These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

2

High-temperature sodium nickel chloride battery for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Although the sodium-nickel chloride cell couple has a high voltage (2.59 V) and a high specific energy (790 Wh/kg), the performance of present incarnations of this battery tend to be limited by their power. Because the nickel chloride electrode dominates the resistance and weight of the cell, research on this cell couple at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been primarily directed toward improving both the specific power and energy of the NiCl{sub 2} electrodes. During the course of these investigations a major breakthrough was achieved in lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. This improved Ni/NiCl{sub 2} electrode has excellent performance characteristics, wide-temperature operation and fast recharge capability. Modeling studies done on this electrode indicate that a fully developed Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery based on ANL-single tube and bipolar designs would surpass the mid-term and approach the long-term goals of the US Advanced Battery Consortium.

Prakash, J.; Redey, L.; Nelson, P.A.; Vissers, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Electrotechnical Technology Program

1996-07-01

3

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

4

Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature  

SciTech Connect

Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

2013-07-03

5

Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of ??-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-01

6

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

SciTech Connect

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

2000-04-01

7

Infrared optical constants of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate: application to study the crystallization of aqueous sodium chloride solution droplets at low temperatures.  

PubMed

Complex refractive indices of sodium chloride dihydrate, NaCl·2H(2)O, have been retrieved in the 6000-800 cm(-1) wavenumber regime from the infrared extinction spectra of crystallized aqueous NaCl solution droplets. The data set is valid in the temperature range from 235 to 216 K and was inferred from crystallization experiments with airborne particles performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The retrieval concept was based on the Kramers-Kronig relationship for a complex function of the optical constants n and k whose imaginary part is proportional to the optical depth of a small particle absorption spectrum in the Rayleigh approximation. The appropriate proportionality factor was inferred from a fitting algorithm applied to the extinction spectra of about 1 ?m sized particles, which, apart from absorption, also featured a pronounced scattering contribution. NaCl·2H(2)O is the thermodynamically stable crystalline solid in the sodium chloride-water system below the peritectic at 273.3 K; above 273.3 K, the anhydrous NaCl is more stable. In contrast to anhydrous NaCl crystals, the dihydrate particles reveal prominent absorption signatures at mid-infrared wavelengths due to the hydration water molecules. Formation of NaCl·2H(2)O was only detected at temperatures clearly below the peritectic and was first evidenced in a crystallization experiment conducted at 235 K. We have employed the retrieved refractive indices of NaCl·2H(2)O to quantify the temperature dependent partitioning between anhydrous and dihydrate NaCl particles upon crystallization of aqueous NaCl solution droplets. It was found that the temperature range from 235 to 216 K represents the transition regime where the composition of the crystallized particle ensemble changes from almost only NaCl to almost only NaCl·2H(2)O particles. Compared to the findings on the NaCl/NaCl·2H(2)O partitioning from a recent study conducted with micron-sized NaCl particles deposited onto a surface, the transition regime from NaCl to NaCl·2H(2)O is shifted by about 13 K to lower temperatures in our study. This is obviously related to the different experimental conditions of the two studies. The partitioning between the two solid phases of NaCl is essential for predicting the deliquescence and ice nucleation behavior of a crystalline aerosol population which is subjected to an increasing relative humidity. PMID:22856335

Wagner, Robert; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin

2012-08-23

8

A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously  

PubMed Central

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

9

A fiber-optic sensor using an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to measure temperature and water level simultaneously.  

PubMed

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

10

Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 – 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE, 0-3%) on heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags submerged in ...

11

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

12

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-02-01

13

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

14

Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

1994-01-01

15

The sodium/metal chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

16

Preparation and validation of a growth model for Bacillus cereus: the effects of temperature, pH, sodium chloride and carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth responses of a vegetative inoculum of Bacillus cereus as influenced by varying conditions of temperature, pH value and sodium chloride concentration (% wv) and carbon dioxide concentration (% vv) were determined in laboratory medium. Growth curves in concentrations of NaCl in the range 0.5–10.5% (wv), pH values in the range 4.5–7.0, CO2 concentrations in the range 10–80% (vv)

J. P. Sutherland; A. Aherne; A. L. Beaumont

1996-01-01

17

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

18

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

19

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

20

Stress corrosion cracking of austenitic type 304 stainless steel in solutions of hydrochloric acid + sodium chloride at ambient temperature  

SciTech Connect

Austenitic type 304 stainless steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in acidic chloride (Cl) solutions at ambient temperature. In this study, a layer of adsorbed product film enriched in chromium and nickel was found to form on the metal surface in the solutions. This product film had a protective role over the base metal. The nucleation of stress corrosion cracks was connected with the formation of the film and the buildup of a high local concentration of Cl. Observation by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed the propagation of stress corrosion cracks was associated with selective corrosion of deformation-induced martensite. The probable mechanism of transgranular SCC in this system was slip dissolution.

Fang, Z.; Wu, Y.; Zhu, R.; Cao, B.; Xiao, F. (Univ. of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Surface Science and Corrosion Engineering)

1994-11-01

21

Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride, and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65°C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65°C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65°C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product. PMID:25285486

Juneja, Vijay K; Garcia-Dávila, Jimena; Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; Pena-Ramos, Etna Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin

2014-10-01

22

Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

1998-01-01

23

Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

1971-01-01

24

Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-09-01

25

Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

26

Unexpected stable stoichiometries of sodium chlorides  

E-print Network

At ambient pressure, sodium, chlorine, and their only known compound NaCl, have well-understood crystal structures and chemical bonding. Sodium is a nearly-free-electron metal with the bcc structure. Chlorine is a molecular crystal, consisting of Cl2 molecules. Sodium chloride, due to the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, has highly ionic chemical bonding, with stoichiometry 1:1 dictated by charge balance, and rocksalt (B1-type) crystal structure in accordance with Pauling's rules. Up to now, Na-Cl was thought to be an ultimately simple textbook system. Here, we show that under pressure the stability of compounds in the Na-Cl system changes and new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at pressure as low as 25 GPa. In addition to NaCl, our theoretical calculations predict the stability of Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3 and NaCl7 compounds with unusual bonding and electronic properties. The bandgap is closed for the majority of these materials. Guided by these predictions, we h...

Zhang, Weiwei; Goncharov, Alexander F; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B

2012-01-01

27

Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

Birks, N.

1983-01-01

28

Modeling of sodium/metal chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of sodium/iron-chloride cells is modeled to determine the effect of a high ratio of solid electrolyte surface area to cell capacity. Preliminary studies show that electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined to a header or compartmented flat structures result in high-performance cells. A detailed calculation of the performance of 215-Ah cells of the latter configuration shows cell specific energy of 187 Wh/kg and a specific power of 293 W/kg. A 61.6-kWh battery of these cells designed for the GM-G Van would weigh only 416 kg and have a volume of only 283 L. These calculated performances greatly exceed the experimental performances of conventional cells having a single tubular electrolyte.

Nelson, P. A.

29

Unexpected Stable Stoichiometries of Sodium Chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl), or rocksalt, is well characterized at ambient pressure. As a result of the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, it has highly ionic chemical bonding (with 1:1 stoichiometry dictated by charge balance) and B1-type crystal structure. By combining theoretical predictions and diamond anvil cell experiments, we found that new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at high pressures. Compounds such as Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3, and NaCl7 are theoretically stable and have unusual bonding and electronic properties. To test this prediction, we synthesized cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl. These experiments establish that compounds violating chemical intuition can be thermodynamically stable even in simple systems at nonambient conditions.

Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Konôpková, Zuzana

2013-12-01

30

Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

31

Soret diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The mass transport of chemical species induced by a temperature gradient, commonly known as Soret diffusion, has been examined for the case of the sodium chloride and water system. The occurrence of significant thermal gradients in geological media, especially those associated with radioactive waste disposal sites, can produce a measurable flux of sodium chloride and therefore enrich the local solutions. Soret coefficients, or the ratio of thermal to isothermal mass transport factors, describe this rate of mass transfer and are necessary for evaluating certain nonequilibrium processes, such as the migration of fluid inclusions in rock salt. Experimental Soret coefficients for the NaCl-H/sub 2/O system were obtained by the use of a conductimetric thermal diffusion cell. This approach relies on monitoring the electrical conductivity change of two separate isothermal reservoirs which are maintained at different temperatures. The Soret cell is situated between the reservoirs and is comprised of an inert matrix of glass beads in order to minimize any solution convection. The utilization of this porous medium requires corrections for porosity and tortuosity. Measurements were made for 0.1 and 1.0 N NaCl solutions at mean temperatures of 40/sup 0/C and 50/sup 0/C with the mass transport induced by a thermal gradient of 2.6/sup 0/C/cm. The preliminary results indicate a Soret separation on the order of 1 to 2 percent with the attainment of a steady state in approximately 15 hours.

Cygan, R.T.

1985-01-01

32

Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

1992-01-01

33

Simulation of the bis-(penicillamine) enkephalin in ammonium chloride solution: a comparison with sodium chloride.  

PubMed

In order to quantify specific ion effects, a simulation study of bis(penicllamine) enkephalin, also known as DPDPE, has been performed in aqueous ammonium chloride solution and has been compared to a previous simulation of DPDPE in aqueous sodium chloride solution. Global thermodynamics have been calculated for a model system and the solution environment around DPDPE has been characterized. Associations of ions with DPDPE have been investigated. The observed differences between sodium chloride solution and ammonium chloride solution suggest that individual cations affect the solvation and peptide binding properties of a given anion. PMID:12548623

Marlow, Gail E; Pettitt, B Montgomery

2003-02-01

34

Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlClâ) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium\\/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using

Gary E. Gray; P. A. Kohl; J. Winnick

1995-01-01

35

Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

36

Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

37

Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development  

SciTech Connect

The performance of the Ni/NiCl{sub 2} positive electrode for the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250{degrees}C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40- to 60-kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150--400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110--200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, mid-temperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Dowgiallo, E.J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-02-28

38

Sodium insertion into vanadium pentoxide in methanesulfonyl chloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanesulfonyl chloride (MSC) forms a room temperature ionic liquid with AlCl 3. The electrochemical properties of vanadium pentoxide (V 2O 5) films prepared by the sol-gel route were studied in this electrolyte. As a potential cathode, sodium is reversibly intercalated into the V 2O 5 film up to a stoichiometry of 1.6 mole Na/mole V 2O 5 (-1 V versus Al(III)/Al<1.5 V) after the first discharge. The diffusion coefficient ( DNa +) in the V 2O 5 film was determined to be between 5E-14 and 9E-12 cm 2/s using the potentiostatic intermittent-titration technique.

Su, Lianyoung; Winnick, Jack; Kohl, Paul

39

Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained

Chizuko Morita; Kouichi Sano; Shinichi Morimatsu; Hiromasa Kiura; Toshiyuki Goto; Takehiro Kohno; Wu Hong; Hirofumi Miyoshi; Atsuo Iwasawa; Yoshiko Nakamura; Masami Tagawa; Osamu Yokosuka; Hiromitsu Saisho; Toyoyuki Maeda; Yoji Katsuoka

2000-01-01

40

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

41

SODIUM AND CHLORIDE INJURY OF FUERTE AVOCADO LEAVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Tip burn of avocados may be caused by an accumulation of chloride within the mature leaf and the severity of the injury is proportional to accumulation. Accumulation of sodium within the leaf causes a different type of burn where injury starts as necrotic spots within or along the leaf perimeter rather than at the tip of the leaf. Soil

A. D. Ayers; D. G. Aldrich; J. J. Coony

42

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sodium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar evaporation...

2010-07-01

43

Activity coefficients of aqueous sodium chloride from 15?? to 50??C measured with a glass electrode  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Values of the mean activity coefficient of sodium chloride at 15??, 25??, 38?? and 50??C were determined for aqueous NaCl solutions of 0.01 to 1.0 molal from electromotive force measurements on the cell: (sodium-sensitive glass electrode, aqueous sodium chloride, silver chloride-silver).

Truesdell, A.H.

1968-01-01

44

Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

45

The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

1979-01-01

46

Development of high performance sodium/metal chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium/metal chloride (MCl2) cells and batteries are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for stationary energy storage and transportation applications. The work is being directed toward (1) development of thin, high capacity density electrodes and inexpensive beta double prime alumina-glass composite electrolyte materials to replace beta double prime alumina, and (2) the development of models to project MCl2 system performances. In our NiCl2 electrode work, the effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on electrode performance were determined using annular electrodes fabricated in the uncharged state. Of all electrode design parameters mentioned, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and on the area-specific impedance. The beta double prime alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive (3.3 x 10(exp -2)S/cm at 250 C) composite material. Preliminary modeling studies indicate that the performance of the MCl2 electrodes can be fitted by a mathematic model very successfully and that cell electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined at a header or compartmented flat structures of either beta double prime alumina or of the composite material would result in high performance batteries with power-to-energy ratios of about 5.

Vissers, D. R.; Bloom, I. D.; Hash, M. C.; Redey, L.; Hammer, C. L.; Dees, D. W.; Nelson, P. A.

47

Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

48

Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.  

PubMed

The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. PMID:25872427

Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

2015-10-01

49

Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of sodium reduction by partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on the manufacture of Minas fresh cheese during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Four treatments of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese were manufactured, with partial replacement of NaCl by KCl at 0, 25, 50, and 75% (wt/wt), respectively. The cheeses showed differences in the content of moisture, ash, protein, salt, and lipid contents, as well as on the extent of proteolysis and hardness throughout the storage period. However, no difference was observed among treatments within each storage day tested. The partial substitution of NaCl by KCl decreased up to 51.8% the sodium concentration of the cheeses produced. The consumer test indicated that it is possible to manufacture a low-sodium Minas fresh cheese that is acceptable to consumers by partial substitution of NaCl by KCl at 25% (wt/wt) in the salting step. PMID:21605739

Gomes, A P; Cruz, A G; Cadena, R S; Celeghini, R M S; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Granato, D

2011-06-01

50

High temperature oxidation and sodium chloride-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9chromium-1molybdenum and 310 stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological development were investigated by weight gain kinetics, metallographs, depths of attack, metal losses, and X-ray analyses. The results of 310SS deposited with salt mixtures show that weight gain kinetics in simple oxidation reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law after 3 hr, while the kinetics with salt deposits display multi-stage growth rates. NaCl is the main corrosive specie in high-temperature corrosion involving mixtures of NaCl/Na2SO 4 and is responsible for the formation of internal attack. Uniform internal attack is the typical morphology of NaCl-induced hot corrosion, while the extent of intergranular attack is more pronounced as the content of Na 2SO4 in the mixture is increased. The thermal-cycling test results of 310SS deposited NaCl and coated 7wt%Si/93wt%Al show that the aluminized layers have good corrosion resistance during the first four cycles of testing, while degradation occurs after testing for five cycles. The reason for degradation of aluminized layers is attributed to the formation of inter-connecting voids caused by aluminum inward diffusion, chloridation/oxidation cyclic reactions and the penetration of molten NaCl through the voids into the alloy substrate. The 9Cr-1Mo steels coated with 7wt%Si/93wt%Al oxidized at 750, 850, and 950°C in static air show that oxidation kinetics followed a parabolic rate law at 750 and 850°C. The cracks propagated through the Fex Aly layer due to the growth of brittle FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 at 750 and 850°C. The voids condensed in the interface of intermetallics and substrate are attributed to the Kirkendall effect. At 950°C, the fast growing aluminide layer has a different expansion coefficient than oxide scale, leading to scale cracking, oxygen penetration, and internal oxidized, evidenced by a rapid mass gain.

Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

51

Sodium?metal chloride battery research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium?metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium?sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e. Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate-limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation — a rate limiting process — under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl 2, NiCl 2 and CuCl 2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

52

Thermodynamic and NMR study of aggregation of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium salicylate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex aggregation processes of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) have been studied in dilute solutions of sodium\\u000a salicylate (NaSal) by isothermal titration calorimetry and electrical conductivity at temperatures between 278.15 K and 318.15 K.\\u000a A structural transformation that was dependent on the concentrations of DTAC and NaSal was observed. The micellization process\\u000a in dilute solutions of DTAC has been subjected to a detailed

Bojan Šarac; Janez Cerkovnik; Bernard Ancian; Guillaume Mériguet; Gaëlle M. Roger; Serge Durand-Vidal; Marija Bešter-Roga?

53

Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

1980-01-01

54

Deep ultraviolet and visible crystalloluminescence of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A protocol has been developed for production of intense crystalloluminescence (XTL) from sodium chloride in aqueous solution by selective doping with transition metal salts (Ag+, Cu2+, and Dy3+). The method was used to record complete, fully dispersed deep UV-visible (200-650 nm) XTL spectra of sodium chloride for the first time. The results show conclusively that the emissions are due to dopant cations in the NaCl lattice, with no evidence for emission directly from NaCl, e.g., by triboluminescence resulting from crystalline fracture. The UV components of the XTL spectrum are attributed to single cation substituents (Ag+ and Cu+), and a strong visible component (˜415 nm) of the XTL is attributed to emission from silver-pair centers, (Ag+)2. The nature of the electronic transitions of the dopant cations is discussed. The results suggest that the timescale for transformation of a cluster to the crystalline phase is rapid, with efficient relaxation to the lowest excited electronic states of the dopant cation. This transformation is followed by photoemission of the cation in the nascent crystal.

Alexander, Andrew J.

2012-02-01

55

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2013-04-01

56

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2014-04-01

57

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2012-04-01

58

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2010-04-01

59

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is...

2011-04-01

60

Radial Transport of Sodium and Chloride into Tomato Root Xylem  

PubMed Central

Transport of Na and Cl across exuding tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) roots was determined as a function of ambient NaCl concentrations in the ranges of both systems 1 and 2. Kinetics of radial transport under steady-state conditions and the effect of dinitrophenol indicate that Na and Cl were transported by two different mechanisms. Sodium was neither accumulated against a concentration gradient nor directly inhibited by dinitrophenol from diffusing into the xylem. Chloride was accumulated in the xylem and its transport was nearly completely blocked by dinitrophenol. A comparison of the radial transport isotherms for Na and Cl for intact and decapitated plants indicates that the separate mechanisms were not unique to excised roots. It is concluded that radial Na transport in tomatoes was facilitated by a passive convective type process with the rate-limiting barrier located at the outer cortical plasmalemma. Chloride transport in both concentration ranges involved, either directly or indirectly, a metabolic mechanism. Absorption and retention of Na in the root tissue was negligible. Chloride was accumulated by the tissue but was unaffected by dinitrophenol. PMID:16658134

Maas, E. V.; Ogata, Gen

1972-01-01

61

Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

2014-08-01

62

A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

63

Long-Term Ammonium Chloride or Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment in Two Models of Polycystic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administration of ammonium chloride aggravates, while short-term administration of sodium or potassium bicarbonate lessens the development of polycystic kidney disease in Han:SPRD rats. We have conducted studies to determine whether the protection afforded by the administration of sodium bicarbonate is sustained and prevents development of uremia during chronic administration and whether the effects of the administration of ammonium chloride and

Vicente E. Torres; Michael G. Branden; Izumi Yoshida; Vincent H. Gattone

2001-01-01

64

Extracellular sodium and chloride depletion enhances nonexocytotic noradrenaline release induced by energy deficiency in rat heart.  

PubMed

The effect of either extracellular sodium or extracellular chloride reduction on the release of endogenous noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolite dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) has been studied in the isolated perfused rat heart under conditions of ischaemia and cyanide intoxication. The overflow of noradrenaline and DOPEG was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. The efflux of DOPEG, the predominant neuronal noradrenaline adrenaline metabolite, served as indicator of the free axoplasmic plasmic amine concentration. A calcium-free perfusion buffer was used to avoid exocytotic noradrenaline release. Sodium and chloride in the perfusion buffer were replaced by lithium and isethionate, respectively. (1) Reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride increased noradrenaline overflow in ischaemia. The release was suppressed by the uptake1 blocker cocaine indicating carrier-mediated outward transport of noradrenaline. (2) In cyanide intoxication sodium or chloride reduction accelerated the onset of DOPEG efflux reflecting increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations. This was accompanied by increased noradrenaline release. The ratio of noradrenaline/DOPEG overflow was increased by reduced sodium or chloride, indicating facilitation of carrier-mediated noradrenaline net outward transport. (3) In the presence of unaltered energy metabolism overflow of both, noradrenaline and DOPEG, was not enhanced by sodium or chloride reduction. The results demonstrate that reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride has two effects on noradrenaline release from the sympathetic neuron with reduced energy supply. First, reduced sodium or chloride induces increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations by interference with vesicular storage function. Second, both interventions enhance carrier-mediated noradrenaline release. PMID:2812038

Kurz, T; Schömig, A

1989-09-01

65

Alternative Approach To Modeling Bacterial Lag Time, Using Logistic Regression as a Function of Time, Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride Concentration  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (?) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed ? model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for ?, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether ? had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ? 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ? 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ? 20°C). The probability of the end of ? was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of ? was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The ? model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the ? model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of ? using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation. PMID:22729541

Nonaka, Junko

2012-01-01

66

High temperature oxidation and sodium chloride-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9chromium-1molybdenum and 310 stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological development were investigated by weight gain kinetics, metallographs, depths of attack, metal losses, and X-ray analyses. The results of 310SS deposited with salt mixtures show that weight gain kinetics

Charng-Cheng Tsaur

2004-01-01

67

Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Sodium-dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl?) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl? efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl? substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl? was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl?-free buffer (Cl? substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl?-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl? efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl? efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl? efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl? efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl? efflux via Cl?/HCO3? exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

Stakišaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juška, Alfonsas; Matusevi?ius, Paulius; Didžiapetrien?, Janina

2014-01-01

68

Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

1991-05-01

69

Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

1991-01-01

70

Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges  

SciTech Connect

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

Clark, Kendal W [ORNL; Qin, Shengyong [ORNL; Zhang, Xiaoguang [ORNL; Li, An-Ping [ORNL

2012-01-01

71

Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

2011-01-01

72

The Mechanism of Sodium and Chloride Uptake by the Gills of a Fresh-Water Fish, Carassius auratus: I. Evidence for an independent uptake of sodium and chloride ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carassius auratus placed in a dilute sodium chloride solution (400 gM) is able to absorb sodium and chloride ions at very different rates, or to absorb one ion and to lose the other. This is the case not only for fish which have been previously kept in choline chloride or sodium sulfate solutions or deionized water, in order to stimulate

F. Garcia Romeu; A ROMEU; J. MAETZ

1964-01-01

73

Phase equilibria for propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride and + potassium chloride and propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride and + lithium bromide  

SciTech Connect

Measurements are reported on phase equilibria of the four mixtures propan-1-ol + water + sodium chloride, propan-1-ol + water + potassium chloride, propan-2-ol + water + lithium chloride, and propan-2-ol + water + lithium bromide at atmospheric pressure. The phase behavior of these mixtures exhibits three-phase equilibria, two liquids and one vapor, different from the previous reports that these only exhibit two phases. The phase diagrams for these mixtures are discussed.

Cheng-Long Lin (Kwang Wu Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China)); Liang-Sun Lee (National Central Univ., Taiwan (China)); Hsieng-Cheng Tseng (National Taiwan Inst. of Technology, Taiwan (China))

1993-04-01

74

Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to investigate whether the loop diuretic sensitive, sodium-chloride cotransport system described previously in shark rectal gland is in fact a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system, plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rectal glands ofSqualus acanthias and sodium and rubidium uptake were measured by a rapid filtration technique. In addition, the binding of N-methylfurosemide to the membranes was investigated.

