hedges

1984-01-01

97

Long-Term Ammonium Chloride or Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment in Two Models of Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of ammonium chloride aggravates, while short-term administration of sodium or potassium bicarbonate lessens the development of polycystic kidney disease in Han:SPRD rats. We have conducted studies to determine whether the protection afforded by the administration of sodium bicarbonate is sustained and prevents development of uremia during chronic administration and whether the effects of the administration of ammonium chloride and

Vicente E. Torres; Michael G. Branden; Izumi Yoshida; Vincent H. Gattone

2001-01-01

98

Physiological And Spectral Analysis Of The Effects Of Sodium Chloride On Syringa Vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the affect of soil introduced sodium chloride on the common lilac (Syringa vulgaris, L.). Eight, evenly spaced, treatment solution concentrations from 0-2100ppm sodium chloride were applied to plants growing in a greenhouse environment. Each treatment consisted of 16 plants of the same clone. Subjective data were recorded for damage assessment on all plants and one

Gary N. Lauten; Barrett N. Rock

1992-01-01

99

Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

2011-01-01

100

Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride  

SciTech Connect

Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na{sub x}HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains.

Oro-Sole, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Frontera, C. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Beltran-Porter, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de la Universitat de Valencia, PO Box 2085, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Lebedev, O.I. [EMAT, RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp 2020 (Belgium); Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp 2020 (Belgium); Fuertes, A. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: amparo.fuertes@icmab.es

2006-05-25

101

Phase equilibria for propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride and + potassium chloride and propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride and + lithium bromide  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are reported on phase equilibria of the four mixtures propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride, propan-1-ol + water + potassium chloride, propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride, and propan-2-ol + water + lithium bromide at atmospheric pressure. The phase behavior of these mixtures exhibits three-phase equilibria, two liquids and one vapor, different from the previous reports that these only exhibit two phases. The phase diagrams for these mixtures are discussed.

Cheng-Long Lin (Kwang Wu Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China)); Liang-Sun Lee (National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)); Hsieng-Cheng Tseng (National Taiwan Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China))

1993-04-01

102

Sodium or chloride deficiency lowers muscle intracellular pH in growing rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium deficiency and chloride deficiency are associated with a contracted extracellular (ECF) volume and impaired growth in young children and growing rats. In cell culture, lowering sodium in the medium reduces growth factor-stimulated Na+\\/H+ exchange activity, intracellular pH (pHi), and DNA synthesis. We studied the effect of chronic sodium deficiency and chloride deficiency upon growth, extracellular acid base status, and

Patricio E. Rayl; Robbe C. Lyon; Edward J. Ruleyl; Malcolm A. Holliday

1996-01-01

103

Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results\\u000a showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding)\\u000a maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In\\u000a contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

1979-01-01

104

Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82°C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

1979-01-01

105

Efficacy of Sodium Chloride Applications for Control of Goosegrass (Eleusine Indica) in Seashore Paspalum Turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of goosegrass is difficult in the pan-Pacific region. No herbicides are currently labeled for selective control of goosegrass in seashore paspalum turf, a species used regularly on golf courses throughout the tropics. Sequential granular applications of sodium chloride (99% sodium chloride, 1% sodium silicoaluminate, 83% 0.5 to 0.25 mm diam) at 488 kg\\/ha did not effectively (. 70%) control

James T. Brosnan; Joseph DeFrank; Micah S. Woods; Greg K. Breeden

2009-01-01

106

Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to investigate whether the loop diuretic sensitive, sodium-chloride cotransport system described previously in shark rectal gland is in fact a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system, plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rectal glands ofSqualus acanthias and sodium and rubidium uptake were measured by a rapid filtration technique. In addition, the binding of N-methylfurosemide to the membranes was investigated.

J. Hannafin; E. Kinne-Saffran; D. Friedman; R. Kinne

1983-01-01

107

High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

Widespread penetration of renewable energy and increasing demands on reliability/security of the electrical grid require extensive advances in energy storage technologies. One most promising technology is the sodium-beta batteries (NBBs) based on a sodium-ion conducting ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at elevated temperatures (300-350oC). Current NBBs, constructed on a 1-3 mm thick tubular electrolyte, have high capital cost, performance/safety issues and relatively high operating temperature that limit market penetration of the technology. In this work we report a new generation NBB that utilizes a planar design, incorporating a thinner BASE that reduces the area of specific resistance and may be operated at reduced temperatures. The lower operating temperatures allows for use of more cost-effective cell materials and decreases adverse temperature effects that impact cycle life and overall cost. We here present recent progress generated from planar NBB button cells, including initial cell performance, cathode design and chemistry.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.

2010-07-01

108

Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline polyvinyl chloride (PANI PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline polyvinyl chloride (PANI PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300 400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor (?0), activation energy (?E) and T0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T0. The calculated values of T0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain.

Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

2008-08-01

109

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

110

The interference effect of more than one salt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Part 1: Effect of magnesium chloride-sodium chloride mixture on manganese  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous interference effects of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride on the atomization of manganese in a graphite furnace were investigated. For this purpose, the individual interference mechanisms of each salt were also studied. It was found that the interference of sodium chloride originates from expulsion of the analyte with matrix and gas phase reaction between manganese and chlorine during

H. Ince Tekgül; S. Akman

1997-01-01

111

Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in higher levels of brothy flavor in cheese made with smaller curd knives and a higher target salting titratable acidity. This effect resulted in lower consumer liking scores. PMID:23332837

Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

2013-01-17

112

Sodium/metal chloride program conceptual design study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Sodium/Metal Chloride Design Study was to investigate and evolve candidate cell designs, using the metal chloride technology, which are responsive to future battery requirements for electric vans. Using the present power and energy requirements for the ETX-2, IDSEP and G-Van Electric Vehicle Programs, the design study was driven by a goal established by DOE/ANL for a 27 percent reduction in battery weight and volume. In addition to battery performance figures of 150 Wh/kg and 200 Wh/liter, the conceptual design had to meet the acceleration power demand throughout discharge, specific to each of the designated vans, even for the case where 10 percent of cells failed early. The power to accelerate the ETX-2 Aerostar, for example, was 65 kW, or 160 W/kg and 230 W/liter. Clearly, the challenges that were established for the metal chloride system were intended to provide a high performance battery system for future van applications, in which a vehicle range of 200 miles and acceleration to 60 MPH in 15 seconds were deemed to be attractive features. This study was perhaps the first DOE sponsored program which has directed the cell design to meet the perceived performance goals of future EVans. The two recommended cell designs are the central cathode multi-tube and the bipolar flat plate concepts. The former allows the use of external fuses in series with each tube to isolate failures and maintain cell operation. Since the fuses have a common termination, the presence of an instantaneous short-circuit creates a high current path through the appropriate fuse, causing it to melt and open-circuit. The action of the fuse is enhanced by the greater numbers of electrolyte tubes associated with the central cathode design. The BFP design, on the other hand, uses smaller capacity cells that are compacted vertically in stacks with intrinsic shorting through failed cells to maintain operation of each string.

1990-07-01

113

Regional analysis of the effect of paved roads on sodium and chloride in lakes.  

PubMed

Salinization of surface water from sodium chloride (road salt) applied to paved roads is a widely recognized environmental concern in the northern hemisphere, yet practical information to improve winter road management to reduce the environmental impacts of this deicer is lacking. The purpose of our study was to provide such information by developing baseline concentrations for sodium and chloride for lakes in watersheds without paved roads, and then determining the relationship between these ions and density, type, and proximity of paved roads to shoreline. We used average summer (June-September) sodium and chloride data for 138 lakes combined in a watershed based analysis of paved road networks in the Adirondack Park of New York, U.S.A. The watersheds used in our study represented a broad range in paved road density and type, 56 of which had no paved roads. Median lake sodium and chloride concentrations in these 56 watersheds averaged 0.55 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the median sodium and chloride concentrations for the 82 lakes in watersheds with paved roads were 3.60 and 7.22 mg/L, respectively. Paved road density (lane-km/km(2)) was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations, but only state roads were significantly correlated with sodium and chloride while local roads were not. State road density alone explained 84 percent of the variation in both ions. We also successfully modeled the relationship between road proximity to shoreline and sodium and chloride concentrations in lakes, which allowed us to identify sections of road that contributed more to explaining the variation in sodium and chloride in lakes. This model and our approach could be used as part of larger efforts to identify environmentally sensitive areas where alternative winter road management treatments should be applied. PMID:22406283

Kelting, Daniel L; Laxson, Corey L; Yerger, Elizabeth C

2012-02-25

114

A Kirkwood-Buff derived force field for sodium chloride in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A force field for the simulation of mixtures of sodium chloride and water is described. The model is specifically designed to reproduce the experimentally determined Kirkwood-Buff integrals as a function of salt concentration, ensuring that a good representation of the solution activity is obtained. In addition, the model reproduces many of the known properties of sodium chloride solutions including the density, isothermal compressibility, ion diffusion constants, relative permittivity, and the heat of mixing. The results are also compared to other common sodium chloride force fields.

Weerasinghe, Samantha; Smith, Paul E.

2003-12-01

115

The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

Nestler, R.B.

1949-01-01

116

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01

117

Stability of Diclofenac Sodium Oral Suspensions Packaged in Amber Polyvinyl Chloride Bottles  

PubMed Central

Background: Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. Objectives: To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. Methods: A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23°C) or under refrigeration (5°C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. Results: The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Conclusions: Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to 93 days is suggested.

Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Regis

2010-01-01

118

6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 in 0.9% Sodium Chloride ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... 6% Hydroxyethyl Starch 130/0.4 in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection (Voluven® 500 mL freeflex® flexible plastic intravenous solution container). ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

119

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Ze...

David Trickett

1998-01-01

120

Response of the Higher Basidiomycetic Ganoderma resinaceum to Sodium Chloride Stress  

PubMed Central

Ganoderma resinaceum tolerated sodium chloride salt stress within a range of 0 mM till 300 mM. It responded to salt stress with fluctuation in proline formation at different NaCl concentrations. However,the mycelial dry weight,total protein contents and exopolysaccharides did not changed considerably. Increasing sodium chloride concentration led to morphological alteration in fungal mycelia with disappearance of fungal cell wall,plasmolysis,and vacuolation as indicated with electron microscopic examination of the fungal growth.

Mohamed, Eman H. F. A.; Abd Elzaher, E. H. F.

2007-01-01

121

Energy absorption of nanoporous silica particles in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study is carried out on the effect of chemical admixtures, particularly sodium chloride, on the energy absorption behaviour of a hydrophobic nanoporous silica. As the pressure increases, once the capillary effect is overcome, the liquid is forced into the nanopores; and when the pressure is reduced, outflow is difficult, resulting in a pronounced hysteresis. The inflow pressure and the specific absorbed energy are strongly dependent on the sodium chloride concentration, providing a promising way to adjust the system performance.

Kong, Xinguo; Surani, Falgun B.; Qiao, Yu

2006-11-01

122

Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Sodium Sulfonates Precursors of Sulfonyl Chlorides and Fluorides  

PubMed Central

We describe the use of a microwave reaction for the conversion of various bromides to sodium sulfonates that have been further elaborated to sulfonyl chlorides. This new approach leads to much improved yields and shorter reaction times. Representative sulfonyl chlorides serve as precursors for the respective sulfonyl fluorides that are potent inhibitors of the fatty acid amide hydrolase.

Alapafuja, Shakiru O.; Nikas, Spyros P.; Shukla, Vidyanand G.; Papanastasiou, Ioannis; Makriyannis, Alexandros

2009-01-01

123

Thermally induced conformation change of succinoglycan in aqueous sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Static and dynamic light scattering, viscosity, and optical rotation measurements have been made at eight different temperatures between 25 and 75 degrees C on two succinoglycan samples (sodium salt) with weight-average molecular weights M(w) of 7.14 x 10(5) and 3.54 x 10(5) (at 25 degrees C) in 0.01 M aqueous NaCl to investigate the thermally induced order-disorder conformation change of the polysaccharide. Additionally, viscometry and polarimetry have been performed for a sodium salt sample (M(w) = 4.55 x 10(5) at 25 degrees C) whose M(w), z-average radius of gyration (z)(1/2), and hydrodynamic radius R(H) in the aqueous salt had been determined previously. As the temperature increases, M(w), (z)(1/2), R(H), and the intrinsic viscosity for every sample sharply decrease around 55 degrees C where the specific rotation at 300 nm sigmoidally increases. In particular, M(w) at 25 degrees C (i.e., in the ordered helical state) is twice as large as that at 75 degrees C (i.e., in the disordered state). These findings substantiate that the ordered structure is composed of two chains and hence is a double helix. Data analysis shows that this helix at 25 degrees C is characterized by an unperturbed wormlike chain with a helix pitch of about 2 nm (per repeating unit) and a persistence length of about 50 nm and that upon heating, it dissociates directly (i.e., in all-or-none fashion) to disordered chains of a similar contour length but with a much smaller persistence length of about 10 nm. The temperature dependence of the light scattering second viral coefficient is discussed in relation to the association of disordered chains in the cooling process. PMID:12741792

Nakanishi, Tomoko; Norisuye, Takashi

124

Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50°C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products. PMID:24099538

Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

2013-03-14

125

Sodium Chloride Salt Applications Provide Effective Control of Sourgrass (Paspalum conjugatum) in Seashore Paspalum Turf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourgrass is a stoloniferous perennial grassy weed found on golf courses throughout Hawaii. No herbicides are currently labeled for selective control of sourgrass in seashore paspalum turf, a species used regularly on golf courses throughout the tropics. A single granular application of fine salt (99% sodium chloride, 1% sodium silicoaluminate, 83% of particles 0.5 to 0.25 mm in diameter) at

James T. Brosnan; Joseph DeFrank; Micah S. Woods; Greg K. Breeden

2009-01-01

126

Injection of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium lactate improves Warner–Bratzler shear and sensory characteristics of pre-cooked inside round roasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired inside rounds (n=30 pairs) were removed from randomly selected USDA Select quality grade carcasses to examine the effects of injecting a solution of sodium lactate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and sodium chloride on Warner–Bratzler shear force, cooking loss, lipid oxidation, and sensory characteristics of pre-cooked beef. Injected treatments were more tender (P<0.05) than control products, as measured by Warner–Bratzler shear force

M. R. McGee; K. L. Henry; J. C. Brooks; F. K. Ray; J. B. Morgan

2003-01-01

127

Toxicity of sodium chloride to house sparrows (Passer domesticus).  

PubMed

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is widely used as a deicing agent on roadways. There are numerous anecdotal reports of poisoning of passerine birds by road salt in the United States and Canada, but little is known about the toxicity of NaCl to songbirds. The objectives of this study were to determine the lethal dose range for NaCl in a representative passerine species (house sparrow [Passer domesticus]); to determine the clinical, physiologic, and pathologic effects of sublethal and lethal oral NaCl exposure; and to assess the potential for recovery after exposure to granular salt or highly concentrated salt solutions. The up-and-down method was used in a pilot study to estimate the lethal oral dose of granular NaCl in wild caught house sparrows. The toxicity of highly concentrated NaCl solution also was investigated. This was followed by an acute dose response study in which house sparrows were dosed orally with granular NaCl at 0, 500, 1,500, 2,500, or 3,500 mg/kg. Sparrows were deprived of water for 6 hr postexposure (PE) in an attempt to mimic specific winter conditions. Groups of three birds at each dose were euthanized at 1, 3, 6, and 12 hr PE, and samples were collected for histopathology and brain and plasma electrolyte analyses. Results indicated an approximate mean lethal dose (LD50) of 3,000-3,500 mg/kg in water-deprived birds, which is similar to mammalian values. House sparrows dosed with a concentrated solution of NaCl generally died at doses of 8,000 mg/kg. Clinical signs observed at >or=1,500 mg/kg included rapid onset (<30 min) of depression (indicated by reduced activity and reduced response to visual and auditory stimuli), ataxia, inability to fly or perch, and death in as little as 45 min. Birds that survived for 6 hr usually recovered. Plasma Na concentrations >200 mmol/l were consistently associated with clinical signs. Pathologic lesions consisted of edema and distension of the caudoventral thin muscled region of the gizzard and were observed 1 hr PE in most birds dosed with >or=500 mg/kg. Brain Na concentrations in clinically ill sparrows and those that died of NaCl toxicity ranged from 1,297 to 1,615 (mean=1,450; SD=115) ppm wet weight or 5,603 to 6,958 (mean=6,367; SD=454) ppm dry weight, which differed significantly from control birds. No histologic lesions were observed in brain sections of exposed birds, likely reflecting the acute nature of the exposure. However, fluid accumulation beneath the koilin layer of the gizzard was observed in the majority of birds at high dosage levels. These results indicate that passerines ingesting relatively small numbers of road salt granules or small quantities of highly concentrated NaCl solutions are at risk of sodium poisoning. PMID:16107671

Bollinger, Trent K; Mineau, Pierre; Wickstrom, Mark L

2005-04-01

128

The effect of replacement of 0.30% sodium chloride by 0.43% sodium bicarbonate in rations of fattening pigs on leg weakness, osteochondrosis and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of replacing dietary sodium chloride by sodium bicarbonate on leg weakness, osteochondrosis and growth in young fattening pigs was studied in two experiments using 104 and 126 animals. The experimental pigs were fed 0.43 % dietary sodium bicarbonate, which replaced the sodium chloride (0.30%), was present in the diets of the control groups.It was found that the clinical

P. G. van der Wal; H. Hemminga; S. A. Goedegebuure; P. C. van der Valk

1986-01-01

129

Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition using sodium chloride support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) together with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were directly grown on a water-soluble support catalyst that was prepared via sublimation of ferrocene on sodium chloride. The synthesis of nanotubes was carried out at a growth temperature of 700 °C in a combined methane and nitrogen environment of 1:1 volumetric ratio at a total flowrate of 80 ml/min for 1 h in a vertical reactor. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to study the carbon deposits. Transmission electron microscope shows the presence of SWCNTs with an average diameter of ca. 1.18 nm on the catalyst. The radial breathing mode (RBM) of Raman for shifts below 350 cm-1 further confirmed the presence of SWCNTs and the diameters were calculated to be 0.93, 1.36, 1.5 and 1.85 nm.

Teong Ooi, Jeremy Hor; Liu, Wei-Wen; Thota, Venugopal; Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Chai, Siang-Piao

2011-02-01

130

Salt-induced aggregation and fusion of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride and sodium dihexadecylphosphate vesicles.  

PubMed Central

Small dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles prepared by sonication fuse upon addition of NaCl as detected by several methods (electron microscopy, trapped volume determinations, temperature-dependent phase transition curves, and osmometer behavior. In contrast, small sodium dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles mainly aggregate upon NaCl addition as shown by electron microscopy and the lack of osmometer behavior. Scatter-derived absorbance changes of small and large DODAC or DHP vesicles as a function of time after salt addition were obtained for a range of NaCl or amphiphile concentration. These changes were interpreted in accordance with a phenomenological model based upon fundamental light-scattering laws and simple geometrical considerations. Short-range hydration repulsion between DODAC (or DHP) vesicles is possibly the main energy barrier for the fusion process. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 9

Carmona-Ribeiro, A M; Chaimovich, H

1986-01-01

131

Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset from the water activity at the melting point of the solution, though films of the longer chain alcohols may undergo structural changes at higher salt concentrations which cause a deviation from the constant offset. The heterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient, averaged over all solutions, alcohols, and droplet sizes is 6.0 × 104 +/- 4.0 × 104 cm-2 s-1, with no dependence on any of those parameters.

Cantrell, Will; Robinson, Carly

2006-04-01

132

Deformation and cracking behavior of iron-manganese-aluminum alloys in sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Five Fe-Mn-Al (Femnal) alloys with ferrite contents from 0.5% to 98% were tested in air and deaerated 3.5% sodium chloride solution at room temperature to examine their sensitivities to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). Smooth and notched tensile specimens were chosen for tensile testing at slow extension rates. Notched specimens were more sensitive to EAC. The fully austenitic alloy was more resistant. The fully ferritic alloy showed less susceptibility, presumably because the plasticity intrinsically was too limited. For the two-phase alloys ({le} 65% ferrite) studied, susceptibility to EAC increased with increasing ferrite. Fractographical observation showed the ferritic phase was more susceptible to EAC than the austenitic phase. Secondary cracks grew only in the ferrite grains or along the ferrite/austenite boundaries.

Ruscak, M.; Perng, T.P. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1996-06-01

133

Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

Medalie, Laura

2012-01-01

134

Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1999-02-01

135

Coupled sodium and chloride transport into plasma membrane vesicles prepared from dogfish rectal gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane fraction, rich in basal-lateral plasma membranes, was prepared from the rectal gland of the spiny dogfish,Squalus acanthias, and the uptake of22Na into the plasma membrane vesicles was investigated by a rapid filtration technique. Sodium uptake was greatest in the presence of a chloride gradient directed into the vesicles; it was strikingly reduced when chloride was replaced with nitrate

Jill Eveloff; Rolf Kinne; Eva Kinne-Saffran; Heini Murer; Patricio Silva; Franklin H. Epstein; Jeffrey Stoff; William B. Kinter

1978-01-01

136

Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.  

PubMed

Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts. PMID:21621814

Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

2011-05-31

137

Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2003-06-24

138

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

Trickett, D.

1998-12-15

139

Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

2000-02-01

140

Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

141

Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media  

SciTech Connect

Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow.

Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

2001-10-01

142

Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

1990-07-01

143

Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt %) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes ...

144

A simple model for slow strain rate and constant load corrosion tests of austenitic stainless steel in acid aqueous solution containing sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is concerned with the modelling of both slow strain rate and constant load tests of austenitic steels in acid solutions containing sodium chloride at room temperature. In a phenomenological approach, based upon thermodynamics of continuum solids and elasto-viscoplastic damage, besides the classical variables (stress, total strain, and plastic strain), an additional scalar variable related to the damage

H. S. da Costa-Mattos; I. N. Bastos; J. A. C. P. Gomes

2008-01-01

145

Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

2007-01-01

146

Augmentation of neutral sodium chloride absorption by increased flow rate in rat ileum in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Studies in intact animals have shown that intestinal solute absorption is enhanced with increasing flow rates; the mechanism of this phenomenon has not been explored in detail. We used single pass perfusions of rat ileum to study the effect of higher flow rate on electrolyte absorption. Augmenting perfusion rate from 0.5 to 5.0 ml/min resulted in increased rates of sodium (11.0 +/- 0.9 vs. 23.5 +/- 2.7 mueq/min X g) and chloride (12.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 25.0 +/- 2.2 mueq/min X g) absorption, reduction in the estimated unstirred layer thickness (668 +/- 31 vs. 433 +/- 28 micron), minimal changes in intraluminal pressure and transmural potential difference, and a small, though significant, increase in intraluminal volume (19.4 +/- 8.4%). Removal of sodium from the perfusion medium abolished the effect of increased flow rate on chloride absorption as did removal of chloride on sodium absorption; addition of furosemide or acetazolamide to Ringer's solution also inhibited this effect. In separate experiments, stepwise increases in intraluminal volume were induced by elevating the outflow tubing; no effect on electrolyte transport was observed. These studies demonstrate that neutral sodium chloride absorption is enhanced in rat ileum at higher flow rates, perhaps as a result of a decrease in the thickness of unstirred layers.

Harris, M S; Dobbins, J W; Binder, H J

1986-01-01

147

Allosteric cotransport of sodium, chloride, and calcium by the intestine of freshwater prawns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The apical membrane of the intestinal epithelium of the freshwater prawn,Macrobrachium rosenbergii, has been found to possess an apparently unique allosteric carrier mechanism for the simultaneous cotransport of sodium, chloride, and calcium from mucosal solution to cytosol. Influxes of the two monovalent ions individually were sigmoidal functions of their respective luminal concentrations, and their kinetics followed the Hill equation

Gregory A. Ahearn

1978-01-01

148

Gustatory responsiveness to monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride in four species of nonhuman primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The taste responsiveness of six squirrel monkeys, five pigtail macaques, four olive baboons and four spider monkeys to monsodium glutamate (MSG) and to sodium chloride was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (2 min). When given the choice between tap water and defined concentrations of the two tastants dissolved in tap water, the animals were found to significantly

Matthias Laska; Laura Teresa Hernandez Salazar

2004-01-01

149

Opposite effects of indacrinone (MK-196) on sodium and chloride conductance of amphibian skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indacrinone, a drug chemically related to ethacrynic acid, usually stimulated reversibly short circuit current and sodium influx when applied to the epithelial surface of amphibian skin. Concomitantly, transepithelial conductance,gt, decreased, provided chloride was the main anion in the incubation fluid.

Wolfram Nagel; Renaud Beauwens; Jean Crabbé

1985-01-01

150

Effects of Sodium Chloride on Steady-state Growth and Metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Sodium chloride decreased the maximum specific growth rate of Sac- charomyces cerevisiae. Chemostat experiments showed this to be largely due to an increased requirement for energy-yielding substrate, apparently linked to maintenance and leading to a decrease in the yield. The increased main- tenance requirement is probably concerned with maintaining an intracellular Na+ concentration ten times lower than the extracellular

T. G. WATSON

1970-01-01

151

A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms. PMID:22643347

Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

2012-03-01

152

Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating conditions by studying the detailed crystallization processes, such as nucleation, growth, and breakage, as well as agglomeration. The purification of CaCl2 solution involving the crystallization of NaCl from the solution mixture of CaCl2, KCl, and NaCl as shipped from Dow Chemical, Ludington, in a CMSMPR crystallizer was studied as our model system because of its nucleation and crystal growth tendencies with less agglomeration. This project also generated a significant body of experimental data that are available at URL that is http://www.che.utah.edu/˜ring/CrystallizationWeb.

Choi, Byung Sang

153

Effect of different non-chloride sodium sources on the performance of heat-stressed broiler chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. One hundred and eighty 1-d-old broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect upon broiler performance during severely hot summer months of three different sodium salts: sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium sulphate (Na2SO4), in starter and finisher diets having an identical electrolyte balance (DEB) of 250?mEq\\/kg.2. The non-chloride sodium salts were added to contribute the same

T. Ahmad; T. Mushtaq; M. Sarwar; D. M. Hooge; M. A. Mirza

2006-01-01

154

Heterogeneous reactivity of chlorine atoms with sodium chloride and synthetic sea salt particles.  

PubMed

The uptake of chlorine atoms on sodium chloride (NaCl) and synthetic sea salt (SSS) particles was studied using a discharge flow reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer. The reactive surfaces were prepared by coating the inner surface of the reactor using two different methods: either by depositing size-selected particles on halocarbon wax or by spray depositing thin films using a constant output atomizer. The observed uptake coefficients of Cl? on NaCl particles are ?(NaCl)(Cl) ? 2 × 10(-2) for size-selected particles or ?(NaCl)(Cl) ? 5 × 10(-2) for thin films and for SSS particles ?(SSS)(Cl) ? 4 × 10(-3). Heterogeneous recombination of Cl atoms to Cl(2) molecules was observed for the two solid surfaces. The study was performed over the temperature range 258 to 353 K. The temperature dependence of the uptake was observed and the heat of adsorption of Cl? on NaCl particles was estimated at Q(ads) = 63 kJ mol(-1) assuming an Eley-Rideal mechanism. The role of surface adsorbed water has also been shown. The atmospheric implications of these findings are discussed briefly. PMID:21971367

Ciuraru, Raluca; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

2011-10-05

155

[Effects of sodium chloride on destruction of microorganisms by microwave heating in potatoes].  