J. Hannafin; E. Kinne-Saffran; D. Friedman; R. Kinne

1983-01-01

75

Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results\\u000a showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding)\\u000a maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In\\u000a contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

1979-01-01

76

Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82°C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

1979-01-01

77

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

78

Kinematic Viscosity and Density of Binary and Ternary Mixtures Containing Hydrocolloids, Sodium Chloride, and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematic viscosity and density of binary aqueous solutions containing xanthan gum and ternary aqueous solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium chloride have been measured from 303 K to 318 K at different values of pH. The viscosity and density for binary and ternary systems showed increases with a higher concentration of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum or carboxymethyl cellulose) and reductions with increasing temperature. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The models used to predict the viscosity, density, and apparent specific volume demonstrated satisfactory results in comparisons with experimental data.

Assis, Tassia F.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Guimarães, Guilherme C.; Coelho, Marcos C.; Ramos, Andresa V.; Costa, Bernardo S.; Coimbra, Jane S. R.

2010-03-01

79

Effect of External Sodium Chloride Salinity on Ionic Composition of Leaves of Cotton Cultivars I. Cell Sap, Sodium and Potassium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to observe the effect of external sodium chloride salinity on cell sap, sodium and potassium of leaves of cotton cultivars. This experiment was conducted in hydroponic system in growth tanks. Four cotton cultivars i.e. two sensitive (D 9 and Ravi) and two relatively tolerant cultivars (NAIB 78 and MNH 93) were grown under salt stress of

AKHTAR NAWAZ KHAN; R. H. QURESHI; N. AHMAD

80

Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in higher levels of brothy flavor in cheese made with smaller curd knives and a higher target salting titratable acidity. This effect resulted in lower consumer liking scores. PMID:23332837

Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

2013-03-01

81

Sodium/metal chloride program conceptual design study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Sodium/Metal Chloride Design Study was to investigate and evolve candidate cell designs, using the metal chloride technology, which are responsive to future battery requirements for electric vans. Using the present power and energy requirements for the ETX-2, IDSEP and G-Van Electric Vehicle Programs, the design study was driven by a goal established by DOE/ANL for a 27 percent reduction in battery weight and volume. In addition to battery performance figures of 150 Wh/kg and 200 Wh/liter, the conceptual design had to meet the acceleration power demand throughout discharge, specific to each of the designated vans, even for the case where 10 percent of cells failed early. The power to accelerate the ETX-2 Aerostar, for example, was 65 kW, or 160 W/kg and 230 W/liter. Clearly, the challenges that were established for the metal chloride system were intended to provide a high performance battery system for future van applications, in which a vehicle range of 200 miles and acceleration to 60 MPH in 15 seconds were deemed to be attractive features. This study was perhaps the first DOE sponsored program which has directed the cell design to meet the perceived performance goals of future EVans. The two recommended cell designs are the central cathode multi-tube and the bipolar flat plate concepts. The former allows the use of external fuses in series with each tube to isolate failures and maintain cell operation. Since the fuses have a common termination, the presence of an instantaneous short-circuit creates a high current path through the appropriate fuse, causing it to melt and open-circuit. The action of the fuse is enhanced by the greater numbers of electrolyte tubes associated with the central cathode design. The BFP design, on the other hand, uses smaller capacity cells that are compacted vertically in stacks with intrinsic shorting through failed cells to maintain operation of each string.

1990-07-01

82

The design and performance of various types of sodium/metal chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical, safety, and mechanical-shock performances of outside sodium/nickel chloride cells and central and outside sodium/iron chloride cells are discussed. The design and construction of large batteries is considered, and it is shown how the sodium/metal chloride systems can lead to good battery performance with lower cost, simpler thermal management, and easier maintenance than previous systems. Performance data on large batteries with specific energies of about 100 Wh/kg to 100 Wh/l are considered.

Tilley, A. R.; Bull, R. N.

83

Water redispersible dried nanofibrillated cellulose by adding sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The present study reports for the first time a method to obtain water redispersible dried NFC using freeze-drying. No chemical surface modification was required to get this kind of product. Salt addition (sodium chloride: NaCl) strategy has been selected to block and then to regenerate hydrogen bonds during the drying and the redispersion steps, respectively. Several samples were produced at different pH (i.e., 4, 6, 8, and 10). All the redispersed NFC were characterized by different techniques (e.g., FE-SEM, XRD, EPMA-EDX) to check the effect of salt on NFC aggregation. The interactions between NFC and NaCl at different pH conditions have been discussed and the rheology of the redispersed NFC suspension has been performed. All the results prove a perfect water redispersion at pH 8 and exactly similar suspension is obtained after water dispersion of dried NFC following our procedure. These results are very promising for increasing application of NFC. PMID:23140404

Missoum, Karim; Bras, Julien; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

2012-12-10

84

The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

Nestler, R.B.

1949-01-01

85

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01

86

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions  

E-print Network

Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

Sparks, Donald L.

87

Electrical impedance and HV plasma images of high dilutions of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This paper reports impedance data and high voltage plasma photographic plates of high dilutions of sodium chloride in water submitted to the homeopathic dilution and succession up to 30cH. Extremely low concentrations of the original salt, even beyond Avogadro number, clearly differ from 'pure' water and; the action of sodium chloride on the electrical properties of water is inverted at high dilution. PMID:18657771

Assumpção, R

2008-07-01

88

Mineral nutrition of jojoba explants in vitro under sodium chloride salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) explants were cultured in vitro on a basal medium supplemented with sodium chloride up to 169mM during the proliferation stage. At the second and third month of salinity stress, the mineral nutrition (macro- and micro-elements) of the explants was assessed. Explants accumulated significant amounts of sodium and chloride (jojoba is an ‘includer’) while potassium, manganese,

Peter A. Roussos; Dionisios Gasparatos; Eleni Tsantili; Constantine A. Pontikis

2007-01-01

89

Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A fractional factorial design was used to assess the combined effects of four internal temperatures (55.0, 57.5, 60.0 and 62.5C) and five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt/wt%) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) (0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 wt/wt%) on the heat resis...

90

Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.  

PubMed

High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats. PMID:19073369

Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

2009-06-01

91

Modeling time to inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in response to high pressure, sodium chloride, and sodium lactate.  

PubMed

A mathematical model was developed to predict time to inactivation (TTI) by high pressure processing of Listeria monocytogenes in a broth system (pH 6.3) as a function of pressure (450 to 700 MPa), inoculum level (2 to 6 log CFU/ml), sodium chloride (1 or 2%), and sodium lactate (0 or 2.5%) from a 4°C initial temperature. Ten L. monocytogenes isolates from various sources, including processed meats, were evaluated for pressure resistance. The five most resistant strains were used as a cocktail to determine TTI and for model validation. Complete inactivation of L. monocytogenes in all treatments was demonstrated with an enrichment method. The TTI increased with increasing inoculum level and decreasing pressure magnitude, from 1.5 min at 700 MPa and 2 log CFU/ml, to 15 min at 450 MPa and 6 log CFU/ml. Neither NaCl nor sodium lactate significantly influenced TTI. The model was validated with ready-to-eat, uncured, Australian retail poultry products, and with product specially made at a U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)-inspected pilot plant in the United States. Data from the 210 individual product samples used for validation indicate that the model gives "fail-safe" predictions (58% with response as expected, 39% with no survivors where survivors expected, and only 3% with survivors where none were expected). This model can help manufacturers of refrigerated ready-to-eat meats establish effective processing criteria for the use of high pressure processing as a postlethality treatment for L. monocytogenes in accordance with FSIS regulations. PMID:21067666

Youart, Alyssa M; Huang, Yang; Stewart, Cynthia M; Kalinowski, Robin M; Legan, J David

2010-10-01

92

Micellization of AOT in aqueous sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium propionate, and sodium butyrate media: a case of two different concentration regions of counterion binding.  

PubMed

Critical micelle concentrations of AOT in water in the presence of sodium chloride, sodium acetate, sodium propionate, and sodium butyrate were determined at 25 degrees C by the surface tension method. The co-ions do not have any effect on the value of critical micelle concentration. The surface density of AOT at the air-water interface increases in the presence of added electrolyte and attains a maximum value of 2.5+/-0.1 mol m-2 at a particular electrolyte concentration which is different for sodium chloride and the other three electrolytes. From the Corrin-Harkins plot it has been found that for AOT micelles the counterion binding constant has values 0.40 and 0.82 below and above approximately 0.015 mol kg-1 electrolyte concentration (c*), respectively. Measurement of sodium ion activity from the EMF method has confirmed such a shift in the counterion binding constant of AOT at c*. The higher value of the counterion binding constant for AOT has been reported for the first time. From fluorescence spectroscopy it has been found that the aggregation number of AOT is 22 in water and its average aggregation numbers in the presence of electrolytes are about 34 and 136 below and above c*, respectively. The increase by a factor of 2 in the counterion binding constant is shown to be due to a change in the shape of the AOT micelles around c*. The shape of AOT micelles in the electrolyte concentration range c* is inferred to be oblate spheroid and a change from this shape appears to occur above c*. A sudden increase in the polarity of the micelle-solution interface is also observed above c*. PMID:15975587

Umlong, I M; Ismail, K

2005-11-15

93

Fat and sodium chloride reduction in sausages using kappa-carrageenan and other salts.  

PubMed

Fat and sodium chloride were reduced in a sausage formulation including kappa-carrageenan and other salts, as potassium and calcium chloride, in different concentrations, in order to compensate the ionic strength during myofibrillar protein extraction and solubilisation, and to promote the carrageenan stable conformation and gelation. Four different treatments were employed reducing fat from 15 to 10% and sodium chloride from 2.5 to 1.5% and 1%. Potassium chloride was added at 0.5% to all the treatments, and calcium chloride to 0.5% and 0.01% in the last two. The cooking yield was higher for all the treatments but expressible moisture was not significantly different, meaning that the water is not chemically entrapped by carrageenan at the ionic strength conditions employed. However, since no detrimental cooking losses or fat release were detected, myofibrillar proteins maintain a good functionality at these conditions together with kappa-carrageenan. Low-fat sodium-reduced treatment results were slightly darker but redder than the control, probably due to less fat in the formulation. Textural profile analysis demonstrated that, at the fat level employed and the different sodium, potassium and calcium chloride concentrations, similar textures could be created. Sensory analysis indicated that from the formulations employed, 1.5% NaCl with 0.5% KCl and 0.01% CaCl(2) was similar in controlling flavour (juiciness) and texture (hardness). These results established the possibility to reduce significantly the fat and sodium chloride content employing kappa-carrageenan with potassium and calcium chloride, without detrimental effects on texture and sensory characteristics. PMID:15545045

Totosaus, A; Alfaro-Rodriguez, R H; Pérez-Chabela, M L

2004-08-01

94

Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

Medalie, Laura

2012-01-01

95

Testing of a sodium/nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery for electric propulsion of ships and vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the promising future batteries for electric propulsion of vehicles and ships is the sodium/nickel chloride or ZEBRA (Zero Emission Battery Research Activities) battery. Despite some disadvantages with respect to the high temperature, the advantages with respect to specific energy and energy density are such that, especially in applications where the battery is used on a more or less continuous basis (e.g., in delivery vans and taxies) it is an interesting candidate battery. Another interesting application is on board of ships, like submarines or future electrical surface ships with electric propulsion. In 1995 a 2 year feasibility study, including experimental testing of a 10 kW h battery, was completed. This investigated the naval applicability of the sodium/sulphur battery, which is also a high temperature battery. Here the limited, experimentally proven, life-time of the batteries of about 1.5 years and this made naval application almost impossible. A paper about this study was presented at the 19th International Power Sources Symposium held at Brighton, England, in April 1995 [R.A.A. Schillemans, C.E. Kluiters, Sodium/sulphur batteries for naval applications, in: A. Attewell, T. Keily (Eds.), Power Sources 15, International Power Sources Symposium Committee, Crowborough UK, 1995. p. 421.]. Because of the more or less comparable specifications on specific energy and the more promising results of the life-time and field tests with sodium/nickel chloride batteries, a ZEBRA battery from AEG Anglo Batteries has been tested for naval applications. This was done by simulating the charge and discharge as it occurs in practice for the applications investigated. With respect to the electrical ship application (investigated for the Royal Netherlands Navy) the power versus time taken from the battery was simulated as well as the charge procedures. The same can be done for the vehicle application: in this case typical drive cycles for a van or taxi are translated to power versus time taken from the battery. The results of the tests for application of the battery in naval ships are very promising.

Kluiters, Edwin C.; Schmal, Dick; ter Veen, Willem R.; Posthumus, Kees J. C. M.

96

Modification of ceramic components for the sodium nickel chloride battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ZEBRA battery based on Na\\/NiCl2 chemistry shows promise for powering electric vehicles and load leveling systems. The ZEBRA cell consists of a liquid sodium negative electrode separated from the positive electrode by a ?\\

Amin Mali

2011-01-01

97

Response of the Higher Basidiomycetic Ganoderma resinaceum to Sodium Chloride Stress.  

PubMed

Ganoderma resinaceum tolerated sodium chloride salt stress within a range of 0 mM till 300 mM. It responded to salt stress with fluctuation in proline formation at different NaCl concentrations. However,the mycelial dry weight,total protein contents and exopolysaccharides did not changed considerably. Increasing sodium chloride concentration led to morphological alteration in fungal mycelia with disappearance of fungal cell wall,plasmolysis,and vacuolation as indicated with electron microscopic examination of the fungal growth. PMID:24015082

Mahmoud, Yehia A G; Mohamed, Eman H F A; Abd El-Rhman Mustafa, Ezza; Abd Elzaher, E H F

2007-09-01

98

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

Trickett, D.

1998-12-15

99

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28

100

Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

Medalie, Laura

2013-01-01

101

Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

2007-01-01

102

Research paper Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition  

E-print Network

Research paper Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition of starch xxxx Keywords: Pore shape Porosity Tablet strength Pore structure Binary mixture a b s t r a c in pore shape in the matrix of the primary component, causing a decrease in mechanical strength. Tablets

van Vliet, Lucas J.

103

Spectroscopy and Photochemistry of Adsorbed Molecules: Three Examples on Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of small molecules to sodium chloride crystals was investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Results are presented for two forms of substrate: fresh cleavage planes of macroscopic single crystals; and microcrystalline, porous films deposited under vacuum. Carbon dioxide forms an ordered monolayer on the single crystal. The intensity, multiplicity, and polarization dependence of its infrared resonances yield a structural

Otto Taneli Berg

1992-01-01

104

The Flame of Chloride of Sodium in a Common Coal Fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME time ago a correspondent of NATURE (vol. xiii. p. 287) inquired for an explanation of the fact that while common salt (chloride of sodium) colours the flame of an ordinary spirit-lamp yellow, the same substance thrown upon a common coal fire gives rise to a blue flame. In the next number (p. 306) Dr. Schuster stated that the origin

Edward T. Hardman

1876-01-01

105

CORNER ION, EDGE-CENTER ION, AND FACE-CENTER ION MADELUNG EXPRESSIONS FOR SODIUM CHLORIDE  

E-print Network

CORNER ION, EDGE-CENTER ION, AND FACE-CENTER ION MADELUNG EXPRESSIONS FOR SODIUM CHLORIDE A. DAVID present expressions for calculating the corner ion, edge-center ion, and face-center ion Madelung the charge on an ion in an infinite cubic lattice. In [2], Tyagi gives a representation of the Madelung

Hanusa, Christopher

106

Fretting-fatigue behaviour of bridge engineering cables in a solution of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bridge engineering cables are subject to potential damage, mainly due to fretting-fatigue and corrosion. This paper deals with the study of drawn steel wires submitted to fretting-fatigue in a solution of sodium chloride. Experimental tests were conducted to reproduce the contact conditions in spiral strands undergoing free bending deformations and submitted to corrosion. Previous tests showed that lubrication and zinc

V. Périer; L. Dieng; L. Gaillet; C. Tessier; S. Fouvry

2009-01-01

107

Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated

M. P. Sinha; S. K. Friedlander

1985-01-01

108

Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride on fungal-infected rainbow trout eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the USA, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture. However, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and their use is

Theresa M. Schreier; Jeff J. Rach; George E. Howe

1996-01-01

109

Sodium and chloride transport in soft water and hard water acclimated zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

E-print Network

Review Sodium and chloride transport in soft water and hard water acclimated zebrafish (Danio rerio the zebrafish is commonly used for studies of developmental biology and toxicology, very little is known about their osmoregulatory physiology. The present investigation of Na+ and ClÀ transport revealed that the zebrafish is able

Grosell, Martin

110

Dilute Solution Properties of Poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) in Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solutions  

E-print Network

polyelectrolytes. 01995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keywords: polyelectrolyte poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride, *Biopharmaceutical Development, Eli Lilly and Company, Gaithersburg,MD 20884-9980. Indianapolis,IN 46285 Journal of Polymer Science:Part B:Polymer Physics,Val. 33,1117-1122 (1995) 0 1995John Wiley & Sons,Inc. CCC OSS7

Dubin, Paul D.

111

Evidence for electroneutral sodium chloride cotransport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that chloride reabsorption in the isolated perfused cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit (cTAL) is dependent on the presence of sodium and potassium. The present study was performed to elucidate the dependence on chloride in quantitative terms. Ninety-four cTAL segments were perfused at high rates with solutions of varying chloride concentration. Chloride was

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Florian Lang

1983-01-01

112

Effects of Temperature and Thiosulfate on Chloride Pitting of Austenitic Stainless Steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potentiodynamic polarization curves were measured for types 304 (UNS S30400), 316L (UNS S31603), and 904L (UNS N08904) stainless steels (SS) in 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions with various thiosulfate additions at temperatures from 20 C to 90 C. A minimum concentration of thiosulfate was required for activation of pitting corrosion in each alloy, and this critical value was shown

N. J. Laycock

1999-01-01

113

Spectroscopy and Photochemistry of Adsorbed Molecules: Three Examples on Sodium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adsorption of small molecules to sodium chloride crystals was investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Results are presented for two forms of substrate: fresh cleavage planes of macroscopic single crystals; and microcrystalline, porous films deposited under vacuum. Carbon dioxide forms an ordered monolayer on the single crystal. The intensity, multiplicity, and polarization dependence of its infrared resonances yield a structural model. Each molecule occupies an identical site, tilted 64 +/- 5 ^circ from the surface normal. The layer consists of two such molecules per unit cell of a herringbone pattern. The spectral features are sensitive to temperature. It is argued that temperature influences the mean molecular tilt, which in turn modulates intermolecular coupling. Analytical models are used to extract an empirical anharmonic potential for the tilting libration. Microcrystalline films were used to document the influence of adsorption on molecular photochemistry. The behavior of ketene (CH_2CO) and sulfur dioxide are compared; both photodissociate in the gas phase. Vibrational resonances are relatively unaffected by adsorption, but the frequency and intensity of electronic transitions are distorted. Following 185 nm excitation, ketene dissociates with near unit efficiency in both the gaseous and adsorbed phases. The dissociation efficiency of SO_2, however, is significantly reduced in the adsorbed phase. Quenching mechanisms are discussed in light of the known dynamical properties of these molecules and NaCl crystals. The relationship between films and single crystals as experimental substrates is also addressed.

Berg, Otto Taneli

114

Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.  

PubMed

Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods. PMID:25577894

McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

2014-01-01

115

[Properties of benzethonium chloride in micellar solutions and the effect of added sodium chloride].  

PubMed

Aqueous solutions of the antimicrobially effective quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride (hyamine 1622) were studied using UV spectrophotometry and partially conductometry. The spectra of micellar solutions of benzethonium chloride revealed a concentration-dependent bathochromic and hyperchromic shift of a weak UV absorption band in the region 250-300 nm. This served to elaborate the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of benzethonium chloride and the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions without an addition of NaCl and with a constant addition of NaCl 0.003, 0.1 and 0.15 mol/l. Premicellar associations were not observed and in NaCl-free solutions CMC 0.0028 mol/l was spectrophotometrically determined. An addition of NaCl resulted in an increased hyperchromic effect and strengthening of micellization, manifested by a more than ten-times decrease in the CMC as well as the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions. The courses of the determined concentrations of free benzethonium cations in the solutions both without and with the presence of NaCl were quite similar; their maximal values were always just a little higher than the corresponding CMC and with a further growth of the total concentration of benzethonium chloride there was, on the other hand, a marked decrease in the concentration of its free cations in micellar solution. Possible effects of a decreased concentration of free benzethonium cations due to an added electrolyte on antimicrobial activity and formation of ionic pairs are discussed. PMID:16921736

Kopecký, F; Kopecká, B; Kaclík, P

2006-07-01

116

The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log?? cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log?? cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log?? cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also reduced during storage, but by less than 1.5 log10 cfu/g after 50 d. However, cheese with a 50% reduction in sodium without KCl had higher counts than full-sodium cheese at the end of 50 d of incubation at 4 °C when inoculated at 3 mo. When inoculated at 8 mo postmanufacture, this trend was only observed in 50% reduced sodium with KCl, for cheese manufactured with both cultures. This enhanced survival for 50% reduced-sodium cheese was not seen when a higher incubation temperature (12 °C) was used when cheese was inoculated at 3 mo of age and monitored for 27 d (no difference in treatments was observed at this incubation temperature). In the event of postprocessing contamination during later stages of ripening, L. monocytogenes was capable of survival in Cheddar cheese regardless of which culture was used, whether or not sodium had been reduced by as much as 50% from standard concentrations, or if KCl had been added to maintain the effective S/M of full-sodium Cheddar cheese. PMID:23910550

Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

2013-10-01

117

Diagnostic Value of Urinary Sodium, Chloride, Urea, and Flow  

PubMed Central

Up to 30% of hospitalized critically ill patients may have a rise in serum creatinine concentration. In addition to history and physical examination, there is diagnostic value in assessing urinary electrolytes, solute excretion, and urine flow in these patients. The correct interpretation of these urinary parameters can avoid unnecessary volume overload and mechanical ventilation, risk factors for increased mortality in patients with rising serum creatinine. The present article also discusses the role of arterial underfilling in causing prerenal azotemia in the presence of an increase in total body sodium and extracellular fluid expansion. As with extracellular fluid volume depletion, arterial underfilling secondary to impaired cardiac function or primary arterial vasodilation can delay or prevent recovery from ischemic or toxic acute tubular necrosis. The present brief review discusses the various aspects of the correct interpretation of urinary electrolytes, solute excretion, and urine flow in the setting of a rising serum creatinine concentration. PMID:21852582

2011-01-01

118

Energetics of Coupled Active Transport of Sodium and Chloride  

PubMed Central

A Clark electrode was used to measure oxygen consumption by the gall bladder, in which there is a direct and one-to-one linkage between active Na and active Cl transport. O2 uptake was reversibly depressed when Cl in the mucosal bathing solution was replaced by a poorly transported anion, such as sulfate. This effect of Cl was abolished by ouabain or in Na-free solutions. When the anion was chloride, treatment with ouabain or replacement of Na by a poorly transported cation depressed Qoo2, more than did replacement of Cl. However, ouabain or removal of Na also depressed Qoo2, in Na2SO4 solutions, in which salt transport is minimal. It is concluded that oxygen uptake in the gall bladder consists of three fractions: 9% requires both Na and Cl, is inhibited by ouabain, and is linked to the NaCl pump; 36% requires Na but not Cl, is inhibited by ouabain, and possibly is linked to the cellular K uptake mechanism; and 55% represents basal uptake. If the extra oxygen uptake observed during transport supplies all the energy for transport, then 25 Na + 25 Cl ions are transported actively per O2 consumed; i.e., twice as many ions as in epithelia which transport only Na actively. This extra uptake is more than sufficient to supply the energy for overcoming internal membrane resistance under the experimental conditions used. PMID:11526830

Martin, Duncan W.; Diamond, Jared M.