PubMed

To assess the destructive effect of different sodium chloride concentrations (0, 0.3, 1.5, and 3%) on microorganisms with microwave heating, strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus were used to inoculate a mashed potato preparation. After microwave heating for 1 min at 800 W, resulted in temperatures and rate of destruction of bacteria significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in the core than on the surface of mashed potato when no salt was added. Except for B. cereus, microorganisms inoculated into mashed potato, with no added salt, could be completely destroyed by 2 min of microwave heating. Core temperatures and rate of destruction of microorganisms in the mashed potato decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) with increase in concentration of added salt. The results also indicate that bacterial species differ in their susceptibility to microwave inactivation. In particular, S. aureus, which exhibited a level of survival that was greater than that of any other species tested here, seemed notably resistant to microwave treatment for 2 min while V. parahaemolyticus was highly susceptible. PMID:1773068

Hayashi, M; Shimazaki, Y; Kamata, S; Kakiichi, N

1991-06-01

156

Evidence for electroneutral sodium chloride cotransport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that chloride reabsorption in the isolated perfused cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit (cTAL) is dependent on the presence of sodium and potassium. The present study was performed to elucidate the dependence on chloride in quantitative terms. Ninety-four cTAL segments were perfused at high rates with solutions of varying chloride concentration. Chloride was

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Florian Lang

1983-01-01

157

Computer simulation studies of aqueous sodium chloride solutions at 298 K and 683 K  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of NaCl solutions at room temperature (298 K) and at a supercritical temperature of 683 K using discrete simple point charge (SPC or SPC/E) molecular models for the water solvent. The solvent densities were 0.997 g cm-3 at 298 K and 0.35 g cm-3 and 0.175 g cm-3 at 683 K. The ion-ion and ion-solvent distribution functions were calculated and compared with corresponding functions for a continuum model of the solvent also determined by computer simulation. Our studies confirm the presence of significant amounts of ion pairing and clustering at supercritical conditions as seen in visualizations of the equilibrium configurations of the solution. However, the degree of pairing and clustering of ions in supercritical solutions is significantly different for discrete and continuum representations of the solvent. Simulations of a 1 molal solution of NaCl at 683 K, using a discrete molecular model for the solvent at a density of 0.35 g cm-3, show the presence of a single megacluster of 10 sodium and chloride ions in a system of 555 water molecules. Three smaller clusters containing positive and negative charges are observed at 683 K when the electrolyte concentration is reduced to 0.5 molal at a solvent density of 0.35 g cm-3 and also at a lower solvent density of 0.175 g cm-3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the velocity auto correlation functions of Na+ and Cl- ions have distinct forms related to the cluster to which the ion belongs. The diffusion coefficients of Na+ and Cl- ions, at infinite dilution, are larger at 683 K than at 298 K, and decrease with increasing electrolyte concentration. They are nearly equal to each other in the one molal solution at 683 K, which may correspond to a supersaturated solution in which the large cluster of sodium and chloride ions moves as an entity over an observed lifetime greater than 200 ps.

Koneshan, S.; Rasaiah, Jayendran C.

2000-11-01

158

Energetics of Coupled Active Transport of Sodium and Chloride  

PubMed Central

A Clark electrode was used to measure oxygen consumption by the gall bladder, in which there is a direct and one-to-one linkage between active Na and active Cl transport. O2 uptake was reversibly depressed when Cl in the mucosal bathing solution was replaced by a poorly transported anion, such as sulfate. This effect of Cl was abolished by ouabain or in Na-free solutions. When the anion was chloride, treatment with ouabain or replacement of Na by a poorly transported cation depressed Qoo2, more than did replacement of Cl. However, ouabain or removal of Na also depressed Qoo2, in Na2SO4 solutions, in which salt transport is minimal. It is concluded that oxygen uptake in the gall bladder consists of three fractions: 9% requires both Na and Cl, is inhibited by ouabain, and is linked to the NaCl pump; 36% requires Na but not Cl, is inhibited by ouabain, and possibly is linked to the cellular K uptake mechanism; and 55% represents basal uptake. If the extra oxygen uptake observed during transport supplies all the energy for transport, then 25 Na + 25 Cl ions are transported actively per O2 consumed; i.e., twice as many ions as in epithelia which transport only Na actively. This extra uptake is more than sufficient to supply the energy for overcoming internal membrane resistance under the experimental conditions used.

Martin, Duncan W.; Diamond, Jared M.

1966-01-01

159

The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600mg of sodium/100g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450mg of sodium/100g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280mg of sodium/100g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5°C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log10 cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log10 cfu/g in all treatments over 60d. When inoculated with 5 log10 cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also reduced during storage, but by less than 1.5 log10 cfu/g after 50d. However, cheese with a 50% reduction in sodium without KCl had higher counts than full-sodium cheese at the end of 50d of incubation at 4°C when inoculated at 3mo. When inoculated at 8mo postmanufacture, this trend was only observed in 50% reduced sodium with KCl, for cheese manufactured with both cultures. This enhanced survival for 50% reduced-sodium cheese was not seen when a higher incubation temperature (12°C) was used when cheese was inoculated at 3mo of age and monitored for 27d (no difference in treatments was observed at this incubation temperature). In the event of postprocessing contamination during later stages of ripening, L. monocytogenes was capable of survival in Cheddar cheese regardless of which culture was used, whether or not sodium had been reduced by as much as 50% from standard concentrations, or if KCl had been added to maintain the effective S/M of full-sodium Cheddar cheese. PMID:23910550

Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

2013-08-01

160

Effect of sulfate ions on corrosion inhibition of AA 7075 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the addition of sulfate ions on corrosion inhibition of Aluminum Association (AA) 7075 aluminum (Al) alloy (UNS A97075) in aqueous solution was studied. Corrosion behavior was affected significantly by the addition of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}. The corrosion morphology and corrosion rate changed with various thermomechanical treatment sand with the relative amount of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the immersion test solutions. However, the inhibitive effect of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} was evident with the increasing relative amount of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Corrosion data and morphologies obtained were illustrated by a competitive anion adsorption mechanism.

Wu, T.I. [Tatung Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Wu, J.K. [National Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung (Taiwan, Province of China). Inst. of Marine Materials Engineering

1995-03-01

161

Equations for calculation of the pH of buffer solutions containing sodium or potassium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, and sodium chloride at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published thermodynamic data measured in aqueous mixtures of sodium or potassium dihydrogen phosphate with hydrogen phosphate\\u000a and chloride at 25°C were used to test recently developed methods for calculation of the pH of phosphate buffer solutions.\\u000a Equations for ionic activity coefficients are used in these methods. It is shown that all data used in the tests up to an\\u000a ionic

Jaakko I. Partanen; Pentti O. Minkkinen

1997-01-01

162

Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer. PMID:23948494

Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

2013-07-22

163

Spectroscopic study on the precipitation of sodium alkyl sulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride.  

PubMed

The precipitation of sodium alkyl sulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride was obtained under optimized conditions. The conditions for the most efficient formation of precipitates were obtained as longer alkyl chain length of alkyl sulfate (C(14)), higher pH (pH 12), 1.5 M NaCl, and equimolar ratio between anionic and cationic surfactants. The structures and physical properties of surfactant precipitates were investigated with SEM, UV-vis, and FT-IR spectroscopy and light scattering. The precipitate of sodium alkyl sulfate with cetylpyridinium chloride was studied with the pressure-area isotherm at the air/water interface. In addition, the surface morphology of the Langmuir-Blodgett film of surfactant precipitate was observed with atomic force microscopy. PMID:17603067

Song, Hwan Young; Oh, Sun Wha; Moon, Sung Doo; Kang, Young Soo

2007-07-02

164

Electrochemical Drilling of Inconel Superalloy with Acidified Sodium Chloride Electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of modern air engine components such as turbine rotor and stator assemblies depends on a very large number\\u000a of small holes, with diameters and aspect ratios in the range of 1–4 mm and 40–200, respectively. These high-temperature components\\u000a are made of difficult-to-machine superalloys such as inconel. Shaped tube electrolytic machining (STEM) appears to be the\\u000a preferred technique for

S. Sharma; V. K. Jain; R. Shekhar

2002-01-01

165

Perception of sodium chloride taste in pregnant women with and without essential hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the perception of taste of sodium chloride, craving for salt, and values of blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension. A group of normotensive pregnant women served as controls.We examined 144 pregnant women with the diagnosis of essential hypertension (including a group of women with blood pressure 140\\/90 mmHg),

Joanna Niegowska; Nina Barylko-Pikielna; Michal J. Wac; Louis G. Keith

2005-01-01

166

Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SLC6 family is a diverse set of transporters that mediate solute translocation across cell plasma membranes by coupling solute transport to the cotransport of sodium and chloride down their electrochemical gradients. These transporters probably have 12 transmembrane domains, with cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal tails, and at least some may function as homo-oligomers. Family members include the transporters for the

Nian-Hang Chen; Maarten E. A. Reith; Michael W. Quick

2004-01-01

167

Stability of an organoclay complex: effects of high concentrations of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the stability of an organoclay complex (clay–BTMA0.5) and its adsorption capacity for a non-ionic organic chemical under various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations. Adsorption of benzyltrimethylammonium (BTMA) to montmorillonite and its desorption from the organoclay complex under various NaCl concentrations were measured. Results showed a decrease in the amount of BTMA adsorbed as the NaCl concentration increased from

Yasser Z El-Nahhal; Jamal M Safi

2004-01-01

168

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Grade 2 and Grade 3 Titanium in 6% Sodium Chloride Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium was investigated in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 1 under potential control at 70 C. Grade 2 titanium was, at most, slightly susceptible to HE under the test conditions, whereas grade 3 titanium was very susceptible at an electrochemical potential below -800 mV{sub SCE}. This phase could be observed

Z. F. Wang; C. L. Briant; K. S. Kumar

1998-01-01

169

Salinity-resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorates sodium chloride stress on tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is one of the major anthropogenic as well as environmental stresses that reduce plant growth. Results show that even after being adapted up to 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, all selected isolates were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce phytohormones, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme. NT1 was found to exhibit the highest phosphate solubilization zones (25 mm),

Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

2010-01-01

170

Individual isohedons in sucrose-sodium chloride and sucrose-saccharin gustatory areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies with need free rats have relied upon the group up-and-down method to determine hedonic equality and to plot isohedons within a stimulus area. The present study shows that isohedons can be plotted for individual Ss within the sucrose-sodium chloride and sucrose-saccharin stimulus areas by using a brief exposure preference technique. Isohedons for individual Ss are similar in form

P. T. Young

1963-01-01

171

Zucchini growth, yield, and fruit quality in response to sodium chloride stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Moschata) plants were grown in a pot experiment under greenhouse conditions at Almería (Southeastern Spain) in 1994 and 1995. Sodium chloride (NaCl) added to the irrigation water at 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 g L and complemented with a fertilizer solution. Yield was determined on number and weight (kg) of fruit per plant. The

Gemma Víllora; Diego A. Moreno; Gregoria Pulgar; Luis M. Romero

1999-01-01

172

Reliability of Threshold and Suprathreshold Methods for Taste Phenotyping: Characterization with PROP and Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy and reliability of four standard methods used for classification of people\\u000a as taster or non-tasters based on their sensitivity to PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). A panel consisting of 21 subjects was tested for threshold and suprathreshold sensitivity of sodium chloride,\\u000a PROP, and genotyped for TAS2R38. Two threshold methods, staircase and modified Harris–Kalmus, were used

Veronica Galindo-Cuspinera; Thierry Waeber; Nicolas Antille; Christoph Hartmann; Nicola Stead; Nathalie Martin

2009-01-01

173

Growth, Osmotic Adjustment, and Nutrient Acquisition of Bitter Almond Under Induced Sodium Chloride Salinity In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased sodium chloride (NaCl) salinity effects on bitter almond (Amygdalus communis L.) growth, cell osmolarity and nutrient acquisition were studied in vitro. Elevated salinity from 0.0 (control) to 50, 75, 100 mM NaCl resulted in reduction in shoot growth (shoot height, shoot dry weight) and rooting (rooting percentage, root number, root length). Reductions in growth parameters were accompanied with reductions in

Rida A. Shibli; Mohammed A. Shatnawi; Ihsan Q. Swaidat

2003-01-01

174

Comparison of Respirator Filter Penetration by Dioctyl Phthalate and Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The penetration of all types of particulate respirator filters by a polydisperse solid sodium chloride aerosol and a monodisperse liquid dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol is compared and corrected. The NaCl aerosol penetration (0.3?µm) was measured with a British-manufactured EEL Respirator Tester. This instrument and its calibration are described. High-efficiency particulate respirator filters are tested against DOP in the United States

R. N. MITCHELL; D. A. BEVIS; E. C. HYATT

1971-01-01

175

High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We

Judith Buehlmeier; Petra Frings-Meuthen; Natalie Baecker; Peter Stehle; Martina Heer

2008-01-01

176

Sodium chloride as aid in identification of Phaeoannellomyces werneckii and other medically important dematiaceous fungi.  

PubMed Central

Seventeen taxa of dematiaceous fungi isolated from humans were tested to determine their responses to various concentrations of sodium chloride in vitro. Five groups of species were recognized on the basis of differing tolerances. Phaeoannellomyces werneckii was distinguished by its tolerance of greater than or equal to 15% NaCl; most dematiaceous pathogens were suppressed at less than or equal to 7% NaCl.

Kane, J; Summerbell, R C

1987-01-01

177

Preparation of macroporous sodium cellulose sulphate\\/poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) capsules and their characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroporous capsules composed by sodium cellulose sulphate (NaCS) and poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDMDAAC) were prepared by the addition of pore forming agent starch in the encapsulation solution. The starch was firstly immobilized in the membrane of the capsules and then degraded by amylase. The molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of the macroporous capsules was about 70kDa for globular proteins, which was about

Jun Zhang; Shan-Jing Yao; Yi-Xin Guan

2005-01-01

178

Corrosion cracking of quench-hardened steels in sodium chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work, a continuation of earlier investigations [12], discusses the results of a study of the corrosion cracking process in high-strength steels in 3% solutions of sodium chloride with different pH's. Corrosion cracking tests were conducted on quenched and tempered (at 200~ martensite structure) smooth cylindrical specimens 4 mm in diameter of steels U8A, 40Kh, and 20Kh at the

A. M. Krutsan; O. N. Chaplya; I. I. Vasilenko

1978-01-01

179

Effects of sodium chloride on biodegradation of crude oils by two species of Aeromonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biodegradation of five weathered crude oils by two species ofAeromonas, (B59-4 and E. BOB) was investigated in varying concentrations of sodium chloride. A minimal salts medium whose NaCl concentration increased serially by 0.5% w\\/v up to 1.5% w\\/v was used to investigate the growth of these strains in glucose, and their biodegradation of the crude oils. The latter was

Stella O. Ajisebutu

1988-01-01

180

Rheological properties of aqueous solutions of cetylpyridinium chloride in the presence of sodium chlorate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the effect of salt content on the linear viscoelastic properties of wormlike micelles formed from cetylpyridinium\\u000a chloride in the presence of the nonpenetrating inorganic salt, sodium chlorate. Rotational rheometry and oscillatory squeeze\\u000a flow were used to determine the shear moduli G\\u000a ? and G\\u000a ? in the angular frequency range from 0.1 rad s???1 up to 104 rad s???1.

Claude Oelschlaeger; Norbert Willenbacher

181

The solubiltiy of iron hydroxide in sodium chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of iron(III) hydroxide as a function of pH was investigated in NaCl solutions at different temperatures (5-50°C) and ionic strengths (0-5 M). Our results at 25°C and 0.7 M in the acidic range are similar to the solubility in seawater. The results between 7.5 to 9 are constant (close to 10 -11 M) and are lower than those found in seawater (>10 -10) in this pH range. The solubility subsequently increases as the pH increases from 9 to 12. The solubility between 6 and 7.5 has a change of slope that cannot be accounted for by changes in the speciation of Fe(III). This effect has been attributed to a solid-state transformation of Fe(OH) 3 to FeOOH. The effect of ionic strength from 0.1 to 5 M at a pH near 8 was quite small. The solubility at 5°C is considerably higher than at 25°C at neutral pH range. The effects of temperature and ionic strength on the solubility at low and high pH have been attributed to the effects on the solubility product and the formation of FeOH 2+ and Fe(OH) 4-. The results have been used to determine the solubility products of Fe(OH) 3, K ?Fe(OH) 3 and hydrolysis constants, ? ?1, ? ?2, ? ?3, and ? ?4 as a function of temperature ( T, K) and ionic strength ( I): log K?Fe(OH) 3 = -13.486 - 0.1856 I0.5 + 0.3073 I + 5254/ T (? = 0.08) log ? ?1 = 2.517 - 0.8885 I0.5 + 0.2139 I - 1320/ T (? = 0.03) log ? ?2 = 0.4511 - 0.3305 I0.5 - 1996/ T (? = 0.1) log ? ?3 = -0.2965 - 0.7881 I0.5 - 4086/ T (? = 0.6) log ? ?4 = 4.4466 - 0.8505 I0.5 - 7980/ T. (? = 0.2) Both strong ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and weak (HA) organic ligands greatly affect iron solubility. The additions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and humic material were shown to increase the solubility near pH 8. The higher solubility of Fe(III) in seawater compared to 0.7 M NaCl may be caused by natural organic ligands.

Liu, Xuewu; Millero, Frank J.

1999-10-01

182

Effect of sodium iodide additive on the electrochemical performance of sodium\\/nickel chloride cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium iodide and sulfur additives on the performance of Na\\/ß''-alumina\\/NaAlCl4\\/NiCl2\\/Ni cells was investigated in quasi-sealed laboratory research cells (0.5–1.0 Ah capacity) and in sealed full-size cells (4 Ah capacity). It was found that sodium iodide additive especially in combination with sulfur in Na\\/NiCl2 cells significantly increases the usable capacity and reduces the impedance of the Na\\/NiCl2 cells.

Jai Prakash; Laszlo Redey; Donald R. Vissers; James DeGruson

2000-01-01

183

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01

184

Electrodeposition and stripping of lithium and sodium on inert electrodes in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts  

SciTech Connect

The demonstration of a stable, reversible alkali metal anode is an important step in the development of practical secondary batteries using room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts as electrolytes. Such melts are made by mixing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMICI) with aluminum chloride, and can be Lewis buffered by adding LiCl or NaCl. It has been shown previously that protons added to a sodium chloride buffered melt as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen dichloride (EMIHCl{sub 2}) provide a more negative voltage window and nearly reversible deposition-stripping behavior for sodium. While EMIHCl{sub 2} is a proven proton source and also enhances lithium deposition and stripping, its stability in the melt is limited by the rapid loss of HCl(g). The authors report here that triethanolamine-hydrogen chloride is effective in widening the voltage window, allows the plating and stripping of both lithium and sodium, and is stable in buffered EMICl/AlCl{sub 3} melts for months. A study of various potential proton donors suggests that deprotonation of one ethanolic group of triethanolamine-HCl is responsible for the effect. A few other reagents also give this effect, but react more slowly or are more difficult to handle. Plated sodium appears to be more stable in this melt system than lithium.

Piersma, B.J. [Houghton Coll., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Ryan, D.M.; Schumacher, E.R.; Riechel, T.L. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-03-01

185

Ethanol-sodium chloride-phosphate mobile phase for size-exclusion chromatography of poly(ethylene glycol) modified proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of an aqueous sodium chloride-phosphate mobile phase for size-exclusion chromatography of poly(ethylene glycol) modified (PEGylated) proteins resulted in premature degradation of silica-based gel filtration columns. This column degradation was manifested as peak tailing and loss of resolution. An aqueous ethanol-sodium chloride-phosphate mobile phase was identified which extended column lifetimes without loss of resolution or change in peak shape.

Joseph J. Ratto; Sheila R. O'Conner; Adrian R. Distler; Gay-May Wu; David Hummel; Michael J. Treuheit; Alan C. Herman; Janice M. Davis

1997-01-01

186

EXPERIMENTS ON THE ADAPTATION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI TO SODIUM CHLORIDE.  

PubMed

1. It has been shown that a fairly constant fraction of the total number of bacteria in a fresh-water culture of E. coli can reproduce on direct transfer to a saline medium with a definite NaCl concentration, as judged from the viable count determinations in such a medium. 2. The absolute value of this fraction depends on a number of factors other than the salt content of the test medium, such as the hydrogen ion and yeast autolysate concentrations, aeration, and the physiological condition of the bacteria. 3. A method for testing the degree and rate of adaptation of the bacteria to saline environment, depending on the analysis of changes in the value of the salt-viable fraction, was developed. 4. Maximum adaptability to saline environments was found during the early stationary phase of NaCl-free cultures. Low adaptability accompanied the logarithmic phase and the senescence of the cultures. 5. The limits of variation could be extended by treatment of non-dividing cells with gradually increasing concentrations of salt or by subjecting them to a single intermediate NaCl concentration. This acclimatization was independent of reproduction. The number of bacteria becoming capable of reproducing in a hitherto unfavorable environment increased with the period of exposure to intermediate salt concentrations until a maximum value was reached. 6. This maximum value was shown to depend on the salinity of the test medium, the age of the bacterial culture, and the method of preliminary treatment. "Optimal acclimatization" could be effected by subjecting the organisms to a single fairly low intermediate NaCl concentration. 7. The rate of the individual acclimatization process was shown to be greater at higher than at lower temperatures. 8. Acclimatized bacteria rapidly lost their increased ability to reproduce in saline media upon return to a salt-free environment, although no reproduction of the cells could be detected. This was interpreted as an indication that the processes involved are readily reversible. 9. Studies on the reproduction of E. coli in strongly saline broth indicated that only those cells originally acclimatized to the salt concentration of the medium could divide. All cells produced in such a medium could continue to reproduce. The propagation in the altered medium was not accompanied by any further acclimatization throughout five subcultures. 10. Both the division rate and the maximum crop of cultures in saline broth were considerably lower than of those in a fresh-water medium. No change in either occurred throughout five successive subcultures. The morphology of the organisms was also altered by the presence of salt. 11. The division rate, maximum crop, morphology, and adaptive power returned immediately to normal on re-transfer of bacteria grown in an NaCl-containing medium to "salt-free" broth. 12. The entire adaptive response of the bacteria to a considerable increase in the salinity of the environment could thus be separated into two components: an acclimatization, independent of reproduction, and a selection of those cells with the widest range of potentialities. PMID:19873177

Doudoroff, M

1940-05-20

187

Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Ionic Conductivity in Doped Single Crystals of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride, and Rubidium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrostatic pressure up to 9000 kg\\/cm2 on ionic conductivity in NaCl, KCl, and RbCl single crystals doped with divalent impurities has been studied over the temperature range 200° to 500°C. The conductivity in this temperature range is due almost entirely to the motion of extrinsic cation vacancies. The activation volume DeltaVm for motion of the cation vacancies

C. Ballard Pierce

1961-01-01

188

Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

2012-11-20

189

Ionic interactions in aqueous electrolyte-polyelectrolyte mixtures: Comparisons with mixtures of sodium chloride and the model electrolyte benzyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic coefficients for aqueous mixtures of sodium chloride with benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, BzMe3NCl, obtained by the gravimetric isopiestic vapor pressure comparison method are interpreted with the McKay-Perring transform, with the Scatchard neutral electrolyte treatment, and with the Pitzer ion-component equations. Molal ionic and mean ionic activity coefficients for Na+ and Cl- ions and for NaCl, respectively, in these mixtures at unit

G. E. Boyd

1977-01-01

190

Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

Barker, J. L.

1986-01-01

191

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aim was to develop new electrolyte mixtures. 1-methyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium chloride (MEICI) mixed with aluminum chloride was the standard of reference. The new electrolytes should be utilized with sodium in room temperature batteries. Several triazoliu...

B. Vestergaard

1993-01-01

192

Temperature dependence of electron attachment to methylene chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature dependence of dissociative electron attachment to methylene chloride in the electron energy range of 0-10 eV was studied in a high-temperature electron swarm apparatus. The measurements were made using N2 and Ar as buffer gases. From the measured electron attachment rate constants, the electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were determined using an unfolding technique. The maximum electron attachment cross sections at 300, 400, and 500 K were ~3.1×10-18, ~8.2×10-18, and ~1.7×10-17 cm2, and occurred at electron energies of ~0.8, ~0.65, and ~0.55 eV, respectively. The increase in electron attachment to methylene chloride with temperature is attributed to the increase in the vibrational energy of the molecule.

Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Tav, C.; McCorkle, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

1999-05-01

193

Thermodynamics of aqueous magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and strontium chloride at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacities and densities of aqueous MgClâ, CaClâ, and SrClâ from the accompanying paper are combined with literature data up to 473 K to yield temperature-dependent equations by using the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. These heat capacity equations have been integrated to yield the enthalpy and the Gibbs energy. The enthalpy parameters for 298 K are evaluated in separate calculations

Ramesh C. Phutela; Kenneth S. Pitzer; Preet P. S. Saluja

1987-01-01

194

An empirical equation with tables of smoothed solubilities of methane in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions up to 25 weight percent, 360 degrees C, and 138 MPa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The total pressure for the system H2O-CH 4 is given by p(total) = P(H2O,t) + exp10[log x(CH 4) - a - b x(CH4)], where P(H2O,t) is the vapor pressure of H2O liquid at the temperature t (?C) and x(CH 4) is the molal concentration of methane in the solution. The terms a and b are functions of temperature only. Where the total pressure and temperature are known, the concentration of methane, x(CH4), is found by iteration. The concentration of methane in a sodium chloride brine, y(CH4), is estimated using the function log y(CH4) = log x(CH4) - A I, where A is the salting out constant and I is the ionic strength. For sodium chloride solutions, the ionic strength is equal to the molality of the salt. The equations are valid to 360?C, 138 MPa, and 25 weight percent sodium chloride.

Haas, John L.

1978-01-01

195

Long-term Sodium and Chloride Surface Water Exports from a Humid Subtropical Urban Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing concentrations of sodium and chloride in surface water are strongly related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water and salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on these exports has been found to occur in warmer climates as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate long term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex in a humid subtropical climate and compare exports to common characteristics of urbanization: urban land use, impervious surface area, and wastewater discharges. Long term data (1980 to 2008) was obtained from five USGS gauges located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalizing for time and the watershed area. In addition, grab samples were collected from the period of June 2009 to May 2010 and analyzed for Na and Cl. Results show a very strong positive relationship between urban land use, water fluxes, and impervious surface and the fluxes of both sodium and chloride from each watershed for the decades available. Long-term increases in fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percent urban land use. Fluxes were not related to the estimates of wastewater discharge, nor could atmospheric deposition or deicing salts account for significant amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. Based on the results the most likely source of Na and Cl is impervious surface deposition and erosion from within the watershed. Estimates of urban fluxes were lower than but similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts and suggest that other mechanisms may contribute to the climbing salinity in northern states.