1966-01-01

119

Interrelationship between phosphorus, sodium, and chloride in the diet of laying hens.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted with commercial egg production type hens to determine the effects of dietary phosphorus, sodium, and chloride levels as related to levels of plasma calcium and phosphorus, blood acid-base balance, and production characteristics. Sodium and chloride were supplied to the diet as sodium bicarbonate and hydrochloric acid, respectively. In Experiment 1, five treatment groups were fed diets ad libitum containing .2, .6, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8% total phosphorus. The remaining treatment group was fed a diet containing .4% total phosphorus from 1400 to 2030 hr and 1.4% total phosphorus from 600 to 1100 hr. In Experiment 2, a 3 X 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used that consisted of three levels of total phosphorus (.2, .6, and 1.4%) and four levels of added sodium (0, .06, .22, and .45%) provided by sodium bicarbonate. Three other treatment groups were fed diets containing .36% supplemental chloride supplied by hydrochloric acid and either .2, .6, or 1.4% total phosphorus. Egg production was decreased in hens fed diets containing 1.8% total phosphorus. Egg specific gravity was decreased by both low and high phosphorus levels. Hens fed .4% total phosphorus in the afternoon produced eggs with higher specific gravity as compared with hens fed 1.4% total phosphorus during the entire experiment. At 1.4% dietary phosphorus, a significant increase in specific gravity was observed when .2 or .8% sodium bicarbonate was added to the diet. Increasing dietary phosphorus resulted in elevated plasma phosphorus and calcium concentration. Plasma phosphorus of hens fed .2 through 1.8% total phosphorus declined slowly from oviposition until 6 hr after oviposition and then reached a peak at 21 hr after oviposition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6330717

Junqueira, O M; Miles, R D; Harms, R H

1984-06-01

120

Sodium carboxymethylcellulose-induced aggregation of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

Aggregation behavior of a surface active ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions in absence and in presence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) by electrical conductivity, surface tension, vapor pressure, and fluorescence measurements. Ion-association behavior of C10MeImCl (aq) in the premicellar regime has also been investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C10MeImCl micelles appear in C10MeImCl-NaCMC solutions were identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the bulk solution structural property on the self-aggregation of C10MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C10MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. Thermodynamics of the micellization processes provided important insight regarding the (a) release of water molecules from the hydration layer around the hydrophilic domain, and from the water cage around the hydrophobic moiety of the SAIL, and (b) transfer of the hydrocarbon chains into the micelle and restoration of the H-bonding structure of the water around the micelle. PMID:25857982

Ray, Dhiman; Das, Sourav; De, Ranjit; Das, Bijan

2015-07-10

121

Influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose on the aggregation behavior of aqueous 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions.  

PubMed

The influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) on the aggregation phenomena of a surface active ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements. The counterion condensation behavior of NaCMC (aq) and the premicellar ion-association behavior of C16MeImCl (aq) were also investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C16MeImCl micelles appear in C16MeImCl-NaCMC solutions have been identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the charge density parameter of NaCMC on the self-aggregation of the C16MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C16MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. The thermodynamic parameters for micellization of C16MeImCl were estimated both in absence and in the presence of NaCMC. The observed enthalpy-entropy compensation effect in C16MeImCl and C16MeImCl-NaCMC systems provided important insight as to how micellization processes are governed by the bulk structural property of the solution with respect to that of the water. PMID:25256477

Das, Bijan; Ray, Dhiman; De, Ranjit

2014-11-26

122

Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm. PMID:24956779

Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2014-08-01

123

Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer. PMID:23948494

Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

2014-01-01

124

Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

1974-01-01

125

Influence of benzotriazole derivatives on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of new corrosion inhibitors namely N-[1-(benzotriazol-1-yl)ethyl]aniline (BTEA), and N, N-dibenzotriazol-1-ylmethylaminoethane (DBME) on the dezincification of 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution was investigated using weight-loss measurements and electrochemical techniques such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results obtained revealed that these compounds were very good inhibitors and behaved better in NaCl solution. Polarization studies showed that the BTEA and DBME behave as a mixed-type of inhibitors for 65-35 brass in sodium chloride solution. They decrease the anodic reaction rate more strongly than the cathodic reaction rate and renders the open circuit potential of brass more positive in NaCl solutions. Solution analysis revealed the decrease in dissolution of both copper and zinc in the presence of these inhibitors.

Ravichandran, R.; Rajendran, N.

2005-01-01

126

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOEpatents

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19

127

Hydrogen Embrittlement of Grade 2 and Grade 3 Titanium in 6% Sodium Chloride Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium was investigated in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 1 under potential control at 70 C. Grade 2 titanium was, at most, slightly susceptible to HE under the test conditions, whereas grade 3 titanium was very susceptible at an electrochemical potential below -800 mV{sub SCE}. This phase could be observed

Z. F. Wang; C. L. Briant; K. S. Kumar

1998-01-01

128

Swelling of sodium chloride filled polybutadiene networks in water, water\\/ acetone and water\\/THF mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The swelling of polybutadiene (PB) networks of different cross-link densities filled with finely divided sodium chloride (NaCI) particles are studied in water, water\\/acetone and water\\/THF mixtures. Swelling over periods of 2 months are recorded. The degree of swelling was observed to increase continuously in water during this period, whereas in water\\/acetone mixtures it reached a peak followed by deswelling and

Seda Erdal; Ivet Bahar; Burak Erman

1998-01-01

129

Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students’ Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry.\\u000a This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students’\\u000a explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students\\u000a dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually

Resa M. Kelly; Loretta L. Jones

2007-01-01

130

Simulations of the bis-penicillamine enkephalin in sodium chloride solution: a parameter study.  

PubMed

A simulation study of DPDPE in sodium chloride solution has been performed and compared with previous simulations using a different interaction potential for the ions. Both global thermodynamics as well as a characterization of association to DPDPE have been calculated. We show that the parameters used for the ions have a profound effect on the association to the peptide in 1M NaCl. The observed differences suggest that individual associations in these and previous simulations are sensitive to parameters. PMID:11455547

Marlow, G E; Pettitt, B M

2001-01-01

131

Non-specific activation of the epithelial sodium channel by the CFTR chloride channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic disease cystic fibrosis is caused by mutation of the gene coding for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Controversial studies reported regulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) by CFTR. We found that uptake of 22Na+ through ENaC is modulated by activation of CFTR in oocytes, coexpressing CFTR and ENaC, depending on extracellular chloride concentration. Furthermore we

Tanjef Szellas; John R. Riordan; Thomas Friedrich; Klaus Hartung; Georg Nagel

2001-01-01

132

Salinity-resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorates sodium chloride stress on tomato plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is one of the major anthropogenic as well as environmental stresses that reduce plant growth. Results show that even after being adapted up to 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, all selected isolates were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce phytohormones, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme. NT1 was found to exhibit the highest phosphate solubilization zones (25 mm),

Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

2010-01-01

133

Stability of butorphanol-tropisetron mixtures in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for patient-controlled analgesia use.  

PubMed

Tropisetron is an adjuvant for butorphanol used in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and has been reported to provide superior pain control. It is efficacious in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. This study aimed to describe the drug compounding and evaluates the long-term (up to 14 days) stability of butorphanol and tropisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA use.In this study, commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and tropisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08?mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05?mg/mL. The polyolefin bags and glass bottles were stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 14 days. The drug stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay of drug concentrations.The data obtained for admixtures prepared and stored at temperatures of 25°C and 4°C show the drugs have maintained at least 98% of the initial concentration. All solutions remained clear and colorless over the 14-day period, and the pH value did not change significantly.The results indicate that admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08?mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05?mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. The infusion is feasible for manufacturing in pharmacy aseptic units and can be stored for up to 14 days for routine use in PCA infusions. PMID:25674732

Chen, Fu-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

2015-02-01

134

Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields. The high temperature values for {sigma} at 1.0 N NaCl concentration suggest an expansion of the migration field to smaller inclusion sizes, which for a single halite crystal at these conditions, approach a dimension of one micron. The corresponding fluid inclusion size for the polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries retard the migration, is approximately 10 microns. Although the Soret results obtained in the present study provide additional data for high temperature applications in nuclear waste isolation, more experimentation and new equipment design are required in order to obtain data at temperatures above 80{degree}C. The experimental approach utilized in this study is limited in that respect. The almost immeasurable nature of the thermal diffusion process for the brines as examined in the laboratory, suggests that this effect will be insignificant (outside of fluid inclusion migration) in most rock-water interactions associated with a rocksalt nuclear waste repository. Other effects, such as convective fluid transport, pressure solution, and groundwater flow, will be orders-of-magnitude more important in evaluating the critical nature of brine migration, waste canister corrosion, and the potential for leaching radioisotopes from waste repositories.

Cygan, R.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jarrell, G.D. [ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1992-08-18

135

Local and average gloss from flat-faced sodium chloride tablets.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to detect local gloss and surface structure changes of sodium chloride tablets. The changes in surface structure were reflected by gloss variation, which was measured using a diffractive optical element-based glossmeter (DOG). By scanning a surface area, we constructed a 2-dimensional gloss map that characterized the tablet's surface structure. The gloss variation results were compared with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and average surface roughness values that were measured by conventional diamond stylus profilometry. The profilometry data showed a decrease in tablet surface roughness as a function of compression force. In general, a smoother surface contributes to higher average gloss values. The average gloss values for this material, in contrast, showed a decrease as a function of the compression force. The sequence of particle fragmentation and deformation together with crack formation in sodium chloride particles resulted in a loss of gloss for single sodium chloride particles at the tablet surfaces, which could be detected by the DOG. These results were supported by the SEM images. The results show that detailed information regarding tablets' surface structure changes can be obtained by detection of local gloss variation and average gloss. PMID:16584166

Juuti, Mikko; van Veen, Bert; Peiponen, Kai-Erik; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Kalima, Valtteri; Silvennoinen, Raimo; Pakkanen, Tuula T

2006-01-01

136

Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Triflates with Sodium Cyanate: A Practical Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Ureas  

E-print Network

An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N?-di- and N,N,N?-trisubstituted ureas ...

Fors, Brett P.

137

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01

138

Reevaluation of the First and Second Stoichiometric Dissociation Constants of Oxalic Acid at Temperatures from 0 to 60?°C in Aqueous Oxalate Buffer Solutions with or without Sodium or Potassium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations were developed for the calculation of the first stoichiometric (molality scale) dissociation constant (K\\u000a m1) of oxalic acid in buffer solutions containing oxalic acid, potassium hydrogen oxalate, and potassium chloride from the determined\\u000a thermodynamic values of this dissociation constant (K\\u000a a1) and the molalities of the components in the solutions. Similar equations were also developed for the second stoichiometric

Jaakko I. Partanen; Pekka M. Juusola; Arthur K. Covington

2009-01-01

139

Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para-casein protein matrix changed with the Ca content of the test solution. Compared with test solutions containing 10g/L Ca, at low Ca levels (i.e., 1 and 5g/L) the proportion of bound Ca was lower, whereas at 20g/L Ca, the proportion of bound Ca was higher. Both Ca and salt concentration influence the physicochemical properties of the protein matrix such that at low concentrations the curd expands, whereas at high concentrations the curd contracts and expels whey. PMID:25465634

Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

2015-01-01

140

Characteristics of third phase for reaction of benzyl chloride with sodium sulfide in phase transfer catalytic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate how the property of third phase affects the reaction rate in a phase transfer catalytic reaction system. Dibenzyl sulfide was produced by the reaction between sodium sulfide in an aqueous phase and benzyl chloride in an organic phase by using tetrahexylammonium bromide ((Hex)4NBr) as a phase transfer catalyst.As the concentration of sodium

Tadaatsu Ido; Teruyoshi Susaki; Gong Jin; Shigeo Goto

2000-01-01

141

Effect of sodium chloride on growth, ion content, and hydrogen ion extrusion activity of sunflower and jojoba roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on growth, internal ion content, and proton release of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Enano) and jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.] roots was studied in order to understand the relationship between the above parameters and salt tolerance. The increase in sodium (Na) ions concentration and the decrease in calcium (Ca) ion concentration in sunflower

P. A. Burgos; M. Roldan; I. Agui; J. P. Donaire

1993-01-01

142

Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

Barker, J.L.

1986-01-01

143

Evaluation of the pH and thermal stability of the recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations,\\u000a pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted\\u000a from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column,\\u000a was diluted in water for

Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Hélio Tallon Jeng; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Olivia Cholewa

2007-01-01

144

Evaluation of the pH and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for

Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Hélio Tallon Jeng; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Olivia Cholewa

2007-01-01

145

Evaluation of the pH and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations,\\u000a pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted\\u000a from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column,\\u000a was diluted in water for

Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Hélio Tallon Jeng; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Olivia Cholewa

146

Investigation of desirable hydrostatic pressure required to sterilize Bacillus stearothermophilus IFO 12550 spores and its sterilization properties in glucose, sodium chloride and ethanol solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Desirable hydrostatic pressure required to sterilize Bacillus stearothermophilus IFO 12550 spores and its sterilization properties in glucose, sodium chloride and ethanol solutions were investigated. Spores were inactivated as treatment temperature (35 to 95°C) increased at 50 and 100 MPa. The Pz (pressure z) values were 29.32 MPa under the pressure ranged from 10 to 60 MPa and 545.6 MPa in

S. Furukawa; I. Hayakawa

2000-01-01

147

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

148

Inhibition of copper corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution by various forms of the piperidine moiety  

SciTech Connect

The inhibition of copper (Cu) corrosion in 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied in the presence of different concentrations of piperidine, piperidine dithiocarbamate, and its Cu(II) complex at 25 C. All three additives were found to be excellent inhibitors of Cu corrosion. The difference in inhibition efficiencies (IE) of the three inhibitors was not large, but the optimum concentration for maximum efficiency was very dependent on the nature of the inhibitor. These molecules may be classified as mixed inhibitors, although this classification was less certain in the case of piperidine, which conferred a large IE without markedly influencing the anodic or cathodic polarization curves.

Singh, M.M.; Rastogi, R.B.; Upadhyay, B.N. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

1994-08-01

149

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-print Network

of silver is affected by factors such as relative humidity RH ,2-4 airborne pollutants,5,6 and temperature of chloride on these reactions are not known. Furthermore, the atmospheric corrosion rate of metals at extremely low rates in a salt spray chamber partly because of the combined absence of light and oxidizing

150

Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the specific sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression increased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These findings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1. PMID:25206759

He, Yanbing; Xu, Shiyuan; Huang, Junjie; Gong, Qingjuan

2014-01-01

151

Rapid decrease in cellular sodium and chloride content during cold incubation of cultured liver endothelial cells and hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Hypothermia, as used for organ preservation in transplantation medicine, is generally supposed to lead to an intracellular accumulation of sodium, and subsequently of chloride, via inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. However, on studying the cellular sodium concentration of cultured liver endothelial cells using fluorescence microscopy, we found a 55% decrease in the cellular sodium concentration after 30 min of cold incubation in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution. To confirm this surprising result, we set up a capillary electrophoresis method that allowed us to determine the cellular contents of inorganic cations and of inorganic anions. Using this method we measured a decrease in the cellular sodium content from 104+/-11 to 55+/-4 nmol/mg of protein, accompanied by a decrease in the chloride content from 71+/-9 to 25+/-5 nmol/mg of protein, after 30 min of cold incubation in UW solution. When the endothelial cells were incubated in cold Krebs-Henseleit buffer or in cold cell culture medium instead of UW solution, similar early decreases in cellular sodium and chloride contents were observed, thus excluding the possibility of the decreases being dependent on the preservation solution used. Furthermore, experiments with cultured rat hepatocytes yielded a similar decrease in sodium content during initiation of cold incubation in UW solution, so the decrease does not appear to be cell-specific either. These results suggest that, contrary to current opinion, sodium efflux predominates over sodium influx during the early phase of cold incubation of cells. PMID:9148738

Gizewski, E R; Rauen, U; Kirsch, M; Reuters, I; Diederichs, H; Groot, H D

1997-01-01

152

Thermal Inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila As Affected by Sodium Chloride and Ascorbic Acid  

PubMed Central

The combined effects of sodium chloride (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0%) and ascorbic acid (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/liter) with mild heat (46°C) on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. Because of the nonlinear nature of the survivor curves obtained, several equations yielding an R2 (coefficient of multiple determination) of ? 1 were tested. The equation that most closely fit the curvature of the observed data set was a hyperbolic function. Equation coefficients were combined to obtain a so-called death value. This value (46.67% explained variance) was calculated by extracting the larger eigenvalue and the relative eigenvector from the correlation matrix of the coefficients. the effects of the experimental factors on the death value were described by a quadratic response surface model. Results revealed that the death value was not influenced by the presence of ascorbic acid. However, increased mortality resulted from the interaction between sodium chloride and ascorbic acid. PMID:16349116

Stecchini, Mara Lucia; Sarais, Ileana; Giomo, Andrea

1993-01-01

153

Interfacial tensions and phase behavior of alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-sodium chloride systems  

SciTech Connect

The phase behavior and interfacial tensions of mixtures of alcohol, alkane, water, and sodium chloride that split into two or three liquid phases at 25/sup 0/C are reported as a function of type of alcohol and alkane and sodium chloride concentration. The patterns of phase and tension behavior are similar to those observed with surfactant-based microemulsion systems but in a higher tension regime. The qualitative patterns of phase and tension behavior in the alcohol systems appear to be characteristic of all amphiphile-oil-brine systems, although the magnitudes of the interfacial tensions of microemulsion against oil-rich or water-rich phases can be some hundredfold smaller than the corresponding tensions of the alcohol-rich phase against oil-rich or water-rich phases. This difference appears to be a distinguishing feature of microemulsions and presumably arises from the relatively large scale of microemulsion microstructure. Microemulsions in multiphase equilibria incorporate tenfold or more water or oil than do corresponding alcohol solutions, and this argues for the topology and persistence of that microstructure.

Puig, J.E.; Hemker, D.L.; Gupta, A.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

1987-02-26

154

Interactions of NO2 with activated carbons modified with cerium, lanthanum and sodium chlorides.  

PubMed

Highly porous wood-based activated carbon was impregnated with cerium, lanthanum and sodium chlorides using incipient impregnation method. On the samples prepared adsorption of NO(2) was carried out from moist (70% humidity) air either with or without the prehumidification. The materials were characterized using adsorption of nitrogen, thermal analysis, FTIR, and potentiometric titration. The results indicated that for all materials a significant amount of NO(2) was reduced to NO and released from the system. In the case of virgin carbons, the NO(2) interacting with the surface along with nitric and nitrous acids formed there in the presence of water significantly increased the acidity of the carbons by the formation of oxygen-containing groups and organic nitrates. On the other hand, when chlorides were present the capacity to interact with nitrogen dioxide increased since the inorganic phase, depending on the nature of metal, bound NO(2) in the forms of nitrates (Ce, La, Na), got oxidized/oxidized carbon surface (for Ce) or contributed to the formation of nitrosyl chloride (for Na). PMID:19111977

Kante, Karifala; Deliyanni, Eleni; Bandosz, Teresa J

2009-06-15

155

Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-11-11

156

Effect of heating temperature and sodium chloride concentration on ultrastructure and texture of gels made from giant squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) with addition of starch, l -carrageenan and egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to compare the ultrastructure of gels made from frozen muscle of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) at various temperatures with a number of different rheological parameters, with reference to a variety of added ingredients (non-muscle proteins and hydrocolloids) and to NaCl concentration. Interesting data on gel rheological properties were found where formulae containedl-carrageenan, starch and egg white, with

Carmen Gómez-Guillen; Teresa Solas; Javier Borderías; Pilar Montero

1996-01-01

157

Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1985-01-01

158

Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10/sup -13/ to 5.4 x 10/sup -11/ g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the (particle mass)/sup 0.86/. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09 showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol. 22 references, 5 figures.

Sinha, M.P.; Friedlander, S.K.

1985-08-01

159

Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

2003-01-01

160

Container-grown tree seedling responses to sodium chloride applications in different substrates.  

PubMed

Seedlings of Norway maple (Acer platanoides), silver birch (Betula pendula), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were grown in selected sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations, soil types and under different watering regimes. Plants were raised from seeds, except for Scots pine plants which were obtained from a commercial source. Among the plant species tested, Scots pine was the most tolerant to soil salinity, while Norway spruce was the most susceptible. For both Norway maple and Norway spruce some half-sib families were more tolerant than others. No significant correlation was found between the tolerance of different half-sib families and the tolerance of mother trees observed in the field. The extent of leaf necrosis correlated significantly with the leaf concentrations of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Among half-sib families within the species no such correlation was found. On the other hand, the least injured progeny of Norway maples had the highest concentrations of NaCl. The extent of salt-induced leaf necrosis varied with soil type, and a significant interaction between species and soil type was observed. Seedlings of Norway spruce grown in sand showed more severe necrosis and significantly higher concentrations of Na and Cl than seedlings grown in loam, silt loam, and peat. The severity of salt-induced leaf injury varied with the watering regime. Silver birch was the most affected species by drought and autumn watering treatments. Plants of silver birch subjected to drought showed increased leaf necrosis compared to the non-treated plants, and autumn watering treatment reduced the severity of leaf necrosis. PMID:15092891

Fostad, O; Pedersen, P A

2000-08-01

161

Experimental evaluation of sodium silicate-based nanosilica against chloride effects in offshore concrete.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (-) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

2014-01-01

162

Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (?) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

2014-01-01

163

The Application of the Gas-Solid Virial Expansion to Argon Absorbed on the (100) Face of Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas-solid virial expansion is developed for argon adsorbed on the (100) sodium chloride surface. Limiting parameters for the attractive components of the gas-ion interaction are suggested and the corresponding repulsive parameters for the Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, F-, Cl-, Br- and I- ions are determined from an analysis of alkali halide bulk crystal data. The second two dimensional

W. A. House; M. J. Jaycock

1976-01-01

164

Mechanism for the formation of slip lines around a dynamical indentation on {100} faces of sodium chloride single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanism is suggested to explain the formation of square blocks of slip lines that usually arise around a dynamical indentation on {100} faces of sodium chloride single crystals. On the basis of this mechanism, a peculiar feature observed about these lines - ie their most marked development at the corners of the indentation and apparent incompleteness at their centres

D R Pande; T S Murty

1974-01-01

165

Trace analysis in highly concentrated salt solutions of sodium chloride and ammonium fluoride using flame atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous solutions of high salt concentration are subjected to direct flame atomic absorption analysis. Blockage of nebulizer and burner is eliminated by employing the dosage scheme “washing solution — sample — washing solution” effected by means of a specially designed device. The microtrace content of bismuth, zinc and copper in sodium chloride and of copper, lead and iron in ammonium

Georgi Bekjarov; Veselin Kmetov; Lubomir Futekov

1989-01-01

166

Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.  

PubMed

Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component. PMID:22236112

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

2012-06-21

167

Le Lait, 1987, 67 (1), 111-119 Effect of pH and sodium chloride on the viscosity  

E-print Network

Summary Le Lait, 1987, 67 (1), 111-119 Effect of pH and sodium chloride on the viscosity of skim. thermophilus (1 : 1) and incubated at 37°C. The relative viscosities of these retentates were followed as a function of changes in pH and added NaCl. The relative viscosity of retentate was affected by its protein

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Early pregnancy termination with intravaginally administered sodium chloride solution–moistened misoprostol tablets: Historical comparison with mifepristone and oral misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the abortifacient effect of intravaginally administered moistened misoprostol tablets with that of the combination regimen of mifepristone and oral misoprostol. Study Design: One hundred women at ?56 days’ gestation received 800 ?g misoprostol intravaginally in the form of sodium chloride solution–moistened tablets. The dose was repeated 24 hours later if a

John K. Jain; Karen R. Meckstroth; Daniel R. Mishell

1999-01-01

169

Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

170

Prolactin stimulates sodium and chloride ion channels in A6 renal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Many hormonal pathways contribute to the regulation of renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function, a key process for maintaining blood volume and controlling blood pressure. In the present study, we examined whether the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates ENaC function in renal epithelial cells (A6). Basolateral application of several different concentrations of PRL dramatically stimulated the transepithelial current in A6 cells, increasing both amiloride-sensitive (ENaC) and amiloride-insensitive currents. Using cell-attached patch clamp, we determined that PRL increased both the number (N) and open probability (Po) of ENaC present in the apical membrane. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 abolished the effect of PRL on amiloride-sensitive and insensitive transepithelial currents and eliminated the increase in ENaC NPo with PRL exposure. PRL also increased cAMP in A6 cells, consistent with signaling through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. We also identified that PRL induced activity of a 2-pS anion channel with outward rectification, electrophysiological properties consistent with ClC4 or ClC5. RT-PCR only detected ClC4, but not ClC5 transcripts. Here, we show for the first time that PRL activates sodium and chloride transport in renal epithelial cells via ENaC and ClC4. PMID:25587116

Greenlee, Megan M; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Bao, Hui-Fang; Eaton, Douglas C

2015-04-01

171

Gastric epithelial cell proliferation and histological damage after hypertonic sodium chloride: the effect of variation in the strain of rat.  