Steele, M.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

2010-12-01

196

Optical damage of the surface of sodium and potassium chlorides by femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical damage thresholds for the surface of sodium and potassium chloride crystals irradiated by 80-fs laser pulses have been determined. P-polarized terawatt radiation of a chromium-forsterite laser operating at a wavelength of 1240 nm was incident on a sample surface at an angle of 35°. The optical damage of the crystal surface was observed when the electric field strength reached a critical level of 76 MV/cm for NaCl and 64 MV/cm for KCl.

Savintsev, A. P.

2008-02-01

197

Electrode Potentials of a Silver-Silver Chloride Electrode vs. Temperature for Biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to make clear the effect of temperature on the potentials of silver-silver chloride(Ag-AgCl) electrodes in potassium chloride(KCl) and sodium chloride(NaCl) solutions for micro biosensor applications. Non-isothermal coefficients, or thermal coefficient of Ag-AgCl electrodes in the concentrations of 0.1 to 1.0[mol/kg] were experimentally measured in the range of 15 to 45[°C]. The electrode was prepared by electrolytical process in KCl or NaCl solutions. The length and diameter of the electrode are 20[mm] and 3[mm], respectively. The coefficients in KCl solutions were 0.42[mV/°C] in 0.1[mol/kg] and 0.26[mV/°C] in 1.0[mol/kg] and almost the same in NaCl solutions. Isothermal coefficients were also measured. Although the coefficients must theoretically be zero by definition for all temperatures, the difference of potentials between a pair of electrodes which is called as offset voltage appears practically. They were 3?4[?V/°C] in 0.1[mol/kg] and 0.3[?V/°C] in 1[mol/kg] at the steady state of temperature. The values were depending on the degree of the uniformity of electrode surface.

Dendo, Isao; Seki, Kana

198

Formation and Optical Properties of New Laser - Color Centers in Sodium Chloride and Potassium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new, stable, color-center lasers have been recently demonstrated in additively colored NaCl and KCl. Both feature stable operation, are tunable in the near-infrared spectral region and are optically pumped by the commonly available 1.06-?m output of the Nd:YAG laser. In the case of NaCl, the laser-active defect was identified as the F_2^+:O ^{2-} center, while in the case of KCl the laser was based on the N_2 center. In this thesis, optical spectroscopic techniques have been employed to study the formation of these color centers, identify their structure, and probe various properties of the particular centers that are important for the corresponding laser operation. The laser-active color center in oxygen-doped NaCl is produced through a two-step photoaggregation process in additively colored crystals. Optical spectroscopy indicates that the point defect is a perturbed F_2 ^+ center. The center has very broad absorption and emission bands peaking at 1.09 ?m and 1.55 mum, respectively, with a dipole moment oriented along <110 > directions of the crystal. The center population can be fully aligned along any <110> direction by using two-photon pumping. Ground and excited-state absorption spectra compare well with the dielectrically embedded H_2^+ model for the eight transitions observed. UV spectroscopy has identified the substitutional O^{2-} ion as being the necessary impurity for the center formation. The proposed model for the color center is an O^ {2-}-perturbed F_2^+ defect. The perturbing O^{2 -} ion serves both as a stable electron trap as well as a spatial trap for the F_2^+ center. The N_2 laser-active center in pure KCl is most efficiently formed through a photoaggregation process in heavily colored crystals exposed to light on the long wavelengths shoulder of the F band. The observed room-temperature stability of the N_2 center indicates an electrically neutral defect. Absorption and emission bands peak at 1.02 ?m and 1.25 mum, respectively. The N_2-band absorbance grows proportionally to the R_1- and R_2 -band absorbances. Polarized N_2 -center fluorescence data is consistent with two degenerate orthogonal dipole moments lying on {111} planes of the crystal. Excited-state absorption spectra show higher transitions coincident in wavelength with the R _1 and R_2 absorption bands of the trigonal F_3 color center in KCl. Similar experiments on the R _1 band correlate well with the N _2-center data. Results are discussed in the context of the F_3-model predictions. Data on N and R centers in NaCl and KBr are discussed in comparison. While the nature of the N_1 band has not been conclusively determined, all experimental results are consistent with the identification of the N _2 band as a transition of the trigonal F _3 color center.

Georgiou, Efstratios Theodoros

199

The vapour pressure of water over saturated solutions of sodium sulfate, calcium bromide, ferric chloride, zinc nitrate, calcium nitrate, and lithium nitrate at temperatures from 278.15 K to 323.15 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of Na2SO4,CaBr2,FeCl3,Zn(NO3)2,Ca(NO3)2, and LiNO3 were determined in the temperature range from 278K to 323K using an electronic hygrometer with an electrolyte sensor and compared with literature data. Water activities, osmotic coefficients, and molar enthalpies of vapourization and solution at saturation point were evaluated from the determined vapour pressures.

Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

2002-01-01

200

Ultrastructural alterations of Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica caused by treatment with aluminum chloride and sodium metabisulfite.  

PubMed

Aluminum and bisulfite salts inhibit the growth of several fungi and bacteria, and their application effectively controls potato soft rot caused by Erwinia carotovora. In an effort to understand their inhibitory action, ultrastructural changes in Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica after exposure (0 to 20 min) to different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 M) of these salts were examined by using transmission electron microscopy. Plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by using the SYTOX Green fluorochrome that penetrates only cells with altered membranes. Bacteria exposed to all aluminum chloride concentrations, especially 0.2 M, exhibited loosening of the cell walls, cell wall rupture, cytoplasmic aggregation, and an absence of extracellular vesicles. Sodium metabisulfite caused mainly a retraction of plasma membrane and cellular voids which were more pronounced with increasing concentration. Bacterial mortality was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption when bacteria were exposed to either a high concentration (0.2 M) of aluminum chloride or prolonged exposure (20 min) to 0.05 M aluminum chloride or to a pH of 2.5. Bacteria exposed to lower concentrations of aluminum chloride (0.05 and 0.1 M) for 10 min or less, or to metabisulfite at all concentrations, did not exhibit significant stain absorption, suggesting that no membrane damage occurred or it was too weak to allow the penetration of the stain into the cell. While mortality caused by aluminum chloride involves membrane damage and subsequent cytoplasmic aggregation, sulfite exerts its effect intracellularly; it is transported across the membrane by free diffusion of molecular SO2 with little damage to the cellular membrane. PMID:15528547

Yaganza, Elian-Simplice; Rioux, Danny; Simard, Marie; Arul, Joseph; Tweddell, Russell J

2004-11-01

201

Structural properties of iron phases formed on low alloy steels immersed in sodium chloride-rich solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Products of corrosion were obtained from low alloy steels submitted to total immersion tests in solutions containing sodium chloride at different concentrations, during seven days. In order to properly characterize the adherent (AR) and the non-adherent rusts (NAR), a methodology including room temperature Mössbauer spectrometry, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction was addressed. The techniques showed that the AR samples were composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite, goethite, akaganeite and lepidocrocite. The composition of the NAR samples was the same, but with very small amounts of magnetite. Different cell parameters and mean crystallite sizes were found for all phases presented in AR and the NAR samples. The corrosion rates were higher than 580 ?m/y. The ratio of the abundances of goethite to the sum of lepidocrocite, akaganeite and magnetite were less than one.

Pérez, F. R.; Barrero, C. A.; Arnache, O.; Sánchez, L. C.; García, K. E.; Hight Walker, A. R.

2009-05-01

202

Electrodeposition of Al–Ni intermetallic compounds from aluminum chloride- N-( n-butyl)pyridinium chloride room temperature molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodeposition of aluminum–nickel intermetallic compounds (particularly Ni3Al) has been carried out onto platinum and mild steel cathodes from a 2:1 (mole ratio) aluminum(III) chloride-N-(n-butyl)pyridinium chloride (BPC) molten bath saturated with nickel(II) chloride at room temperature. A single phase of Al–Ni alloy is difficult to obtain by controlled-potential and controlled-current methods; however, it can be obtained by pulse current plating. The

Muhammad Rostom Ali; Atshushi Nishikata; Tooru Tsuru

2001-01-01

203

Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.  

PubMed

Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup. PMID:18284139

Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

2008-01-15

204

Investigation of lithium chloride/ambient-temperature 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquids. 1. Ion interactions in a neutral tetrachloraluminate melt  

SciTech Connect

Lithium chloride/ambient-temperature 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolinium chloride-aluminium chloride ionic liquids are of interest for use in lithium batteries. The authors studied ion interactions in this system using FTIR and NMR spectroscopies. It is found that Li{sup +} strongly effects the AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} ion. Effects of Li{sup +} concentration on the structure of the AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} ion and the physical properties of the liquids are discussed.

Fung, Y.S.; Chau, S.M.

1995-04-26

205

Comparison of collision- versus electron-induced dissociation of sodium chloride cluster cations.  

PubMed

The collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-induced dissociation (EID) spectra of the [(NaCl)(m)(Na)(n)](n+) clusters of sodium chloride have been examined in a hybrid linear ion trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. For singly charged cluster ions (n = 1), mass spectra for CID and EID of the precursor exhibit clear differences, which become more pronounced for the larger cluster ions. Whereas CID yields fewer product ions, EID produces all possible [(NaCl)(x)Na](+) product ions. In the case of doubly charged cluster ions, EID again leads to a larger variety of product ions. In addition, doubly charged product ions have been observed due to loss of neutral NaCl unit(s). For example, EID of [(NaCl)(11)(Na)(2)](2+) leads to formation of [(NaCl)(10)(Na)(2)](2+), which appears to be the smallest doubly charged cluster of sodium chloride observed experimentally to date. The most abundant product ions in EID spectra are predominantly magic number cluster ions. Finally, [(NaCl)(m)(Na)(2)](+*) radical cations, formed via capture of low-energy electrons, fragment via the loss of [(NaCl)(n)(Na)](*) radical neutrals. PMID:19051229

Feketeová, Linda; O'Hair, Richard A J

2009-01-01

206

Superiority of experts over novices in trueness and precision of concentration estimation of sodium chloride solutions.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that experts outperform novices in specific domains. However, the superiority of experts in accuracy, taking both trueness and precision into consideration, has not yet been explored. Here, we examined differences between expert and novice performances by evaluating the accuracy of their estimations of physical concentrations of sodium chloride in solutions while employing a visual analog scale. In Experiment 1, 14 experts and 13 novices tasted 6 concentrations of the solutions until they had learned their intensities. Subsequently, they repeatedly rated the concentration of 3 other solutions in random order. Although we did not find a difference between the performances of the 2 groups in trueness (difference between rating and correct concentration), the precision (consistency of ratings for each participant) of experts was higher than that of novices. In Experiment 2, 13 experts who had participated in Experiment 1 and 10 experts and 12 novices who had not participated in Experiment 1 rated the salt concentration in sodium chloride/sucrose mixtures in the same way as in Experiment 1. Both trueness and precision of performance were higher in both expert groups than in the novice group. By introducing precision and trueness parameters, we succeeded in quantifying the estimations of experts and novices in rating the concentration of solutions, revealing experts' superiority even for a task they had not been trained for. PMID:23315041

Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yui; Kimura, Atsushi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu; Kawai, Takayuki; Dan, Ippeita; Hayakawa, Fumiyo

2013-01-10

207

Thermal Inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila As Affected by Sodium Chloride and Ascorbic Acid  

PubMed Central

The combined effects of sodium chloride (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0%) and ascorbic acid (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/liter) with mild heat (46°C) on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. Because of the nonlinear nature of the survivor curves obtained, several equations yielding an R2 (coefficient of multiple determination) of ? 1 were tested. The equation that most closely fit the curvature of the observed data set was a hyperbolic function. Equation coefficients were combined to obtain a so-called death value. This value (46.67% explained variance) was calculated by extracting the larger eigenvalue and the relative eigenvector from the correlation matrix of the coefficients. the effects of the experimental factors on the death value were described by a quadratic response surface model. Results revealed that the death value was not influenced by the presence of ascorbic acid. However, increased mortality resulted from the interaction between sodium chloride and ascorbic acid.

Stecchini, Mara Lucia; Sarais, Ileana; Giomo, Andrea

1993-01-01

208

Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH on Enterotoxin B Production  

PubMed Central

Genigeorgis, Constantin (University of California, Davis), and Walter W. Sadler. Effect of sodium chloride and pH on enterotoxin B production. J. Bacteriol. 92:1383–1387. 1966.—The growth and production of enterotoxin B by Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 in Brain Heart Infusion broth with 2 to 16% sodium chloride and an initial pH of 5.1 to 6.9 was studied during a 10-day incubation period at 37 C. Growth was good at pH 6.9 and with a 16% concentration of salt, but no cells survived after 10 days of incubation at pH 5.1 and with a 16% concentration of salt. With geldiffusion technique, enterotoxin B was detected in broth with pH 6.9 and up to 10% salt or pH 5.1 and up to 4% salt. Growth and enterotoxin production were better when pH was increased and salt concentration was decreased. The dependence of toxin production on the interaction of these two factors was demonstrated.

Genigeorgis, Constantin; Sadler, Walter W.

1966-01-01

209

Changes in the wet precipitation of sodium and chloride over the continental United States, 1984-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on wet-only precipitation from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network were analysed for trends in the sodium and chloride fluxes over the United States between 1 January 1984 and 31 December 2006. The data were first checked for consistency and for ionic balance. It was necessary to correct for changes in bicarbonate due to changes in atmospheric CO 2 levels over the study period, in order to obtain a balance. The fluxes were calculated and the trends determined by linear regression in the log domain. The significance of the trends was checked using both F- and t-tests. At 154 sites having reasonably continuous records over the assessment period, the sodium flux fell significantly at 139 and increased significantly at only one. The chloride flux similarly fell significantly at 140 and increased significantly at the same one as the sodium flux increased. At coastal sites the chloride to sodium ratio was the same as that in sea water, within experimental limits. Further from the coast the ratio changed apparently due to changes in the entire aerosol chemistry. The findings are discussed in terms of the simplicity and robustness of the methodology employed to determine the trends; the oceanic origin of most observable sodium even in the interior of the continent, probably because it occurs as a fine (<1 micron) aerosol which is poorly scavenged by precipitation; and the possibility that the drop in sodium and chloride fluxes might be driven by climate change.

Lloyd, Philip J.

2010-08-01

210

Preparation of lead titanate and of solid solutions based on it from sodium and potassium chloride melts  

SciTech Connect

The authors determine the kinetics and the mechanism of formation of lead titanate from the oxides in a melt of the equimolecular mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides. Tests were performed with capacitor-grade TiO/sub 2/ with a rutile structure, and pure-grade PbO, NaCl, and KCl. The properties of ceramic samples of lead titanate and of the solid solution based on it, prepared by the solid-phase method and in the presence of molten sodium and potassium chlorides are presented. The interaction between the oxides of lead and titanium in molten sodium and potassium chlorides takes place in the diffusion regime. The kinetics of the reaction are described by Jander's equation.

Lopatin, S.S.; Lupeiko, T.G.; Ivleva, T.I.; Medvedev, B.S.; Protasenya, T.S.; Lobas, L.M.

1987-06-01

211

Adverse effects of sodium chloride on bone in the aging human population resulting from habitual consumption of typical American diets.  

PubMed

A typical American diet contains amounts of sodium chloride far above evolutionary norms and potassium far below those norms. It also contains larger amounts of foods that are metabolized to noncarbonic acids than to organic bases. At baseline, in a steady state, diets that contain substantial sodium chloride and diets that are net acid producing each independently induce and sustain increased acidity of body fluid. With increasing age, the kidney's ability to excrete daily net acid loads declines, invoking homeostatically increased utilization of base stores (bone, skeletal muscle) on a daily basis to mitigate the otherwise increasing baseline metabolic acidosis, which results in increased calciuria and net losses of body calcium. Those effects of net acid production and its attendant increased body fluid acidity may contribute to development of osteoporosis and renal stones, loss of muscle mass, and age-related renal insufficiency. The inverted ratio of potassium to sodium in the diet compared with preagricultural diets affects cardiovascular function adversely and contributes to hypertension and stroke. The diet can return to its evolutionary norms of net base production inducing low-grade metabolic alkalosis and a high potassium-to-sodium ratio by 1) greatly reducing content of energy-dense nutrient-poor foods and potassium-poor acid-producing cereal grains, which would entail increasing consumption of potassium-rich net base-producing fruits and vegetables for maintenance of energy balance, and 2) greatly reducing sodium chloride consumption. Increasingly, evidence supports the health benefits of reestablishing evolutionary norms of dietary net base loads and high potassium and low sodium chloride loads. We focus here on the American diet's potential effects on bone through its superphysiologic content of sodium chloride. PMID:18203914

Frassetto, Lynda A; Morris, R Curtis; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Sebastian, Anthony

2008-02-01

212

Dissociation constants of oxalic acid in aqueous sodium chloride and sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate media to 175 C  

SciTech Connect

Ethanedioic acid (oxalic acid) is ubiquitous in soils where its concentration is buffered by the presence of the minerals. Because of its ability to form strong complexes with metals, oxalic acid is used to decontaminate the cooling circuits of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The first and second molal dissociation constants of oxalic acid were measured potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Measurements were made at six temperatures ranging from 5 C to 125 C at four ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 mol/kg to 1.0 mol/kg (NaCl and NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}). The second molal dissociation constant was measured in NaCF{sub 3}SO{sub 3} media only. The data obtained in this study were combined with the corresponding literature values, including a number of recalculated Harned cell and concentration cell measurements and previous results form this laboratory. Data for first molal dissociation constant obtained in the two ionic media were regressed simultaneously to yield a five-term equation that describes the dissociation in the anionic form. The thermodynamic properties obtained at 25 C and infinite dilution are: log K{sub 1a}{sup {circle_minus}} = {minus}1.401 {+-} 0.052, {Delta}H{sub 1a} = ({minus}0.7 {+-} 0.7) kJ/mol, {Delta}S{sub 1a} = ({minus}29 {+-} 2) J/K mol, and {Delta}C{sub p,1a} = ({minus}231 {+-} 6) J/K mol. Similar treatment of the original and recalculated data for the second molal dissociation constant yielded a nine-term equation and the following values at 25 C and infinite dilution: log K{sub 2a}{sup {circle_minus}} = {minus}4.264 {+-} 0.014, {Delta}H{sub 2a} = ({minus}7.3 {+-} 0.5) kJ/mol, {Delta}S{sub 2a} = ({minus}106 {+-} 2) J/K mol, and {Delta}C{sub p,2a} = ({minus}229 {+-} 27) J/K mol.

Kettler, R.M. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Geology; Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical and Analytical Sciences Div.

1998-05-01

213

Baroreflex impairment precedes hypertension during chronic cerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride in rats.  

PubMed Central

Osmotic minipumps were implanted chronically for continuous 11-d infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl) into the third cerebral ventricle (ICV) of awake rats to determine whether baroreflex sensitivity would be altered. Systolic and mean pressures, recorded from aortic catheters on day 11 while the rats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, were significantly higher in rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing hypertonic NaCl than in controls similarly infused with artificial CSF alone. Reflex changes in heart rate produced by subsequent intravenous infusions of either phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside were inhibited, but reflex changes in renal nerve activity were unaltered. Magnitude of reflex bradycardia during pressor responses to phenylephrine, as well as of reflex tachycardia during depressor responses to sodium nitroprusside, was consistently smaller in NaCl-infused than in control rats. By contrast, group differences in attendant renal nerve firing were not significant. After sinoaortic denervation, drug-induced blood pressure effects persisted, but reflex responses in heart rate and renal nerve firing were abolished or markedly diminished. Peripheral effects produced by hypertonic NaCl leakage from the infusion site were considered unlikely because after 11 d of ICV infusion, sodium concentration, though appreciably elevated in CSF samples collected from the cisterna magna, was unaffected in corresponding serum samples. When cardiovascular responses to phenylephrine were recorded while chronic ICV infusions were in progress, awake rats receiving hypertonic NaCl were still normotensive on day 2 yet reflex bradycardia was already attenuated. In showing that baroreflex impairment preceded the development of hypertension, our results suggest that by depressing the anterior hypothalamus, chronic ICV infusion of hypertonic NaCl reduces sympatho-inhibition, and the ensuing baroreflex impairment then elevates blood pressure. However, other mechanisms could also be involved. Images

Bunag, R D; Miyajima, E

1984-01-01

214

Nanoscale supramolecular structures in the gels of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) interacting with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

SciTech Connect

A highly ordered supramolecular structure is formed in the polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexe between the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the cationic network of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMACl). From small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the complexes between PDADMACI and SDS were shown to exhibit a hexagonal type of microstructure which is different from that of pure SDS. A d spacing of 3.7 nm corresponding to the interdistance between SDS aggregates in the gel network was obtained. The intensity of the diffraction peaks and the degree of order increased with increasing initial SDS concentration and charge content of the PDADMACl gels. The diffraction peaks were broadened when the concentration of SDS in the external solution phase was higher than its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The SAXS profiles were unexpectedly independent of the degree of cross-linking of the PDADMACI gels in the range of 0.5-2%. 27 refs., 6 figs.

Yeh, F.; Sokolov, E.L.; Khokhlov, A.R.; Chu, B. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1996-07-17

215

Hydrogen embrittlement of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium was investigated in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 1 under potential control at 70 C. Grade 2 titanium was, at most, slightly susceptible to HE under the test conditions, whereas grade 3 titanium was very susceptible at an electrochemical potential below {minus}800 mV{sub SCE}. This phase could be observed in the interior of grade 3 titanium at lower potentials (e.g., {minus}1,400 mV{sub SCE}) after extended cathodic charging. Hydrides were never observed in the interior of grade 2 titanium. Formation of these hydrides in the interior of grade 3 titanium and not in grade 2 was attributed to the higher oxygen content of grade 3.

Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1998-07-01

216

Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AP65 in 3.5% Sodium Chloride Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloy AP65 was prepared by melting and casting. The corrosion behavior of the as-cast and solid solution (T4)-treated AP65 alloys in 3.5% sodium chloride solution was investigated by corrosion morphology observation, immersion test, and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the second phase Mg17Al12 surrounded by a lead-enriched area distributes discontinuously along the grain boundaries in the as-cast AP65 alloy. The lead-enriched areas with high activity are susceptible to be attacked during immersion test and can act as places for preferential anodic dissolution. The corrosion resistance of the as-cast AP65 alloy can be improved after T4 treatment and the T4-treated alloy suffers general corrosion.

Wang, Nai-guang; Wang, Ri-chu; Peng, Chao-qun; Feng, Yan

2012-07-01

217

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium chloride to 823 K and 1 kbar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that a very simple semi-empirical equation represents accurately the thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride from 373 K to 823 K. The equation comprises one Margules term and a Debye-Hueckel term. Just the one Margules parameter is freely adjustable since the Debye-Hueckel parameter is determined by the properties of water. The equation is valid from the saturation composition down to infinite dilution for solvent density above 0.75 g cm(+3) but at lower density only above a solute mole fraction of about 0.1 on an ionized basis. Both solute and solvent activity coefficients are fitted from the lowest pressure of solution existence up to 1 kbar. Derivation of enthalpy and other related functions is discussed.

Pitzer, K. S.; Li, Y. G.

1983-08-01

218

Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage.  

PubMed

The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones. PMID:14632001

Gordils-Striker, Nilda E; Colon, Guillermo

2003-01-01

219

Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist. streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in sodium and chloride in atmospheric inputs (rainfall and mist), stream runoff and groundwater stores are documented for the upper Severn River (Afon Hafren and Afon Hore catchments), Plynlimon, mid-Wales. The results show five salient features.

  1. Sodium and chloride concentrations are highly variable and highly correlated in rainfall and mist. The sodium-chloride relationship in rainfall has a slope close to the sodium/chloride ratio in sea-water, and an intercept that is not significantly different from zero. This indicates that sea-salt is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in rainfall, which would be expected given the maritime nature of the metrology. For mist, there is also a straight line with near-zero intercept, but with a slightly higher gradient than the sea-salt ratio, presumably due to small additional sodium inputs from other sources.
  2. There is an approximate input-output balance for both sodium and chloride, with the exception of one groundwater well, in which high chemical weathering results in an anomalous high Na/Cl ratio. Thus, atmospheric deposition is the dominant source of both sodium and chloride in groundwater and streamflow.
  3. The fluctuations in sodium and chloride concentrations in the streams and groundwaters are strongly damped compared to those in the rain and the mist, reflecting the storage and mixing of waters in the subsurface.
  4. On all timescales, from weeks to years, sodium fluctuations are more strongly damped than chloride fluctuations in streamflow. The additional damping of sodium is consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.
  5. Sodium and chloride concentrations are linearly correlated in the streams and groundwaters, but the slope is almost universally less than the sea-salt ratio and there is a non-zero intercept. The Na/Cl ratio in streamflow and groundwater is higher than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is low and lower than the sea-salt ratio when salinity is high. This pattern of behaviour is again consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils.
The core features of this study are two fold. Firstly, sodium and chloride concentrations are highly damped within the streams and groundwaters relative to the atmospheric input. Secondly, streamflow sodium and chloride respond in similar ways across the catchments, except for the added cation exchange damping of the sodium signal. These findings are remarkable given the heterogeneous nature of the catchments and the complexity of the chemical time series signals in the streams.

Neal, C.; Kirchner, J. W.

220

Computed tomography for quantitative determination of sodium chloride in ground pork and dry-cured hams.  

PubMed

Seventy-five ground meat and fat samples of pork with varying composition of sodium chloride (0% to 16%), fat (1% to 82%), protein (1% to 46%), and water (13% to 76%) were scanned by X-ray computed tomography (CT) at 110 kV. The dependency of CT value on chemical composition and the linear relationships between sodium chloride (NaCl) and CT value were modeled. When all ground samples were used for modeling and no information of chemical composition was included in the model, the prediction error for NaCl was 2.8%. Adding information on fat or protein content to the model reduced the error to 1.6%. A minimal prediction error of 0.2% for NaCl was found when the variation in chemical composition was strongly reduced. In addition, 22 samples of dry-cured ham lean and fat tissues at different processing stages were CT scanned; their chemical compositions were 0% to 14% NaCl, 1% to 85% fat, 5% to 33% protein, and 7% to 76% water. The NaCl content in dry-cured ham samples was modeled with prediction errors of 0.6% to 2.1%, depending on which chemical component was included in the models. In general, predictions were improved if either the range of concentrations was reduced or information of chemical composition was included in the models. Important sources of error in the models were the reproduction error for ground samples, and for ham samples the analytical errors in determining the chemical composition. PMID:17995600

Håseth, T T; Egelandsdal, B; Bjerke, F; Sørheim, O

2007-10-01

221

Influence of polyethylene oxide on the rheological properties of semidilute, wormlike micellar solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride and sodium salicylate.  