PubMed Central

Two strains of rat, Sprague-Dawley and inbred Piebald Virol Glaxo pigmented (PVG) strain, were dosed orally with hypertonic sodium chloride at a dose of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 or 1.33 g/kg. Gastric epithelial cell proliferation was compared 16 hours after a single dose. The rats were given intraperitoneal bromodeoxyuridine (20 mg/kg) 1 hour before sacrifice, and cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase) were assessed using a monoclonal antibody to bromodeoxyuridine. The number of labelled cells per gastric gland was counted using video image analysis, assessing ten low-power fields (160-180 gastric glands) per rat. Tissue injury was graded for submucosal oedema, inflammation and necrosis; it was minimal after dosing with 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg of sodium chloride. The PVG rats were more susceptible to tissue injury after dosing with 1.0 or 1.33 g/kg of sodium chloride: submucosal oedema, 80% in the PVG and 10% in the Sprague-Dawley; inflammation, 70% compared with 10%; necrosis, 70% compared with 20%. The number of labelled cells per fundic gland increased with increasing dose concentration of sodium chloride and the response was similar for both strains of rat. Plasma gastrin concentration at the time of sacrifice was significantly higher in the PVG rat for the 0.5, 1.0 and 1.33 g/kg doses. These strain differences may be useful in the further evaluation of the mechanisms of sodium chloride-induced tissue damage and repair. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:1571283

Fraser, A. G.; Debnam, E. S.; Dhillon, A. P.; Pounder, R. E.

1992-01-01

172

Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.  

PubMed

The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these adulterants in CS and procedures to isolate ASD from CS matrixes containing these adulterants. The authors describe in this paper utilization of an orthogonal approach to establish the identity of Z1 as sodium hexametaphosphate and to confirm the identity of ASD, including ethanol fractionation, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy. The authors suggest that CAME is a cost-effective and easy to use methodfor detecting certain impurities in CS raw ingredients and recommend that CPC and CAME be used in combination by QC laboratories as a means of effectively deterring the practice of adulterating CS raw materials with the known adulterants ASD and Z1 and/or other non-chondroitin substances that can be separated from CSby CAME and that exhibit CPC titration behavior similar to CS. PMID:25372663

Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

2014-01-01

173

A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.  

PubMed

In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. PMID:25010468

Sherif, El-Sayed M

2014-01-01

174

Sodium-, chloride-, and mibefradil-sensitive calcium channels in intestinal pacing in wild-type and W/WV mice.  

PubMed

Pacing of intestinal smooth muscle is driven by a network of cells found in the myenteric plexus called the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MP), which produce a rhythmic pacemaker current. Using intact segments of circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) muscle from wild-type and W/WV mice, we found that sodium-, chloride-, and mibefradil-sensitive ion channel currents are required for normal pacing to occur. Application of 30 micromol/L and 300 micromol/L lidocaine, 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS), 50 nmol/L and 500 nmol/L mibefradil, or low sodium Krebs significantly reduced pacing frequency in LM and CM. However, simultaneously applying DIDS and lidocaine or low sodium Krebs solution did not completely block pacing nor did it have an additive effect. Lidocaine and low sodium Krebs solution also abolished the gradient of pacing frequencies (higher proximally) found throughout the intestine, resulting in a uniform contraction frequency of 30-40/min. In W/WV mice, which lack ICC-MP, application of DIDS and lidocaine had no effect on the robust pacing in LM segments. In conclusion we found that sodium-, chloride-, and mibefradil-sensitive channel activities were required for normal pacing and to maintain the pacing gradient found throughout the intestines in wild-type but not W/WV mice. PMID:16900243

Boddy, Geoffrey; Willis, A; Galante, G; Daniel, E E

2006-06-01

175

Effect of intra- and extra-liposomal distribution of sodium chloride on the stability of large unilamellar vesicles.  

PubMed

Three groups of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) dispersions were studied: LUV (A) dispersions with only extraliposomal sodium chloride (NaCl), LUV (B) dispersions with intra- and extraliposomal NaCl, and LUV (C) dispersions with only intraliposomal NaCl. The NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 150 mM. An abrupt increase in leakage was observed around -10 degree C for all the three groups of LUV, which coincided with the temperature of extraliposomal ice formation. Within the three groups, leakage of LUV (C) was significantly higher than the other groups. Extraliposomal ice formation and the resulting freeze-concentration of LUV may be the major cause of the leakage. Intraliposomal ice formation observed at -43 degree C seemed to stop leakage of LUV when LUV were frozen below -43 degree C. An exotherm of eutectic crystallization of NaCl was occasionally observed at -37 degree C, with a higher probability of formation at 150 mM extraliposomal NaCl than at 50 mM. The eutectic crystals were thought to cause additional leakage from the LUV (B). PMID:18183324

Siow, Lee Fong; Rades, Thomas; Lim, Miang Hoong

2007-01-01

176

Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

2007-10-01

177

Reliability of Threshold and Suprathreshold Methods for Taste Phenotyping: Characterization with PROP and Sodium Chloride.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy and reliability of four standard methods used for classification of people as taster or non-tasters based on their sensitivity to PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). A panel consisting of 21 subjects was tested for threshold and suprathreshold sensitivity of sodium chloride, PROP, and genotyped for TAS2R38. Two threshold methods, staircase and modified Harris-Kalmus, were used to obtain detection and recognition thresholds and compared for accuracy and repeatability. Similarly, two suprathreshold techniques, the just noticeable differences (JND) and the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS), were used to determine Weber fractions and individual psychophysical functions and compared for accuracy and repeatability. Results show both threshold methods have been able to correctly separate people into two groups of tasters and non-tasters, with the staircase method having a lower variability among subjects. On the suprathreshold front, we found differences in sensitivity between tasters and non-tasters when comparing Weber fractions and psychophysical functions; however, our data suggest that clustering people without previous knowledge of their taster status is less accurate when using Weber fractions. Intensity ratings are more reliable to classify people into tasters and non-tasters. Results show that the staircase for threshold measurement and the gLMS methods are more reliable methods than Harris-Kalmus and JND for phenotyping people and can be used in large-scale studies in the quest to discover new genotype-phenotype associations. PMID:19966917

Galindo-Cuspinera, Veronica; Waeber, Thierry; Antille, Nicolas; Hartmann, Christoph; Stead, Nicola; Martin, Nathalie

2009-12-01

178

Water stress induced by polyethylene glycol 6000 and sodium chloride in two maize cultivars.  

PubMed

Responses of growth and germination to water stress induced by PEG 6000 and NaCl in two maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars 704 and 301 were studied. Water stress was generated by additions of PEG 6000 or sodium chloride to the root medium. Water potentials were: zero as control and -0.15, -0.49, -1.03 and -1.76 MPa as treatments. After 24 h treatment, the roots and shoots length and dry weight were of plants determined. In water stress, roots and shoots length and dry weight decreased at both treatments in both varieties. The germination is inversely proportional to the NaCl and PEG concentrations, it means that 704 and 301 cultivars of maize showed a reduction in germination with an increasing in NaCl or PEG concentrations induced water deficit, but this reduction in NaCl treatment were higher than PEG treatment. At treatment by PEG, the germination was severely decreased at -1.03 MPa. At treatment by NaCl no germination occurred at -1.03 in 301 var. and germination was very low at -1.03 MPa in 704 var., no germination occurred at -1.76 MPa in both varieties at both treatments. Decrease of germination in 704 variety was higher than 301 variety. PMID:18819599

Mohammadkhani, Nayer; Heidari, Reza

2008-01-01

179

Study of the corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits in a sodium chloride medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits with phosphorous contents from 12% to 14% in sodium chloride solutions was studied. The deposits were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 29 d to obtain the electrochemical parameters and were examined in a standard salt spray test for 15 d respectively. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied by potentio-dynamic scan, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The patterns of XRD and the results of FE-SEM showed that the prepared deposits were amorphous. But after a 15 d standard salt spray test, a few pinholes appeared on the surface of the deposit and the weight content of phosphorus on the surface of the deposit was higher (which was beneficial to the formation of the passivation films) than that before the standard salt spray test when the nickel content was lower because the dissolved weight of nickel was greater than that of phosphorus. The results from potentio-dynamic scan and EIS showed that passivation films formed on the Ni-P deposit after immersion in the NaCl solutions, which decreased the corrosion rate of Ni-P samples. The results of this work show their potential applications in marine corrosion.

Gao, Rongjie; Du, Min; Sun, Xiaoxia; Pu, Yanli

2007-10-01

180

The effect of calcium on gill potentials and on sodium and chloride fluxes in the goldfish, Carassius auratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of electric potential and of sodium and chloride effluxes were carried out on a freshwater fish, the goldfishCarassius auratus. The potential was affected by a number of inorganic ion species but that with the most significant influence on transepithelial potential was calcium. The potential was about 10 mV negative in the absence of calcium and about 10 mV positive

F. B. Eddy

1975-01-01

181

Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.  

PubMed

The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C. PMID:19056176

Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

2009-06-15

182

The coprecipitation of strontium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride ions with gypsum. An experimental study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coprecipitation of Sr 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, K + and Cl - into gypsum was studied as a function of temperature, brine concentration and growth rate. The concentrations of the studied cations in the gypsum increase with growth rate (kinetic effect), with a tendency to reach a limiting value at high growth rates. The partition coefficients of Sr tend to increase with brine concentration and decrease with temperature. The partition coefficients of the other cations also decrease with temperature but depend only very slightly on brine concentration. The concentrations of coprecipitated chloride are negligibly small. The coprecipitation behavior is explained in terms of the relation between the rate of desorption of the coprecipitating ions from the surface of the growing crystal, and the rate of growth. The studied cations may substitute for Ca 2+ in its normal lattice sites and/or reside in interstitial positions among the structural water molecules. The relative amount of foreign cations occupying interstitial positions increases with increasing growth rate. The elucidation of the behavior of coprecipitated ions in gypsum given here forms a basis for the utilization of these ions as geochemical indicators for the environment of deposition of gypsum. These indicators may help in reconstructing important parameters such as temperature, brine concentration and growth rate.

Kushnir, Jacob

1980-10-01

183

Spectral Sodium Chloride (NaCl) Identification By LIBS Technique In Bulk And Jet Solution: Some Parametric Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental set-up using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy L.I.B.S technique for analysis metallic sodium in aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl) is described. In our experimental investigation the LIBS technique was used to study the spectral emission doublet lines of the sodium in two configurations: bulk excitation (˜15 mm depth), and jet excitation. Sparks were generated in water bulk and water jet by a Q-switch Nd: YAG laser beam, focussed directly in liquids. Emissions from NaI neutral atoms were observed. The investigation was based on line intensity versus laser pulse energy, line half width versus concentration and noise ratio versus laser pulse energy. The obtained results show that both configurations—bulk and jet excitation-required some precautions and could be used with respect optimal conditions.

Boudjemai, S.; Belkhelfa, N.; Aberkane, S. Messaoud

2008-09-01

184

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

185

Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

1959-01-01

186

PTH REGULATES THE SODIUM CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER VIA RASGRP1 and ERK1/2 MAPK PATHWAY  

PubMed Central

The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt absorptive pathway in the mammalian distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and is the site of action of thiazide diuretics. Utilizing a mammalian cell model system to assess NCC function we previously demonstrated that Ras Guanyl Releasing Protein 1 (RasGRP1) mediates phorbol ester induced suppression of function and surface expression of NCC in a PKC-independent and ERK1/2 dependent manner. Given that phorbol esters are functional analogues of DAG, this finding suggested a potential physiological regulation of NCC by DAG. The parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed in the DCT and activates PLC resulting in the generation of DAG. Here we demonstrate that PTH suppresses NCC function via a PLC/RasGRP1/ERK pathway. Functional assessment of NCC measuring thiazide-sensitive 22Na+ flux revealed that PTH suppresses NCC function. Inhibition of PLC prevented the suppression of NCC, indicating that PLC was necessary for this effect. Inhibitors of PKC and PKA had no effect on this suppression, but MAPK inhibitors completely prevented the PTH effect. RasGRP1 activates the MAPK pathway though activation of the small G protein Ras. Gene silencing of RasGRP1 prevented the PTH mediated suppression of NCC activity, the activation of the H-Ras isoform of Ras and the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. This confirmed the critical role of RasGRP1 in mediating the PTH induced suppression of NCC activity through stimulation of the MAPK pathway. PMID:22005268

Ko, Benjamin; Cooke, Leslie L.; Hoover, Robert S.

2011-01-01

187

THE PREPARATION OF THORIUM METAL BY SODIUM AMALGAM REDUCTION OF THORIUM CHLORIDE: THE METALLEX PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, produced thorium ; meyal by the continuous reduction of anhydrous thorium tetrachloride with sodium ; amalgam on a scale up to 3.5 pounds per hour. The salt was vigorously agitated ; with an excess of sodium amalgam which was produced by the electrolysis of ; aqueous sodium hydroxide. The resulting slurry of

O. C. Dean; G. K. Ellis

1958-01-01

188

Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.  

PubMed

A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related. PMID:18680941

Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

2008-07-01

189

The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples. PMID:22365197

Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

2012-03-01

190

Electrowinning of cerium group metals from fused chloride bath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerium group metals, namely, misch metal, lanthanum and cerium have been electrowon from their vacuum-dehydrated chlorides\\u000a in fused sodium chloride-potassium chloride and lithium chloride-potassium chloride solvent. Temperature, cathode current\\u000a density and composition of bath were optimised for high current efficiency and metal yield. In the case of lanthanum, current\\u000a efficiency of 88% was achieved. The metals were free from inclusions

Sohan Singh; A L Pappachan

1980-01-01

191

Effect of administration sequence of mercuric chloride and sodium selenite on their fates and toxicities in mice  

SciTech Connect

Interaction of mercury and selenium was examined in mice given mercuric chloride (25 mumol/kg) intravenously with sodium selenite (25 mumol/kg, iv) according to various administration schedules. Body weight of the mice given mercuric chloride or selenite alone did not increase, but the mice given both compounds simultaneously grew as well as control mice. On the other hand, only a 1-hr shift of administration of either compound canceled the mutual detoxifying effect. The most conspicuous changes in tissue distribution of mercury and selenium and in gel filtration patterns of both elements accumulating in tissues of the mice were observed when both compounds were administered simultaneously. These experimental results indicate that the interaction of mercuric mercury with selenite in mice occurred to the greatest extent upon simultaneous administration, supporting the hypothesis that the interaction primarily occurs in the blood stream.

Naganuma, A.; Ishii, Y.; Imura, N.

1984-12-01

192

A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures. ?? 1983.

Fournier, R.O.

1983-01-01

193

Osmotic virial coefficients of hydroxyethyl starch from aqueous hydroxyethyl starch-sodium chloride vapor pressure osmometry.  

PubMed

Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is an important industrial additive in the paper, textile, food, and cosmetic industries and has been shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for red blood cells; however, little is known about its thermodynamic solution properties. In many applications, in particular those in biology, HES is used in an aqueous solution with sodium chloride (NaCl). The osmotic virial solution thermodynamics approach accurately captures the dependence of osmolality on molality for many types of solutes in aqueous systems, including electrolytes, sugars, alcohols, proteins, and starches. Elliott et al. proposed mixing rules for the osmotic virial equation to be used for osmolality of multisolute aqueous solutions [Elliott, J. A. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1775-1785] and recently applied this approach to the fitting of one set of aqueous HES-NaCl solution data reported by Jochem and Körber [Cryobiology 1987, 24, 513-536], indicating that the HES osmotic virial coefficients are dependent on HES-to-NaCl mass ratios. The current study reports new aqueous HES-NaCl vapor pressure osmometry data which are analyzed using the osmotic virial equation. HES modifications were measured after dialysis (membrane cut off: 10,000 g/mol) and freeze-drying using vapor pressure osmometry at different mass ratios of HES to NaCl for HES up to 50% and NaCl up to 25% with three different HES modifications (weight average molecular weights [g/mol]/degree of substitution: 40,000/0.5; 200,000/0.5; 450,000/0.7). Equations were then fit to the data to provide a model for HES osmotic virial coefficient dependence on mass ratio of HES to NaCl. The osmolality data of the three HES modifications were accurately described over a broad range of HES-to-NaCl mass ratios using only four parameters, illustrating the power of the osmotic virial approach in analyzing complex data sets. As expected, the second osmotic virial coefficients increase with molecular weight of the HES and increase with HES-to-NaCl mass ratio. PMID:23862979

Cheng, Jingjiang; Gier, Martin; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Prasad, Vinay; Elliott, Janet A W; Sputtek, Andreas

2013-09-01

194

Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

1996-01-01

195

Bovine serum albumin partitioning in an aqueous two-phase system: Effect of pH and sodium chloride concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a polyethylene glycol 3350 (8% w\\/w)–dextran 37?500 (6% w\\/w)–0.05 M phosphate aqueous two-phase was investigated at different pHs, at varying concentrations of sodium chloride at 20°C. The effect of NaCl concentration on the partition coefficient of BSA was studied for the PEG–dx systems with initial pH values of 4.2, 5.0, 7.0, 9.0,

Ufuk Gündüz; Konca Korkmaz

2000-01-01

196

Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate: A practical synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas  

PubMed Central

An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N'-di- and N,N,N'-trisubstituted ureas in one pot, and is tolerant of a wide range of functional groups. Insight into the mechanism of aryl isocyanate formation is gleaned through studies of the transmetallation and reductive elimination steps of the reaction, including the first demonstration of reductive elimination from an arylpalladium isocyanate complex to produce an aryl isocyanate. PMID:22716197

Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

197

Effect of europium(III) chloride on the aggregation behavior of sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

PubMed

The effect of EuCl3 on the aggregation processes of sodium dodecyl sulfate was investigated. Electrical conductivity data, combined with Eu(III) luminescence measurements, suggest that the formation of micelles involving EuCl3 and SDS occurs at low SDS concentration; the formation of these mixed aggregates was also monitored by light scattering, which indicates that the addition of EuCl3 to SDS concentration at values below the critical micelle concentration of the pure surfactant results in a much higher light scattering than that found just with SDS micelles. It was also found that the Eu(III)/DS- complexes are formed with a binding ratio which varies between 20 and 4, depending on the initial concentration of Eu(III). As the concentration increases, turbidity occurs initially, but solutions become clear subsequently. In contrast to the behavior of SDS in the presence of aluminum(III), no flocculation was observed. From the analysis of electrical conductivity data and comparison with other systems, it is suggested that growth of aggregates happens, probably with formation of nonspherical systems. At the highest concentrations these may involve just Eu(III) and DS- ions. The effect of temperature on the SDS micellization process was studied. The calculated free energy of SDS micellization is not dependent on the initial EuCl3 but is dependent on the final balance between the presence of counterions in solution (ionic strength) and the temperature. PMID:16768486

Valente, A J M; Burrows, H D; Pereira, R F; Ribeiro, A C F; Costa Pereira, J L G; Lobo, V M M

2006-06-20

198

Hydrogen bonding. Part 20. Infrared study of the high temperature ?-form of choline chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectral studies of ?-choline chloride at 95°C clearly demonstrate the presence of O?H … Cl hydrogen bonding. This observation contradicts an earlier conclusion, based on X-ray structural studies, that such hydrogen bonding could not occur in this high-temperature form of choline chloride. A moderate reinterpretation of the X-ray data may reconcile these contradictory conclusions. Unlike ?-choline chloride, ?-choline chloride does not show C?H … Cl hydrogen bonding. It is possible that loss of C?H … Cl hydrogen bonding is a factor in the marked difference in radiation sensitivity of the ?- and ?-forms.

Harmon, Kenneth M.; Avci, Günsel F.

1986-02-01

199

Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.  

PubMed

Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with control (treatment I). The sensory analysis indicated that it was possible to reduce NaCl by 40% without adverse effects on sensory properties, but 70% replacement of NaCl with KCl resulted in bacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness. PMID:24342182

Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

2014-03-01

200

Rechargeable room-temperature CF(x)-sodium battery.  

PubMed

Here we demonstrate for the first time that CFx cathodes show rechargeable capability in sodium ion batteries with an initial discharge capacity of 1061 mAh g(-1) and a reversible discharge capacity of 786 mAh g(-1). The highly reversible electrochemical reactivity of CFx with Na at room temperature indicates that the decomposition of NaF could be driven by carbon formed during the first discharge. The high reversible capacity made it become a promising cathode material for future rechargeable sodium batteries. PMID:24494989

Liu, Wen; Li, Hong; Xie, Jing-Ying; Fu, Zheng-Wen

2014-02-26

201

An electron spin resonance investigation of irradiated potassium chloride crystals doped with sodium nitroprusside  

E-print Network

AN ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE INVESTIGATION OF IRRADIATED POTASSIUiv, . CHLORIDE CRYSTALS DOPED MITE SODIUN NITROPRUSSID A Thesis by Richard Ralph iviayers Submitted to the Gradus. e College of Texas AS-. N University in partial fulfillzent... of the requirezents for the deEree of EASTER OF CIENCE Au- nst 1968 Fla &or Sub]ect: Physics AN ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE INVESTIGATION OP IRRADIATED POTASSIUiN CHLORIDE CRYSTALS DOPED 'iiITH SODIUN NITROPRUSSIDE A Thesis Richard Ralph Nayers Approved...

Mayers, Richard Ralph

1968-01-01

202

Temperature effect on formation of sodium cholate micelles.  

PubMed

The micellization of sodium cholate (NaC) at 293.2, 298.2, 303.2, 308.2, and 313.2 K by cholate anion concentration was studied over the pH range from 6.0 to 7.2. Using a stepwise association model of cholate anions without bound sodium counterions, the aggregation number (nmacr;) of the cholate micelles was evaluated and found to increase with the total concentration, indicating that the stepwise association model is applicable. The nmacr; values go up and down with increasing temperature; 17 at 298.2 and 12 at 313.2 K and at 60 mM of the sodium cholate. The fluorescence of pyrene was measured in sodium cholate solution to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC), indicating a narrow concentration range for CMC. A sodium-ion-specific electrode was used to determine a relatively low degree of counterion binding to micelles, supporting the validity of the present association model of cholate anions. The aggregation numbers evaluated at a constant ionic strength of 0.15 and at lower but variable ionic strengths were similar except for higher cholate concentrations. PMID:12651144

Sugioka, Hiromi; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Moroi, Yoshikiyo

2003-03-01

203

Design considerations for the development of advanced sodium/metal-chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on nickel electrode performance for the Na/NiCl2 cell were determined. Of all electrode design parameters studied, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and area specific impedance values. The impedance of thin NiCl2 electrodes can be modeled using a set of equations having just one adjustable parameter. The model suggests that most of the electrode impedance can be reduced by altering the reaction impedance. The model suggests that reducing the value of this parameter by improving electrode fabrication techniques is the key to improving electrode performance. The study is now being expanded to include thicker NiCl2 electrodes, and the model is being refined. The beta-double prime-alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive composite material. At 250 C, its resistivity is about 20 Ohm-cm. Preliminary results suggest that these materials may have the needed chemical stability against sodium.

Bloom, I.; Nelson, P. A.; Redey, L.; Orth, S. K.; Hammer, C. L.