PubMed

The influence of polyethylene oxide (PEO) on the rheological properties of equimolar wormlike micellar solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (HTAC) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) is investigated, above the concentration where a micellar entanglement network is formed. PEO is known to have a temperature-dependent binding affinity for HTAC micelles. The influence of temperature, PEO concentration, and HTAC concentration is explored. Within the concentration and temperature range examined (25-100 mM HTAC and 25-50 degrees C), HTAC/NaSal solutions exhibit rheological characteristics of an entanglement network. Application of transient network theory provides information in the form of the plateau modulus, G(infinity)', the terminal viscoelastic relaxation time, tau(R), the reptation time, tau(rep), the micellar breaking time, tau(br), the mean micellar length, L , and the entanglement length, l(e). Consistent with literature data, increase of HTAC concentration results in an evolution from slow-breaking to fast-breaking behavior, accompanied by an increase in G(infinity)' and tau(rep), and decreases in tau(R), and tau(br), l(e) and L . Addition of PEO results in a substantial decrease in G(infinity)' (increase in l(e)), and corresponding increases in tau(R) and L . These observations are consistent with the idea that binding of HTAC micelles to PEO in aqueous solution decreases the number of surfactant molecules available to contribute to the entanglement network of wormlike micelles. PMID:17045601

Suksamranchit, Siriluck; Sirivat, Anuvat; Jamieson, Alexander M

2006-09-16

222

Impacts of venturi turbulent mixing on the size distributions of sodium chloride and dioctyl-phthalate aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulent mixing created by the ejector causes change in the size distribution of particles passing through it. The results using dry solid sodium chloride (NaCl) particles show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and the geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for

Meng-Dawn Cheng; John M. Storey; Thomas Wainman; Thang Dam

2002-01-01

223

Effects of formaldehyde, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide on hatch rate of African catfish Clarias gariepinus eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study evaluating the effects of formaldehyde, sodium chloride, potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide treatment on the hatching success of C. gariepinus eggs was carried out from April to July 2006. Eggs were artificially fertilized, 50 counted and subjected to a static bath dip treatment in given concentrations of the above chemicals for either 15, 30 or 60-minute durations before

Joseph Rasowo; Oyoo Elijah Okoth; Charles Chege Ngugi

2007-01-01

224

Enhanced HSP30 and HSP70 accumulation in Xenopus cells subjected to concurrent sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride stress.  

PubMed

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that aid in protein folding, translocation and in preventing stress-induced protein aggregation. The present study examined the effect of simultaneous sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride treatment on the pattern of HSP30 and HSP70 accumulation in A6 kidney epithelial cells of the frog, Xenopus laevis. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HSP30 and HSP70 accumulation in concurrent stressor treatments were significantly higher than the sum of HSP30 or HSP70 accumulation in individual treatments. This finding suggested a synergistic action between sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. KNK437 inhibitor studies indicated that the combined stressor-induced accumulation of HSPs may be regulated, at least in part, at the level of transcription. Immunocytochemistry revealed that simultaneous treatment of cells with the two stressors induced HSP30 accumulation primarily in the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern with some dysregulation of F-actin structure. Increased ubiquitinated protein accumulation was observed with combined sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride treatment compared to individual stressors suggesting an impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome degradation system. The addition of a mild heat shock further enhanced the accumulation of HSP30 and HSP70 in response to relatively low concentrations of sodium arsenite plus cadmium chloride. PMID:23919948

Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

2013-08-03

225

Influence of sodium chloride, carbonates, and iron hydroxides on the viscosity of aqueous suspensions of clay minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of sodium chloride solutions containing carbon dioxide on the viscosity of a maximally destroyed structure of suspensions of hydromica, kaolinite, natural iron-containing polymineral carbonate clay, iron oxides, and freshly prepared and dried montmorillonite is studied. The effect of physicochemical transformations of finely dispersed carbonates on the surface structure of a dispersed phase in suspensions of clay and iron

I. G. Kovzun; I. M. Kovalenko; I. T. Protsenko

2005-01-01

226

Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.  

PubMed

Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component. PMID:22236112

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

2012-01-31

227

In situ activation of ?-galactosidase of Kluyveromyces bulgaricus resting cells by sodium and potassium phosphates and chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation of Kluyveromyces bulgaricus in sodium and potassium salts led to in vivo activation of ß-galactosidase. The activation reaction was relatively slow since, at 37°C, it took 30 min to come to completion. The reaction was irreversible and was favoured by high salt concentrations with chlorides proving to be more efficient than phosphates. After incubation in KCl, the final activity

N. van Huynh; M. Decleire

1985-01-01

228

Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution–moistened misoprostol tablets: Historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the abortifacient effect of intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets with that of the combination regimen of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. Study Design: One hundred women at ?56 days’ gestation received 800 ?g misoprostol intravaginally in the form of sodium chloride solution–moistened tablets. The dose was repeated 24 hours later if a

John K. Jain; Karen R. Meckstroth; Daniel R. Mishell

1999-01-01

229

The effect of furosemide on luminal sodium, chloride and potassium transport in the early distal tubule of Amphiuma kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments in the early distal tubule of the doubly perfused kidney ofAmphiuma demonstrated net reabsorption of potassium (K) which is reversed to net K secretion after K adaptation. Furthermore, it is known that this particular segment exhibits extensive chloride (Cl) net reabsorption which depends on the presence of sodium (Na) and which is inhibited by furosemide. In order to

H. Oberleithner; W. Guggino; G. Giebisch

1983-01-01

230

Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). PMID:21645975

Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

2011-05-19

231

Volcanically emitted sodium chloride as a source for Io's neutral clouds and plasma torus.  

PubMed

The atmosphere of Jupiter's satellite Io is extremely tenuous, time variable and spatially heterogeneous. Only a few molecules--SO2, SO and S2--have previously been identified as constituents of this atmosphere, and possible sources include frost sublimation, surface sputtering and active volcanism. Io has been known for almost 30 years to be surrounded by a cloud of Na, which requires an as yet unidentified atmospheric source of sodium. Sodium chloride has been recently proposed as an important atmospheric constituent, based on the detection of chlorine in Io's plasma torus and models of Io's volcanic gases. Here we report the detection of NaCl in Io's atmosphere; it constitutes only approximately 0.3% when averaged over the entire disk, but is probably restricted to smaller regions than SO2 because of its rapid photolysis and surface condensation. Although the inferred abundance of NaCl in volcanic gases is lower than predicted, those volcanic emissions provide an important source of Na and Cl in Io's neutral clouds and plasma torus. PMID:12511948

Lellouch, E; Paubert, G; Moses, J I; Schneider, N M; Strobel, D F

2003-01-01

232

EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by

Douglas L. Porter

2011-01-01

233

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal\\/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium\\/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlClâ), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlClâ melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function

Stephen Pye; J. Winnick; P. A. Kohl

1997-01-01

234

Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.  

PubMed

Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ?1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment. PMID:21067131

Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

2010-11-10

235

Effects of potassium lactate, sodium chloride, and sodium acetate on surface shininess\\/gloss and sensory properties of injection-enhanced beef strip-loin steaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the effects of potassium lactate (0% or 1.5%; KL), sodium chloride (0.3% or 0.6%), and sodium acetate (0% or 0.1%) on injection-enhanced (8.5% pump), beef strip-loin steaks. All treatments contained 0.3% phosphate and 0.058% rosemary. Steaks were packaged in a high-oxygen modified atmosphere (80% O2\\/20% CO2) and were evaluated on d 2, 9, and 14

R. C. Knock; M. Seyfert; M. C. Hunt; M. E. Dikeman; R. A. Mancini; J. A. Unruh; J. J. Higgins; R. A. Monderen

2006-01-01

236

Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

2012-06-01

237

Removal of Sodium Sulfate from a Sulfate-Containing Sodium Chloride Solution in a Process for Separating Zirconium and Hafnium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to the removal of sodium sulfate in a process for separating zirconium and hafnium, and relates in one embodiment to the recovery of sodium sulfate having a purity greater than 99.9%.

R. A. Guidotti

1979-01-01

238

Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack, again limited to the crevice region. However, the 24 hr E{sub corr} value was higher for the Ca based solution; this is probably due to the higher acidity of this solution (Ca{sup 2+} is slightly hydrolyzing). Intermediate-term corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) measurements indicate that moderately acidic conditions are required to achieve elevated E{sub corr} values.

Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

2006-01-17

239

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)20–poly(propylene oxide)70–poly(ethylene oxide)20 (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) at 60°C for 25min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl4 molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be

Won-Ki Lee; Sang-Ho Cha; Ki-Hyun Kim; Byung-Woo Kim; Jong-Chan Lee

2009-01-01

240

Lack of the Sodium-Driven Chloride Bicarbonate Exchanger NCBE Impairs Visual Function in the Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABAA receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pHi regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

Hilgen, Gerrit; Huebner, Antje K.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seide, Christina; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Lowel, Siegrid; Weiler, Reto

2012-01-01

241

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

242

Effect of intra- and extra-liposomal distribution of sodium chloride on the stability of large unilamellar vesicles.  

PubMed

Three groups of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) dispersions were studied: LUV (A) dispersions with only extraliposomal sodium chloride (NaCl), LUV (B) dispersions with intra- and extraliposomal NaCl, and LUV (C) dispersions with only intraliposomal NaCl. The NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 150 mM. An abrupt increase in leakage was observed around -10 degree C for all the three groups of LUV, which coincided with the temperature of extraliposomal ice formation. Within the three groups, leakage of LUV (C) was significantly higher than the other groups. Extraliposomal ice formation and the resulting freeze-concentration of LUV may be the major cause of the leakage. Intraliposomal ice formation observed at -43 degree C seemed to stop leakage of LUV when LUV were frozen below -43 degree C. An exotherm of eutectic crystallization of NaCl was occasionally observed at -37 degree C, with a higher probability of formation at 150 mM extraliposomal NaCl than at 50 mM. The eutectic crystals were thought to cause additional leakage from the LUV (B). PMID:18183324

Siow, Lee Fong; Rades, Thomas; Lim, Miang Hoong

243

Standard state thermodynamic properties of completely dissociated hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium hydroxide at extreme temperatures and pressures.  

PubMed

Standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated hydrochloric acid were fixed by ionic additivity, using the data from other strong electrolytes perrhenic acid, sodium perrhenate, and sodium chloride from 298.15 to 598.15 K and at p(sat). The standard electrode potential for the important silver-silver chloride electrode system and the equilibrium constants for the volatility of HCl from aqueous solutions were then calculated and compared with literature data. Using the experimental data from this study and auxiliary data from literature, the logarithm of the molal association constant of HCl at the critical temperature of water and at 673.15 K up to 1000 MPa was predicted from the unified theory of electrolytes (UTE). The standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated aqueous sodium hydroxide were also calculated by ionic additivity over the same temperature range from aqueous sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and the dissociation constant of water. The results were compared with literature data. PMID:19606908

Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

2009-08-01

244

Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate.  

PubMed

There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our objectives were to identify potential levels of uptake as the trees developed and stages of plantation development that are conducive to variable application rates of high-salinity irrigation. The projected cumulative uptake of Cl- and Na+ during mid-rotation plantation development was stable 2 to 3 years after planting but increased steadily from year 3 to 6. Year six cumulative uptake ranged from 22 to 175 kg Cl- ha(-1) and 8 to 74 kg Na+ ha(-1), while annual uptake ranged from 8 to 54 kg Cl- ha(-1) yr(-1) and 3 to 23 kg Na+ ha(-1) yr(-1). Full-rotation uptake was greatest from 4 to 9 years (Cl-) and 4 to 8 years (Na+), with maximum levels of Cl- (32 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Na+ (13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) occurring in year six. The relative uptake potential of Cl- and Na+ at peak accumulation (year six) was 2.7 times greater than at the end of the rotation. PMID:19810351

Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S

2009-07-01

245

Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6.  

PubMed

The SLC6 family is a diverse set of transporters that mediate solute translocation across cell plasma membranes by coupling solute transport to the cotransport of sodium and chloride down their electrochemical gradients. These transporters probably have 12 transmembrane domains, with cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal tails, and at least some may function as homo-oligomers. Family members include the transporters for the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, the aminergic transmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, the osmolytes betaine and taurine, the amino acid proline, and the metabolic compound creatine. In addition, this family includes a system B(0+) cationic and neutral amino acid transporter, and two transporters for which the solutes are unknown. In general, SLC6 transporters act to regulate the level of extracellular solute concentrations. In the central and the peripheral nervous system, these transporters can regulate signaling among neurons, are the sites of action of various drugs of abuse, and naturally occurring mutations in several of these proteins are associated with a variety of neurological disorders. For example, transgenic animals lacking specific aminergic transporters show profoundly disturbed behavioral phenotypes and probably represent excellent systems for investigating psychiatric disease. SLC6 transporters are also found in many non-neural tissues, including kidney, intestine, and testis, consistent with their diverse physiological roles. Transporters in this family represent attractive therapeutic targets because they are subject to multiple forms of regulation by many different signaling cascades, and because a number of pharmacological agents have been identified that act specifically on these proteins. PMID:12719981

Chen, Nian-Hang; Reith, Maarten E A; Quick, Michael W

2003-04-29

246

Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic) and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose). All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

Agarwal, Astha; Jain, Amita

2013-01-01

247

Oxidative aging of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

2012-10-01

248

Congenital pseudohypoaldosteronism: case report and review. Effect of indomethacin during sodium chloride depletion.  

PubMed

A newborn boy (birth weight 2550 g) presented from the first days of life with poor drinking, moderate vomiting and persistent weight loss. On hospital admission at age 4 weeks, there were severe dehydration, dystrophy and electrolyte disturbances (Na 107, Cl 80, K 5,4 mval/l). The usual causes of salt wasting were excluded, but plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone and urinary aldosterone-18-glucuronide were markedly increased. DOCA had no salt-retaining effect, but a sodium chloride supplement of 3 g per day improved the clinical condition dramatically and normalized the electrolyte values. With this treatment, plasma renin activity and aldosterone were normal or almost normal beyond the age of 6.5 months, but urinary aldosterone-18-glucuronide remained slightly increased. Considerable augmentation of the plasma renin activity and of urinary aldosterone-18-glucuronide, but no clear salt loss were induced by spironolactone. With salt restriction, there was evidence for marked salt loss. Its progress could be inhibited by administration of indomethacin. Since indomethacin inhibits the synthesis of prostaglandins with saluretic activity, it is probable that the prostaglandins participate in the pathogenesis of the salt wasting in pseudohypoaldosteronism. PMID:659259

Rampini, S; Furrer, J; Keller, H P; Bucher, H; Zachmann, M

1978-06-01

249

Effect of transient sodium chloride shock loads on the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is a promising technological option to meet water reuse demands. Though MBR provides effluent quality of reusable standard, its versatility to shock loads remains unexplored. The present study investigates the robustness of MBR under sodium chloride shock load (5-60 g/L) conditions. A bench scale aerobic submerged MBR (6L working volume) with polyethylene hollow fiber membrane module (pore size 0.4 microm) was operated with synthetic wastewater at steady state OLR of 3.6g COD/L/d and HRT of 8h. This resulted in 99% TSS removal and 95% COD and TKN removal. The COD removal during the salt shock load was in the range of 84-64%. The TSS removal showed maximum disturbance (88%) with a corresponding decrease in biomass MLVSS by 8% at 60 g/L shock. TKN removal was reduced due to inhibition of nitrification with increasing shock loads. It took about 4-9 days for the MBR to regain its steady state performance. PMID:20471251

Yogalakshmi, K N; Joseph, Kurian

2010-05-14

250

Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (RMA) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. Then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h E. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2) ] were tested in parallel as controls. Sorbate salt produced the largest and most significant reduction of fluorescence intensity in the RMA assay. Neither NaCl nor potassium sorbate (KS) alone induced a clinically relevant reduction of CFU counts after 1 h. Surprisingly, the combination of the two in a single solution had a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. faecalis. Potassium sorbate amplified the efficacy of NaCl. Of the salts tested, NaCl with KS eradicated E. faecalis biofilms within 1 h. This study showed that the double-hurdle strategy indeed leads to synergistic efficacy and is a possible next step in the complete disinfection of endodontic infections. PMID:22985004

van der Waal, Suzette V; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Wesselink, Paul R; Crielaard, Wim

2012-08-10

251

Interactive effects of sodium chloride and calcium chloride on the accumulation of proline and glycinebetaine in peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plants, including peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), when exposed to salinity stress produce the osmoticants: proline and glycinebetaine. Calcium ions also play a role in osmoprotection. During germination of peanut seeds subjected to NaCl salinity stress, proline and glycinebetaine concentrations in the embryonic axis increased continuously. A further increase in glycinebetaine concentration was observed with the addition of calcium chloride

C Girija; B. N Smith; P. M Swamy

2002-01-01

252

Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar Observations of the Mesopause Region Temperature and Wind Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the mesopause region temperature structure are being routinely conducted at Urbana, Illinois with the University of Illinois (UIUC) Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar. The first measurements were taken with this system in Jan. 1991 and are n...

D. C. Senft D. R. Scherrer C. S. Gardner

1992-01-01

253

Solubilities and other physical parameters of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions as determined by headspace analysis  

SciTech Connect

The solubility, Henry`s law constant, aqueous-vapor partition coefficients, and oil-aqueous distribution coefficients of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene,m-xylene and p-xylene were determined in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions at 25C. Values are in agreement with using gas chromatography of headspace literature. The salting-out effect of sodium chloride on the solute properties measured was illustrated using the empirical relationship deduced by Setschenow (1889). The empirical relationship predicts that the logarithm of solubility will be a function of ionic strength. The solubility data obtained in this work obeys this relationship. It was also found that the logarithm of the Henry`s law constant, partition coefficient, and distribution coefficient are linear functions of ionic strength. 10 tabs, 6 figs.

Lowry, M.A.H.

1991-12-31

254

MODELING OF REACTION KINETICS AND TRANSPORT IN THE POSITIVE POROUS ELECTRODE IN A SODIUM-IRON CHLORIDE BATTERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional mathematical model of the positive electrode of a sodium-iron chloride battery for an isothermal, constant-current discharge-charge cycle is presented. Macroscopic theory of porous electrodes and concentrated solution theory are used in the model to describe the transport processes. The change in the solubility of FeCl2 with position and time within the cell is included in the model by

Damla Eroglu; Alan C. West

255

Effect of Sodium Chloride on Growth, Nutrient Accumulation, and Nitrogen Fixation of Common Bean Plants in Symbiosis with Isogenic Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl)-salinity on growth responses and tissues organic solutes and mineral content was investigated in common bean plants inoculated with salt-tolerant Rhizobium tropici wild-type strain CIAT899 and four mutant derivatives having decreased salt-tolerance (DST). Under non-saline conditions two mutants formed partially effective (HB10, HB12) and another two almost ineffective (HB8, HB13) nodules. A great variation of

N. A. Tejera; R. Campos; J. Sanjuan; C. Lluch

2005-01-01

256

Sodium Chloride-Induced Changes in Mineral Nutrients and Proline Accumulation in Indica Rice Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increasing sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 300 mM) stress was investigated on plant growth, mineral nutrients, and proline accumulation in two indica rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. The shoots and roots of ‘Karjat-3’ (salt sensitive cv.) showed greater reduction in fresh weight, dry weight, and water content under increasing salinity stress when compared to ‘Panvel-3’ (salt

Vinay Kumar; Varsha Shriram; T. D. Nikam; Narendra Jawali; M. G. Shitole

2008-01-01

257

Inhibition of vacuolation toxin activity of Helicobacter pylori by iodine, nitrite and potentiation by sodium chloride, sterigmatocystin and fluoride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxin VacA produced by Helicobacter pylori is an important determinant of virulence. VacA causes vacuolation of cultured cells such as HeLa cells. Iodine, nitrite, sodium chloride, thiocyanate and fungus toxin sterigmatocystin are universally present in nature and could possibly be related to carcinogenesis of the stomach. The present study was designed to examine the effects of the above-mentioned compound

Fengjuan Ma; Wenyuan Zhao; Masanobu Kudo; Kazuo Aoki; Junichi Misumi

2002-01-01

258

Liquid–liquid–solid equilibria for the quaternary system water+ethanol+1-pentanol+sodium chloride at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salting-out effect can be used to improve the extraction of some solutes by modifying the solute distribution between two liquid phases. In this work we report the results obtained for the quaternary system water+ethanol+1-pentanol+sodium chloride at 25°C. All equilibrium regions (one liquid, two liquids, one liquid+one solid and two liquids+one solid zones) have been systematically studied. Tie lines and tie-triangles

M. M. Olaya; A. Botella; A. Marcilla

1999-01-01

259

Aggregation and micellization of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of Ce(III) at different temperatures: A conductometric study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregation properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence of cerium(III) chloride, at various temperatures (298.15–323.15 K) have been measured by the electrical conductance technique. The experimental data on aqueous solutions as a function of SDS concentration show the presence of two inflexion points indicating the presence of two distinct interaction mechanisms: the first, occurring at SDS concentrations below

Artur J. M. Valente; Hugh D. Burrows; Sandra M. A. Cruz; Rui F. P. Pereira; Ana C. F. Ribeiro; Victor M. M. Lobo

2008-01-01

260

The coprecipitation of strontium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride ions with gypsum. An experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coprecipitation of Sr 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , K + and Cl - into gypsum was studied as a function of temperature, brine concentration and growth rate. The concentrations of the studied cations in the gypsum increase with growth rate (kinetic effect), with a tendency to reach a limiting value at high growth rates. The partition coefficients of Sr tend to increase with brine concentration and decrease with temperature. The partition coefficients of the other cations also decrease with temperature but depend only very slightly on brine concentration. The concentrations of coprecipitated chloride are negligibly small. The coprecipitation behavior is explained in terms of the relation between the rate of desorption of the coprecipitating ions from the surface of the growing crystal, and the rate of growth. The studied cations may substitute for Ca 2+ in its normal lattice sites and/or reside in interstitial positions among the structural water molecules. The relative amount of foreign cations occupying interstitial positions increases with increasing growth rate. The elucidation of the behavior of coprecipitated ions in gypsum given here forms a basis for the utilization of these ions as geochemical indicators for the environment of deposition of gypsum. These indicators may help in reconstructing important parameters such as temperature, brine concentration and growth rate.

Kushnir, Jacob

1980-10-01

261

Interactions of compounds adsorbed on an 80%. cap alpha. -cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixture investigated by diffuse  

SciTech Connect

The interactions of ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-analyte responsible for the luminescence phenomenon observed from compounds adsorbed on an 80% ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixture were compared with the interactions of the prepared solid-phase ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin complexes of the compounds. Diffuse reflectance spectrometry and luminescence spectrometry were used in the study. The luminescence data with benzo(f)quinoline (B(f)Q) indicated that the nitrogen-containing ring of B(f)Q was inside the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin cavity in the 80% mixture, while in the prepared inclusion compound the pyridinic nitrogen was outside the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin cavity. The diffuse reflectance spectra of several compounds adsorbed on an 80% ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride mixture and on NaCl were compared. Some of the compounds showed a red shift in their reflectance band maximum, and other compounds showed well-resolved vibronic bands on the 80% ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin mixture. In addition, the amount of unbound analyte on the ..cap alpha..-cyclodextrin-sodium chloride matrix was determined.

Bello, J.M.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1987-10-01

262

Sodium chloride reduces production of curvacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus strain LTH 1174, originating from fermented sausage.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (k(B)) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an a(w)-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (X(B)) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in X(B), an increase in k(B), and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity. PMID:15066822

Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

2004-04-01

263

The Transport Properties of Sodium Atoms and the Heat Capacity of Sodium Dimers at High Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Including the contribution of excited state atoms can improve calculations of dilute gaseous transport properties at high temperatures. For sodium, experimental and/or theoretical information is available about the potential energy curves associated with each of ten low-lying states of the sodium dimer. These include the {X1?_g{}+} and {3?_u{}{}+} states that dissociate to two ground state 2S sodium atoms and the four {3?_g,u{}+, 1? _g,u{}+, 1Pi _g,u, 3Pi _g,u} gerade/ungerade pairs of states that dissociate to a ground state 2S atom and an excited state 2P atom. Nine of these are bound states and have been fitted with the Hulburt-Hirschfelder potential, a very good general purpose atom-atom potential. The 3?g state is not bound and has been fitted with the exponential repulsive potential. We have used these potentials to calculate viscosity collision integrals as a function of temperature, and employed degeneracy-weighted averaging to determine the viscosity and translational contribution to the thermal conductivity of the sodium atoms. These same potentials have been used to calculate the heat capacity, {Cp^o}, of the sodium dimer using an approach that depends on the second virial coefficient and its first two temperature derivatives. Again, the inclusion of molecular states that dissociate to an excited state atom allows {Cp^o} to be determined with improved accuracy at higher temperatures. Thus, thermophysical property calculations for sodium have been extended to 25,000 K. These results are compared with previous results, including heat capacities given in the NIST-JANAF Thermochemical Tables.

Biolsi, L.; Holland, P. M.

2010-05-01

264

HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE INDUCE A 'POSITIVE' RESPONSE AT THE TK LOCUS OF L5178Y/TK(+)/(-)MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The experiment with sodium chloride demonstrates the importance of carefully evaluating weak mutagenic responses observed with high concentrations of test compounds. The positive mutagenicity is likely not due to a direct interaction with DNA but from some indirect mechanism resu...

265

Evaluation of Sucrose as an Alternative to Sodium Chloride in the Microtox (Trade Name) Assay: Comparison to Fish and Cladoceran Tests with Freshwater Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of 44 freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). The latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose ...

G. T. Ankley G. S. Peterson J. R. Amato J. J. Jenson

1990-01-01

266

EVALUATION OF SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE MICROTOX R ASSAY: COMPARISON TO FISH AND CLADOCERAN TESTS WITH FRESHWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). he latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose for osmotic protection of the...

267

Representation of the Kinetics of Leaching of Galena by Ferric Chloride in Concentrated Sodium Chloride Solutions by a Modified Mixed Kinetics Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galena (PbS) is leached by a solution concentrated in NaCl and containing ferrous and ferric chloride. The ferric ion concentration is kept constant by adding KMnO4 or the potential is kept constant by adding a concentrated ferric chloride solution. The ferrous concentration of the solution has no effect upon the kinetics, the temperature and the chloride concentration have only a weak effect, whereas the radius of solid particles and the concentration of the ferric ion have the major influences. The kinetics are represented by a shrinking core model for up to 99 pet of ore dissolved. Both the aqueous diffusion of ferric ion in the pores of the sulfur layer and the chemical reaction at the surface are involved in the kinetic model. Taking into account the self blockage improves the representation of the end of reaction and yields a more consistent set of parameters.

Morin, D.; Gaunand, A.; Renon, H.

1985-12-01

268

Application of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium chloride decontamination method for recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

The study was designed to compare the efficacy of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) decontamination method with N-acetyl L-Cystine (NALC) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) decontamination (the reference method) method for the recovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) from clinically suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis. To evaluate CPC-NaCl and NALC-NaOH decontamination methods, sputum specimens (n = 796) were studied (culturing on Löwenstein-Jensen medium), and the performances were compared. The CPC-NaCl decontamination method demonstrated a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 97.99%, 87.53%, 70.19%, and 99.32%, respectively, when compared to NALC-NaOH decontamination method. In summary, CPC-NaCl decontamination method effectively detected significantly higher number of MTB cases (n = 208) than NALC-NaOH decontamination method (n = 149) particularly in sputum with scanty bacilli and smear-negative cases, indicating the potential of CPC-NaCl decontamination method to preserve paucibacillary cases more efficient than NALC-NaOH decontamination method. PMID:23928270

Shinu, Pottathil; Singh, Varsha; Nair, Anroop; Mehrishi, Priya; Mehta, Sonia; Joshi, Ekta

2013-08-06

269

Coulometric sodium chloride removal system with Nafion membrane for seawater sample treatment.  