204

Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol. However, pressure drop increased much more rapidly in the welding fume test than the NaCl aerosol test. The data and images clearly show differences in performance trends between respirator models. Therefore, general correlations between NaCl and weld fume data could not be made. These findings suggest that respirators certified with a surrogate test aerosol such as NaCl are appropriate for filtering welding fume (based on penetration). However, some respirators may have a more rapid increase in pressure drop from the welding fume accumulating on the filter. Therefore, welders will need to choose which models are easier to breathe through for the duration of their use and replace respirators or filters according to the user instructions and local regulations. PMID:21742627

Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W

2011-07-01

205

High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in immobilization with low NaCl diet ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d). However, high NaCl intake in HDBR exacerbated the negative nitrogen balance to 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d (p¡0.001) compared to low NaCl. We conclude that high dietary NaCl intake induces low grade metabolic acidosis during HDBR. Low grade metabolic acidosis may be a reason for an increased protein turnover reflected by an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance in HDBR. Accordingly, a high dietary NaCl intake may exacerbate loss of body protein in µG via low grade metabolic acidosis.

Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

206

SPAK Isoforms and OSR1 Regulate Sodium-Chloride Co-transporters in a Nephron-specific Manner*  

PubMed Central

STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-related kinase (OSR1) activate the potassium-dependent sodium-chloride co-transporter, NKCC2, and thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vitro, and both co-localize with a kinase regulatory molecule, Cab39/MO25?, at the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Yet genetic ablation of SPAK in mice causes a selective loss of NCC function, whereas NKCC2 becomes hyperphosphorylated. Here, we explore the underlying mechanisms in wild-type and SPAK-null mice. Unlike in the DCT, OSR1 remains at the TAL apical membrane of KO mice where it is accompanied by an increase in the active, phosphorylated form of AMP-activated kinase. We found an alterative SPAK isoform (putative SPAK2 form), which modestly inhibits co-transporter activity in vitro, is more abundant in the medulla than the cortex. Thus, enhanced NKCC2 phosphorylation in the SPAK knock-out may be explained by removal of inhibitory SPAK2, sustained activity of OSR1, and activation of other kinases. By contrast, the OSR1/SPAK/M025? signaling apparatus is disrupted in the DCT. OSR1 becomes largely inactive and displaced from M025? and NCC at the apical membrane, and redistributes to dense punctate structures, containing WNK1, within the cytoplasm. These changes are paralleled by a decrease in NCC phosphorylation and a decrease in the mass of the distal convoluted tubule, exclusive to DCT1. As a result of the dependent nature of OSR1 on SPAK in the DCT, NCC is unable to be activated. Consequently, SPAK?/? mice are highly sensitive to dietary salt restriction, displaying prolonged negative sodium balance and hypotension. PMID:22977235

Grimm, P. Richard; Taneja, Tarvinder K.; Liu, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Chen, Yang-Yi; Delpire, Eric; Wade, James B.; Welling, Paul A.

2012-01-01

207

SPAK isoforms and OSR1 regulate sodium-chloride co-transporters in a nephron-specific manner.  

PubMed

STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-related kinase (OSR1) activate the potassium-dependent sodium-chloride co-transporter, NKCC2, and thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vitro, and both co-localize with a kinase regulatory molecule, Cab39/MO25?, at the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Yet genetic ablation of SPAK in mice causes a selective loss of NCC function, whereas NKCC2 becomes hyperphosphorylated. Here, we explore the underlying mechanisms in wild-type and SPAK-null mice. Unlike in the DCT, OSR1 remains at the TAL apical membrane of KO mice where it is accompanied by an increase in the active, phosphorylated form of AMP-activated kinase. We found an alterative SPAK isoform (putative SPAK2 form), which modestly inhibits co-transporter activity in vitro, is more abundant in the medulla than the cortex. Thus, enhanced NKCC2 phosphorylation in the SPAK knock-out may be explained by removal of inhibitory SPAK2, sustained activity of OSR1, and activation of other kinases. By contrast, the OSR1/SPAK/M025? signaling apparatus is disrupted in the DCT. OSR1 becomes largely inactive and displaced from M025? and NCC at the apical membrane, and redistributes to dense punctate structures, containing WNK1, within the cytoplasm. These changes are paralleled by a decrease in NCC phosphorylation and a decrease in the mass of the distal convoluted tubule, exclusive to DCT1. As a result of the dependent nature of OSR1 on SPAK in the DCT, NCC is unable to be activated. Consequently, SPAK(-/-) mice are highly sensitive to dietary salt restriction, displaying prolonged negative sodium balance and hypotension. PMID:22977235

Grimm, P Richard; Taneja, Tarvinder K; Liu, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Chen, Yang-Yi; Delpire, Eric; Wade, James B; Welling, Paul A

2012-11-01

208

High pressure high temperature elasticity study of sodium disilicate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many deep earth geophysical phenomena observed are related to physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions. Understanding the structures and physical properties of silicate melts at a fundamental level is essential to help us understand the dynamics of mineral crystallization and fractionation, thermal transport, etc. inside the Earth. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good analog for studying amorphous phase basalt since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Besides, sodium disilicate is not only simple in chemistry but also has a low melting point, thus permitting detailed experimental studies using currently available techniques. Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was ground into powder and loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell. The PE high pressure apparatus was installed inside the 16-BM-B hutch at the Advanced Photon Source. In our experiment, the glass sample was pressed up to 2GPa and heated up to 1000oC. At various pressure and temperature conditions, ultrasonic elastic wave velocities of the amorphous sample were collected using the pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer mounted on one end of the PE anvil. White beam x-ray radiographs that covered the entire length of the sample were also collected to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Experimental results show that before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure), the transverse wave velocity remains nearly constant with increasing temperature, while the longitudinal wave velocity decreases monotonically. A sudden drop in transverse wave velocity is observed above the glass transition temperature at 800oC. Within the 2GPa pressure range, we did not observe clear pressure dependence of the elastic wave velocities in sodium disilicate glass.

Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

2011-12-01

209

Kinetics of chlorination of metallic sodium at low temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using ultra-high vacuum methods and a photometric technique, the kinetics of the chlorination of vacuum-deposited sodium films have been determined in the temperature range 228–298° K. The functional form of the kinetics is shown to be in accord with the Mott-Cabrera model applied to film growth by cation vacancy migration. Fitting the experimental data to this model yields a value

W. Y. Shiu; D. J. Young; M. J. Dignam

1973-01-01

210

A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride†  

PubMed Central

Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early events governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H–15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H–15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12–I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141–T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (?c) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to ~10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly. PMID:19086270

Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2009-01-01

211

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25

212

Expression of the sodium potassium chloride cotransporter (NKCC1) and sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) and their effects on rat lens transparency  

PubMed Central

Purpose To characterize the expression patterns of the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) 1 and NKCC2, and the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC) in the rat lens and to determine if they play a role in regulating lens volume and transparency. Methods RT–PCR was performed on RNA extracted from fiber cells to identify sodium dependent cotransporters expressed in the rat lens. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, using NKCC1, NKCC2, and NCC antibodies, were used to verify expression at the protein level and to localize transporter expression. Organ cultured rat lenses were incubated in Artificial Aqueous Humor (AAH) of varying osmolarities or isotonic AAH that contained either the NKCC specific inhibitor bumetanide, or the NCC specific inhibitor thiazide for up to 18 h. Lens transparency was monitored with dark field microscopy, while tissue morphology and antibody labeling patterns were recorded using a confocal microscope. Results Molecular experiments showed that NKCC1 and NCC were expressed in the lens at both the transcript and protein levels, but NKCC2 was not. Immunohistochemistry showed that both NKCC1 and NCC were expressed in the lens cortex, but NCC expression was also found in the lens core. In the lens cortex the majority of labeling for both transporters was cytoplasmic in nature, while in the lens core, NCC labeling was associated with the membrane. Exposure of lenses to either hypotonic or hypertonic AAH had no noticeable effects on the predominately cytoplasmic location of either transporter in the lens cortex. Incubation of lenses in isotonic AAH plus the NKCC inhibitor bumetanide for 18 h induced a cortical opacity that was initiated by a shrinkage of peripheral fiber cells and the dilation of the extracellular space between fiber cells in a deeper zone located some ~150 ?m in from the capsule. In contrast, lenses incubated in isotonic AAH and the NCC inhibitor thiazide maintained both their transparency and their regular fiber cell morphology. Conclusions We have confirmed the expression of NKCC1 in the rat lens and report for the first time the expression of NCC in lens fiber cells. The expression patterns of the two transporters and the differential effects of their specific inhibitors on fiber cell morphology indicate that these transporters play distinct roles in the lens. NKCC1 appears to mediate ion influx in the lens cortex while NCC may play a role in the lens nucleus. PMID:20458365

Chee, K.N.; Vorontsova, I.; Lim, J.C.; Kistler, J.

2010-01-01

213

The influence of ultrasound frequency on the shape of the D-line of Na in the sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multibubble sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate saturated with argon were measured around the D-line of Na under irradiation with ultrasound with a frequency of 20 and 870 kHz. The Na line had a complex shape and incorporated two overlapping components: an asymmetrically broadened shifted band and a narrow unshifted doublet. The Na line in the spectra of the dodecylsulfate solution was notably narrower than the line in the NaCl solution spectra at both ultrasound frequencies. At the same time, the changes in the line shape observed upon the transition from one frequency to the other in these two solutions were similar. The line was narrower and had a prominent narrow component at a frequency of 870 kHz, and the line was broader with a dominant broad component at a frequency of 20 kHz. The results are discussed within the context of different dynamics of bubbles at high and low ultrasound frequencies.

Gordeychuk, T. V.; Kazachek, M. V.

2014-12-01

214

Effect of Temperature on the Stiffness of Polyvinyl Chloride and Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Joints Under Bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on the bending capacity and stiffness of PVC and CPVC cemented socket joints using test specimens as simply supported beams subjected to different bending points. The tests were conducted under six different temperatures (room temperature, 23°C, a control treatment), 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90°C, three bending points and with a deflection of 55 mm using a hydraulic testing machine. The results show that, at room temperature, the mean maximum bending capacity of CPVC joints was close to that of PVC joints. The rate of decrease in the mean maximum bending force of PVC joints was higher than CPVC joints with an increase in temperature. A dramatic decrease in the mean maximum bending force of PVC joints was observed with an increase in temperature from 60-70°C, where the glass transition temperature of PVC material was within the above stated temperature range. At room temperature, the stiffness of PVC joints was slightly more than CPVC joints. But, as the temperature increased, the rate of decrease in the stiffness of PVC joints was more than CPVC joints. The PVC joints lost 80% and the CPVC joints lost 47.6% of its stiffness with an increase in temperature from 23-90°C. The study showed an excellent potential for the selection of optimum temperature for using PVC and CPVC joints under arid environment.

Al-Hashem, Hasan A. S.; Al-Naeem, Mushari A. H.

215

[Sylvinite speleochamber and general chloride sodium baths in medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Clinico-laboratory, functional and bronchoscopic examinations were performed in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 50 patients (41.7%) were in stage of low-intensity exacerbation, 70 patients (58.3%)--in remission stage. 55 patients (45.8%) had I degree respiratory failure, 65 patients (54.2%)--II degree respiratory failure. Easy degree of disease was detected in 58 patients (48.3%), mid degree--in 62 patients (51.7%). Possibility and reasonability of the use of artificial sylvinite speleotherapy and general chloride sodium baths in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were proved. Clinical results were confirmed by data of blood morphology and biochemical analysis, microscopy of sputum, spirometry, bronchoscopy, dynamics of immunological indices. PMID:18507183

Rassulova, M A

2008-01-01

216

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Chan, E-mail: jongchan@snu.ac.k [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

217

Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

2014-06-01

218

Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

2014-11-01

219

AN INTEGRATIVE VIEW OF SODIUM CHLORIDE STRESS AND PHAEOMONIELLA SP. INOCULATION ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENT ACCUMULATION AND PATTERNING IN IN VITRO GRAPEVINE PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined effects of salt stress and esca disease in grapevines were studied. Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were exposed to 0, 20, and 100 mM sodium chloride (NaCl) and inoculated with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora conidia. Salt stress and inoculation reduced plant RGR and LAR and this effect was higher when both stressors were present. Salt stress decreased potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium

Helena Oliveira; Conceição Santos

2011-01-01

220

EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS OF TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, SODIUM DIACETATE AND PEDIOCIN ON THE STARVED CELLS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects and interactions of temperature (55-60 degrees C), sodium lactate (SL; 0.0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SDA; 0.0-0.4%) and pediocin (0.0-10000 AU) on the starved cells of L. monocytogenes inoculated on the surface of the frankfurters were investigated, and a predictive model was developed. C...

221

PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analyses of survival data of an eight strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate (NaL) obtained after heating at different temperatures (55, 60, 65, and 71.1°C) indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella i...

222

Magnetite stability in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is shown to transform to a sodium ferric hydroxy-phosphate compound in concentrated, alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via 1/3 Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}(s) + 13/3 Na{sup +} + 2 HPO{sub 4}{sup =} {r_reversible} Na{sub 4}Fe(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}1/3NaOH(s) + 1/3 H{sup +} + 1/6 H{sub 2}(g). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Quantitative chemical, infrared and Mossbauer spectroscopic, and X-ray diffraction analyses are employed to verify that the precipitated solid was a single phase having the non-whole number stoichiometric Na/P ratio 2.15 {plus_minus} 0.02. Standard entropy and free energy of formation for sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate were calculated to be 729.2 J/mol-K and {minus}3550.3 kJ/mol, respectively.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

1992-03-01

223

Magnetite stability in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Magnetite (Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4]) is shown to transform to a sodium ferric hydroxy-phosphate compound in concentrated, alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via 1/3 Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4](s) + 13/3 Na[sup +] + 2 HPO[sub 4][sup =] [r reversible] Na[sub 4]Fe(OH)(PO[sub 4])[sub 2][center dot]1/3NaOH(s) + 1/3 H[sup +] + 1/6 H[sub 2](g). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was defined in the system Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]Fe[sub 3]O[sub 4]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Quantitative chemical, infrared and Mossbauer spectroscopic, and X-ray diffraction analyses are employed to verify that the precipitated solid was a single phase having the non-whole number stoichiometric Na/P ratio 2.15 [plus minus] 0.02. Standard entropy and free energy of formation for sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate were calculated to be 729.2 J/mol-K and [minus]3550.3 kJ/mol, respectively.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

1992-03-01

224

Dietary potassium: a key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension. PMID:23735420

Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W

2013-01-01

225

Dietary Potassium: a Key Mediator of the Cardiovascular Response to Dietary Sodium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have demonstrated that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but could be prevented by increased dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence supports a diet high in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, especially in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension. PMID:23735420

Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W.

2014-01-01

226

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

1999-09-01

227

Test Your Sodium Smarts  

MedlinePLUS

... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

228

Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.  

PubMed

Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition. PMID:24352504

Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

2014-03-01

229

An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of growth and toxicity. No significant toxicity was noted until concentrations of 1-10 ppm for Ag+ and 10-100 ppm for AgNPs. In all NaCl concentrations, Ag+ is more toxic than for AgNPs. In addition, we noted that AgNPs in the .5 M of NaCl had the largest toxicity compared to the other salt concentrations and can be explained by the high Cl/Ag ratio. The concentrations for which toxicity has been observed are fewer orders of magnitude higher than the predicted Ag-NPs concentration released in natural waters in the next years.

Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

2011-12-01

230

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

231

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... Caretakers Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic The EmpowerMEnt Challenge Resources How to Make a Healthy Home ... Cholesterol Levels Mean 7 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 8 Good vs. Bad Cholesterol 9 Tachycardia | Fast ...

232

The temperature dependence of the dislocation charge in potassium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the piezoelectric defect technique (Robinson 1970, 1972 a), the charge on edge dislocations in bent single crystals of KCl has been measured from 300 to 1039 K at 40 and 80 kHz with strain amplitudes from 2·7 × 10 to 7·2 × 10-. At room temperature the dislocation charge, for crystals oriented in < 100 > < 110 >

W. H. Robinson; J. L. Tallon; P. H. Sutter

1977-01-01

233

Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.  

PubMed

We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. PMID:23587714

Juneja, Vijay K; Altunta?, Evrim Güne?; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

2013-06-01

234

Densitometry and ultrasound velocimetry of hyaluronan solutions in water and in sodium chloride solution.  

PubMed

The densities of hyaluronan solutions in water and 0.15M NaCl were measured in the temperature range from 25 to 50°C for the hyaluronan molecular weights from 10 to 1,750 kDa. The density increased linearly with concentration and decreased with temperature. The data were fitted by the equation describing the density as a linear function of concentration and a quadratic function of temperature. The effect of molecular weight was negligible and thus single equation was sufficient to describe all data. The apparent and partial specific volumes were calculated from the density data including their extrapolated values to infinite dilutions. The measurement of ultrasound speed in the same solutions under the same conditions enabled to calculate the compressibility and its dependence on concentration and temperature. The compressibility decreased with both the concentration and the temperature but the effect of the concentration was only slight mild. The compressibility was used to estimate the hydration numbers which slightly decreased with increasing temperature and concentration. The addition of NaCl changed only the numerical values of density and ultrasound velocity while not changing the character of their dependence on temperature and concentration. Measured and calculated data indicate that hyaluronan does not disturb the specific water structure in the studied concentration range and support the idea of the existence of water clusters or nanodroplets hydrating the hyaluronan chains in solution. PMID:24721101

Kargerová, A; Peka?, M

2014-06-15

235

High temperature infrared spectrum of sodium iodide (NaI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absorption spectrum of sodium iodide vapor between 200 and 275 cm-1 has been measured with a resolution of 0.006 cm-1 at a temperature of 1096 K. The ?v = 1 transitions from v = 1 ? 0 to v = 13 ? 12 have been measured. Dunham constants are given from an least-squares analysis of 1285 fairly well resolved transitions. The band center for the fundamental band is ?0 = 257.2837 ± 0.0002 cm-1. The relative intensities of the ?v = 1 transitions from different vibrational states are studied and it is shown that the intensity is roughly proportional to v? + 1 as expected from the harmonic oscillator approximation. From measurements of the Herman-Wallis constant, ?1,0 = -0.0054 ± 0.0008, it is estimated that the transition moment must be ?1,0 ? 0.135 ± 0.020 debye.

Maki, Arthur G.

2014-09-01

236

Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of carcasses with calcium chloride or a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates on beef display-color stability.  

PubMed

Hereford x Angus crossbred steers (n = 36) were stunned, exsanguinated, and infused via the carotid artery either with an aqueous solution containing 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphates (MPSC; n = 12) or with 0.3 M CaCl2 (n = 12). The remaining 12 steers served as noninfused controls. At 48 h postmortem, the quadriceps muscles and subcutaneous fat were removed from the carcasses, frozen, and later made into ground beef (18 to 20% fat). The longissimus lumborum (LL), semimembranosus, and psoas major (PM) also were removed, vacuum packaged, aged until 14 d postmortem, and then one steak was sliced from each muscle for visual and instrumental color evaluations. The inside (ISM) and outside (OSM) portions of the SM were evaluated separately. The LL and OSM steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses had a lighter red (P < 0.05) initial appearance than steaks from the other treatments. The LL steaks from noninfused carcasses had the most (P < 0.05) uniform color; the MPSC treatment was intermediate, and the CaCl2 treatment was the most two-toned. Steaks from both infusion treatments had higher (P < 0.05) L* values for the LL, ISM, and OSM muscles compared with noninfused carcasses. In general, the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses had lower (P < 0.05) a* values, saturation indices, and 630 nm to 580 nm reflectance values, and had larger (P < 0.05) hue angles. Infusion with MPSC increased (P < 0.05) hue angles in the LL and OSM. Display color stability was lowest (P < 0.05) for LL steaks from CaCl2-infused carcasses, whereas steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses were lighter red in initial color, but otherwise had display color stability similar to those from noninfused carcasses. No differences (P > 0.05) due to infusion were found for any color traits for the PM muscle and ground beef. Carotid artery vascular infusion of carcasses with CaCl2 resulted in undesirable meat colors, whereas the MPSC solution lightened loin and inside round color in a desirable way, but the color stability was slightly less compared to muscle from noninfused carcasses. Infusion effects were not consistent among muscles, and further research will be needed to determine what caused these differences. PMID:12661647

Hunt, M C; Schoenbeck, J J; Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Loughin, T M; Addis, P B

2003-03-01

237

Some aspects of the atmospheric corrosion of copper in the presence of sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

The effect of NaCl in combination with O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on the atmospheric corrosion of copper was investigated. Corrosion products formed after 4 weeks exposure were characterized qualitatively by X-ray diffraction and quantitatively by gravimetry and ion chromatography of leaching solutions. Studies of SO{sub 2} deposition and O{sub 3} consumption were performed using on-line gas analysis. Large amounts of cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) formed in all environments at 70 and 90% relative humidity. The corrosive effect of salt was strong in pure humid air and in air containing O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Corrosion rate was correlated to the amount of chloride applied to the surface and to humidity. In an atmosphere containing a combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at 90% relative humidity, corrosion was rapid in the absence of NaCl. In this case, small additions of NaCl resulted in a marked decrease in corrosion rate. In the absence of SO{sub 2}, tenorite (CuO), nantokite (CuCl), clinoatacamite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl], and malachite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}] were identified. In the presence of SO{sub 2}, brochantite [Cu{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}SO{sub 4}], soluble sulfate, and an unknown phase occurred, while no tenorite or malachite was formed. The combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} resulted in the formation of antlerite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4}] and Cu{sub 2.5}(OH){sub 3}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O as well.

Strandberg, H.; Johansson, L.G. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

1998-04-01

238

Exaggerated natriuresis induced by sodium chloride infusion in essential hypertension is accompanied by an exaggerated urinary 3' 5' guanosine monophosphate excretion.  

PubMed

The effects of an intravenous infusion of physiological saline on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), guanosine 3' 5' monophosphate (cGMP) concentrations, and on urinary cGMP and sodium excretion were studied in 13 patients with essential hypertension, class I according to WHO criteria, and in 10 healthy subjects. It was found that the groups did not differ as to basal and infusion-induced plasma ANP and cGMP and basal urinary cGMP and sodium excretion, but the sodium chloride infusion resulted in a significantly greater urinary cGMP and sodium excretion and creatinine clearance in hypertensive than in control subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that patients with essential hypertension respond to an intravenous sodium chloride load not only with exaggerated natriuresis, but also with augmented urinary cGMP excretion. The latter finding may in part be due to a greater glomerular filtration of cGMP, but increased renal contribution cannot be excluded. Apart from the possible stronger intrarenal effect of ANP on cGMP production in patients with hypertension, independent direct effect of volume expansion on cGMP excretion and modified activity of other cGMP generating systems may all be responsible for the higher urinary cGMP excretion in essential hypertension. PMID:8414156

Widecka, K; Celiba?a, R; Go?dzik, J; Syrenicz, A; Ciechanowski, K; Czekalski, S

1993-01-01

239

Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants. PMID:25194697

Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

2014-12-01

240

The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

Teutonico, L.J.

1982-09-01

241

The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

2015-01-01

242

Aluminum speciation and equilibria in aqueous solution: III. Potentiometric determination of the first hydrolysis constant of aluminum(III) in sodium chloride solutions to 125°C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first molal hydrolysis quotient of aluminum(III) was measured potentiometrically from 25 to 125°C at 25° intervals at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 5 mol · kg -1 with sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte. The experimental method involved using a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell modified to compensate for any intrinsic potential offset between the two electrodes. The initial concentration of Al 3+ was varied to test for the presence of multinuclear aluminum species while being kept to a maximum of 10 -3 mol · kg -1 to minimize their occurrence. Similarly, the maximum degree of hydrolysis of Al 3+ reached in each titration was ca. 30%, after which polymerization and/or precipitation became apparent. The equilibrium quotients obtained in this study and selected values from the literature were fitted by an empirical equation incorporating a linear dependence of log K1,1 on the reciprocal temperature (Kelvins) over the range 10-200°C and three ionic-strength-dependent parameters. Comparisons are made between the results of this study and the literature values.

Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.

1993-07-01

243

Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

1993-12-01

244

Global protein-level responses of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 to prolonged changes in external sodium chloride concentrations.  

PubMed

Responses to changes in external salinity were examined in Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. H. salinarum NRC-1 grows optimally at 4.3 M NaCl and is capable of growth between 2.6 and 5.1 M NaCl. Physiological changes following incubation at 2.6 M NaCl were investigated with respect to growth behavior and proteomic changes. Initial observations indicated delayed growth at low NaCl concentrations (2.6 M NaCl), and supplementation with different sugars, amino acids, or KCl to increase external osmotic pressure did not reverse these growth perturbations. To gain a more detailed insight into the adaptive responses of H. salinarum NRC-1 to changes in salinity, the proteome was characterized using iTRAQ (amine specific isobaric tagging reagents). Three hundred and nine differentially expressed proteins were shown to be associated with changes in the external sodium chloride concentration, with proteins associated with metabolism revealing the greatest response. PMID:19206189

Leuko, Stefan; Raftery, Mark J; Burns, Brendan P; Walter, Malcolm R; Neilan, Brett A

2009-05-01

245

Individual Differences in Sour and Salt Sensitivity: Detection and Quality Recognition Thresholds for Citric Acid and Sodium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris–Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another. PMID:23413310

2013-01-01

246

Individual differences in sour and salt sensitivity: detection and quality recognition thresholds for citric acid and sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris-Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another. PMID:23413310

Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S

2013-05-01

247

Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

2014-06-20

248

Fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for structural steels in 3 Pct sodium chloride aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for a carbon steel, two high-strength steels, and two stainless steels were investigated in a 3 pct sodium chloride aqueous solution at frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Tests were conducted in a manner designed to avoid crack closure. Under freely corroding conditions, the effective values of the threshold stress intensity factor range, ?Kth,eff, were lower than in air for all of the steels. In particular, the ?Kth,eff values for the carbon and high-strength steels were almost equal to the theoretical ?Kth value of about 1 MPa m1/2 calculated on the basis of the dislocation emission from the crack tip. At a given ?K level higher than the threshold, the fatigue crack propagation rates accelerated with decreasing frequency for all of the steels. Under cathodic protection, the threshold and fatigue crack propagation properties were coincident with those in air regardless of material and frequency. The observed fatigue crack propagation behavior in a 3 pct NaCl solution was closely related to the corrosion reaction of the bare surface formed at the crack tip during each loading cycle.

Matsuoka, Saburo; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Shimodaira, Masuo

1990-08-01

249

Effect of temperature gradient on the optical quality of mercurous chloride crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown at temperature gradients of 8, 11 and 17 K/cm by the physical vapor transport method. The optical quality of these crystals was evaluated by measuring bulk scattering and inhomogeneity of refractive index by birefringence interferometry. It was observed that a high temperature gradient at the solid-vapor interface induced thermal stresses and crystals showed higher scattering and irregular fringes.

Singh, N. B.; Davies, D. K.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Mazelsky, R.

1989-01-01

250

Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987-September 1998 (water years 1988-98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley began in 1987.

Watts, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

251

Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987?September 1998 (water years 1988?98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley gaban in 1987.

Watts, Kenneth R.

2000-01-01

252

The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeation and is regulated by chloride.  

PubMed

The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagenesis to investigate the mechanistic relationship between DAT ion binding sites and transporter conductances. In Li(+), DAT displayed a cocaine-sensitive cation leak current ?10-fold larger than the substrate-induced current in Na(+). Mutation of Na(+) coordinating residues in the first (Na1) and second (Na2) binding sites suggested that the Li(+) leak depends on Li(+) interaction with Na2 rather than Na1. DA caused a marked inhibition of the Li(+) leak, consistent with the ability of the substrate to interact with the Li(+)-occupied state of the transporter. The leak current in Li(+) was also potently inhibited by low millimolar concentrations of Na(+), which according to our mutational data conceivably depended on high affinity binding to Na1. The Li(+) leak was further regulated by Cl(-) that most likely increases Li(+) permeation by allosterically lowering Na2 affinity. Interestingly, mutational lowering of Na2 affinity by substituting Asp-420 with asparagine dramatically increased cation permeability in Na(+) to a level higher than seen in Li(+). In addition to reveal a functional link between the bound Cl(-) and the cation bound in the Na2 site, the data support a key role of Na2 in determining cation permeability of the transporter and thereby possibly in regulating the opening probability of the inner gate. PMID:25063810

Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik

2014-09-12

253

Influence of sodium chloride and modified atmosphere packaging on microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties in ice storage of slices of hake ( Merluccius merluccius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an optimum gas mixture (50% CO2:45% N2:5% O2) on hake slices (Merluccius merluccius) was studied when combined with a sodium chloride dip (5min in 5% NaCl solution). Exudation, water binding capacity (WBC), microbial growth, as well as undesirable chemical (pH, total volatile bases, lipid oxidation), and sensory alterations (raw fish odour) cooked fish flavour), were monitored. Values

Laura Pastoriza; Gabriel Sampedro; Juan J Herrera; Marta L Cabo

1998-01-01

254

Linkage of Gitelman syndrome to the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter gene with identification of mutations in Dutch families  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Gitelman syndrome is a mostly autosomal recessive disorder affecting the renal tubular function associated with hypokalemia\\u000a and hypomagnesemia. Functional studies point to a defect in the distal renal tubule in the thiazide-sensitive, electroneutral\\u000a sodium-chloride cotransporter (TSC). Based upon the localization of a 2.6 cDNA encoding the human TSC to chromosome 16q13,\\u000a polymorphic markers spanning the region from 16p12 to

Henny H. Lemmink; Lambert P. W. J. van den Heuvel; Henk A. van Dijk; Gerard F. M. Merkx; Tineke J. Smilde; Peter E. M. Taschner; Leo A. H. Monnens; Steve C. Hebert; Nine V. A. M. Knoers

1996-01-01

255

Evaluation of the i-STAT ™ system: A portable chemistry analyzer for the measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, and hematocrit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the analytical performance of the i-STAT™ system, which is designed for point of care testing and employs a hand-held chemistry analyzer and disposable cartridges, which in the configuration tested, are capable of measuring sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, glucose, and hematocrit in approximately 65 ?L of blood in 90 s.Methods: Linearity and imprecision in hematocrit measurement were assessed

Thomas Mock; Douglas Morrison; Randall Yatscoff

1995-01-01

256

Binding of Chromium to Chromatin and DMA from Liver and Kidney of Rats Treated with Sodium Dichromate and Chromium(lll) Chloride in V\\/Vo1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vivo binding of chromium to whole chromatin, polynu- cleosomes, DMA, and cytoplasmic RNA-protein fraction from liver and kidney was examined after treatment of rats with sodium dichromate and chromium(lll) chloride. Significant amounts of chromium were bound to DNA and the nonhistone proteins of chromatin and to cytoplasmic RNA-protein fraction. The binding of chromium to the nuclear and cytoplasmic

Doreen Y. Cupo; Karen E. Wetterhahn

257

Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95°C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 ±0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94±0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08±0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80°C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65±0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80°C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hélio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

258

Establishment of an activated peroxide system for low-temperature cotton bleaching using N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride.  

PubMed

Cotton bleaching is traditionally carried out in strongly alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at temperatures close to the boil. Such harsh processing conditions can result in extensive water and energy consumptions as well as severe chemical damage to textiles. In this study, an activated peroxide system was established for low-temperature cotton bleaching by incorporating a bleach activator, namely N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride (TBBC) into an aqueous H2O2 solution. Experimental results showed that the TBBC-activated peroxide system exhibited the most effective bleaching performance in a pH range of 6-8 which could be approximated by adding sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system led to rapid bleaching of cotton at a temperature as low as 50°C. In comparison with the hot alkaline peroxide bleaching system, the TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system provided cotton fabric with an equivalent degree of whiteness, higher degree of polymerization, and slightly lower water absorbency. The new activated peroxide system may provide a more environmentally benign approach to cotton bleaching. PMID:25563946

Xu, Changhai; Hinks, David; Sun, Chang; Wei, Qufu

2015-03-30

259

Effect of added sodium chloride on the molecular environment and photoionization of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine in micellar solutions as studied by electron spin echo and electron spin resonance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electron spin echo modulation (ESEM) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of the cation radical of N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in frozen sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)= and dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) micelles were studied as a function of sodium chloride concentration. TMB\\/sup +center-dot\\/ was produced by photoionization at 350 nm of the parent compound in the micelles at 77 K. From the

René Maldonado; Larry Kevan; Ewa Szajdzinska-Pietek; Richard R. M. Jones

1984-01-01

260

Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates  

PubMed Central

The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 0–5 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 1–4 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

2012-01-01

261

Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10?4 mM SA, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM NaCl, 150 mM NaCl, SA + 50 mM NaCl, SA + 100 mM NaCl and SA + 150 mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5 weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50 mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50 mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

2014-01-01

262

Seasonal variations of gravity wave activity and spectra derived from sodium temperature lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity wave measurements were carried out by a newly developed sodium temperature lidar at São José dos Campos (23 S, 46 W). The temperature lidar was first put into operation in a March, 2007, and 51 nights observation data were obtained, until April 2008. The seasonal variations of gravity wave activity and spectra derived from temperature data are investigated. The total temperature perturbation, and temperature vertical power spectra, Ft(m) at 2/(8km), 2/(4km), and 2/(2km) all show that the semiannual maxima occur near the equinoxes, which agrees with our earlier study [Yang et al., 2006] using only sodium concentration data. Large nightly variability of the temperature perturbation spectral slope was also found, in common with other sodium concentration lidar studies. The comparison between temperature and den-sity perturbations induced by quasi-random waves was investigated, and the agreement was found to be good on most nights. The comparisons between their vertical power spectra are also approached. Good agreement between monochromatic wave-induced temperature pertur-bations and sodium concentration perturbations has also been found, and the wave parameters derived from temperature data and sodium concentration data are comparable. The good com-parison obtained in this paper not only validates the fundamental assumptions of gravity wave measurements from sodium concentration data, but also indicates our previous method and steps for gravity wave measurements from sodium concentration data are effective.

Yang, Guotao; Clemesha, Barclay; Batista, Paulo; Simonich, Dale

263

The impact of organic coatings on light scattering by sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light scattering by airborne particles plays a major role in visibility degradation and climate change. The composition and structure of particles in air can be complex, so that predictions of light scattering a priori have significant uncertainties. We report here studies of light scattering by NaCl, a model for airborne salt particles from the ocean and alkaline lakes, with and without an organic coating formed from the low volatility products of the reaction of ?-pinene with ozone at room temperature at 1 atm in air. Light scattering at 450, 550 and 700 nm was measured using an integrating nephelometer on particles whose size distribution was independently determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For comparison, polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) of a known size and dioctylphthalate (DOP) particles generated with a narrow size distribution were also studied. The measured values were compared to those calculated using Mie theory. Although excellent agreement between experiment and theory was found for the PSL and DOP particles, there were large discrepancies for a polydisperse NaCl sample. These were traced to errors in the size distribution measurements. Despite the use of 85Kr neutralizers, the Boltzmann charge equilibrium distribution assumption used to derive particle size distributions from SMPS data was shown not to be valid, leading to an overestimate of the concentration of larger particles and their contribution to light scattering. Correcting for this, the combination of experiments and theory show that as salt takes up low volatility organics in the atmosphere and the geometric mean diameter increases, the effect on light scattering may be reasonably approximated from the change in size distribution under conditions where the organic coating is small relative to the core size. However, for a given particle diameter, light scattering decreases as the relative contribution of the organic component increases. Thus, light scattering by salt particles with a specific size distribution will be reduced when organics comprise a significant portion of the particles. This will lessen their impact on the visual range compared to pure salt particles, but also lead to less counterbalancing of the tropospheric warming due to greenhouse gases.

Li, Yan; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2011-08-01

264

Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient  

SciTech Connect

The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

Massacret, N. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Moysan, J., E-mail: joseph.moysan@univ-amu.fr; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Université, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Jeannot, J. P. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

2014-05-28

265

Mercury antagonists: Effects of sodium chloride and sulfur group (VIa) compounds on excystment of the brine shrimp artemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine shrimp excystment, although highly resistant, is severely inhibited by mmolar mercuric chloride. The presence of 100 mmolar NaCl largely prevents the toxic response. The chloride effect can be explained if the toxic Hg species, neutral HgCl2, is converted into HgClinf3sup2-and HgClinf4sup2-since charged species not likely to penetrate cyst walls.

Joan Okasako; S. Siegel

1980-01-01

266

High temperature ultrasonic transducers for in-sodium service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic transducers developed for use in the optically opaque, high radiation environment of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) were used to measure, inspect, and visualize the internal LMFBR components. The transducer described was developed for imaging and ranging applications in liquid sodium during reactor shutdown. To assure rapid, complete wetting (and thus good acoustic coupling) of the stainless steel

R. W. Smith; C. K. Day; W. L. Kelly

1974-01-01

267

Stimulation of cell division in the rat by NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, and inhibition of the sodium chloride effect on the glandular stomach by ascorbic acid and beta-carotene.  

PubMed

Three questions associated with the stimulation of cell division by chloride salts have been investigated: (i) whether cations other than sodium show a similar effect, (ii) whether vitamins can have a preventive activity, and (iii) whether subchronic treatment with sodium chloride in the diet is also effective. Male Fischer 344 rats were given solutions of the chloride salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium by oral gavage. Water was used for control. After 4 h, a 24-h osmotic minipump containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was implanted subcutaneously. The forestomach and glandular stomach, as well as liver and bladder were analyzed immunohistochemically 24 h later for the proportion of cells in S phase as an indicator of the rate of replicative DNA synthesis. For both the forestomach and the glandular stomach, potassium was as potent as sodium, and the divalent cations Mg and Ca were even more potent on a molar basis. Supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg food) or beta-carotene (12.5 mg/kg food) for 1 week before gavage of the sodium chloride solution resulted in an inhibition of the stimulation of cell division. A putative tumor-chemopreventive activity of the two vitamins might therefore not only rely on their antioxidative properties but may include effects on the cell cycle. A 4-week treatment with a sodium chloride supplement in the diet (2% and 4% supplement) resulted in a significant stimulation of cell division not only in both parts of the stomach and in the bladder (with the 4% supplement) but also in the liver (even with the 2% supplement). Sodium-chloride-stimulated cell turnover therefore is a sustained effect. PMID:10235475

Lugli, S M; Lutz, W K

1999-01-01

268

Low temperature magnetoresistance and magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube/polyvinyl chloride composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the experimental results of temperature dependent magnetoresistance (MR) and the magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites with different wt% of MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that MWCNTs are encapsulated with rod-shaped iron nanoparticles of aspect ratio of ~3. The MR behavior of 1.9 wt% MWCNT/PVC sample shows dominance of forward scattering and wave function shrinkage whereas, weak localization and electron-electron interactions explain the MR data of higher wt% samples (9.1, 16.6 and 44.4 wt%). The composites of 4.7 and 9.1 wt% exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at all temperatures with room temperature coercivities of ~1036 and 628 Oe, respectively.

Vasanthkumar, M. S.; Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Prasad, V.; Jayanna, H. S.

2015-01-01

269

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23

270

NiXantphos: A Deprotonatable Ligand for Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Aryl Chlorides  

PubMed Central

Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-?-, and C(sp2)–H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd–NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

2015-01-01

271

Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/  

E-print Network

Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/ n. In Final Form: January 27, 2005 Temperature-controlled vesicle aggregation was investigated in a catanionic place as the temperature reached the critical value (Tc). Tc can be adjusted by the variations

Huang, Jianbin

272

Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0.80, while at Q = 1400 l/s aRWT:aNaCl is 0.98 (Figure 1). We expect to expand the scope of our results by analyzing a larger set of experiments and exploring different modeling techniques of BTC tails. These results have implications for experimental design of conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

2012-12-01

273

Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate in the ferroelectric phase  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate disordered with respect to the B sublattice. Sodium bismuth titanate Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) is among the group

274

Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K?ATPase, FXYD2  

PubMed Central

Abstract Na,K?ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K?ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na+ retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K?ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2?/? mouse, without increased ?1?1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K?ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide?sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na+ reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4?6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC ??subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na+ retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K?ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na+ loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. PMID:25472608

Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L.; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A.; Sweadner, Kathleen J.

2014-01-01

275

Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.  

PubMed

Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased ?1?1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC ?-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. PMID:25472608

Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J

2014-12-01

276

Bleaching of F-centers in sodium chloride at room temperature by electron tunneling  

E-print Network

, ronhot, o- met, er f LL', ali 1161ido crvs~&1? shat have been exposed tc io1Q. cinT radia bioni snch as z "aPJi MkiLbit absorption bands in the visible and near ultraviolet, which sm attributed to "color centers" crested in the orris...

Carroll, Herbert Burnett

1967-01-01

277

The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

2014-05-01

278

Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing  

SciTech Connect

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

2012-06-12

279

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260°C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260°C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L.

2012-05-01

280

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility\\/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 17 and 287°C. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO4 is observed. NaZnPO4 solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior

S. E. Ziemniak; M. E. Jones; K. E. S. Combs

1992-01-01

281

Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment. PMID:21807190

Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

2011-09-15

282

Mixed Micelles of Sodium Cholate and Sodium Dodecylsulphate 1:1 Binary Mixture at Different Temperatures – Experimental and Theoretical Investigations  

PubMed Central

Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1?1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 0–50°C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 0–25°C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (?1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 µs long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed. PMID:25004142

Jójárt, Balázs; Poša, Mihalj; Fiser, Béla; Sz?ri, Milán; Farkaš, Zita; Viskolcz, Béla

2014-01-01

283

Solvatochromic probe behavior within choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents: effect of temperature and water.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-12-18

284

Temperature and salt-induced micellization of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous solution: a thermodynamic study.  

PubMed

Thermodynamics of micelle formation of the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) in water and aqueous NaCl solutions were investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been used to study the effect of the added NaCl on the critical micelle concentration, cmc, and enthalpy of micellization, Delta(mic)H(o), between 278.15 and 318.15K. Gibbs free energy, Delta(mic)G(o), and entropy, Delta(mic)S(o), were deduced by taking into account the counterion binding. From the temperature dependence of Delta(mic)H(o) the heat capacities of micellization, Delta(mic)c(p)(o), were determined. NaCl shifts cmc strongly towards lower values, indicating the screening of the repulsions of the polar head groups by counterions; but it influences Delta(mic)H(o) at higher concentrations of salt only. Delta(mic)G(o) is always negative and slightly temperature dependent. The temperature dependence of Delta(mic)S(o) indicates that the process of micellization is entropically driven. Delta(mic)H(o) decreases strongly with increasing temperature and passes through zero (endothermic to exothermic processes). The temperature dependence of the critical micelle concentration exhibits a minimum characterized by Delta(mic)H(o)=0, where Delta(mic)G(o) is of purely entropic contribution in all solutions. Delta(mic)c(p)(o) are strongly negative in all solvents, relating directly to the removal of water accessible non-polar surface of DTAC in the presence of excess counterions also. PMID:19596125

Sarac, Bojan; Bester-Rogac, Marija

2009-10-01

285

Sodium instead of potassium and chloride is an important macronutrient to improve leaf succulence and shoot development for halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is contributed largely by NaCl but some halophytes such as Sesuvium portulacastrum have evolved to adapt salinity environment and demonstrate optimal development under moderate salinity. To elucidate the detail mechanisms of the great salt tolerance and determine the respective contributions of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) on the development of S. portulacastrum, morphological and physiological analysis were performed using plants supplied with 200 mM of different ions including cations (Na(+), K(+), Li(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), Ac(-)) respectively. The results revealed that the salt-treated plants accumulated large amounts of sodium in both leaf and stem. There was a greater shoot growth in presence of external Na(+) compared to K(+) and Cl(-). Na(+) was found more effective than K(+) and Cl(-) in cell expansion, leaf succulence, and shoot development. Flame emission and X-Ray microanalysis revealed the relative Na(+) content was much higher than K(+) and Cl(-) in both leaf and stem of well developed S. portulacastrum, leading to a higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio. The effects of different ions on the development of S. portulacastrum were listed as the following: Na(+) > NO(3)(-) > CK > Cl(-) > K(+) > Ac(-) > Li(+). These results demonstrated NaCl toxicity is attributable largely to the effect of Cl(-) but rarely to Na(+), and thus sodium is concluded as a more important macronutrient than potassium and chloride for improving leaf succulence and shoot development of halophyte S. portulacastrum. PMID:22153240

Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Haiyan; Han, Bing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Anping; Zheng, Dong; Liu, Chongjing; Chang, Lili; Peng, Ming; Wang, Xuchu

2012-02-01

286

The interrelations of mineral colloids and sodium chloride as measured by pH, conductivity, and water-soluble cations  

E-print Network

natrient availability are of ntnost inyortance. Ths inflnence ef both varying ~ ef sodiua chloride and colloidal clay on the deternination of water-solable calcine and potassiwn and oa sodinn (s non-nntrient ion) needs additional stadt. Mechanical... with the electric drini-ntxing aachins is more effective than 16 hours of shaking in a reciprocating shahsr ~ tor ccssplote dispersion, tLe reaoval of flocculating ioas aay be necessary. Ritulent basic ious such as calcine or asgnesiua asy be re- noved by leach1...

Crozier, Baalis B

1952-01-01

287

Nickel oxide stability in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures. [NiO  

SciTech Connect

Nickel oxide (NiO) is shown to transform to a sodium nickel hydroxyphosphate compound in concentrated sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via NiO(s) + 2Na/sup +/ + HPO/sub 4//sup =/ in equilibrium Na/sub 2/Ni(OH)PO/sub 4/(s). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was investigated in the system Na/sub 2/O-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-NiO-H/sub 2/O for 2 < Na/P < 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the respective standard free energy and enthalpy of formation for Na/sub 2/Ni(OH)PO/sub 4/ were calculated to be -1739.4 and -1800.6 kJ/mole. 8 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

1986-02-01

288

Titanium(IV) oxide phase stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Titanium(IV) oxide is shown to transform to a sodium titanium hydroxphosphate compound in concentrated sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via TiO[sub 2](s) + 4Na[sup +] + 2HPO[sub 4][sup =] [r reversible] Na[sub 4]T(OH)[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 2](S). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was investigated in the system TiO[sub 2]Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P atom ratios between 2 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the respective standard entropy and free energy of formation for Na[sub 4]Ti(OH)[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 2] were calculated to be 823. 1 J/mol-K and -4025.1 kJ/mol at 298 K.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

1992-09-01

289

Titanium(IV) oxide phase stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Titanium(IV) oxide is shown to transform to a sodium titanium hydroxphosphate compound in concentrated sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via TiO{sub 2}(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup =} {r_reversible} Na{sub 4}T(OH){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(S). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was investigated in the system TiO{sub 2}Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P atom ratios between 2 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the respective standard entropy and free energy of formation for Na{sub 4}Ti(OH){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} were calculated to be 823. 1 J/mol-K and -4025.1 kJ/mol at 298 K.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

1992-09-01

290

Effect of terbium(III) chloride on the micellization properties of sodium decyl- and dodecyl-sulfate solutions.  