PubMed

Seawater analysis is one of the most challenging in the field of environmental monitoring, mainly due to disparate concentration levels between the analyte and the salt matrix causing interferences in a variety of analytical techniques. We propose here a miniature electrochemical sample pretreatment system for a rapid removal of NaCl utilizing the coaxial arrangement of an electrode and a tubular Nafion membrane. Upon electrolysis, chloride is deposited at the Ag electrode as AgCl and the sodium counterions are transported across the membrane. This cell was found to work efficiently at potentials higher than 400 mV in both stationary and flow injection mode. Substantial residual currents observed during electrolysis were found to be a result of NaCl back diffusion from the outer side of the membrane due to insufficient permselectivity of the Nafion membrane. It was demonstrated that the residual current can be significantly reduced by adjusting the concentration of the outer solution. On the basis of ion chromatography results, it was found that the designed cell used in flow injection electrolysis mode reduced the NaCl concentration from 0.6 M to 3 mM. This attempt is very important in view of nutrient analysis in seawater where NaCl is a major interfering agent. We demonstrate that the pretreatment of artificial seawater samples does not reduce the content of nitrite or nitrate ions upon electrolysis. A simple diffusion/extraction steady state model is proposed for the optimization of the electrolysis cell characteristics. PMID:22703479

Grygolowicz-Pawlak, Ewa; Sohail, Manzar; Pawlak, Marcin; Neel, Bastien; Shvarev, Alexey; de Marco, Roland; Bakker, Eric

2012-06-27

270

The effect of dietary sodium chloride on some osmoregulatory parameters of the teleost, Oreochromis niloticus, after transfer from freshwater to seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to determine the effects of supplemental dietary sodium chloride on salt water acclimation of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Fish were fed a basal diet supplemented with NaCl (8%) during three weeks in fresh water (FW) and then transferred to salt water (SW) at 15 and 20‰. Changes in plasma osmolality, chloride ion concentration (Cl-), plasma

A. Fontaínhas-Fernandes; F. Russell-Pinto; Emídio Gomes; Ma. A. Reis-Henriques; João Coimbra

2000-01-01

271

Comparison of low-temperature with high-temperature diffusion of sodium in albite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusion of sodium in albite from Amelia County, Virginia, was examined at high and intermediate temperatures by means of the sectioning technique and at low temperatures by means of an exchange technique. These studies indicate that diffusion is heterogeneous at low and intermediate temperatures, but goes to volume diffusion at high temperatures. Apparent diffusion coefficients of the order of magnitude

A. Bailey

1971-01-01

272

The low-temperature catalyzed etching of gallium arsenide with hydrogen chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heated tungsten filament has been used to catalyze the gas phase etching of gallium arsenide with hydrogen chloride at a substrate temperature of 563 K. Rapid etch rates, between 1 and 3 microns per minute, were obtained in a pure hydrogen chloride ambient in the pressure range of 3.3 to 20.0 Pascal. Low flow rates of hydrogen quenched the

Jeffrey L. Dupuie; Erdogan Gulari

1992-01-01

273

A spectrophotometric study of samarium (III) speciation in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation of samarium (III) in chloride-bearing solutions was investigated spectrophotometrically at temperatures of 100–250°C and a pressure of 100bars. The simple hydrated ion, Sm3+, is predominant at ambient temperature, but chloride complexes are the dominant species at elevated temperatures. Cumulative formation constants for samarium chloride species were calculated for the following reactions:Sm3++Cl-=SmCl2+?1Sm3++2Cl-=SmCl2+?2Within experimental error, the values for the first

Art. A. Migdisov; A. E. Williams-Jones; C. Normand; S. A. Wood

2008-01-01

274

A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm 3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na + as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H 2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO 2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200°C to about 2.1 at 350°C. This suggests that H 4SiO 4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350°C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures.

Fournier, Robert O.

1983-03-01

275

Evaluation of the maximum beyond-use-date stability of regular human insulin extemporaneously prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride in a polyvinyl chloride bag  

PubMed Central

Background Regular human insulin 100 units added to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride, to yield a total volume of 100 mL within a polyvinylchloride bag, is accepted to be stable for 24 hours due to physical denaturation and chemical modification. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended stability of such extemporaneously prepared regular human insulin, stored under refrigeration, to the maximum beyond-use-date allowed by United States Pharmacopeia chapter 797. Methods At time “0” three admixtures of regular human insulin were prepared by withdrawing 1 mL of regular human insulin with a concentration of 100 units/mL and adding it to a sufficient quantity of 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL. The three admixtures were stored under refrigeration (2°C–8°C [36°F–46°F]), and one sample of each admixture was withdrawn and tested in duplicate at 0, 6, 24, 48, 72, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, 312, and 336 hours. Utilizing high performance liquid chromatography, each sample underwent immediate testing. The time points were stable if the mean concentration of the samples exceeded 90% of the equilibrium concentration at 6 hours. Results The equilibrium concentration was 0.89 units/mL. Time points were stable if the mean concentration was at least 0.80 units/mL. All time points retained at least 90% of the equilibrium concentration, with the exception of hour 168 (0.79 ± 0.03 units/mL). At 192 hours the mean concentration was 0.88 ± 0.03 units/mL. At 336 hours the mean concentration was 0.91 ± 0.02 units/mL. Conclusion Based on these results, regular human insulin 100 units added to 0.9% sodium chloride for injection in a polyvinylchloride bag to yield a total volume of 100 mL is stable for up to 336 hours when stored at 2°C–8°C (36°F–46°F).

Rocchio, Megan A; Belisle, Caryn D; Greenwood, Bonnie C; Cotugno, Michael C; Szumita, Paul M

2013-01-01

276

Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.  

PubMed

The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials. PMID:23750871

Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

2013-06-21

277

Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).  

PubMed

The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies. PMID:17702347

Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

2007-08-01

278

The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples. PMID:22365197

Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

2012-03-01

279

Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.  

PubMed

A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related. PMID:18680941

Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

2008-07-01

280

Adsorption of water molecules on selected charged sodium-chloride clusters.  

PubMed

The adsorption of water molecules (H(2)O) on sodium chloride cluster cations and anions was studied at 298 K over a mass range of 100-1200 amu using a custom-built laser desorption ionization reactor and mass spectrometer. Under the conditions used, the cations Na(3)Cl(2)(+) and Na(4)Cl(3)(+) bind up to three water molecules, whereas the larger cations, Na(5)Cl(4)(+) to Na(19)Cl(18)(+), formed hydrates with one or two only. The overall trend is a decrease in hydration with increasing cluster size, with an abrupt drop occurring at the closed-shell Na(14)Cl(13)(+). As compared to the cluster cations, the cluster anions showed almost no adsorption. Among smaller clusters, a weak adsorption of one water molecule was observed for the cluster anions Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-). In the higher mass region, a substantial adsorption of one water molecule was observed for Na(14)Cl(15)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out for the adsorption of one molecule of H(2)O on the cations Na(n)Cl(n-1)(+), for n = 2-8, and the anions Na(n)Cl(n+1)(-), for n = 1-7. For each ion, the structure of the hydrate, the hydration energy, and the standard-state enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of hydration at 298 K were computed. In addition, it was useful to compute the distortion energy, defined as the electronic energy lost due to weakening of the Na-Cl bonds upon adsorption of H(2)O. The results show that strong adsorption of a H(2)O molecule occurs for the linear cations only at an end Na ion and for the nonlinear cations only at a corner Na ion bonded to two Cl ions. An unexpected result of the theoretical investigation for the anions is that certain low-energy isomers of Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-) bind H(2)O strongly enough to produce the observed weak adsorption. The possible implications of these results for the initial hydration of extended NaCl surfaces are discussed. PMID:22098193

Bradshaw, James A; Gordon, Sidney L; Leavitt, Andrew J; Whetten, Robert L

2011-12-16

281

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al) ions, cadmium (Cd) ions, copper (Cu) ions and sodium (NaCl) chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter) in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein) in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization. Our analyses revealed that both general and specific genes were induced in Arabidopsis roots exposed to various rhizotoxic ions. Several defense systems, such as the production of reactive oxygen species and disturbance of Ca homeostasis, were triggered by all stressors, while specific defense genes were also induced by individual stressors. Similar studies in different plant species could help to clarify the resistance mechanisms at the molecular level to provide information that can be utilized for marker-assisted selection.

Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Ikka, Takashi; Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yuji; Hibino, Takashi; Sato, Shigeru; Sakurai, Nozomu; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

282

Osmotic virial coefficients of hydroxyethyl starch from aqueous hydroxyethyl starch-sodium chloride vapor pressure osmometry.  

PubMed

Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is an important industrial additive in the paper, textile, food, and cosmetic industries and has been shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for red blood cells; however, little is known about its thermodynamic solution properties. In many applications, in particular those in biology, HES is used in an aqueous solution with sodium chloride (NaCl). The osmotic virial solution thermodynamics approach accurately captures the dependence of osmolality on molality for many types of solutes in aqueous systems, including electrolytes, sugars, alcohols, proteins, and starches. Elliott et al. proposed mixing rules for the osmotic virial equation to be used for osmolality of multisolute aqueous solutions [Elliott, J. A. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1775-1785] and recently applied this approach to the fitting of one set of aqueous HES-NaCl solution data reported by Jochem and Körber [Cryobiology 1987, 24, 513-536], indicating that the HES osmotic virial coefficients are dependent on HES-to-NaCl mass ratios. The current study reports new aqueous HES-NaCl vapor pressure osmometry data which are analyzed using the osmotic virial equation. HES modifications were measured after dialysis (membrane cut off: 10?000 g/mol) and freeze-drying using vapor pressure osmometry at different mass ratios of HES to NaCl for HES up to 50% and NaCl up to 25% with three different HES modifications (weight average molecular weights [g/mol]/degree of substitution: 40?000/0.5; 200?000/0.5; 450?000/0.7). Equations were then fit to the data to provide a model for HES osmotic virial coefficient dependence on mass ratio of HES to NaCl. The osmolality data of the three HES modifications were accurately described over a broad range of HES-to-NaCl mass ratios using only four parameters, illustrating the power of the osmotic virial approach in analyzing complex data sets. As expected, the second osmotic virial coefficients increase with molecular weight of the HES and increase with HES-to-NaCl mass ratio. PMID:23862979

Cheng, Jingjiang; Gier, Martin; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Prasad, Vinay; Elliott, Janet A W; Sputtek, Andreas

2013-08-26

283

Sodium valproate stimulates potassium and chloride urinary excretion in rats: gender differences  

PubMed Central

Background The diuretic effect of valproates and its relation to urinary potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) excretion have not yet been investigated, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a single dose of sodium valproate (NaVPA) on 24-h urinary K+ and Cl- excretion in young adult Wistar rats of both genders. For measurement of K+ in urine, the same animals and samples as in our earlier publication were used (Pharmacology 2005 Nov, 75:111–115). The authors propose a new approach to the pathophysiological mechanisms of NaVPA effect on K+ and Cl- metabolism. Twenty six Wistar rats were examined after a single intragastric administration of 300 mg/kg NaVPA (13 NaVPA-male and 13 NaVPA-female), 28 control intact Wistar rats (14 males and 14 females) were studied as a control group. The 24-h urinary K+, Cl-, creatinine and pH levels were measured. Results Total 24-h diuresis and 24-h diuresis per 100 g of body weight were found to be significantly higher in NaVPA-rats of both genders than in rats of the control group (p < 0.05). The data showed NaVPA to enhance 24-h K+ excretion in NaVPA-males and NaVPA-females with significant gender-related differences: 24-h K+ excretion in NaVPA-male rats was significantly higher than in control males (p = 0.003) and NaVPA-female rats (p < 0.001). Regarding the 24-h K+ excretion, NaVPA-female rats did not show a statistically significant difference versus females of the control group (p > 0.05). 24-h urinary K+ excretion per 100 g of body weight in NaVPA-male rats was significantly higher than in control males (p = 0.025). NaVPA enhanced Cl- urinary excretion: 24-h Cl- urinary excretion, 24-h urinary Cl- excretion per 100 g of body weight and the Cl-/creatinine ratio were significantly higher in NaVPA-male and NaVPA-female rats than in gender-matched controls (p < 0.05). 24-h chloriduretic response to NaVPA in male rats was significantly higher than in female rats (p < 0.05). Conclusion NaVPA causes kaliuretic and chloriduretic effects with gender-related differences in rats. Further investigations are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of such pharmacological effects of NaVPA.

Jakutiene, Eitaute; Grikiniene, Jurgita; Vaitkevicius, Arunas; Tschaika, Marina; Didziapetriene, Janina; Stakisaitis, Donatas

2007-01-01

284

Attenuation by d-limonene of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

The effects of prolonged administration of d-limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene, on sodium chloride-enhanced induction of gastric carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, the labeling and apoptotic indices, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity of gastric cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and 1% limonene ad libitum. In week 52, the incidence of gastric cancers, the labeling index and ODC activity were significantly higher and the apoptotic index was significantly lower in rats given sodium chlolide than in untreated control rats. However, in rats given both sodium chloride and d-limonene, the incidence of gastric cancers, the labeling index and ODC activity were significantly lower and the apoptotic index was significantly higher than in rats given sodium chloride alone. Our findings suggest that limonene attenuates the gastric carcinogenesis enhanced by sodium chloride via increased apoptosis and decreased ODC activity in gastric cancers. PMID:10417763

Yano, H; Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Baba, M; Sakai, N; Uedo, N

1999-08-27

285

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide)20-poly(propylene oxide)70-poly(ethylene oxide)20 (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl4·3H2O) at 60 °C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl4 molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {111} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added.

Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Woo; Lee, Jong-Chan

2009-12-01

286

VALVE STEM FREEZE SEAL FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE SODIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valve stem freeze seals for high-temperature service in advanced sodium-;\\u000a cooled reactor systems were studied. An experimental model, suitable for use ;\\u000a with a 6-in. size valve, operated satisfactorily under a variety of conditions. ;\\u000a The freeze seal region was cooled by natural convection to ambient atmosphere; ;\\u000a cooling by both circumferential and longitudinal finned sections was ;\\u000a experimentally studied.

1960-01-01

287

Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

Schreier, T. M.; Rach, J. J.; Howe, G. E.

1996-01-01

288

Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate: A practical synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas  

PubMed Central

An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N'-di- and N,N,N'-trisubstituted ureas in one pot, and is tolerant of a wide range of functional groups. Insight into the mechanism of aryl isocyanate formation is gleaned through studies of the transmetallation and reductive elimination steps of the reaction, including the first demonstration of reductive elimination from an arylpalladium isocyanate complex to produce an aryl isocyanate.

Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

289

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25

290

Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium What is sodium? It is a mineral found naturally in food. Why do we need it? Our bodies need sodium to maintain ... salt) per day How can you control your sodium intake? • Read the Nutrition Facts Label to look ...

291

Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products. PMID:23896133

Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

2013-06-22

292

Effect of Low Sodium, Tetrodotoxin, and Temperature Variation upon Excitation  

PubMed Central

The lowering of external sodium raised both the constant quantity threshold, Qo, and the rheobase, Io, in both real space-clamped squid axons and the theoretical axon as computed on the basis of the standard Hodgkin-Huxley equations. In both real and theoretical axons the minimum intensity for excitability for short pulses, which occurs at about 15°C, was still present when low sodium replaced seawater. Low sodium did not affect the temperature dependence of the strength-duration relationship in the range, 5° to 25°C. The excitability of tetrodotoxin-treated real axons was found to be more temperature-dependent than that of normal real axons. Also the data on dosage-response to TTX of real axons fit the dose-response relationship of a hypothetical system in which one TTX ion binds reversibly to its receptor to produce a fraction of the inhibitory effect, the curve being identical to a simple adsorption isotherm. The Hodgkin-Huxley equations describe the broad outline of events occurring during excitation quite well.

Guttman, Rita

1968-01-01

293

Removal of hydrogen chloride from high temperature coal gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorine content of U.S. coals ranges from 0.01 to 0.5%, and some coals in U.K. contain as high as 1.0% chlorine. This element is present in the coal mainly as alkali chlorides, but it also occurs as oxychlorides of calcium and magnesium. The presence of HCl in the coal gas can lead to corrosion of metallic and ceramic components

G. N. Krishnan; B. J. Wood; G. T. Tong; V. P. Kothari

1988-01-01

294

High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in immobilization with low NaCl diet ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d). However, high NaCl intake in HDBR exacerbated the negative nitrogen balance to 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d (p¡0.001) compared to low NaCl. We conclude that high dietary NaCl intake induces low grade metabolic acidosis during HDBR. Low grade metabolic acidosis may be a reason for an increased protein turnover reflected by an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance in HDBR. Accordingly, a high dietary NaCl intake may exacerbate loss of body protein in µG via low grade metabolic acidosis.

Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

295

Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal. PMID:22373571

Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

2012-02-15

296

The thermodynamic properties of solutions and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragments of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were studied experimentally at 298 and 313 K. The thermodynamic properties of sodium chloride in three-component solutions with ionic strengths up to 1.9 mol/kg and alcohol content in the solvent 4.97 and 10 wt % were measured at 298 and 323 K by the electromotive force method with ion-selective electrodes. The eNRTL (electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquids) model parameters correctly describing the results of electrochemical measurements of the partial properties of NaCl and phase equilibria in the water-2-butanol-sodium chloride ternary system and binary subsystems constituting it were determined. The isothermal sections of the phase diagram of the H2O-2-C4H9OH-NaCl system were calculated using the method of convex hulls implemented in the TernAPI package.

Veryaeva, E. S.; Bogachev, A. G.; Shishin, D. I.; Voskov, A. L.; Igumnov, S. N.; Mamontov, M. N.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2012-06-01

297

Effects of Road Density and Road-Salt Application Practices on Sodium and Chloride Loads to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Scituate Reservoir drainage basin is the drinking-water source area for two thirds of the population of Rhode Island. The effects of road density and road-salt-application practices on sodium and chloride concentrations in streams in the drainage basin were examined using concentration data collected at intervals of one to six months from January 1982 through June 2000 at 32 stream sites distributed throughout the basin. Median concentrations of sodium and chloride for individual streams during the period of data collection were related to 1995 road densities (road miles per square mile of subbasin) for roads maintained by the Rhode Island Department of Transportation (State-maintained roads) and for roads maintained by the four municipalities in the drainage basin (locally maintained roads). Nearly 60 percent of the variation in median stream sodium and chloride concentrations was accounted for by the variation in density of State-maintained roads (R2= 0.595, p < 0.0001). In contrast, no correlations could be identified between median concentrations of sodium and chloride in streams and the densities of locally maintained roads in the subbasins (R2 = 0.001, p = 0.8771). Also, there was no difference in the relations between median stream sodium concentrations and subbasin road densities for data collected before and after a 1990 State-mandated reduction in the rate of application of sodium during winter deicing of State-maintained roads. Analysis of data on sources of sodium and chloride in the Scituate Reservoir drainage basin during water year 2000 (October 1999 through September 2000) indicates that, while the lengths and densities of locally maintained roads were greater than those of State-maintained roads in most subbasins, the total amount of sodium applied during water year 2000 was nearly three times greater for State-maintained roads than for locally maintained roads. This would be expected, given that State-maintained roads carry more traffic at higher speeds than do locally maintained roads. In addition, the State-maintained roads tend to have more efficient drainage systems that quickly transport runoff directly to the streams. The lack of effect of the reduced sodium application rate on the relation between median stream sodium concentration and density of State-maintained roads may be due to inaccurate monitoring of application rates or to mobilization of sodium previously applied and stored in drainage basin soils. Thus, the amounts of sodium and chloride transported by tributary streams to the Scituate Reservoir depend more on the type of roads and other conditions in the tributary subbasins than on the actual length or density of the roads.

Waldron, M. C.; Nimiroski, M.

2001-05-01

298

Startup of sodium heat pipes from room temperatures. [Na  

SciTech Connect

The finite-element eigenvalue method is used to study the startup phenomenon of a sodium heat pipe initially at the frozen state. The heat pipe has an axial groove structure. The heat conduction equation in the wall and grooves including the melting of the working fluid is solved together with the quasi-steady, one-dimensional compressible vapor flow equations. The choked flow phenomenon and the transition from free-molecular to continnum flow are taken into consideration. Results obtained include the time dependent axial wall temperature distribution, axial vapor temperature distribution, and the vapor Mach number. The evaporator wall temperature increases rapidly in the initial transient period but the increase is arrested as soon as the working fluid is melted and starts to evaporate.

Chow, L.C.; Zhong, J. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40506 (US))

1991-01-05

299

Storage of low-temperature heat in salt-hydrate melts: Calcium chloride hexahydrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics covered include: storage of low-temperature heat in melts; chloride hexahydrate as a heat storage medium; methods of adapting CaCl2.6H2O for use as a heat storage medium-investigations of the chemical solubility properties of the CaCl2; H2O system; heat transfer characteristics of a heat of fusion storage system based on calcium chloride hexahydrate; and the development and construction of a heat

B. Carlsson; H. Stymne; G. Wettermark

1978-01-01

300

Low Temperature Behavior of Potassium and Sodium - Glasses.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low-temperature properties of a system of well characterized potassium and sodium silicate glasses have been measured in an effort to better understand the nature of the low-energy excitations which exist in all glasses and to further investigate relationships between the low-temperature behavior of glasses and their behavior at the glass transition temperature, T(,g). In addition to the low-temperature measurements which included specific heat, thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, and dielectric dispersion, each sample also had known glass transition temperature, mass density, phonon velocity, and concentration and density fluctuations. The results of this study have provided further support for an empirical relationship between the low-temperature phonon mean free path and T(,g). This seems to indicate P (PROPORTIONAL) 1/T(,g) where P is the portion of the localized two-level-state (TLS) excitations which couple strongly to phonons. This is in tangential agreement with the free-volume model which predicts that the total density of states of TLS should vary as T(,g)(' -1). The tunneling-states model of TLS could be fitted to the data, but only at the expense of a more complex array of adjustable parameters than originally envisioned. No support has been found for other models developed to explain the low-temperature specific heat and/or thermal conductivity. In particular, no evidence could be found for phonon scattering from microscopic fluctuations.

MacDonald, William Michael

301

A New Approach to Determining Gas-Particle Reaction Probabilities and Application to the Heterogeneous Reaction of Deliquesced Sodium Chloride Particles with Gas-Phase Hydroxyl Radicals  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaClaq) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with deliquesced NaCl particles in the micron size range at 70-80% RH and with OH concentrations in the range of 1 to 7?109 cm-3. The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from measurements of changes in the chloride concentration of individual particles upon reaction with OH as a function of the particle loading on the substrate. Quantitative treatment of the data using a model that incorporates both diffusion and reaction kinetics yields a lower-limit to the net reaction probability of ?net > 0.1, with an overall uncertainty of a factor of two.

Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Hai; Robertson, William H.; Cowin, James P.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2006-09-14

302

The role of environmental sodium chloride relative to calcium in gill morphology of freshwater salmonid fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructure, distribution and abundance of cell types were examined in the gills of two freshwater salmonid species, Salmo fario and Salmo gairdneri, in media of selected ion content. In plain hard water (PW) with high concentrations of Ca2+, Na+, and Cl-, gill chloride cells (CC) were confined to trailing edges and interlamellar regions of filaments whereas in mountain soft water

Pierre Laurent; Helve Hõbe; Suzanne Dunel-Erb

1985-01-01

303

Aluminum speciation and equilibria in aqueous solution: II. The solubility of gibbsite in acidic sodium chloride solutions from 30 to 70C  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of gibbsite in aqueous solutions was measured at ten ionic strengths made up of NaCl, HCl, and AlCl{sub 3} at 30, 50, and 70C with the initial acidity controlled by addition of HCl. The aluminum concentration was determined by ion chromatography, while the final equilibrium pH was measured at temperature. The equilibrium quotients for the reaction Al(OH){sub 3} + 3H{sup +} {r reversible} + Al{sup 3+} + 3H{sub 2}O were modeled using both an empirical equation including the Debye-Hueckel term and the Pitzer ion interaction treatment which incorporated the relevant single electrolyte and mixing interaction parameters currently available in the literature. In the latter treatment only four independent variables, including {theta}{sub AlNa}, {psi}{sub AlNaCl}, and two terms describing the equilibrium constant at infinite dilution, were needed to fit the data well within the projected experimental error. In general, these new equilibrium quotients differ markedly from results of all but the most recently published solubility studies. The thermodynamic parameters at infinite dilution are compared with those calculated from the individual components of the reaction available in the literature. These calculations lead to recommended thermodynamic values for the Gibbs energy of reaction at 25C of {minus}44.2 {plus minus} 0.3 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and a {Delta}G{sub f}{sup 0} (Al{sup 3+}, aq) of {minus}487.7 {plus minus} 1.5 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and a {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0} (Al{sup 3+}, aq) of {minus}540.9 kJ mol{sup {minus} 1}. No evidence for aluminum chloride complexation was found by comparing solubility experiments in the presence of varying concentrations of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate and sodium chloride at 50C and ca. 5 molal ionic strength.

Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-03-01

304

Aluminum speciation and equilibria in aqueous solution: II. The solubility of gibbsite in acidic sodium chloride solutions from 30 to 70°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of gibbsite in aqueous solutions was measured at ten ionic strengths made up of NaCl, HCl, and AlCl 3 at 30, 50, and 70°C with the initial acidity controlled by addition of HCl. The aluminum concentration was determined by ion chromatography, while the final equilibrium pH was measured at temperature. The equilibrium quotients for the reaction Al(OH) 3 + 3H + ai Al 3+ + 3H 2 O were modeled using both an empirical equation including the Debye-Hückel term and the Pitzer ion interaction treatment which incorporated the relevant single electrolyte and mixing interaction parameters currently available in the literature. In the latter treatment only four independent variables, including A a , A acl , and two terms describing the equilibrium constant at infinite dilution, were needed to fit the data well within the projected experimental error. In general, these new equilibrium quotients differ markedly from results of all but the most recently published solubility studies. The thermodynamic parameters at infinite dilution are compared with those calculated from the individual components of the reaction available in the literature. These calculations lead to recommended thermodynamic values for the Gibbs energy of reaction at 25°C of -44.2 ± 0.3 kJ mol -1 , a G f 0 ( Al 3+ , aq ) of -487.7 ± 1.5 kJ mol -1 , and a H f 0 ( Al 3+ , aq ) of -540.9 kJ mol -1 . No evidence for aluminum chloride complexation was found by comparing solubility experiments in the presence of varying concentrations of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate and sodium chloride at 50°C and ca. 5 molal ionic strength.

Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.

1992-03-01

305

Intracellular chloride activities in canine tracheal epithelium. Direct evidence for sodium-coupled intracellular chloride accumulation in a chloride-secreting epithelium.  