PubMed

The effect of TbCl3 on the aggregation processes of the anionic surfactants sodium decyl sulfate (SDeS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been investigated. Electrical conductivity data, combined with Tb(III) luminescence measurements suggest that the formation of micelles involving TbCl3 and SDS occurs at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the pure surfactants; the formation of these mixed aggregates was also monitored by light scattering, which indicates that the addition of TbCl3 to surfactant concentration at values below the pure surfactant cmc results in a much greater light scattering than that found with pure sodium alkylsulfate surfactant micelles. This phenomenon is dependent upon the alkyl chain length of the surfactant. With Tb(III)/DS-, complexes are formed with a cation/anion binding ratio varying from 3 to 6, which depends upon the initial concentration of Tb(III). This suggests that the majority of the cation hydration water molecules can be exchanged by the anionic surfactant. When the carbon chain length decreases, interactions between surfactant and Tb(III) also decrease, alterations in conductivity and fluorescence data are not so significant and, consequently, no binding ratio can be detected even if existing. The surfactant micellization is dependent on the presence of electrolyte in solution with apparent cmc being lower than the corresponding cmc value of pure SDS. PMID:17107684

Neves, A C S; Valente, A J M; Burrows, H D; Ribeiro, A C F; Lobo, V M M

2007-02-01

291

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage  

E-print Network

Room-temperature stationary sodium-ion batteries for large-scale electric energy storage Huilin Pan attention particularly in large- scale electric energy storage applications for renewable energy and smart storage system in the near future. Broader context With the rapid development of renewable energy sources

Wang, Wei Hua

292

Glass transition temperature and topological constraints of sodium borophosphate glass-forming liquids.  

PubMed

Sodium borophosphate glasses exhibit intriguing mixed network former effect, with the nonlinear compositional dependence of their glass transition temperature as one of the most typical examples. In this paper, we establish the widely applicable topological constraint model of sodium borophosphate mixed network former glasses to explain the relationship between the internal structure and nonlinear changes of glass transition temperature. The application of glass topology network was discussed in detail in terms of the unified methodology for the quantitative distribution of each coordinated boron and phosphorus units and glass transition temperature dependence of atomic constraints. An accurate prediction of composition scaling of the glass transition temperature was obtained based on topological constraint model. PMID:24089781

Jiang, Qi; Zeng, Huidan; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi; Zhao, Donghui

2013-09-28

293

Effects of infused glucose, sodium and potassium chlorides and polyphosphates on palatability of hot-boned pork.  

PubMed

Longissimus muscle sections were excised from eight pork carcasses 1 h postmortem and sectioned into six .5-kg roasts to determine the effects of glucose, salt and polyphosphates (aqueous solution to 110% of fresh weight) on palatability of hot-boned pork. Treatments were hot-boned control (HB) with no infusion or infusions of 2% KCl and 3% of a 1:1 mixture of sodium hexametaphosphate and sodium pyrophosphate (PP) plus either 8% NaCl; 2% glucose (G) plus 6% NaCl; 6% G plus 2% NaCl; or 8% G. Another muscle section was chilled at 0 degrees C for 24 h on each carcass as a cold-processed control (CP). The roasts were frozen until cooked and evaluated by a sensory panel. The infused groups were more tender, juicy and salty and higher in moisture and ash but lower in protein content than either the CP or HB controls (P less than .05). The fat content of the infused groups was lower than of the HB control but was not different from that of the CP control. Either 2% NaCl plus 6% G or equal amounts (4%) of NaCl and G produced the most tender and juicy product. The substitution of 4% glucose for NaCl not only reduced the NaCl content of the infusion solution, but also improved the palatability of the meat. This substitution allows production of a hot-boned, lower-sodium precooked pork that is tender and juicy. PMID:2174848

Wu, C K; Ramsey, C B; Davis, G W

1990-10-01

294

Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 19 and 262°C. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis\\/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis\\/complexing reactions are obtained

S. E. Ziemniak; M. E. Jones; K. E. S. Combs

1992-01-01

295

Titanium (IV) oxide phase stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium (IV) oxide is shown to transform to a sodium titanium hydroxyphosphate compound in concentrated sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via TiO[sub 2](s) + 4Na[sup +] + 2HPO[sub 4][sup 2-] [r reversible] Na[sub 4]Ti(OH)[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 2](s). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was investigated in the system TiO[sub 2]-Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na\\/P atom ratios between

S. E. Ziemniak; E. P. Opalka

1993-01-01

296

Moderate temperature sodium cells. I - Transition metal disulfide cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TiS2, VS2, and Nb(1.1)S2 transition metal disulfides were evaluated as cathode materials for a moderate temperature rechargeable Na cell operating at 130 C. The 1st discharge of TiS2 results in a capacity of 0.85 eq/mole; approximately half of the Na in the 1st phase spanning the Na range from zero to 0.30 and almost all the Na in the 2nd phase spanning the 0.37 to 0.80 range are rechargeable. VS2 intercalates up to one mole of Na/mole of VS2 in the 1st discharge; the resulting Na(x)VS2 ternary consists of 3 phases in the 3 ranges of Na from zero to 1. Niobium disulfide undergoes a phase change in the 1st discharge; the average rechargeable capacity in extended cycling of this cathode is 0.50 eq/mole.

Abraham, K. M.; Pitts, L.; Schiff, R.

1980-01-01

297

Moderate temperature sodium cells. I - Transition metal disulfide cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiS2, VS2, and Nb(1.1)S2 transition metal disulfides were evaluated as cathode materials for a moderate temperature rechargeable Na cell operating at 130 C. The 1st discharge of TiS2 results in a capacity of 0.85 eq/mole; approximately half of the Na in the 1st phase spanning the Na range from zero to 0.30 and almost all the Na in the 2nd phase spanning the 0.37 to 0.80 range are rechargeable. VS2 intercalates up to one mole of Na/mole of VS2 in the 1st discharge; the resulting Na(x)VS2 ternary consists of 3 phases in the 3 ranges of Na from zero to 1. Niobium disulfide undergoes a phase change in the 1st discharge; the average rechargeable capacity in extended cycling of this cathode is 0.50 eq/mole.

Abraham, K. M.; Pitts, L.; Schiff, R.

1980-12-01

298

Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350?°C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150?°C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95?°C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01

299

Effect of temperature on accumulation of methylmercuric chloride and p,p'DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amounts of mercury and DDT residues accumulated from water by yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the laboratory increased as water temperature increased. Fish exposed to methylmercuric chloride at concentrations of 234-263 parts per trillion for 12 wk at 5, 10, and 15 C accumulated 1.19, 1.71, and 1.96 ppm; fish exposed to p,p'DDT at concentrations of 133-176 parts per trillion accumulated 3.76, 5.93, and 6.82 ppm. Concentrations of mercury accumulated by the fish were significantly different (P < 0.01) at each of the three temperatures, and the concentrations of DDT were significantly different at 5 and 10 and 5 and 15 C. Throughout the period of exposure, the concentration factors (concentration of contaminant in the fish/concentration in water) at each of the three temperatures were far higher for p,p'DDT than for methylmercuric chloride.

Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Willford, Wayne A.

1974-01-01

300

Reaction of chlorine nitrate with hydrogen chloride and water at antarctic stratospheric temperatures.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO(2)) with H(2)0 and hydrogen chloride (HCl) on surfaces that simulate polar stratospheric clouds [ice and nitric acid (HNO(3))-ice and sulfuric acid] are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The reaction of ClONO(2) on ice and certain mixtures of HNO(3) and ice proceeded readily. The sticking coefficient of ClONO(2) on ice of 0.009 +/- 0.002 was observed. A reaction produced gas-phase hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and condensed-phase HNO(3); HOC1 underwent a secondary reaction on ice producing dichlorine monoxide (Cl(2)O). In addition to the reaction with H(2)0, ClONO(2) reacted with HCl on ice to form gas-phase chlorine (Cl(2)) and condensed-phase HNO(3.) Essentially all of the HCl in the bulk of the ice can react with ClONO(2) on the ice surface. The gaseous products of the above reactions, HOCl, Cl(2)0, and Cl(2), could readily photolyze in the Antarctic spring to produce active chlorine for ozone depletion. Furthermore, the formation of condensed-phase HNO(3) could serve as a sink for odd nitrogen species that would otherwise scavenge the active chlorine. PMID:17744363

Tolbert, M A; Rossi, M J; Malhotra, R; Golden, D M

1987-11-27

301

Na2 s-carbon nanotube fabric electrodes for room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries.  

PubMed

A unique sodium sulfide (Na2 S) cathode is developed, which will allow the use of sodium-free anodes for room-temperature sodium-sulfur (Na-S) batteries. To overcome the "inert" nature of the Na2 S, a special cathode structure is developed by spreading the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-wrapped Na2 S particles onto MWCNT fabrics. Spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses reveal a series of polysulfide intermediates involved in the charge/discharge of the cell. The Na-S battery prepared in full discharge state with the Na2 S/MWCNT cathode provides a remarkable capacity of 500?A?h?kg(-1) (based on sulfur mass) after 50?cycles. PMID:25640023

Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam

2015-03-01

302

PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE COMBINED EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, AND SODIUM DIACETATE ON THE HEAT RESISTANCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN BEEF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects and interactions of heating temperature (60 - 73.9C), sodium lactate (NaL; 0.0 - 4.8%, w/w) and/or sodium diacetate SDA; 0.0 - 0.25%, w/w) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Thermal death times were determined...

303

Predictive thermal inactivation model for effects and interactions of temperature, NaCl, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects and interactions of heating temperature (60 to 73.9C), salt (0.0 to 4.5% w/v), sodium pyrophosphate (0.0 to 0.5% w/v), and sodium lactate (0.0 to 4.5% w/v) on the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Meat samples in st...

304

Error Analysis of Wind Measurements for the University of Illinois Sodium Doppler Temperature System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four-frequency lidar measurements of temperature and wind velocity require accurate frequency tuning to an absolute reference and long term frequency stability. We quantify frequency tuning errors for the Illinois sodium system, to measure absolute frequencies and a reference interferometer to measure relative frequencies. To determine laser tuning errors, we monitor the vapor cell and interferometer during lidar data acquisition and analyze the two signals for variations as functions of time. Both sodium cell and interferometer are the same as those used to frequency tune the laser. By quantifying the frequency variations of the laser during data acquisition, an error analysis of temperature and wind measurements can be calculated. These error bounds determine the confidence in the calculated temperatures and wind velocities.

Pfenninger, W. Matthew; Papen, George C.

1992-01-01

305

Effect of Temperature and Chloride Ion Concentration on Corrosion of Passive Films on Nano/Ultrafine Grained Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solution temperature, concentration of chloride ions, and grain refinement on the corrosion resistance of the passive film formed on 304 stainless steels in borate buffer solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results showed that the passive films formed on the surface of 304 stainless steels possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature, the corrosion resistance of the passive film of coarse and nano/ultrafine grained stainless steels decreased. However, the corrosion resistance of the passive film in nano/ultrafine grained stainless steel was higher than that in the coarse grained one. Moreover, in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests, chloride ions changed semiconductor characteristics of the passive film formed on the surface of stainless steel.

Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

2014-09-01

306

Effect of Temperature and Chloride Ion Concentration on Corrosion of Passive Films on Nano/Ultrafine Grained Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solution temperature, concentration of chloride ions, and grain refinement on the corrosion resistance of the passive film formed on 304 stainless steels in borate buffer solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results showed that the passive films formed on the surface of 304 stainless steels possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature, the corrosion resistance of the passive film of coarse and nano/ultrafine grained stainless steels decreased. However, the corrosion resistance of the passive film in nano/ultrafine grained stainless steel was higher than that in the coarse grained one. Moreover, in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests, chloride ions changed semiconductor characteristics of the passive film formed on the surface of stainless steel.

Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

2014-12-01

307

Contact toxicity of metals in sewage sludge: Evaluation of alternatives to sodium chloride in the Microtox[reg sign] assay  

SciTech Connect

The presence of chloride ions in the Microtox[reg sign] test can cause problems when testing metal toxicity, both due to extraction of metals from solid samples and formation of chloro complexes of metals in the liquid phase. To investigate alternatives to NaCl in the Microtox test, the toxicity of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn to Photobacterium phosphoreum was tested in 28 osmotic surrogates for NaCl. It was found that Na[sup +] must be present to keep the blank luminescence stable for 30 min. The results point to NaClO[sub 4] as the most satisfactory surrogate solution as it has an inert behavior and does not form complexes with any metal of environmental interest. Raw, digested, and reference sewage sludges were tested in the osmotic surrogates. The EC50 values for sludges were lower in solutions of NaNO[sub 3], Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], and NaClO[sub 4], and higher in sucrose, mannitol, and KCl, compared to NaCl. NaClO[sub 4] can be recommended as an osmotic surrogate for sewage sludge testing. Another problem with the Microtox assay is the lack of pH control in the cuvette. Copper toxicity tests were carried out in Tris buffer and KH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] at two different concentrations and at pH 7 and 8. The results show that 1 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, can be recommended for solid samples. However, owing to formation of KClO[sub 4] a buffer containing potassium is not recommended in combination with NaClO[sub 4].

Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Sanitary Engineering)

1995-01-01

308

Catalytic destruction of perchlorate in ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution with control of temperature, pressure and chemical reagents  

DOEpatents

A method is described to decompose perchlorate in a FeCl.sub.3 /HCl aqueous solution such as would be used to regenerate an anion exchange resin used to remove perchlorate. The solution is mixed with a reducing agent, preferably an organic alcohol and/or ferrous chloride, and can be heated to accelerate the decomposition of perchlorate. Lower temperatures may be employed if a catalyst is added.

Gu, Baohua; Cole, David R.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2004-10-05

309

Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of a thermocouple installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 degrees F. was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 r.p.m. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear-spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

Sanders, J C; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

1943-01-01

310

Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A thermocouple was installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was then tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 F was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 rpm. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D.; Mulcahy, B. A.

1943-01-01

311

The effect of Perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against spores of Clostridium difficile and Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for Perasafe, a recently introduced biocide, to contribute to control of C. difficile spores in the patient environment, in comparison with the chlorine-releasing agent sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). These agents were evaluated against a water control, in a surface test on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor covering, materials commonly found in the hospital environment. The organisms studied were a toxigenic clinical isolate of C. difficile, and Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly B. subtilis var niger). The data indicate that in our in vitro system, Perasafe was significantly more active than NaDCC (1000 ppm available chlorine) against C. difficile spores dried on stainless steel surfaces, and against B. atrophaeus on PVC floor covering material, achieving mean log10 reduction factors in viable counts of 6 and 5.5, respectively, at 10 min exposures. Perasafe appeared to be less lethal in 10 min exposures to C. difficile spores fixed on PVC floor covering material. In general, 1000 ppm chlorine generated from NaDCC showed lower log10 reduction factors in viable counts at 10 min, ranging from 0.7 to 1.5, than Perasafe which ranged from 2.7 to 6.0. The potential efficacy of Perasafe in reducing the density of C. difficile spores in the patient environment in hospitals, nursing homes or other long-stay facilities should be evaluated in field studies. PMID:15183245

Block, C

2004-06-01

312

The study of the varying characteristics of cathodic regions for defective coating in 3.5% sodium chloride solution by EIS and WBE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current distributions over carbon steel under iron red alkyd primer exposed to 3.5% sodium chloride solution were mapped using the wire beam electrode (WBE). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the WBE was carried out to analyze the performance of coating delamination and corrosion behavior of carbon steel beneath defective coating. The EIS data revealed that protective capability of coating decreased with immersion time and the degree of cathodic delamination showed a rapid rise. The current density distribution of WBE indicated that cathodic sites was located at the defect at the beginning of immersion and gradually spread into the intact coating. The cathodic regions were distinguished from the anodic area and distributed over the WBE. The changes of cathodic sites could reflect the deterioration process of defective coating. The cathodic area ratio was a more useful parameter than the cathodic delamination degree to evaluate the coating cathodic delamination. The polarity reversals of electrodes at the defect and beneath coating were observed. A simple discussion of relationship between the blister and the polarity reversal was made from a standpoint of electrochemical distribution. WBE method was able to map and record the changes of local cathodic sites beneath defective coating in real time, which could provide more detailed information about the local degradation of coating.

Wang, Haijie; Wang, Jia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

2015-04-01

313

Hypotonicity stimulates potassium flux through the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 kinase cascade and the Ncc69 sodium-potassium-2-chloride cotransporter in the Drosophila renal tubule.  

PubMed

The ability to osmoregulate is fundamental to life. Adult Drosophila melanogaster maintain hemolymph osmolarity within a narrow range. Osmolarity modulates transepithelial ion and water flux in the Malpighian (renal) tubules of the fly, which are in direct contact with hemolymph in vivo, but the mechanisms causing increased transepithelial flux in response to hypotonicity are unknown. Fly renal tubules secrete a KCl-rich fluid. We have previously demonstrated a requirement for Ncc69, the fly sodium-potassium-2-chloride cotransporter (NKCC), in tubule K(+) secretion. Mammalian NKCCs are regulated by a kinase cascade consisting of the with-no-lysine (WNK) and Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich (SPAK)/oxidative stress response (OSR1) kinases. Here, we show that decreasing Drosophila WNK activity causes a reduction in K(+) flux. Similarly, knocking down the SPAK/OSR1 homolog fray also decreases K(+) flux. We demonstrate that a hierarchical WNK-Fray signaling cascade regulates K(+) flux through Ncc69, because (i) a constitutively active Fray mutant rescues the wnk knockdown phenotype, (ii) Fray directly phosphorylates Ncc69 in vitro, and (iii) the effect of wnk and fray knockdown is abolished in Ncc69 mutants. The stimulatory effect of hypotonicity on K(+) flux is absent in wnk, fray, or Ncc69 mutant tubules, suggesting that the Drosophila WNK-SPAK/OSR1-NKCC cascade is an essential molecular pathway for osmoregulation, through its effect on transepithelial ion flux and fluid generation by the renal tubule. PMID:25086033

Wu, Yipin; Schellinger, Jeffrey N; Huang, Chou-Long; Rodan, Aylin R

2014-09-19

314

Solubility and phase behavior of nickel oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility was used to investigate the solubility\\/phase behavior of nickel oxide (NiO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions between 290 and 560 K. A layer of hydrous nickel oxide was concluded to exist on the nickel oxide surface below 468 K; only at higher temperatures did the anhydrous nickel oxide phase control the nickel ion solubility behavior.

S. E. ziemniak; M. E. Jones; K. E. S. Combs

1989-01-01

315

Elasticity and structure of sodium disilicate glass at high pressures and high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the structures and physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions is essential for understanding the dynamics of the earth's interior. A complete understanding of physical and thermodynamic properties of melts at high pressures requires systematic studies from low temperature (super-cooled state - glass) to high temperature (liquid state - melt). In this study, we focus on the super-cooled liquid. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good model material for studying basalt magma since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell and pressed up to 4.5GPa and heated up to 1000oC at the HPCAT beamline 16-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source. Elastic wave travel times of the amorphous sample were collected using the ultrasonic pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer. X-ray radiographs were used to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Room temperature velocity results show minimum velocity values between 2-3 GPa for both the longitudinal wave velocity (Vp) and the transverse wave velocity (Vs), similar pressure dependence of elastic wave velocities at ambient temperature have also been observed in pure SiO2 from previous studies. Under high pressure (3 GPa), both Vp and Vs for sodium disilicate glass remain nearly constant with increasing temperature before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure). An 8.7% drop in Vp and a 11.9% drop in Vs were observed above the glass transition temperature. Structure information of the glass sample has recently been collected and the results will be presented in the context of observed velocity drops. We acknowledge the supports of COMPRES on facility development, of GSECARS for the Paris-Edinburgh press system, and of HPCAT for elastic wave velocity measurement developments.

Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

2012-12-01

316

Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef.  

PubMed

Grain-finished Hereford x Angus steers (n = 36) were assigned to one of three treatmentgroups. Immediately after jugular exsanguination, 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the left carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend (MPSC); 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight with 0.30 M CaCl2 (CaCl2); and 12 steers were exsanguinated conventionally and served as noninfused controls (CON). Declines in pH for three muscles were measured. CaCl2-infused carcasses exhibited extensive muscle contraction at the time of cooler entry. Carcasses were graded at 24 h postmortem and fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were removed, vacuum packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut from the LL and ST for shear force and sensory evaluations. Ground beef was formulated from the QF to contain 20% fat. Steers infused with MPSC and CaCl2 had 4.0 and 2.3% higher dressing percentage points, respectively, than CON steers. Calcium concentrations of the LL muscle for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses, as well as the CON carcasses, were 892.0, 158.9, and 216.6 ppm, respectively. For the TB and longissimus thoracis muscles, pH decline was more rapid for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses than for CON carcasses, but there were no differences in 24-h pH. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were much higher (P < 0.05), and descriptive attribute sensory panel tenderness scores much lower (P < 0.05), for the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses than for MPSC-infused and CON carcasses. Flavor intensity of the LL of CaCl2-infused carcasses was reduced (P < 0.05); however, overall tenderness and flavor of the ST were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CaCl2 infusion. Beef flavor identification, brown-roasted flavor, and bloody/serumy flavor were lowest and soapy/chemical flavor was highest (P < 0.05) for both freshly cooked and warmed-over LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses. There were no distinct meat quality advantages for infusing cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates. Infusion with 0.30 M CaCl2 increased dressing percentage, but caused severe muscle contraction early postmortem, decreased LL tenderness markedly, and reduced flavor of LL steaks and ground beef. PMID:12597386

Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Addist, P B; Schoenbeck, H J; Pullen, M; Katsanidis, E; Yancey, E J

2003-01-01

317

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pöschl

2008-01-01

318

PII S0016-7037(00)00487-7 The dissolution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride solutions  

E-print Network

structural component of silicate minerals and glasses found in nature, the chemical durability of the Si solutions: Effects of temperature and ionic strength JONATHAN P. ICENHOWER and PATRICIA M. DOVE* School SiO2 glass (fused purified quartz and pyrolyzed SiCl4), rates were measured at 40°C to 250°C

Dove, Patricia M.

319

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01

320

Experimental investigation on transfer characteristics of temperature fluctuation from liquid sodium to wall in parallel triple-jet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative evaluation on thermal striping, in which temperature fluctuation due to convective mixing causes thermal fatigue in structural components, is of importance for integrity of nuclear reactors and also general plants. Sodium cooled fast reactor had also several incidents of coolant leakage due to the high cycle thermal fatigue. A sodium experiment of parallel triple-jet configuration was performed to

Nobuyuki Kimura; Hiroyuki Miyakoshi; Hideki Kamide

2007-01-01

321

Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites—A potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300?K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5?J·kg{sup ?1}·K{sup ?1} was observed near 300?K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300?K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300?K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62?K at 280?K.

Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2014-03-03

322

Temperature dependent structural and spectroscopic studies of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite  

SciTech Connect

We report on temperature dependent crystal structures of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite Na{sub 8}[GaSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} between 293 and 973 K. The crystal structures were refined from X-ray powder data Rietveld refinements in the space group P4-bar 3n. The gallium and silicon atoms on the tetrahedral framework positions are totally ordered. The nitrite anion was found slightly away from the center of the sodalite cage, which is tetrahedrally surrounded by four sodium atoms. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was calculated from the lattice expansion data. The change of the geometries of the framework has been observed on heating the polycrystalline sample, that is, T-O bond lengths slightly decreased, T-O-T angle non-linearly increased, tilt of the TO{sub 4} tetrahedra decreased (framework untwist) and their tetragonal tetrahedral distortion decreased with some scatterings. Of particular note, the tetragonal tetrahedra distortion of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra approached close to zero at higher temperatures, which points to a distortion direction to a relaxed state of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra on heating. The mobility of sodium atoms above 600 K leads to different sodium content in some sodalite cages and results in the appearance of different domains. The consequence of this domain formation to the strain of the crystalline system and to the average crystals size have been explained. Both Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra showed typical absorption bands of nitrite sodalite. The change of the frequency shift and full-width at half-maximum of some selected bands has been studied as function of temperature.