PubMed Central

Canine tracheal epithelium secretes Cl via an electrogenic transport process that appears to apply to a wide variety of secretory epithelia. To examine the mechanisms involved, intracellular chloride activity, acCl, was measured with Cl-selective intracellular microelectrodes. The results indicate that when the rate of secretion was minimal acCl was 37 mM; with stimulation of secretion the intracellular voltage depolarized, but acCl was not significantly altered, at 39 mM. These findings indicate that: (a) Cl is accumulated across the basolateral membrane under nonsecreting and secreting conditions at an activity 3.8 and 2.4 times, respectively, that predicted for an equilibrium distribution; (b) Cl exit across the apical membrane may be passive with an electrochemical driving force of 22 mV; and (c) stimulation of secretion enhanced the rate of Cl entry across the basolateral membrane, since Cl transport increased without a change in acCl. In the absence of Na in the extracellular fluid, acCl approached the value expected for an equilibrium distribution. This finding suggests that "uphill" entry of Cl into the cell against its electrochemical gradient is dependent upon, and energized by, the entry of Na down its gradient. Submucosal bumetanide, a loop diuretic, also decreased the rate of Cl secretion and decreased acCl, indicating an inhibition of Cl entry. These findings indicate that Cl entry into the cell is directed against its electrochemical gradient and is mediated by a Na-coupled, bumetanide-inhibitable, transport process at the basolateral membrane and that Cl may exit passively down a favorable electrochemical gradient across the apical membrane.

Welsh, M J

1983-01-01

306

Storage of Low-Temperature Heat in Salt-Hydrate Melts: Calcium Chloride Hexahydrate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Calcium chloride hexahydrate melts at 29.8 exp 0 C. Its heat of fusion is 170 J/g or 71.7 kWh/m exp 3 of solution. In the temperature interval 20 to 30 exp 0 C, it has a heat content comparable to a temperature increase from 20 to 90 exp 0 C in the equal ...

B. Carlsson H. Stymne G. Wettermark

1978-01-01

307

The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar properties of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of medium chain length alcohols on the micellar size and shape of sodium dodecyl sulfate in electrolyte solutions has been investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscosity measurements. The surfactant content was kept constant throughout, at 0.04 m, and the alcohols used were 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol. The data from the various techniques are qualitatively in agreement. The SANS data generally fit a model for prolate ellipsoids with varying ratios of the major to minor axis. Addition of butanol first leads to a decrease in micellar size, the major to minor axis ratio decreases from about 6 to less than 2. However, as the butanol concentration exceeds 0.5 m, the micelles starts to grow again. The same can be seen from the diffusion coefficient as measured by DLS. Addition of pentanol or hexanol do not bring about this minimum in micellar size. The minor axis decreases and the major axis increases as these alcohols are added. Thus these alcohols make the prolate ellipsoidal micelles grow continuously towards large rod-like structures. The viscosity data are less detailed, but confirm the general trend upon alcohol addition.

Foerland, G.M.; Hoeiland, H. (Bergen Univ. (Norway). Dept. of Chemistry); Samseth, J. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Mortensen, K. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark))

1994-04-01

308

Temperature dependence of chloride, bromide, iodide, thiocyanate and salicylate transport in human red cells  

PubMed Central

1. The temperature dependence of the steady-state self-exchange of chloride between human red cells and a plasma-like electrolyte medium has been studied by measuring the rate of 36Cl- efflux from radioactively labelled cells. Between 0 and 10° C the rate increased by a factor of eight corresponding to an Arrhenius activation energy of 33 kcal/mole. 2. The rate of chloride exchange decreased significantly in experiments where 95% of the chloride ions in cells and medium were replaced by other monovalent anions of a lyotropic series. The rate of chloride self-exchange was increasingly reduced by bromide, bicarbonate, nitrate, iodide, thiocyanate, and salicylate. The latter aromatic anion was by far the most potent inhibitor, reducing the rate of chloride self-exchange to 0·2% of the value found in a chloride medium. 3. The temperature sensitivity of the chloride self-exchange was not affected significantly by the anionic inhibitors. The Arrhenius activation energies of chloride exchange were between 30 and 40 kcal/mole in the presence of the six inhibitory anions mentioned above. 4. The rate of self-exchange of bromide, thiocyanate, and iodide between human red cells and media was determined after washing and labelling cells in media containing 120 mM bromide, thiocyanate, or iodide respectively. The rate of self-exchange of the three anions were 12, 3, and 0·4% of the rate of chloride self-exchange found in the chloride medium. 5. The Arrhenius activation energies of the self-exchange of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate were all between 29 and 37 kcal/mole, the same magnitude as found for the self-exchange of chloride. 6. Although approximately 40% of the intracellular iodide and salicylate ions appeared to be adsorbed to intracellular proteins, the rate of tracer anion efflux followed first order kinetics until at least 98% of the intracellular anions had been exchanged. 7. The self-exchange of salicylate across the human red cell membrane occurred by a different mechanism than the one utilized by the inorganic monovalent anions. The activation energy of salicylate exchange (13·2 kcal/mole) was significantly lower than that of inorganic anion exchange. Salicylate exchange increased with decreasing pH in contrast to the exchange of chloride, which decreases when pH is lowered.

Dalmark, Mads; Wieth, Jens Otto

1972-01-01

309

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

310

Conversion electron Mössbauer spectrometric study of ?-FeOOH formation on iron in sodium chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

CEMS was applied to the study on the formation of ?-FeOOH on iron immersed in a NaCl solution. It was found that the control\\u000a of supply of dissolved oxygen to the initial corrision layers under the presence of chloride ions is very important to produce\\u000a ?-FeOOH, and that ?-FeOOH formed as rust layers has large stress. The restriction of diffusion

Kiyoshi Nomura; Michihisa Tasaka; Yusuke Ujihira

1988-01-01

311

Molal dissociation quotients of water in sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate solutions to high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The molal dissociation quotients and corresponding thermodynamic quantities for water were determined from potentiometric measurements at 25{degree}C intervals from 25 to 250{degree}C in the presence of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate at six molalities ranging from 0.2 to 6.5. These quantities are compared with published results for the dissociation of water in sodium chloride solutions and an estimate is made of the ion-pair association quotient for HCl.

Palmer, D.A.; Drummond, S.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1988-02-01

312

Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl. PMID:22499878

Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

2012-05-01

313

Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

2010-03-01

314

The thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, and potassium chlorides at the aqueous solution-gas interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic models of the adsorption of ions at the interphase boundary between a solution of a 1,1-electrolyte and a gas are suggested. The experimental surface tension isotherms and the isotherms of excess adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, and potassium chlorides from aqueous solutions were used to show that the formation of the surface layer followed both the mechanism of coadsorption of the anion and cation and the mechanism of predominant adsorption of one of the ions. The calculated total adsorption isotherms were used to obtain the dependences of the heats and entropies of adsorption on the amount of the ion adsorbed. The results are discussed in terms of the solvation and desolvation of electrolyte ions in bulk solution and at liquid-vapor interfaces.

Fedorova, A. A.; Ulitin, M. V.

2009-01-01

315

Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.  

PubMed

The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. PMID:23417770

Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

2013-04-15

316

The Lattice Energies and Transition Temperatures of Cesium-Chloride and Ammonium-Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lattice energies of CsCl and NH4Cl are calculated for both the CsCl type and NaCl type lattices, and the temperatures of transition between these two crystal forms determined from the equality of the free energies. This requires the computation of the elastic constants and proper frequencies. In determining the lattice energies, use is made of the method of Born

Albert May

1937-01-01

317

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Chan, E-mail: jongchan@snu.ac.k [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

318

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

1999-09-01

319

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate (total CO2) , Electrolytes , CMP , BMP , Blood Gases At a Glance Test ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

320

Combined effect of concentrations of algal food ( Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus(Rotifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tol- erance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non- euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers

Víctor M. Peredo-Álvarez; S. S. S. Sarma; S. Nandini

2003-01-01

321

Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: A miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence

Theerasak Rojanarata; Krissadecha Sumran; Paksupang Nateetaweewat; Weerapath Winotapun; Sirarat Sukpisit; Praneet Opanasopit; Tanasait Ngawhirunpat

322

Effects of sodium chloride on the properties of chlorophyll a submonolayer adsorbed onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces using broadband spectroscopy with single-mode integrated optical waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we experimentally investigated the effects of sodium chloride on the molar absorptivity and surface density of a submonolayer of chlorophyll a adsorbed onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic solid/liquid interfaces. Those investigations were made possible by a broadband spectroscopic platform based on single-mode, integrated optical waveguides, which allows for extremely sensitive spectroscopic detection of analytes immobilized at submonolayer levels. Chlorophyll a with a constant bulk concentration (1.4 ?M) was dissolved in phosphate buffer solutions (7 mM) of neutral pH, but with different sodium chloride concentrations. For a buffer solution of 1 mM of sodium chloride, the measured surface density of chlorophyll a was 0.209 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophilic and 0.125 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophobic surface. For a phosphate buffer solution of 10 mM of sodium chloride, the measured surface density of chlorophyll a was 0.528 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophilic and 0.337 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophobic surface. Additionally, a hypsochromic shift of the Soret band was observed for the adsorbed pigment in correlation with an increase in buffer ionic strength. The adsorption of chlorophyll a onto different surfaces can play an important role to elucidate several processes found in nature and provide a rationale for bio-inspired new material technologies.

Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Mendes, Sergio B.

2011-07-01

323

Sodium chloride removal from urine via a six-compartment ED cell for use in Advanced Life Support Systems (Part 2: Limiting current density behavior)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-compartment electrodialysis cell with univalent ion selective membranes was used to remove sodium chloride from human urine for Advanced Life Support applications that will be used in long-term space travel. To study the feasibility of this system, the first variable under study was the limiting current density (ilim). Working at current densities lower than ilim allows obtaining better efficiency

V. M. Aponte; G. Colón

2001-01-01

324

The solubility of ozone and kinetics of its chemical reactions in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of ozone and the kinetics of its decomposition and interaction with chloride ions in a 1 M aqueous solution\\u000a of NaCl at 20°C and pH 8.4–10.8 were studied. The ratio between the concentration of O3 in solution and the gas phase was found to be 0.16 at pH 8.4–9.8. The concentration of dissolved ozone decreased sharply\\u000a as pH

A. V. Levanov; I. V. Kuskov; E. E. Antipenko; V. V. Lunin

2008-01-01

325

Conversion electron Mössbauer spectrometric study of ?-FeOOH formation on iron in sodium chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CEMS was applied to the study on the formation of ?-FeOOH on iron immersed in a NaCl solution. It was found that the control of supply of dissolved oxygen to the initial corrision layers under the presence of chloride ions is very important to produce ?-FeOOH, and that ?-FeOOH formed as rust layers has large stress. The restriction of diffusion of dissolved oxygen into the intermediate rust layers through the top ?-FeOOH layers formed at the initial stage of corrosion is considered to facilitate in the formation of iron oxyhydroxide complex containing Cl-.

Nomura, Kiyoshi; Tasaka, Michihisa; Ujihira, Yusuke

1988-12-01

326

Dietary potassium: A key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension. PMID:23735420

Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W

2013-06-02

327

Sodium chloride removal from urine via a six-compartment ED cell for use in Advanced Life Support Systems (Part 1: salt removal as a function of applied voltage and fluid velocity)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A six-compartment electrodialysis cell with univalent ion selective membranes was studied to remove sodium chloride from human urine. Current-voltage behavior data were obtained at four fluid velocities ranging from 0.015 to 0.083 m\\/s, and four urine dilution ratios ranging from 3,200 to 12,800 ppm, based on chloride salts concentration. Ion chromatography revealed that the highest sodium chloride percentage for continuous

V. M. Aponte; G. Colón

2001-01-01

328

Perceptual Characteristics of the Amiloride-Suppressed Sodium Chloride Taste Response in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of amiloride-sensitive membrane components to the perception of NaCl taste was assessed by using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. Eight independent groups of adult rats were conditioned to avoid either 0.1M NaCl, 0.5M NaCl, 0.1M NH4 Cl, or 1.0M sucrose while their tongues were exposed either to water or to the sodium transport blocker amiloride hydrochloride. In contrast

David L. Hill; Bradley K. Formaker; Kathryn S. White

1990-01-01

329

Protective effect of magnesium chloride on sodium fluoride induced alterations in various hydroxyproline fractions in rat lungs.  

PubMed

Frequent absorption of the fluoride causes tooth decay, damage of kidneys, bones, nerves and muscles. The present study was carried out to study the reported protective effect of magnesium chloride on sodium fluoride (NaF) induced alterations in rat lung hydroxyproline/ collagen content. To study the dose response of NaF following groups were studied: (i) normal rats (ii) placebo group, (iii) rats treated with two different doses of NaF. To study the protective effect of MgCl2 the following groups of rats were studied (i) normal rats (ii) rats injected with MgCl2 (iii) rats injected with NaF (iv) rats injected with MgCl2 followed by NaF. Sodium fluoride doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight of rats caused a significant increase (p < 0. 001) increase in peptide- bound and total Hyp content in rat lungs. Administration of MgCl2 alone to rats also caused significant increase in peptide- bound, protein- bound and total Hyp fractions in rat lungs (p < 0. 001). Administration of MgCl2 thirty minutes before NaF restored the altered protein bound Hyp fraction to almost normal levels. The present study concludes that although MgCl2 has been reported to be protective against toxic effects of NaF, it exerts an independent effect on hydroxyproline and collagen content in rat lungs. PMID:21366967

Siddiqi, N J

2011-02-12

330

The phosphorylated sodium chloride cotransporter in urinary exosomes is superior to prostasin as a marker for aldosteronism.  

PubMed

Urinary exosomes are vesicles derived from renal tubular epithelial cells. Exosomes often contain several disease-associated proteins and are thus useful targets for identifying biomarkers of disease. Here, we hypothesized that the phosphorylated (active) form of the sodium chloride cotransporter (pNCC) or prostasin could serve as biomarkers for aldosteronism. We tested this in 2 animal models of aldosteronism (aldosterone infusion or low-sodium diet) and in patients with primary aldosteronism. Urinary exosomes were isolated from 24-hour urine or spot urine using ultracentrifugation. In rats, a normal or a high dose of aldosterone for 2, 3, or 8 days increased pNCC 3-fold in urinary exosomes (P<0.05 for all). A low-sodium diet also increased pNCC in urinary exosomes approximately 1.5-fold after 4 and after 8 days of treatment. The effects of these maneuvers on prostasin in urinary exosomes were less clear, showing a significant 1.5-fold increase only after 2 and 3 days of high-aldosterone infusion. In urinary exosomes of patients with primary aldosteronism, pNCC was 2.6-fold higher (P<0.05) while prostasin was 1.5-fold higher (P=0.07) than in patients with essential hypertension. Urinary exosomal pNCC and, to a lesser extent, prostasin are promising markers for aldosteronism in experimental animals and patients. These markers may be used to assess the biological activity of aldosterone and, potentially, as clinical biomarkers for primary aldosteronism. PMID:22851731

van der Lubbe, Nils; Jansen, Pieter M; Salih, Mahdi; Fenton, Robert A; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Danser, A H Jan; Zietse, Robert; Hoorn, Ewout J

2012-07-30

331

Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic\\/martensitic steels. Focus is on

K. Natesan; Meimei Li; O. K. Chopra; S. Majumdar

2009-01-01

332

High-temperature equilibrium studies of the gaseous thorium chlorides  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature gaseous equilibria among the species Th, ThCl, ThCl{sub 2,} and ThCl{sub 3} were studied by mass spectrometry over broad temperature ranges; both enthalpy and entropy data were derived by the second law procedure. In addition, the sublimation of ThCl{sub 4} was studied by the torsion-effusion method and the thermodynamics of the gaseous tetrachloride were evaluated. Individual bond dissociation energies in ThCl{sub 4} fall within the range 489--545 kJ mol{sup {minus}1}, and vary with ligand number in a way similar to ThF{sub 4.} Only ThCl appears to have a significant electronic entropy in the experimental temperature range. For ThCl{sub 4} the experimental entropy indicates the likelihood of a regular tetrahedral structure as with ThF{sub 4}, but unlike the uranium tetrahalides which appear to be distorted tetrahedra. In the mass spectrum of ThCl{sub 4,} the fragment ions ThCl{sup +}{sub 3}, ThCl{sup +}{sub 2}, and ThCl{sup +} show a larger and more nearly correct temperature dependence than the parent ion ThCl{sup +}{sub 4}. Results are compared with those of other thorium and uranium halides.

Lau, K.H.; Hildenbrand, D.L. (SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025 (USA))

1990-05-15

333

Removal of hydrogen chloride from high temperature coal gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available processes for removing HCl vapor operate at relatively low temperatures (T < 300 C) and thus they are not suitable for use with hot coal gases (T > 500C). This paper presents the results of a laboratory-scale evaluation conducted at SRI International to determine the effectiveness of naturally occurring minerals and commercially available sorbents to remove HCl vapor

G. N. Krishnan; B. J. Wood; G. T. Tong

1988-01-01

334

Task 20 - Prevention of Chloride Corrosion in High-Temperature Waste Treatment Systems (Corrosives Removals from Vitrification Slurries)  

SciTech Connect

GTS Duratek is working with BNFL Incorporated on a US Department of Energy (DOE) contract to develop a facility to treat and immobilize radioactive waste at the Hanford site in southeast Washington. Development of the 10-ton/day Hanford facility will be based on findings from work at Duratek's 3.3-ton/day pilot plant in Columbia, Maryland, which is in the final stage of construction and scheduled for shakedown testing in early 1999. In prior work with the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Duratek has found that slurrying is the most efficient way to introduce low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes into vitrification melters. However, many of the Hanford tank wastes to be vitrified contain species (primarily chloride and sulfate) that are corrosive to the vitrifier or the downstream air pollution control equipment, especially under the elevated temperature conditions existent in these components. Removal of these corrosives presents a significant challenge because most tank wastes contain high (up to 10-molar) concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with significant levels of nitrate, nitrite, and other anions, which render standard ion-exchange, membrane filtration, and other separation technologies relatively ineffective. In Task 20, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) will work with Duratek to develop and optimize a vitrification pretreatment process for consistent, quantitative removal of chloride and sulfate prior to vitrifier injection.

Timpe, R.C.; Aulich, T.R.

1998-11-01

335

Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.  

PubMed

The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

2011-04-05

336

Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study.  

PubMed

Because of the logistic complexity, excessive respondent burden, and high cost of conducting 24-h urine collections in a national survey, alternative strategies to monitor sodium intake at the population level need to be evaluated. We conducted a calibration study to assess the ability to characterize sodium intake from timed-spot urine samples calibrated to a 24-h urine collection. In this report, we described the overall design and basic results of the study. Adults aged 18-39 y were recruited to collect urine for a 24-h period, placing each void in a separate container. Four timed-spot specimens (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) and the 24-h collection were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, and iodine. Of 481 eligible persons, 407 (54% female, 48% black) completed a 24-h urine collection. A subsample (n = 133) collected a second 24-h urine 4-11 d later. Mean sodium excretion was 3.54 ± 1.51 g/d for males and 3.09 ± 1.26 g/d for females. Sensitivity analysis excluding those who did not meet the expected creatinine excretion criterion showed the same results. Day-to-day variability for sodium, potassium, chloride, and iodine was observed among those collecting two 24-h urine samples (CV = 16-29% for 24-h urine samples and 21-41% for timed-spot specimens). Among all race-gender groups, overnight specimens had larger volumes (P < 0.01) and lower sodium (P < 0.01 to P = 0.26), potassium (P < 0.01), and chloride (P < 0.01) concentrations compared with other timed-spot urine samples, although the differences were not always significant. Urine creatinine and iodine concentrations did not differ by the timing of collection. The observed day-to-day and diurnal variations in sodium excretion illustrate the importance of accounting for these factors when developing calibration equations from this study. PMID:23761643

Wang, Chia-Yih; Cogswell, Mary E; Loria, Catherine M; Chen, Te-Ching; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Swanson, Christine A; Caldwell, Kathleen L; Perrine, Cria G; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Liu, Kiang; Sempos, Christopher T; Gillespie, Cathleen D; Burt, Vicki L

2013-06-12

337

Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of europium(III) chloride in aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salts  

SciTech Connect

Absorption spectroscopy and titration experiments suggest that the addition of EuCl{sub 3} to basic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt produces [EuCl{sub 6}]{sup 3{minus}}, and this species can be reduced at a glassy carbon electrode via a one-electron, quasi-reversible electrode reaction to produce Eu(II) species. The standard heterogeneous rate constant and the cathodic transfer coefficient in the 44.4/55.6 mole percent melt are 2.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} cm/s and 0.7, respectively. The formal redox potential, E{sup 0}, obtained from Nernst plots is dependent upon the pCl of the melt, indicating the loss of chloride ion from the coordination sphere of the complex anion during reduction to form a species of the type [EuCl{sub 6{minus}x}]{sup (4{minus}x){minus}} for which x may be 2. It is possible to electrochemically generate stable solutions of this reduced species in the absence of oxygen. In acidic melt, the Eu(III)/(II) redox reaction appears to be a one-electron reversible redox reaction. The average stokes-Einstein products for Eu(III) and Eu(II) species in both basic and acidic melts are measured.The values indicate that Eu(III) and Eu(II) species in both basic and acidic melts are measured. The values indicate that Eu(III) and Eu(II) species are less solvated in acidic melt than in basic melt. UV-vis spectroscopic data are recorded for Eu(III) and Eu(II) species in both types of melts. These room temperature ionic liquids possess a number of attractive features including a wide adjustable electrochemical window, a high intrinsic ionic conductivity relative to that of molecular solvents, a high thermal stability, and very negligible vapor pressure. These features make these melts useful solvents for investigating the electrochemistry of inorganic and organic materials as well as for technological applications for rechargeable batteries and electroplating.

Gau, W.J.; Sun, I.W. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-03-01

338

Sensory evaluation of sodium chloride-containing water-in-oil emulsions.  

PubMed

The sensory perception of water-in-oil emulsions containing a saline-dispersed aqueous phase was investigated. Manipulating saltiness perception was achieved by varying the mass fraction aqueous phase (MFAP), initial salt load, and surfactant concentration [(polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PgPr)] of the emulsions, with formulations based on a central composite design. Saltiness and emulsion thickness were evaluated using a trained sensory panel, and collected data were analyzed using response surface analysis. Emulsion MFAP was the most important factor correlated with increased salt taste intensity. Emulsifier concentration and interactions between NaCl and PgPr had only minor effects. Emulsions more prone to destabilization were perceived as saltier irrespective of their initial salt load. The knowledge gained from this study provides a powerful tool for the development of novel sodium-reduced liquid-processed foods. PMID:22463684

Rietberg, Matthew R; Rousseau, Dérick; Duizer, Lisa

2012-04-13

339

The solubility of methyl bromide in pure water, 35%. sodium chloride and seawater  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple gas-liquid membrane equilibrator has been used to determine the solubility of methyl bromide in pure water, 35%. NaCl, and seawater over the temperature range from 0 ° to 30 °C. The measurements have an accuracy of ± 2% and a relative precision of 4%. The data have been fit to a temperature- and salinity-dependent expression to provide solubilities

Warren J. De Bruyn; Eric S. Saltzman

1997-01-01

340

Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 °C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A?. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

Graziano, Giuseppe

2008-08-01

341

An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of growth and toxicity. No significant toxicity was noted until concentrations of 1-10 ppm for Ag+ and 10-100 ppm for AgNPs. In all NaCl concentrations, Ag+ is more toxic than for AgNPs. In addition, we noted that AgNPs in the .5 M of NaCl had the largest toxicity compared to the other salt concentrations and can be explained by the high Cl/Ag ratio. The concentrations for which toxicity has been observed are fewer orders of magnitude higher than the predicted Ag-NPs concentration released in natural waters in the next years.

Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

2011-12-01

342

Methyl chloride and C 2-C 5 hydrocarbon emissions from dry leaf litter and their dependence on temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of methyl chloride and several C 2-C 5 hydrocarbons from dry leaf litter at temperatures in the range 20-100 °C are reported for different plant species. The emission rates of ethane, ethene, propane, propene, n-pentane and methyl chloride increased with temperature. Hydrocarbon emission rates up to 0.88 ng gdw -1 h -1 were measured at 20 °C, while methyl chloride emission rates between 0.03 and 0.85 ng gdw -1 h -1 were observed at this temperature. At 70 °C emission rates increased up to 650 ng gdw -1 h -1 for C 2-C 5 hydrocarbons and up to 18 ?g gdw -1 h -1 for methyl chloride. The Arrhenius relation can be used to describe the temperature dependence of methyl chloride emissions, while for hydrocarbon emissions deviations from this relation were observed. The emissions were not due to enzymatic activity, which was indicated by emission rates that continuously increased with increasing temperature, and activation energies higher than 50 kJ mol -1. At constant temperature, the emission rate of both methyl chloride and hydrocarbons from dry leaf litter decreased in time. At high temperatures (80-100 °C) this was noticeable on a timescale of hours, while at low temperatures (20-30 °C) the decrease was very slow and only visible on a timescale of months. Emission of methyl chloride from leaf litter might be significant for its global budget, while temperature induced hydrocarbon emissions from leaf litter are likely insignificant.

Derendorp, Leonie; Holzinger, Rupert; Wishkerman, Asher; Keppler, Frank; Röckmann, Thomas

2011-06-01

343

The unusual importance of activity coefficients for micelle solutions illustrated by an osmometry study of aqueous sodium decanoate and aqueous sodium decanoate + sodium chloride solutions.  

PubMed

Freezing-point and vapor-pressure osmometry data are reported for aqueous sodium decanoate (NaD) solutions and aqueous NaD + NaCl solutions. The derived osmotic coefficients are analyzed with a mass-action model based on the micelle formation reaction qNa(+) + nD(-) = (Na(q)D(n))(q-n) and Guggenheim equations for the micelle and ionic activity coefficients. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the NaD and NaCl components and the equilibrium constant for micelle formation are evaluated. Illustrating the remarkable but not widely appreciated nonideal behavior of ionic surfactant solutions, the micelle activity coefficient drops to astonishingly low values, below 10(-7) (relative to unity for ideal solutions). The activity coefficients of the Na(+) and D(-) ions, raised to large powers of q and n, reduce calculated extents of micelle formation by up to 15 orders of magnitude. Activity coefficients, frequently omitted from the Gibbs equation, are found to increase the calculated surface excess concentration of NaD by up to an order of magnitude. Inflection points in the extent of micelle formation, used to calculate critical micelle concentration (cmc) lowering caused by added salt, provide unexpected thermodynamic evidence for the elusive second cmc. PMID:22037556

Sharma, Poonam; MacNeil, Jennifer A; Bowles, Justine; Leaist, Derek G

2011-10-31

344

Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.  

PubMed

We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. PMID:23587714

Juneja, Vijay K; Altunta?, Evrim Güne?; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

2013-03-21

345

Relationships between microstructure and pitting corrosion of ADI in sodium chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) has complex microstructure containing a multiphase matrix (called ‘ausferrite’), graphite spheres\\u000a and oxide inclusions. The corrosion resistance of ADI is related to its microstructure which is determined by heat treatment\\u000a parameters (like austempering temperature, austempering time, austenitising temperature and austenitising time). In the present\\u000a paper, the electrochemical behaviour and corrosion resistance of ADI have been investigated

H. Krawiec; J. Lelito; E. Tyra?a; J. Bana?

2009-01-01

346

Computer simulation studies of aqueous sodium chloride solutions at 298 K and 683 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of NaCl solutions at room temperature (298 K) and at a supercritical temperature of 683 K using discrete simple point charge (SPC or SPC\\/E) molecular models for the water solvent. The solvent densities were 0.997 g cm-3 at 298 K and 0.35 g cm-3 and 0.175 g cm-3 at 683 K. The ion-ion

S. Koneshan; Jayendran C. Rasaiah

2000-01-01

347

Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels  

PubMed Central

Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE) and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative) electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts. In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF) chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-. Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell. When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

2011-01-01

348

Some aspects of the atmospheric corrosion of copper in the presence of sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

The effect of NaCl in combination with O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on the atmospheric corrosion of copper was investigated. Corrosion products formed after 4 weeks exposure were characterized qualitatively by X-ray diffraction and quantitatively by gravimetry and ion chromatography of leaching solutions. Studies of SO{sub 2} deposition and O{sub 3} consumption were performed using on-line gas analysis. Large amounts of cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) formed in all environments at 70 and 90% relative humidity. The corrosive effect of salt was strong in pure humid air and in air containing O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Corrosion rate was correlated to the amount of chloride applied to the surface and to humidity. In an atmosphere containing a combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at 90% relative humidity, corrosion was rapid in the absence of NaCl. In this case, small additions of NaCl resulted in a marked decrease in corrosion rate. In the absence of SO{sub 2}, tenorite (CuO), nantokite (CuCl), clinoatacamite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl], and malachite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}] were identified. In the presence of SO{sub 2}, brochantite [Cu{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}SO{sub 4}], soluble sulfate, and an unknown phase occurred, while no tenorite or malachite was formed. The combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} resulted in the formation of antlerite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4}] and Cu{sub 2.5}(OH){sub 3}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O as well.

Strandberg, H.; Johansson, L.G. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

1998-04-01

349

Effect of sodium chloride on transport of bacteria in a saturated aquifer material.  

PubMed Central

Determinations were made of the influence of NaCl concentration, cell density, and flow velocity on the transport of Pseudomonas sp. strain KL2 through columns of aquifer sand under saturated conditions. A pulse-type boundary condition was used. The experiments were conducted by using 0.3-m-long Plexiglas columns with an internal diameter of 0.05 m. When a 1-h pulse of a 0.01 M NaCl solution containing 10(8) cells per ml was added at a flow rate of 10(-4) m s-1, the bacterial density in the effluent never exceeded 2.2% of the density of cells added, and only 1.5% of the bacteria passed through the aquifer material. In contrast, when the bacteria were applied in distilled water, the relative cell density in the effluent approached 100%, and 60% of the bacteria were transported through the aquifer solids. Under these conditions, the breakthrough of Pseudomonas sp. strain KL2 was slower than chloride. When the flow rate was 2.0 x 10(-4) m s-1, the cell density in the effluent reached 7.3% of that added in 0.01 M NaCl solution, but only 3.9% of the bacteria were transported through the aquifer particles. On the other hand, the density in the effluent approached 100% of that added in deionized water, and 77% of the added bacteria were recovered. When the density of added cells was 10(9) cells per ml at a flow rate of 10(-4) m s-1, the densities in the effluent reached 70 and 100% of those added in salt solution and deionized water, respectively, and 44 and 57% of the bacteria were transported through the aquifer solids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Gannon, J; Tan, Y H; Baveye, P; Alexander, M

1991-01-01

350

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

351

Test Your Sodium Smarts  

MedlinePLUS

... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

352

The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

Teutonico, L.J.

1982-09-01

353

[Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves].  

PubMed

The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase--at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response--an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions. PMID:22145414

Vasylyk, Iu V; Lushchak, V I

354

Global protein-level responses of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 to prolonged changes in external sodium chloride concentrations.  

PubMed

Responses to changes in external salinity were examined in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. H. salinarum NRC-1 grows optimally at 4.3 M NaCl and is capable of growth between 2.6 and 5.1 M NaCl. Physiological changes following incubation at 2.6 M NaCl were investigated with respect to growth behavior and proteomic changes. Initial observations indicated delayed growth at low NaCl concentrations (2.6 M NaCl), and supplementation with different sugars, amino acids, or KCl to increase external osmotic pressure did not reverse these growth perturbations. To gain a more detailed insight into the adaptive responses of H. salinarum NRC-1 to changes in salinity, the proteome was characterized using iTRAQ (amine specific isobaric tagging reagents). Three hundred and nine differentially expressed proteins were shown to be associated with changes in the external sodium chloride concentration, with proteins associated with metabolism revealing the greatest response. PMID:19206189

Leuko, Stefan; Raftery, Mark J; Burns, Brendan P; Walter, Malcolm R; Neilan, Brett A

2009-05-01

355

Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.  

PubMed

A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:19027140

Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

2008-11-21

356

Effect of Sodium Chloride on Aggregation of Merocyanine 540 and Photosensitized Inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Merocyanine 540 (MC540) is used as a photosensitizer for the inactivation of microorganisms. The following is already known about MC540: firstly, MC540 exists in distilled water in both monomeric and dimeric forms, and the addition of salts into a MC540 solution leads to the formation of large aggregates that can be detected by the resonance light scattering technique. Secondly, singlet oxygen can only be photogenerated by MC540 monomers. In the present work, we studied the effect of MC540 in the aggregated state on the rate of photosensitized inactivation ofStaphylococcus aureusandPseudomonas aeruginosa. To this end, bacteria either in MC540-containing distilled water or in a 0.25 M sodium chloride aqueous solution also containing MC540 are irradiated (546 nm). The results show that, in the presence of salt, the aggregation of MC540 greatly increases the efficiency of the MC540-photosensitized inactivation ofP. aeruginosaandS. aureus. In the presence of salt, the rates ofP. aeruginosaandS. aureusinactivation increase by factors of 10 and 30, respectively, in comparison with the rate of inactivation observed in the case of distilled water. Our results suggest that a salt-induced photosensitization mechanism can switch from the singlet oxygen to the free-radical pathway.

Shmigol, T.A.; Bekhalo, V.A.; Sysolyatina, ?.V.; Nagurskaya, E.V.; Ermolaeva, S.A.; Potapenko, A.Ya.

2011-01-01

357

Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987-September 1998 (water years 1988-98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley began in 1987.

Watts, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

358

Concentration dependence of ionic conductance measured with ion-selective sub-micro pipette probes in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective ionic currents in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.01 M to 1.0 M were measured using sub-micro pipette probes in which a poly(vinyl chloride) film containing crown ethers selectively filtered sodium or potassium ions. The selective ionic currents were monitored with a sub-picoampere current measurement system developed from the techniques of T?-gap impedance scanning tunneling microscopy. The ionic currents increased with the concentration of the corresponding solution, and thus these sub-micro pipette probes can be applied to detect local ionic concentration of a specific ion in living cells with ionic concentration higher than 0.1 M.

Son, J. W.; Takami, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Kawai, T.; Park, B. H.

2011-07-01

359

Dissociation quotient of benzoic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 250°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissociation quotient of benzoic acid was determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The hydrogen ion molality of benzoic acid\\/benzoate solutions was measured relative to a standard aqueous HCl solution at seven temperatures from 5 to 250°C and at seven ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The molal dissociation quotients and selected literature

Richard M. Kettler; David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer

1995-01-01

360

Mechanism of the cathode reaction in sodium-ferrous chloride secondary cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical behaviour of iron electrodes in molten AlCl3 : NaCl saturated with NaCl has been studied in the temperature range 175–400 C. The results suggest that the electrochemical\\u000a oxidation of iron occurs most readily in the presence of solid NaCl on the electrode, and that solid FeCl2 is reduced more readily than dissolved Fe(ii) in this electrolyte. A predominantly

J. Coetzer; G. D. Wald; S. W. Orchard

1993-01-01

361

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Diffusion Coefficients of Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sodium Chloride in Supercritical Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulation has been performed to determine the infinite-dilution diffusion coefficients of oxygen and nitrogen, and the diffusion coefficients of NaCl in supercritical water from 703.2-763.2 K and 30-45 MPa. The results obtained show that the diffusion coefficients in supercritical water increase with temperature, while decreasing with pressure. Nevertheless, the diffusion coefficients in supercritical water are much larger than those in normal water.

Xiao, Ji; Lu, Jiu-Fang; Chen, Jian; Li, Yi-Gui

2001-07-01

362

Comparisons of fixation of heat, radiation, and heat plus radiation damage by anisotonic sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

Heat treatment at temperatures greater than 40 degrees C synergistically enhanced damage produced by ionizing radiation. Researchers experiments indicated that radiation damage in exponentially growing Chinese hamster cells could be fixed in a dose-dependent manner by postirradiation treatment with both hypertonic and hypotonic NaCl solutions. At a 1,000-rad dose level, survival could be depressed by a factor of about 260. For various treatments at either 42 or 45 degrees C, exposure after heating to anisotonic solutions did not result in the fixation of heat damage. When cells were heated at 45 degrees C for 5 minutes and irradiated with 500 rad before or after heating or given 500 rad without heating and then exposed to 0.05 M NaCl solutions for 120 minutes, survival was reduced by factors of 875, 667, and 12, respectively. For heat treatments at lower temperatures, such as 41.5 or 42 degrees C, less damage fixation for the combined treatments was observed. The data indicated that heat and radiation damage were different and damage from the combined treatments was not the same for low- and high-treatment temperatures.

Raaphorst, G.P.; Azzam, E.I.

1982-06-01

363

Sodium chloride and water transport in the descending limb of Henle  

PubMed Central

The unique membrane characteristics of the thin descending limb of Henle (DLH) play an integral part in the operation of the countercurrent system. We examined these properties in vitro by perfusing isolated thin descending limbs of rabbits. Active transport of NaCl was ruled out by failure to demonstrate either net transport or transmembrane potential difference when perfusing with isosmolal ultrafiltrate of the same rabbit serum as the bath. Transmembrane potential was zero, and net fluid transport was -0.07 ±0.06 nl mm-1 min-1, which also is not significantly different from zero. Passive permeability coefficient for Na(PNa) was determined from the disappearance rate of 22Na from isosmolal perfusion solution. PNa was surprisingly low, 1.61 ±0.27 × 10-5 cm sec-1, a figure which is significantly less than PNa in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). Reflection coefficient for NaCl (?NaCl) was measured by perfusing the tubule with Na-free raffinose solution in a bath of rabbit serum to which sufficient NaCl was added to obtain conditions of zero net fluid movement. The measured ?NaCl of 0.96 ±0.01 is significantly greater than ?NaCl in the PCT. Water permeability to osmotic gradients (Lp) was determined by perfusing with ultrafiltrate of rabbit serum in a bath made hyperosmotic by addition of either 100 mOsm raffinose or NaCl. Lp with raffinose was 1.71 ±0.15 × 10-4 ml cm-2 sec-1 atm-1 and with NaCl 1.62 ±0.05 × 10-4 ml cm-2 sec-1 atm-1, indicating much greater water permeability than in the PCT. In each case the measured increase in osmolality of the collected fluid was primarily due to water efflux without significant influx of solute. The finding of low permeability to sodium and high permeability to water is consonant with the hypotheses that high interstitial concentration of Na in the medulla generates an effective osmotic pressure which results in concentration of the fluid as it courses through the DLH primarily by abstraction of water without significant net entry of NaCl. Images

Kokko, Juha P.

1970-01-01

364

Reaction of Chlorine Nitrate with Hydrogen Chloride and Water at Antarctic Stratospheric Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) with H2O and hydrogen chloride (HCl) on surfaces that simulate polar stratospheric clouds [ice and nitric acid (HNO3)--ice and sulfuric acid] are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The reaction of ClONO2 on ice and certain mixtures of HNO3

Margaret A. Tolbert; Michel J. Rossi; Ripudaman Malhotra; David M. Golden

1987-01-01

365

Low temperature heat capacity of the system “silica gel–calcium chloride–water”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacity was measured for two composite systems based on silica gel KSK and calcium chloride confined to its pores. One\\u000a corresponds to an anhydrous state, while another contains water bound with the salt to give the composition of CaCl2·2.04H2O. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 6–300 K with a vacuum adiabatic calorimeter. The smoothed experimental\\u000a curves C

Yuri I. AristovYulia; Yulia A. Kovalevskaya; Michael M. Tokarev; Igor E. Paukov

2011-01-01

366

Hyperosmotic tolerance of human spermatozoa: separate effects of glycerol, sodium chloride, and sucrose on spermolysis.  

PubMed

Hyperosmotic stress, which cells experience during the freezing process, and its release during the warming process are both related to cryoinjury. To define optimal cooling or warming rates and prevent osmotic injury to human sperm, information is required regarding the osmotic tolerance of the cells as a function of 1) time, 2) temperature, 3) type of solute, and 4) solute concentration. Human sperm samples were divided into three aliquots. The aliquots were equilibrated at 0, 8, and 22 degrees C, respectively. Different hyperosmotic solutions were prepared by addition of either a permeating cryoprotective agent (glycerol) or nonpermeating solutes (sucrose, non-ionic; or NaCl, ionic) to isotonic Mann's Ringer solution. Aliquots of the prepared solutions were equilibrated at 0, 8, and 22 degrees C, respectively. A small volume (2.5 microliters) of each sperm aliquot was quickly mixed with 50 microliters of each hyperosmotic solution at the corresponding temperature. After times ranging from 5 s to 5 min, 10 microliters of each hyperosmotic cell suspension was abruptly returned to an isosmotic environment by mixing with 500 microliters of Mann's Ringer solution at the corresponding temperature. The plasma membrane integrity of cells after exposure to hyperosmotic stress and after return to isosmotic conditions was measured by a dual staining (carboxyfluoroscein diacetate and propidium iodide) technique and flow cytometry. The morphology of the treated cells was observed by scanning electron microscopy of freeze-substituted sperm. The results indicate that human spermatozoa exhibited a significant posthypertonic lysis/injury, i.e., loss of membrane integrity, when returned to isosmotic conditions after exposure to hyperosmotic solutions of NaCl or sucrose. The higher the hyperosmolality, the more serious the cell injury. The majority of the cells (> 50%) lost membrane integrity when the osmolality was > or = 2000 mOsm. In contrast, if the sperm were not returned to isosmotic conditions, the majority of the sperm in the hyperosmotic solutions appeared to maintain membrane integrity. For a given higher hyperosmolality (> 1000 mOsm), posthypertonic spermolysis was reduced with a decrease of temperature. Cell survival was also affected by time of cell exposure to hyperosmotic environments before cells were returned to the isotonic condition. The shorter the time, the higher the cell survival. When exposed to hyperosmotic glycerol solutions that were isotonic with respect to electrolytes, few cells lost their membrane integrity if the osmolality of glycerol was < 3000 mOsm. For a fixed high osmolality (> 3000 mOsm), the lower the temperature, the higher the percentage spermolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8353176

Gao, D Y; Ashworth, E; Watson, P F; Kleinhans, F W; Mazur, P; Critser, J K

1993-07-01

367

Effects of caffeine on glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced in rats by N-methyl- N?-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modifying effects of caffeine ingestion on glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were investigated in male Wistar rats. Animals were given a MNNG solution (100 ppm) as their drinking water and simultaneously fed a diet supplemented with 5% NaCl for 8 wk. They then received 0.25% caffeine solution (groups 1 and 3) or tap

A. Nishikawa; F. Furukawa; T. Imazawa; S. Ikezaki; T. Hasegawa; M. Takahashi

1995-01-01

368

Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Acetylsalicylic Acid, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Potassium Chloride Supplementation in Water on the Performance of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Heat Stress1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This study investigated the effects of continuous supplementation of ascorbic acid (62.5 mg\\/L), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 62.5 mg\\/L), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3; 75 mg\\/L), and potassium chloride (KCl; 125 mg\\/L) in water on heat-exposed broilers. A total of 225 female Ross broiler chickens, 35 d of age, were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups, with 3 replicates of 25 birds

D. A. Roussan; G. Y. Khwaldeh; R. R. Haddad; I. A. Shaheen; G. Salameh; R. Al Rifai

369

Effect of Bicarbonate Ion Additives on Pitting Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in Aqueous 0.5 M Sodium Chloride Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCOâ⁻) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCOâ⁻ ions to NaCl solutions extended the

J.-J. Park; S.-I. Pyun; W.-J. Lee; H.-P. Kim

1999-01-01

370

RESEARCH ARTICLE Taste Difference Thresholds for Monosodium Glutamate and Sodium Chloride in Pigtail Macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine taste difference thresholds for monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sodium chloride (NaCl) in pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). Using a two-bottle preference test of brief duration, three animals of each species were presented with four different reference concentrations of 50, 100, 200, and 400mM of a tastant and tested

MATTHIAS LASKA; JOSEFIN PERSSON SUORRA; ROSA MARIELA; RIVAS BAUTISTA; LAURA TERESA

371

The Effect of Lactic Acid, Nisin Whey Permeate, Sodium Chloride and Related Combinations on Aerobic Plate Count and the Sensory Characteristics of Rainbow Trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inhibitory effects of 2.5 g\\/kg lactic acid, 30 g\\/kg whey permeate, 20 g\\/kg sodium chloride and their combinations on the total aerobic counts of minced fish were studied. Whey permeate was produced by a nisin-producingLactococcus lactisstrain. The applicability of lactic acid and whey permeate as bio-preservatives was also studied through the use of quantitative sensory profiling techniques. Bacterial growth

Anne Nykänen; Anja Lapveteläinen; Rose-Marie Hietanen; Heikki Kallio

1998-01-01

372

The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were

Kathryn E. Plant; Elizabeth Anderson; Nicole Simecek; Richard Brown; Sam Forster; Jenny Spinks; Nick Toms; G. Gordon Gibson; Jon Lyon; Nick Plant

2009-01-01

373

Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seedcake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on changes in NH4+–N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0–15cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200mgNkg?1,

M. Kaleem Abbasi; Munazza Hina; Majid Mahmood Tahir

2011-01-01

374

Effects of polar aprotic solvents on the rate of the topochemical reaction of benzoyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the topochemical reaction of benozyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene have been examined in the presence of varying amounts of acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. The specific rates and activation energies for the reaction have been found. These parameters have been found to increase with the amounts of polar aprotic solvent added. The observed dependence is explained by a change in the mechanism of the reaction.

Zlobin, V.A.

1985-10-01

375

Effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol on root-hair infection and nodulation of Vicia faba L. plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the interaction between Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 29d and root hairs of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Maris Bead) plants were investigated. Two levels each of NaCl (50 and 100 mol·m-3) and PEG (100 and 200 mol·m-3) were given at the time of root-hair formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed rhizobial

H. H. Zahran; J. I. Sprent

1986-01-01

376

Effects of Road Density and Road-Salt Application Practices on Sodium and Chloride Loads to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Scituate Reservoir drainage basin is the drinking-water source area for two thirds of the population of Rhode Island. The effects of road density and road-salt-application practices on sodium and chloride concentrations in streams in the drainage basin were examined using concentration data collected at intervals of one to six months from January 1982 through June 2000 at 32 stream

M. C. Waldron; M. Nimiroski

2001-01-01

377

Chloride assisted leaching of chalcocite by oxygenated sulphuric acid via Cu(II)–OH–Cl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of the addition of sodium chloride upon the leaching kinetics of complex iron–nickel–copper sulphides at elevated temperatures and oxygen pressures has been widely reported since the late 1970s, but the role of chloride is still being investigated or debated. Previous researchers have considered chloride as: (i) a complexing agent for cuprous ions; (ii) a surfactant that disperses

Gamini Senanayake

2007-01-01

378

Analysis of the corrosion of carbon steels in simulated salt repository brines and acid chloride solutions at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of literature data on the corrosion of carbon steels in anoxic brines and acid chloride solutions was performed, and the results were used to assess the expected life of high-level nuclear waste package containers in a salt repository environment. The corrosion rate of carbon steels in moderately acidic aqueous chloride environments obeys an Arrhenius dependence on temperature and

D. R. Diercks; T. F. Kassner

1988-01-01

379

Acid association quotients of bis-tris in aqueous sodium chloride media to 125°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ionic strength and temperature dependencies of the molal acid association quotients of 2,2-Bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2?-nitrilotriethanol (also abbreviated as bis-tris) were determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The emf was recorded for equimolal bis-tris\\/bis- trisHCl buffer solutions from 5 to 125°C at approximately 25°C intervals, and at nine ionic strengths from 0.05 to 5.0m (NaCl). The molal association

David J. Wesolowski; Donald A. Palmer

1989-01-01

380

The dissociation quotients of formic acid in sodium chloride solutions to 200[degrees]C  

SciTech Connect

The dissociation quotients of formic acid were measured potentiometrically from 25 to 200[degrees]C in NaCl solutions at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 mol-kg[sup [minus]1]. The experiments were carried out in a concentration cell with hydrogen electrodes. The resulting molal acid dissociation quotients for formic acid, as well as a set of infinite dilution literature values and a calorimetrically-determined enthalpy of reaction, were fitted by an empirical equation involving an extended Debye Hueckel term and seven adjustable parameters involving functions of temperature and ionic strength. This regressional analysis yielded the following thermodynamic quantities for 25[degrees]C: logK = [minus]3.755[plus minus]0.002, [Delta]H[degrees] = [minus]0.09[plus minus]0.15 kJ-mol[sup [minus]1], [Delta]S[degrees] = [minus]72.2[plus minus]0.5 J-K[sup [minus]1]-mol[sup [minus]1], and [Delta]C[degrees][sub p] = [minus]147[plus minus]4 J-K[sup [minus]1]-mol[sup [minus]1]. The isocoulombic form of the equilibrium constant is recommended for extrapolation to higher temperatures. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Bell, J.L.S.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Palmer, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1993-02-01

381

Carbon dioxide absorption mechanisms of sodium added to calcium oxide at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To apply the CO2 absorber at about 1000°C for integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) furnace, the reactions of calcium oxide and CO2 at high temperatures was examined. Calcium carbonate reacts with sodium hydrogen carbonate below 200°C and forms sodium–calcium complex carbonate. The sodium–calcium complex carbonate melts at 813°C, and the carbon dioxide absorption and discharge reversible reactions of calcium-oxide

Shunkichi Ueno; D. Doni Jayaseelan; Jihong She; Naoki Kondo; Tatsuki Ohji; Shuzo Kanzaki

2004-01-01

382

Temperature dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions of alkali metal chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of mutual diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution in aqueous solutions of alkali-metal chlorides have been made with the Taylor dispersion technique. Data were obtained for the series LiCl\\/H2O, NaCl\\/H2O, KCl\\/H2O, RbCl\\/H2O, and CsCl\\/H2O, at five temperatures between 298.15 and 318.15 K. A linear dependence with temperature was found. This technique is very convenient in comparison with other more time-consuming

R. Castillo; C. Garza

1993-01-01

383

Temperature dependence of the mutual diffusion coefficients in aqueous solutions of alkali metal chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of mutual diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution in aqueous solutions of alkali-metal chlorides have been made with the Taylor dispersion technique. Data were obtained for the series LiCl/H2O, NaCl/H2O, KCl/H2O, RbCl/H2O, and CsCl/H2O, at five temperatures between 298.15 and 318.15 K. A linear dependence with temperature was found. This technique is very convenient in comparison with other more time-consuming techniques.

Castillo, R.; Garza, C.

1993-11-01

384

Separation characteristics of acetone\\/water mixtures through sodium alginate\\/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) membranes by vapor permeation and vapor permeation with temperature difference methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the permeation and separation characteristics of acetone\\/water mixtures were investigated by vapor permeation (VP) and vapor permeation with temperature difference (TDVP) methods using sodium alginate\\/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (NaAlg\\/PVP) membranes crosslinked with calcium chloride. Membranes were prepared in different ratios (w\\/w) (100\\/0, 95\\/5, 90\\/10, 85\\/15, 80\\/20, 75\\/25) of NaAlg\\/PVP. The effects of blend ratio, feed composition, operating temperature

Ebru Kondolot Solak; Suat Kahya; Oya ?anl?

2011-01-01

385

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organics and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O:C) was ? 0.8 and was always observed for O:C<0.5. For 0.5 ? O:C< 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organics investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ? NH4HSO4 ? NaCl ? NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting-out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O:C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-07-01

386

Sodium chloride inhibits the growth and infective capacity of the amphibian chytrid fungus and increases host survival rates.  

PubMed

The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0-5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1-4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

2012-05-10

387

Phase Separation in Aqueous Solutions of Binary Copolymers of Acrylamide with Sodium 2-Acrylamido-2-Methylpropanesulfonate and Sodium Acrylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase separation in aqueous solutions of binary copolymers of acrylamide with sodium 2-acryl-amido-2-methylpropanesulfonate and sodium acrylate is studied over the temperature range from 20 to 100°C, as influenced by addition of calcium, magnesium, and sodium chlorides, inorganic salt concentration, and molecular characteristics of the copolymers.

V. F. Kurenkov; I. N. Nadezhdin; O. A. Antonovich; F. I. Lobanov

2004-01-01

388

Aqueous Electrolyte Ionization over Extreme Ranges as Simple Fundamental Relation with Density and Believed Universal; Sodium Chloride Ionization for 0o to 1000oC and to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm.).  

SciTech Connect

The chemical nature of aqueous electrolyte ionization is illustrated by a simple relationship with water as a reactant believed to correlate ionization of aqueous sodium chloride approaching infinite dilution over the entire range of temperature and pressure [0 to 1000oC; 0.1 to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm)]. The derived equation accurately and smoothly describes the ionization constant of sodium chloride [K(NaCl)] in both water and water strongly diluted by inert solvent. Effects of water density on ionization are quantitatively and simply described that oppose conventional theory that ionization is a function only of dielectric constant, and theorists should apply this simplicity with density in understanding aqueous electrolyte ionization. There appears to be no substantive evidence for Pitzer's earlier proposal (1983) that K(NaCl) with decreasing very low densities (if known) would diverge sharply downward by several orders of magnitude. Classical ionization theories are limited in universal application, and it seems that theory must adjust to this observed simple fundamental relationship.

Marshall, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2008-01-01

389

Development of Disposable Sorbents for Chloride Removal from High-Temperature Coal-Derived Gases  

SciTech Connect

The integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle approach is an efficient process for producing electric power from coal by gasification, followed by high-temperature removal of gaseous impurities, then electricity generation by gas turbines. Alternatively, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) may be used instead of gas turbine generators. The coal gas must be treated to remove impurities such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), a reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas, which is produced during gasification from chloride species in the coal. HCl vapor must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipments such as fuel cells or gas turbines, and to minimize deterioration of hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate methods to fabricate reactive sorbent pellets or granules that are capable of reducing HCl vapor in high-temperature coal gas streams to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range 400{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C and the pressure range 1 to 20 atm; (2) testing their suitability in bench-scale fixed- or fluidized-bed reactors; (3) testing a superior sorbent in a circulating fluidized- bed reactor using a gas stream from an operating coal gasifier; and (4) updating the economics of high temperature HCl removal.

Krishnan, G.N.; Canizales, A. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gupta, R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ayala, R. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1996-12-31

390

Chloride transport across the basolateral cell membrane of the Necturus proximal tubule: Dependence on bicarbonate and sodium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The transport of chloride across theNecturus proximal tubule cell was studied in the doubly-perfused kidney using conventional, chloride-sensitive and pH-sensitive microelectrodes. Lowering chloride activity in the basolateral solution results in a reduction in intracellular Cl- activity (aCli). This reduction inaCli is inhibited by removing either HCO3- or Na+ from the perfusion solution, indicating that both HCO3- and Na+ are

W. B. Guggino; E. L. Boulpaep; G. Giebisch

1983-01-01

391

Error Analysis of Wind Measurements for the University of Illinois Sodium Doppler Temperature System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four-frequency lidar measurements of temperature and wind velocity require accurate frequency tuning to an absolute reference and long term frequency stability. We quantify frequency tuning errors for the Illinois sodium system, to measure absolute freque...

W. M. Pfenninger G. C. Papen

1992-01-01

392

Uranium oligomerization in chloride-based high temperature melts: in situ XAS studies.  

PubMed

In situ EXAFS spectroscopic studies of uranium compounds in high temperature alkali chloride melts indicate the presence of oligomeric species. An investigation into UCl(3) and UCl(4) dissolved in LiCl reveals long range ordering of uranium atoms in the molten state which is not maintained on quenching. Studies of uranium dioxide dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic with HCl exhibit long range ordering in both molten and quenched states, and the EXAFS data can be modeled using multiple coordination shells. PMID:15627351

Bhatt, Anand I; du Fou de Kerdaniel, Erwan; Kinoshita, Hajime; Livens, Francis R; May, Iain; Polovov, Ilya B; Sharrad, Clint A; Volkovich, Vladimir A; Charnock, John M; Lewin, Robert G

2005-01-10

393

Temperature adaptations in psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic chloride-dependent alpha-amylases.  

PubMed

The functional and structural adaptations to temperature have been addressed in homologous chloride-dependent ?-amylases from a psychrophilic Antarctic bacterium, the ectothermic fruit fly, the homeothermic pig and from a thermophilic actinomycete. This series covers nearly all temperatures encountered by living organisms. We report a striking continuum in the functional properties of these enzymes coupled to their structural stability and related to the thermal regime of the source organism. In particular, thermal stability recorded by intrinsic fluorescence, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry appears to be a compromise between the requirement for a stable native state and the proper structural dynamics to sustain the function at the environmental/physiological temperatures. The thermodependence of activity, the kinetic parameters, the activations parameters and fluorescence quenching support these activity-stability relationships in the investigated ?-amylases. PMID:22634328

Cipolla, Alexandre; Delbrassine, François; Da Lage, Jean-Luc; Feller, Georges

2012-05-23

394

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23

395

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer

B. Vestergaard

1992-01-01

396

Thermodynamic properties of aqueous gadolinium perrhenate and gadolinium chloride from high dilution calorimetry at extreme temperatures and pressures.  

PubMed

The heat of solution of solid cubic gadolinium oxide has been measured in noncomplexing perrhenic acid solutions at very high dilutions (10(-4) m) up to 596.30 K, from which the standard state thermodynamic properties of aqueous gadolinium perrhenate were determined up to 623.15 K. From the measured differences between similar properties of aqueous sodium chloride and perrhenate, thermodynamic properties for aqueous gadolinium chloride were obtained by ionic additivity. Data for the hydrolysis of Gd3+(aq) were obtained by separate determinations. The enthalpy of solution of gadolinium chloride at 623.15 K obtained from this research (-2.7 MJ mol(-1)) is apparently larger than any other recorded for a chemical reaction involving aqueous systems. Standard state partial molal heat capacities for ThCl4(aq) were predicted up to 623.15 K. PMID:19191504

Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

2009-02-26

397

Glass transition temperature and topological constraints of sodium borophosphate glass-forming liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium borophosphate glasses exhibit intriguing mixed network former effect, with the nonlinear compositional dependence of their glass transition temperature as one of the most typical examples. In this paper, we establish the widely applicable topological constraint model of sodium borophosphate mixed network former glasses to explain the relationship between the internal structure and nonlinear changes of glass transition temperature. The application of glass topology network was discussed in detail in terms of the unified methodology for the quantitative distribution of each coordinated boron and phosphorus units and glass transition temperature dependence of atomic constraints. An accurate prediction of composition scaling of the glass transition temperature was obtained based on topological constraint model.

Jiang, Qi; Zeng, Huidan; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi; Zhao, Donghui

2013-09-01

398

Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10–20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the degree of change in extracellular osmolarity, is muscle specific, and is dependent on the functioning of the NKCC and Na+, K+-ATPase.

Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

2011-01-01

399

Sodium chloride supplement at diagnosis and during infancy in children with salt-losing 21-hydroxylase deficiency.  

PubMed

Eight infants (6 female, 2 male) with salt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency were studied to determine the sodium deficit at diagnosis and the level of salt supplement required in addition to subsequent hormone replacement. The median sodium deficit at diagnosis was 34 mmol (range 16-78) or 10.5 mmol/kg (range 4-24). A mean sodium supplement of 2.2 mmol/kg per day (range 0.5-4.9), double the amount provided with feeds, was required to maintain plasma sodium concentration and plasma renin activity (PRA) in the normal range for age. We present an equation based on sodium output (urine), sodium input (feeding plus supplement) and plasma sodium concentration to calculate the sodium supplement needed to maintain sodium balance on hormone replacement in this condition and some practical management suggestions. The necessity for salt supplements is often underestimated and the salt-losing tendency exacerbated by infection remains an unnecessary reason for hospitalization during the first months of life. In patients with salt-losing CAH life-long mineralocorticoid treatment is necessary but additional salt supplements are needed to maintain plasma sodium concentration and PRA in the normal range during infancy. PMID:2079072

Mullis, P E; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

1990-11-01

400

Enthalpy of dilution of aqueous sodium chloride from 76 to 225/sup 0/C and aqueous dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide from 50 to 225/sup 0/C  

SciTech Connect

Enthalpies of dilution of aqueous sodium chloride from 3.0 to about 0.01 mol-kg/sup -1/ have been measured from 349.2 to 498.2 K near the saturation pressure of water using a flow calorimeter. Enthalpies of dilution of aqueous dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide have been measured from 0.3 to about 0.005 mol-kg/sup 1 -/ and from 323.4 to 498.3 K, also near the saturation pressure of water.

Archer, D.G.

1986-09-01

401

Homogeneous esterification of cellulose in the lithium chloride– N, N-dimethylacetamide solvent system: effect of temperature and catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial rayon grade cellulose was dissolved in the lithium chloride–N,N-dimethylacetamide (LiCl–DMAc) solvent system and esterified with acetic anhydride using p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (p-TsCl) and pyridine as catalysts. The reaction temperature was varied from 28 to 70°C and the time of reaction from 2 to 24 h. Full substitution took place at 60 and 70°C at respective reaction times of 10 and

Biranchinarayan Tosh; Chowdhury N. Saikia; Narendra N. Dass

2000-01-01

402

Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

2003-01-01

403

Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

404

Impaired intrarenal dopamine production following intravenous sodium chloride infusion in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired sodium excretion following NaCl infusion. To investigate the possible role of dopamine in the impaired natriuresis in diabetes, intrarenal sodium handling, sodium excretion and urinary dopamine output, reflecting intrarenal dopamine formation, were studied following a 2 h 0.9% NaCl infusion (25 ml\\/kg) in eight diabetic patients and nine control subjects. The

P. Stenvinkel; A. K. Saggar-Malik; H. Wahrenberg; U. Diczfalusy; J. Bolinder; A. Alvestrand

1991-01-01

405

High-temperature strain gages for use in sodium environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature long-term static strain measurements have, for many years, been a problem to the experimental stress analyst. Strain gages operating in environments from 600–1000° F over extended periods of time have varying characteristics as to temperature compensation, gage-factor shifts and, also, drift. The weldable-type high-temperature gage offers a great deal of promise, considering the ease of application to nonlaboratory-type structures.

V. Rastogi; K. D. Ives; W. A. Crawford

1967-01-01

406

In situ optical microscopy investigations of lithium and sodium film formation in buffered room temperature molten salts  

SciTech Connect

Previous work performed in both sodium and lithium buffered chloroaluminate molten salts have shown that the addition of small amounts of SOCl{sub 2} promotes the reversible stripping behavior of lithium and sodium metal with cycling efficiencies between 80 and 90%. The authors have performed a series of optical studies in conjunction with electrochemical experiments at varying SOCl{sub 2} concentrations in both lithium and sodium chloride buffered melts. On investigation, the lithium deposit is dendritic in nature and does not form a uniform film on the tungsten electrode. After discharging at moderate current densities, disconnected lithium metal is observed at the electrode surface. In contrast, the sodium deposits as a uniform, flat film on the tungsten electrode with little or no dendritic growth. The sodium electrodeposits undergo complete stripping from the tungsten electrode without dendritic or disconnected sodium metal left on the electrode surface.

Fuller, J.; Carlin, R.T. [Covalent Associates, Incorporated, Woburn, MA (United States); Osteryoung, R.A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-07-01

407

Effects of added tetramethylammonium chloride on sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar structure: electron scavenging ability of doxylstearic acid spin probes and their reaction with N,N,N'N'-tetramethylbenzidine photogenerated cations studied by electron spin resonance  

SciTech Connect

Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies are carried out for a series of chi-doxylstearic acids (chi = 5, 7, 10, 12, and 16) and photoproduced N,N,N'N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) cations in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in order to investigate the effects of added tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) on the micellar structure at room temperature. It is observed that chi-doxylstearic acids not only act as electron acceptors for electrons produced by photoionization of TMB but also react with TMB cations to produce nonparamagnetic products. chi-Dependences of the reactivities of these two reactions suggest that chi-doxylstearic acids increase their average number of gauche conformations inside the micelles when TMACl is added to the micellar solution. It is concluded that tetramethylammonium cations act as spacers between head groups of surfactant molecules to become more disordered and loosely packed inside the micelles. This confirms previous electron spin echo modulation studies on frozen micellar solutions.

Hiromitsu, I.; Kevan, L.

1986-07-03

408

Laboratory studies on solvent extraction of low-temperature tar oils by aqueous sodium salicylate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of aqueous saturated sodium salicylate for the extraction of tar acids from a low-temperature tar fraction is discussed. Solubility and equilibrium data for the system (neutral oil-tar acids-aqueous sodium salicylate) when plotted on a ternary diagram showed 2 types of curves: an ordinary bite type and another a loop containing solid and liquid phases. The tie-line data agree

P. Raj; M. A. K. Akmal; Y. V. S. Rao; S. M. Ahmed; R. Vaidyeswaran

1970-01-01

409

Improving Eggshell Quality at High Temperatures with Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted that confirmed the hypothesis that a dietary bicarbonate supplement will improve eggshell quality in hens at high temperatures as long as feed is consumed during the period of eggshell formation. End-of-lay hens were maintained on continuous light at temperatures of 30 and 35 C. Individual egg weights and shell quality measures for each hen were calculated

D. BALNAVE; S. K. MUHEEREZA

410

Stimulation of cell division in the rat by NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, and inhibition of the sodium chloride effect on the glandular stomach by ascorbic acid and beta-carotene.  

PubMed

Three questions associated with the stimulation of cell division by chloride salts have been investigated: (i) whether cations other than sodium show a similar effect, (ii) whether vitamins can have a preventive activity, and (iii) whether subchronic treatment with sodium chloride in the diet is also effective. Male Fischer 344 rats were given solutions of the chloride salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium by oral gavage. Water was used for control. After 4 h, a 24-h osmotic minipump containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was implanted subcutaneously. The forestomach and glandular stomach, as well as liver and bladder were analyzed immunohistochemically 24 h later for the proportion of cells in S phase as an indicator of the rate of replicative DNA synthesis. For both the forestomach and the glandular stomach, potassium was as potent as sodium, and the divalent cations Mg and Ca were even more potent on a molar basis. Supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg food) or beta-carotene (12.5 mg/kg food) for 1 week before gavage of the sodium chloride solution resulted in an inhibition of the stimulation of cell division. A putative tumor-chemopreventive activity of the two vitamins might therefore not only rely on their antioxidative properties but may include effects on the cell cycle. A 4-week treatment with a sodium chloride supplement in the diet (2% and 4% supplement) resulted in a significant stimulation of cell division not only in both parts of the stomach and in the bladder (with the 4% supplement) but also in the liver (even with the 2% supplement). Sodium-chloride-stimulated cell turnover therefore is a sustained effect. PMID:10235475

Lugli, S M; Lutz, W K

1999-01-01

411

Potential of salt-accumulating and salt-secreting halophytic plants for recycling sodium chloride in human urine in bioregenerative life support systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the possibility of growing different halophytic plants on mineralized human urine as a way to recycle NaCl from human wastes in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). Two halophytic plant species were studied: the salt-accumulating Salicornia europaea and the salt-secreting Limonium gmelinii. During the first two weeks, plants were grown on Knop's solution, then an average daily amount of urine produced by one human, which had been preliminarily mineralized, was gradually added to the experimental solutions. Nutrient solutions simulating urine mineral composition were gradually added to control solutions. NaCl concentrations in the stock solutions added to the experimental and control solutions were 9 g/L in the first treatment and 20 g/L in the second treatment. The mineralized human urine showed some inhibitory effects on S. europaea and L. gmelinii. The biomass yield of experimental plants was lower than that of control ones. If calculated for the same time period (120 d) and area (1 m 2), the amount of sodium chloride taken up by S. europaea plants would be 11.7 times larger than the amount taken up by L. gmelinii plants (486 g/m 2 vs. 41 g/m 2). Thus, S. europaea is the better choice of halophyte for recycling sodium chloride from human wastes in BLSS.

Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Shklavtsova, E. S.; Balnokin, Yu. V.; Popova, L. G.; Myasoedov, N. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

2011-07-01

412

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? FIRING TEMPERATURE REDUCTION FOR RATCHABURI POTTERY BY SODIUM CARBONATE ADDITION ????? ??????????????, ???? ???????, ????????? ???????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ratchaburi plastic clay has been widely used extensively for the production of dragon jar and other potteries. These wares were normally fired between 1200-1250oC to get a serviceable strong vitreous body. Research for lower firing temperature bodies will be more economical benefit since firing time and fuel consumption are lessened. This study was focused on decreasing the firing temperature of

Thanakorn Wasanapiarnpong; Thossaporn Assavachai; Adisak Thueploy; Karn Serivalsatit; Danai Arayaphong

413

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260°C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260°C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L.

2012-05-01

414

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

SciTech Connect

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260 deg. C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260 deg. C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-05-17

415

Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing  

SciTech Connect

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

2012-06-12

416

Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

2009-06-01

417

Design of High Temperature Ultrasonic Linear Arrays for Under-Sodium Viewing  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the design process for high temperature ultrasonic phased array transducers for imaging in liquid sodium at temperatures up to 260C. The project is funded by the USDOE Generation IV Reactor Program and includes collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency. The transducer system is being designed to be able to provide images inside a sodium cooled fast reactor, to support operation and maintenance activities including potentially location of looseor damaged parts during service outages. The prototype transducer array is being designed for 8 to 16, 3MHz rectangular lead niobate (K-81) or bismuth titanate (K-15) piezoelectric elements spaced at ?/2 (wavelength in sodium). A nickel or nickel alloy faceplate serves as the sodium wetting surface. Scan angle of the focused ultrasonic beam is ±30 degrees. Imaging spatial resolution is ? 1mm. The array is designed to be operated using a commercial phased array control system and it is planned that array testing will be performed in room temperature water, hot oil (260C), and molten sodium (260C).

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Bond, Leonard J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Peters, Timothy J.

2010-11-07

418

Decontamination of sodium cyanide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small?scale DecontaminationAqueous sodium cyanide, buffered with ammonium chloride, was decontaminated by portionwise addition of calcium hypochlorite while the temperature of the mixture was held below 12°C.Large?scale DecontaminationThe cyanide waste pH is raised to 10.0 and hypochlorite from any source used to convert cyanide to cyanate or even carbon dioxide and nitrogen if desired.

D. E. Pearson; T. M. Laher; S. Campagna

1981-01-01

419

Behavior of UO2 and Fissium in Sodium Vapor Atmosphere at Temperatures Up to 2800 C.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An experimental technique was developed to study the behavior of fuel and fission products in out-of-pile tests in a sodium vapor atmosphere. Evaporation rates of UO2 were measured up to 2800 C. The evaporation is found to depend on temperature and the ac...

H. Feuerstein J. Oschinski

1986-01-01

420

Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

1993-09-01

421

Electrodeposition of aluminium and aluminium\\/platinum alloys from AlCl 3 \\/benzyltrimethylammonium chloride room temperature ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows that aluminium and aluminium\\/platinum alloys can be deposited from room temperature ionic liquids formed from an adduct of aluminium trichloride with benzyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The advantages of this ionic liquid over the majority of those previously investigated is that it is less water sensitive, easier to purify and form and significantly more cost effective. Voltammetry and chronoamperometry

Andrew P. Abbott; Christopher A. Eardley; Nicola R. S. Farley; Gerald A. Griffith; Allin Pratt

2001-01-01

422

Influence of temperature, cement type and level of concrete consolidation on chloride ingress in conventional and high-strength concretes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports the results of an investigation conducted to evaluate the influence of temperature, cement type and level of consolidation of concrete on chloride ingress into conventional and high-strength concretes. Four concrete mixes having the same workability were made, two with an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and two with sulphate-resisting cement (SRPC). Concrete specimens were exposed to 5%

Waheeb A. Al-Khaja

1997-01-01

423

Radiation synthesis of temperature-responsive hydrogels by copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride with /N-isopropylacrylamide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel cationic hydrogels were synthesized by /?-irradiation copolymerization of [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride with /N-isopropylacrylamide in the presence of cross-linking agent. The synthesis regularities have been studied. The swelling behavior of hydrogels as a function of copolymers composition and temperature was evaluated.

Mun, Grigoriy A.; Nurkeeva, Zauresh S.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V.; Sergaziyev, Aibek D.; Rosiak, Janusz M.

2002-08-01

424

Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution.  

PubMed Central

Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol/kg; 200 kcal). The daily stomal output remained constant for each patient during the four test periods but varied between patients from 0.60 to 2.84 kg (daily intestinal fluid balance 0.74-2.61 kg). Without a salt supplement, three patients lost more sodium from the stoma than they took in by mouth (-25, -94, and -101 mmol/day) and the mean sodium balance for all six subjects was -16 mmol (range -101 to 79) daily. Extra salt was absorbed with each form of supplement (p less than 0.05); no patient with the glucose electrolyte solution (mean 96, range 0 to 226 mmol), but one patient with the glucose-polymer solution (mean 96, range -25 to 164 mmol) and two with the salt capsules (mean 66, range -8 to 145 mmol) were in negative balance. Two patients vomited with the salt capsules. There was only a small increase in energy absorption (mean 115 kcal) with the glucose polymer solution compared with the glucose electrolyte solution. A sipped glucose electrolyte solution seems to be the optimal mode of sodium replacement in patients with a high output jejunostomy.

Nightingale, J M; Lennard-Jones, J E; Walker, E R; Farthing, M J

1992-01-01

425

Experimental determination of aqueous sodium-acetate dissociation constants at temperatures from 20 to 240°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissociation constants of sodium acetate ion pair (NaCH3COO0) were determined at the liquid–vapor saturation pressure by Raman spectroscopy at temperatures from 20 to 240°C and by potentiometry at temperatures from 25 to 172°C. Large differences were found between these two experimentally determined data sets; dissociation constants generated from Raman spectroscopic data were found to be ?1.5 orders of magnitude higher

Patricia Fournier; Eric H. Oelkers; Robert Gout; Gleb Pokrovski

1998-01-01

426

Establishment of Analytical Model for Peak Temperature Within a Sodium-Water Reaction Jet, (I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish an analytical model for the peak temperature within a sodium-water reaction jet, an analytical and theoretical investigation of an inert-hot-gas jet injected into a bath of cold liquid was performed as the first step. The laboratory study involved measurement of the centerline temperatures within hot N2-gas jets in water and in volatile refrigerant Suva-123. An integral

Michael EPSTEIN; Hans K. FAUSKE; Naoki YOSHIOKA; Masanori TASHIMO; Hiroshi SAKABA; Shoji KOTAKE

2005-01-01

427

Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: Implications for salinization of surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada’s most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel’s larval stage. The 24h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species

Patricia L. Gillis

2011-01-01

428

Production of concentrated caustic soda and hydrochloride acid solutions from sodium chloride by electrodialysis with the aid of bipolar ion-exchange membranes  

SciTech Connect

This paper gives a comparative analysis of the action of electrodialyzers containing three and five compartments in the structural unit, and equipped with bipolar, cation-exchange, and anion-exchange membranes, used for production of hydrochloric acid and caustic soda from sodium chloride solutions. It was shown that an electrodialyzer with five compartments gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda for 2.5-3 M concentration with 0.2-0.3 current efficiency, whereas an electrodialyzer with three compartments in the structural unit gives hydrochloric acid and caustic soda concentrations of about 1.2 M at the same current efficiency. The performance of the electrodialyzers was analyzed and equations were derived for calculating the current efficiencies for acid and alkali under conditions of acidification of the salt solution; this was based on determination of the transport numbers of ions passing through the membranes.

Greben', V.P.; Pivovarov, N.Ya.; Latskov, V.L.

1988-10-20

429

Influence of Nickel Chloride, Chlorpyrifos, and Imidacloprid in Combination with Different Temperatures on the Embryogenesis of the Zebrafish Danio rerio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent types of stressors, chemicals and high temperatures, which frequently act together in the environment, are\\u000a addressed in this study. Pesticides (imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos) as well as a metal salt (nickel chloride) were investigated\\u000a for their toxic effect at different temperatures. Tests focused on the early development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae (from fertilization up to 168 h

Volker Scheil; Heinz-R. Köhler

2009-01-01

430

Solution mining potassium chloride from heated subterranean cavities  

SciTech Connect

Potassium chloride can be solution mined from a subterranean ore deposit containing potassium chloride and sodium chloride at a temperature higher than the natural deposit temperature, where the deposit ore has been rubblized into the cavity to effect a large contact surface area. The invariant composition of the cavity solution is reached at the highest temperature, preferably greater than the natural deposit temperature, and appreciable pumping rates are used. This is accomplished by 1) solution mining the ore rubble at the natural deposit temperature for a time sufficient to determine the mining rate at that temperature; 2) increasing the temperature of the cavity solution to a temperature determined to be near the highest temperature at which the invariant composition is achievable at the solvent dissolving rate; and 3) solution mining the ore at the higher temperature and withdrawing a solution near the invariant composition at the higher temperature. 17 claims.

Goldsmith, E.L.

1980-12-16

431

Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment. PMID:21807190

Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

2011-06-15

432

Effects of temperature on micellar-assisted bimolecular reaction of methylnaphtalene-2-sulphonate with bromide and chloride ions.  

PubMed

Reactivity of methyl naphthalene-2-sulphonate, MeONs, with H2O, Br(-) and Cl(-) in water and in cationic micelles of cetyltrialkylammonium surfactants, n-C16H33N(+)R3X(-), R=Me (CTA(+)), n-Pr (CTPA(+)), X=Br, Cl, CH3SO3, has been investigated in the temperature range 25-45°C. Micellar rate effects were analysed by using the pseudophase treatment, and the second-order rate constants in the micellar pseudophase were evaluated at the various temperatures. Values of these rate constants increase with temperature, and the effect is less important in micelles than in water and more important for chloride than for bromide ions. Micelles lead to an ion behaviour discrimination, whose extent depends on surfactant type and on temperature, with maximum effect in CTPA(+) at 25°C and with bromide being always more reactive than chloride. Quantitative analysis of the temperature effect by the Eyring equation showed that micelles speed up reaction of MeONs with halide ions by decreasing the activation enthalpies, which is partially offset by decreases in the activation entropies. The rate acceleration by increase in surfactant head group size has only enthalpic origin for bromide and only entropic origin for chloride: this different behaviour was rationalised taking into account both solvation of anions and the hydrophobic effect. PMID:23660022

Di Michele, A; Germani, R; Pastori, G; Spreti, N; Brinchi, L

2013-04-06

433

Sodium instead of potassium and chloride is an important macronutrient to improve leaf succulence and shoot development for halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is contributed largely by NaCl but some halophytes such as Sesuvium portulacastrum have evolved to adapt salinity environment and demonstrate optimal development under moderate salinity. To elucidate the detail mechanisms of the great salt tolerance and determine the respective contributions of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) on the development of S. portulacastrum, morphological and physiological analysis were performed using plants supplied with 200 mM of different ions including cations (Na(+), K(+), Li(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), Ac(-)) respectively. The results revealed that the salt-treated plants accumulated large amounts of sodium in both leaf and stem. There was a greater shoot growth in presence of external Na(+) compared to K(+) and Cl(-). Na(+) was found more effective than K(+) and Cl(-) in cell expansion, leaf succulence, and shoot development. Flame emission and X-Ray microanalysis revealed the relative Na(+) content was much higher than K(+) and Cl(-) in both leaf and stem of well developed S. portulacastrum, leading to a higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio. The effects of different ions on the development of S. portulacastrum were listed as the following: Na(+) > NO(3)(-) > CK > Cl(-) > K(+) > Ac(-) > Li(+). These results demonstrated NaCl toxicity is attributable largely to the effect of Cl(-) but rarely to Na(+), and thus sodium is concluded as a more important macronutrient than potassium and chloride for improving leaf succulence and shoot development of halophyte S. portulacastrum. PMID:22153240

Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Haiyan; Han, Bing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Anping; Zheng, Dong; Liu, Chongjing; Chang, Lili; Peng, Ming; Wang, Xuchu

2011-10-25

434

[Inhibition of growth of E. coli cells by anolites of sodium and potassium chloride after processing solutions in a diaphragmatic electrolyzer].  

PubMed

The relationship between the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride and potassium anolites, obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser, and the physicochemical parameters of solutions was compared with that between the inhibitory effect and physicochemical properties of hypochlorites obtained after treating the solutions in an electrolyser having no diaphragm was compared. The biological activity of solutions containing molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ions was determined by their effect on the growth of E. coli cells. After a 5-min incubation of cells with each of the oxidizers, the bacterial growth stopped and was not restored during one day. The conclusion is made that the oxidizers irreversibly disturb the barrier properties of cell membranes and, in some cases, destroy cells. In model solutions, as well as in solutions treated after heating on a water bath or after the addition of sodium thiosulfate, a delay in the start of E. coli growth occurs. After the lag-phase, the repair of cells sets on, and after a day the optical density of cells increases and approaches the control. PMID:10079921

Miroshnikov, A I

435

Pessimum effect of externally applied chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation: Proposed mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortars and concretes were subjected to a heat treatment cycle consisting of a pre-set period of 4 h at 23 deg. C followed by accelerated curing at 95 deg. C prior to storage at room temperature in water or limewater, 0.5 M, 2.8 M sodium chloride solutions. It was found that the specimens stored in 0.5 M sodium chloride solution

S. O.. Ekolu; M. D. A. Thomas; R. D. Hooton

2006-01-01

436

Pessimum effect of externally applied chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation: Proposed mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortars and concretes were subjected to a heat treatment cycle consisting of a pre-set period of 4 h at 23 °C followed by accelerated curing at 95 °C prior to storage at room temperature