Gesing, Thorsten M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard C. [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)] [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Murshed, M. Mangir, E-mail: mmurshe@gwgd.de [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2010-11-15

323

Protection of gastric mucosa against hypertonic sodium chloride by 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 or sodium thiosulfate in the rat: Evidence for decreased mucosal penetration of damaging agent  

SciTech Connect

Protection of the gastric mucosa may be the result of either increased cellular resistance to injury (cytoprotection) or, alternatively, decreased exposure of mucosal cells to the damaging agent. To determine whether decreased exposure of mucosal cells to damaging agents plays a role in mucosal protection by 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate, we estimated the intramucosal concentration of 22NaCl and measured its absorption from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after intragastric administration of hypertonic (25% w/v) 22NaCl. In an attempt to explain the differences observed, we also measured the net transmucosal water flux in control animals and rats pretreated with the protective agents. Administration of hypertonic NaCl rapidly (within 1 min) induced extensive hemorrhagic mucosal lesions that were significantly reduced by pretreatment with 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate. Ultra-low temperature autoradiography indicated that luminal hypertonic 22NaCl penetrates the upper layers of the mucosa in relatively high concentrations (12.5% w/v) within 1 min but its concentration decreases rapidly and reached low levels (3.12% w/v) by 5 min. Absorption of NaCl from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after hypertonic NaCl was lower in both pretreatment groups than in the control. Net gastric transmucosal water flux (from serosa to mucosa) increased (P less than 0.05) from 100 +/- 2 in controls, to 1470 +/- 8 and 715 +/- 9 microliters in rats pretreated with 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate, respectively. We conclude that 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate protect the gastric mucosa against hypertonic NaCl, diminish mucosal penetration of NaCl, decrease mucosal absorption of NaCl, and significantly increase serosal to mucosal transmucosal water flux.

Pihan, G.; Szabo, S. (Brigham Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-12-01

324

Properties of Acetylated Wood Prepared at Low Temperature in the Presence of Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of catalysts such as sodium acetate, zinc chloride, magnesium perchlorate, and magnesium chloride hexahydrate, acetylation of wood at 75°C was investigated. The results showed that it was possible to endow wood with high dimensional stability at low temperature by a catalyzed acetylation method. In particular, the magnesium chloride–catalyzed acetylation of wood showed very little or no effect

Jian-Zhang Li; Takeshi Furuno; Wen-Rui Zhou; Qian Ren; Xiu-Zhi Han; Jin-Ping Zhao

2009-01-01

325

Titanium (IV) oxide phase stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Titanium (IV) oxide is shown to transform to a sodium titanium hydroxyphosphate compound in concentrated sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via TiO[sub 2](s) + 4Na[sup +] + 2HPO[sub 4][sup 2-] [r reversible] Na[sub 4]Ti(OH)[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 2](s). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was investigated in the system TiO[sub 2]-Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P atom ratios between 2 and 3. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the respective standard entropy and free energy of formation for Na[sub 4]Ti(OH)[sub 2](PO[sub 4])[sub 2] were calculated to be 823.1 J/(mol K) and -4025.1 kJ/mol at 298 K. 21 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P. (Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, Schenectady, NY (United States))

1993-05-01

326

DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

2005-12-01

327

The influence of cardioactive steroids, metabolic inhibitors, temperature and sodium on membrane conductance and potential of crayfish giant axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The resting membrane potential and the current-voltage relation were measured in crayfish giant axons before and after treatment with cardioactive steroids, metabolic inhibitors, extracellular sodium depletion and low temperature.2.The membrane resistance of axons treated with cardioactive steroids, metabolic inhibitors, and low extracellular sodium was reduced by 30–53% depending on the treatment. Low temperature also caused a decrease in the membrane

Edward M. Lieberman

1976-01-01

328

Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, H.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

329

Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board.  

PubMed

Currently, seawater flushing is the only management strategy for reducing the number of viable organisms in residual sediments and water of ballast tanks of vessels declaring no ballast on board (NOBOB) that traffic ports of the eastern United States. Previously, we identified several species of freshwater and brackish-water peracarid crustaceans able to survive the osmotic shock that occurs during open-ocean ballast water exchange and, potentially, to disperse over long distances via ballasted ships and NOBOB vessels. We tested the efficacy of concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for eradicating the halotolerant taxa often present in the ballast tanks of NOBOB ships. The lowest brine treatments (30 ppt for 1 h) caused 100% mortality in several species of cladocerans and copepods collected from oligohaline habitats. Several brackish-water peracarid crustaceans, however, including some that can survive in freshwater as well, required higher brine concentrations and longer exposure durations (45-60 ppt for 3-24 h). The most resilient animals were widely introduced peracarid crustaceans that generally prefer mesohaline habitats but do not tolerate freshwater (required brine treatments of 60-110 ppt for 3-24 h). Brine treatments (30 ppt) also required less time to cause 100% mortality for eight taxa compared with treatments using 34 ppt seawater. Based on these experiments and published data, we present treatment strategies for the ballast tank biota often associated with NOBOB vessels entering the Great Lakes region. We estimate the lethal dosage of brine for 95% of the species in our experiments to be 110 ppt (95% confidence interval, 85-192 ppt) when the exposure time is 1 h and 60 ppt (95% confidence interval, 48-98 ppt) when the exposure duration is 6 h or longer. PMID:18811222

Santagata, Scott; Bacela, Karolina; Reid, David F; Mclean, Kevin A; Cohen, Jill S; Cordell, Jeffery R; Brown, Christopher W; Johengen, Thomas H; Ruiz, Gregory M

2009-02-01

330

Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.  

PubMed

The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen. PMID:23000814

Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

2012-11-01

331

The Effect of Different Topical Agents (Silver Sulfadiazine, Povidone-Iodine, and Sodium Chloride 0.9%) on Burn Injuries in Rats  

PubMed Central

It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2?×?1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

Yüksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Kuloglu, Tuncay

2014-01-01

332

The effect of different topical agents (silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and sodium chloride 0.9%) on burn injuries in rats.  

PubMed

It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2?×?1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

Yüksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Bal, Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay

2014-01-01

333

High temperature phase transition in the three-layered sodium cobaltite P'3-NaxCoO2 (x ~ 0.62)  

E-print Network

for sodium batteries in Bordeaux.1 The same research group reported the thermodynamic phase diagram of NaxHigh temperature phase transition in the three-layered sodium cobaltite P'3-NaxCoO2 (x ~ 0 and in the distribution of the sodium cations occurring by raising the temperature. The gradual suppression of the second

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

335

Management of metal chlorides in high temperature processes--application to the nuclear wastes treatment.  

PubMed

Thermal processes are now the benchmark for the destruction of some waste whose toxicity requires special attention and management. Over many years the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (French atomic energy commission) has developed technologies to process radioactive waste containing many metals together with chlorine, and thus with a major risk of producing volatile chlorides with potentially catastrophic effects on plant facilities. To mitigate these difficulties in an incineration process for radioactive waste contaminated by plutonium (IRIS), the CEA has investigated the processes by which potentially hazardous compounds are produced in order to eliminate them or prevent their formation. The studies have led to propose a phosphate-based stabilization technique thanks to an addition of phosphorus in the waste. Through a reaction occurring in gas phase, the metals are stabilized under a phosphate form when the formation of volatiles chlorides is avoided. While this technique has substantially improved process maintenance and security, it has revealed other difficulties related to potentially large phosphate deposits capable to cause unacceptable pressure drops detrimental to the gas flow conditions. This article describes the results of recent studies seeking to prevent the formation of volatile chlorides and phosphate deposits liable to obstruct the system flow lines. PMID:22365141

Lemont, Florent

2012-04-30

336

Competitive complexation of nitrates and chlorides to uranyl in a room temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

By coupling EXAFS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations, we studied the competitive complexation of uranyl cations with nitrate and chloride ions in a water immiscible ionic liquid (IL), C(4)mimTf(2)N (C(4)mim(+): 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium; Tf(2)N(-) = (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N)(-): bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). Both nitrate and chloride are stronger ligands for uranyl than the IL Tf(2)N(-) or triflate anions and when those anions are simultaneously present, neither the limiting complex UO(2)(NO(3))(3)(-) nor UO(2)Cl(4)(2-) alone could be observed. At a U/NO(3)/Cl ratio of 1/2/2, the dominant species is likely UO(2)Cl(NO(3))(2)(-). When chloride is in excess over uranyl with different nitrate concentrations (U/NO(3)/Cl ratio of 1/2/6, 1/4/4, and 1/12/4) the solution contains a mixture of UO(2)Cl(4)(2-) and UO(2)Cl(3)(NO(3))(2-) species. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental protocol for introducing these anions to the solution (either as uranyl counterion, as added salt, or as IL component) influences the UV-vis spectra, pointing to the formation of different kinetically equilibrated complexes in the IL. PMID:20557035

Gaillard, C; Chaumont, A; Billard, I; Hennig, C; Ouadi, A; Georg, S; Wipff, G

2010-07-19

337

Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4

Stephen E. Ziemniak; Edward P. Opalka

1994-01-01

338

Impaired renal conservation of sodium and chloride during sustained correction of systemic acidosis in patients with type 1, classic renal tubular acidosis.  

PubMed Central

In 10 patients with classic renal tubular acidosis in whom correction of acidosis was sustained with orally administered potassium bicarbonate, renal conservation of sodium was evaluated when dietary intake of sodium was restricted to 9--13 meq/day. In five patients, renal conservation of sodium was impaired by at least one criterion of impairment. In the remaining patients, renal conservation of sodium appeared to be relatively well-maintained, but an impairment could not be excluded. In each of six patients studied during induced water diuresis, including two in whom renal conservation of sodium was not unequivocally impaired, the minimal urinary concentrations of sodium were inappropriately high and the urinary excretion rates of sodium were flow-dependent. These results provide direct evidence that an abnormality in renal transport of sodium can occur in classic renal tubular acidosis, and compel a reconsideration of the pathophysiology of disordered renal transport of sodium in this disorder. The results indicate that in at least some patients with classic renal tubular acidosis impaired renal conservation of sodium is not exclusively a reversible consequence of the renal acidification defect. These findings raise the question whether renal transport of sodium is unimpaired in any patients with classic renal tubular acidosis. In the presently studied patients, the impairment in renal conservation of sodium appeared to be in part the consequence of an impaired ability of the vasopressin-responsive segments of the distal nephron to generate and maintain appropriately steep transepithelial sodium concentration gradients. PMID:783200

Sebastian, A; McSherry, E; Morris, R C

1976-01-01

339

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

2010-04-01

340

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

341

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

342

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

343

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

344

Green and moisture-stable Lewis acidic ionic liquids (choline chloride · xZnCl 2) catalyzed protection of carbonyls at room temperature under solvent-free conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Choline chloride·xZnCl2 (x=1–3) or benzyltrimethylammonium chloride·2ZnCl2 have been used as efficient and recyclable catalysts for protection of carbonyls to 1,3-dioxolanes and 1,3-dioxanes at room temperature under solvent-free conditions. FT-IR investigation demonstrates the four ionic liquids have similar Lewis acid strength, which is in agreement with the activities observed in the acetalization reaction. The catalytic system choline chloride·2ZnCl2 can be reused

Zhiying Duan; Yanlong Gu; Youquan Deng

2006-01-01

345

Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na{sup +} + H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} {r_reversible} NaZnPO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O or 2 ZnO(s) + H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}(aq) {r_reversible} Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO{sub 4} possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 {+-} 0.013, b = 15.175 {+-} 0.010, and c = 8.027 {+-} 0.004 {angstrom}. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Based on observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S{degrees}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{degrees}) for NaZnPO{sub 4} were calculated to be 169.0 J/mol-K and {minus}1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn{sub 2}(OH)PO{sub 4} (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/mol-K and {minus}1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P.

1993-04-01

346

Zinc(II) oxide stability in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is shown to transform into either of two phosphate-containing compounds in relatively dilute alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via ZnO(s) + Na[sup +] + H[sub 2]PO[sub 4]- [l reversible] NaZnPO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O or 2ZnO(s) + H[sub 3]PO[sub 4](aq) [l reversible] Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4](s) + H[sub 2]O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that NaZnPO[sub 4] possesses an orthorhombic unit cell having lattice parameters a = 8.710 [+-] 0.013, b = 15.175 [+-] 0.010, c = 8.027 [+-] 0.004 [angstrom]. The thermodynamic equilibria for these reactions were defined in the system ZnO-Na[sub 2]O-P[sub 2]O[sub 5]-H[sub 2]O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S[degrees]) and free energy of formation ([delta]G[sub f][degrees]) for NaZnPO[sub 4] were calculated to be 169.0 J/(mol K) and -1510.6 kJ/mol, respectively; similar values for Zn[sub 2](OH)PO[sub 4] (tarbuttite) were 235.9 J/(mol K) and -1604.6 kJ/mol. Additions of sodium sulfite and sulfate did not alter the above reactions. 26 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Opalka, E.P. (Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States))

1994-04-01

347

Temperature dependent van der Pauw-Hall measurements on sodium doped single crystalline cadmium telluride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report, results of the temperature dependent electrical conductivity measurements conducted on single crystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe), containing sodium (Na) impurities are presented and discussed. The electrical conductivity measurements were conducted using an apparatus that allowed the implementation of a standard van der Pauw-Hall effect technique through which the electrical resistivity, concentration of majority carriers, as well as the carrier mobility were determined for temperatures ranging between 24 K and 350 K. Over this temperature range, the electrical resistivity was observed to change by 7 orders of magnitude. Hall measurements showed that the hole concentration at 300 K was ˜3 × 1015 cm-3 and the hole mobility at the same temperature was ˜80 cm2/V s. Measuring the concentration of holes as a function of the sample temperature enabled the estimation of the acceptor energy level with respect to the valence band maximum to be ˜60 meV. The same data also revealed the potential presence of a compensating donor level. Furthermore, the hole mobility was also analyzed over the entire temperature range and the data revealed that above 100 K, the carrier mobility was dominated by the scattering of holes from lattice vibrations.

Ahmad, Faisal R.

2015-03-01

348

Corrosion cracking of high-alloy martensitic steels in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

in hot chloride solutions and in water of high purity. Along with martensitic--ferritic steel IKhI7N2 (0.13% C, 0.49% Si, 0.52% Mn, 17.17% Cr, 1.75% Ni, 0.05% Cu, 0.009% S, and 0.012% P), which is widely used in power plants, we tested steels with high strength character -- martensitic steel 07KhI6N4B (0.1% C, 0.39% Si, 0.4% Mn, 15.67% Cr, 4.2% Ni,

V. G. Azbukin; V. N. Pavlov; R. K. Melekhov; I. I. Vasilenko

1976-01-01

349

New layered metal oxides as positive electrode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve better Na storage performance, most layered oxide positive electrode materials contain toxic and expensive transition metals Ni and/or Co, which are also widely used for lithium-ion batteries. Here we report a new quaternary layered oxide consisting of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ti transition metals with O3-type oxygen stacking as a positive electrode for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The material can be simply prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route and delivers a reversible capacity of 94 mAh/g with an average storage voltage of 3.2 V. This paves the way for cheaper and non-toxic batteries with high Na storage performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210 and 11234013) and the One Hundred Talent Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Mu, Lin-Qin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Quan

2015-03-01

350

Modifications of sodium channel gating in Myxicola giant axons by deuterium oxide, temperature, and internal cations.  

PubMed Central

In dialyzed Myxicola axons substitution of heavy water (D2O) externally and internally slows both sodium and potassium kinetics and decreases the maximum conductances. Furthermore, this effect is strongly temperature dependent, the magnitude of the slowing produced by D2O substitution decreasing with increasing temperature over the range 3-14 degrees C with a Q10 of approximately 0.71. The relatively small magnitude of the D2O effect, combined with its strong temperature dependence, suggests that the rate limiting process producing a conducting channel involves appreciable local changes in solvent structure. Maximum conductances in the presence of D2O were decreased by approximately 30%, while the voltage dependences of both gNa and gK were not appreciably changed. In contrast to the effects of heavy water substitution on the ionic currents, membrane asymmetry currents were not altered by D2O, suggesting that gating charge movement may preceed by several steps the final transformation of the Na+ channel to a conducting state. In Myxicola axons the effect of temperature alone on asymmetry current kinetics can be well described via a simple temporal expansion equivalent to a Q10 of 2.2, which is somewhat less than the Q10 of GNa activation. The integral of membrane asymmetry current, representing maximum charge movement, is however not appreciably altered by temperature. PMID:233580

Schauf, C L; Bullock, J O

1979-01-01

351

Characterization of the high-pressure structural transition and thermodynamic properties in sodium chloride: a computational investigation on the basis of the density functional theory.  

PubMed

Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, the thermodynamic properties, and the structural phase transition between the B1 (rocksalt) and the B2 (cesium chloride) phases of NaCl are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method. The calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. On the basis of the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure Pt between the B1 phase and the B2 phase of NaCl is determined. The calculated values are generally speaking in good agreement with experiments and with similar theoretical calculations. From the theoretical calculations, the shear modulus, Young's modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio of NaCl are derived. According to the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we estimated the Debye temperature of NaCl from the average sound velocity. Moreover, the pressure derivatives of elastic constants, partial differentialC11/partial differentialP, partial differentialC12/partial differentialP, partial differentialC44/partial differentialP, partial differentialS11/partial differential P, partial differentialS12/partial differentialP, and partial differentialS44/partial differentialP, for NaCl crystal are investigated for the first time. This is a quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of NaCl, and it still awaits experimental confirmation. PMID:18855434

Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Qin-Sheng

2008-11-01

352

Low-temperature NMR characterization of reaction of sodium pyruvate with hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

It was proposed that the reaction of sodium pyruvate and H2O2 generates the intermediate 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate, which converts into acetate, CO2, and H2O ( Aleksankin et al. Kernenergie 1962 , 5 , 362 - 365 ). These conclusions were based on the products generated in (18)O-enriched water and H2O2 reacting with pyruvic acid at room temperature; however, the lifetime of 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate at room temperature is too short for direct spectroscopic observation. Therefore, we applied the combination of low-temperature and (13)C NMR techniques to verify, for the first time, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate in mixtures of D2O and methanol-d4 and to monitor directly each species involved in the reaction between D2O2 and (13)C-enriched pyruvate. Our NMR results confirm the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate, where the respective chemical shifts are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At near-neutral apparent pD (pD*) and -35 °C, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate occurred with k = 2.43 × 10(-3) dm(3)·mol(-1)·s(-1). The subsequent decomposition of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate into acetate, CO2, and D2O occurred with k = 2.58 × 10(-4) s(-1) at -35 °C. In order to provide a full kinetic analysis, we also monitored the equilibrium of pyruvate and methanol with the hemiacetal (2-deuteroxy-2-methoxypropanoate). The kinetics for the reaction of sodium pyruvate and D2O2 were fitted by taking into account all these equilibria and species. PMID:25587753

Asmus, Christopher; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schöneich, Christian

2015-02-12

353

Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

Rashad, A.M., E-mail: alaarashad@yahoo.com [Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC, 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza 11511, P.O. Box: 1770, Cairo (Egypt); Bai, Y., E-mail: y.bai@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Basheer, P.A.M. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

354

Reaction of solid sorbents with hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor  

SciTech Connect

The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curves in the fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the prediction of these factors a difficult problem. In this study, the reaction rate between solid sorbents and hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature was first investigated. On the basis of a fixed-bed reactor, the experimental results were analyzed by the shrinking core model of diffusion and surface chemical reaction control. The results showed that reaction rates of two sorbents with hydrogen chloride gas were controlled by the combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layers, and the reaction rates nearly keep constant within 15 h of the initial reaction period and then decrease gradually. The results of the breakthrough curves show that solid sorbents in the fixed-bed reactor are capable of reducing the HCl level to near-zero levels at 550{sup o}C. The experimental results and prediction for breakthrough curves are in good agreement for two sorbents. 13 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Binlin Dou; Bingbing Chen; Jinsheng Gao; Xingzhong Sha [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai (China). Department of Environment Engineering

2005-12-01

355

Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

2013-01-25

356

Quantitative high-speed burned gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engines using sodium and potassium fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When sodium- and potassium-containing fuel additives are used in internal combustion engines, the bright fluorescence that sodium and potassium atoms emit in the burned gas zone offers a large potential for spectroscopic combustion analysis. To utilize this potential quantitatively, it is crucial to fully understand all physical and chemical processes involved. This includes (1) the temperature dependence of the fluorescence intensity due to gas-phase collisions, (2) the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio effects on thermodynamic equilibria in the burned gas zone and (3) pressure and temperature-dependent line shapes for quantitative correction of fluorescence reabsorption. High-speed imaging of sodium and potassium fluorescence in a spark-ignited, direct injection, single-cylinder research engine was conducted under well-controlled homogeneous operating conditions at equivalence ratios ranging from 0.71 to 1.43, cylinder pressure from 3 to 15 bar and burned gas temperatures from 1,700 to 2,600 K. This study demonstrates that the influence of pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio on the fluorescence signals of sodium and potassium is understood quantitatively and establishes the potentials and limitations of this tool for burned gas temperature measurements with high temporal and two-dimensional spatial resolution in a homogeneously operated internal combustion engine.

Mosburger, M.; Sick, V.; Drake, M. C.

2013-03-01

357

Flow and Temperature Distribution Evaluation on Sodium Heated Large-sized Straight Double-wall-tube Steam Generator  

SciTech Connect

The sodium heated steam generator (SG) being designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems is a straight double-wall-tube type. The SG is large sized to reduce its manufacturing cost by economics of scale. This paper addresses the temperature and flow multi-dimensional distributions at steady state to obtain the prospect of the SG. Large-sized heat exchanger components are prone to have non-uniform flow and temperature distributions. These phenomena might lead to tube buckling or tube to tube-sheet junction failure in straight tube type SGs, owing to tubes thermal expansion difference. The flow adjustment devices installed in the SG are optimized to prevent these issues, and the temperature distribution properties are uncovered by analysis methods. The analysis model of the SG consists of two parts, a sodium inlet distribution plenum (the plenum) and a heat transfer tubes bundle region (the bundle). The flow and temperature distributions in the plenum and the bundle are evaluated by the three-dimensional code 'FLUENT' and the two dimensional thermal-hydraulic code 'MSG', respectively. The MSG code is particularly developed for sodium heated SGs in JAEA. These codes have revealed that the sodium flow is distributed uniformly by the flow adjustment devices, and that the lateral tube temperature distributions remain within the allowable temperature range for the structural integrity of the tubes and the tube to tube-sheet junctions. (authors)

Kisohara, Naoyuki; Moribe, Takeshi; Sakai, Takaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4002, Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)

2006-07-01

358

Sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(amidoamine) interactions studied by AFM imaging, conductivity, and Krafft temperature measurements.  

PubMed

The conductivity, kappa, and Krafft temperature, TK, of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 generations (G) have been determined at different surfactant as well as PAMAM concentrations. The critical micelle concentration of SDS increases with the increase in the amount of each generation and the additive effect of 0.5G is maximum. TK of SDS shows a systematic decrease with maximum reduction in the presence of 0.5G. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) captures a layered pattern of 1.0G in the form of nanorods and no AFM images are detected for 1.0G in the presence of SDS. All results demonstrate that SDS has favorable interactions with ester-terminated 0.5G PAMAM rather than amine-terminated 0.0G and 1.0G. PMID:15450469

Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Kaura, Aman; Miller, J D; Paruchuri, V K

2004-10-15

359

Novel copper redox-based cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered oxides of P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.66O2, P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.50Ti0.16O2, and O'3-type NaCu0.67Sb0.33O2 were synthesized and evaluated as cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The first two materials can deliver a capacity of around 70 mAh/g. The Cu2+ is oxidized to Cu3+ during charging, and the Cu3+ goes back to Cu2+ upon discharging. This is the first demonstration of the highly reversible change of the redox couple of Cu2+/Cu3+ with high storage potential in secondary batteries.

Xu, Shu-Yin; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yun-Ming; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Quan

2014-11-01

360

Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?22–25 °C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7?±?1.9%, 59.8?±?1.9%, and 77.4?±?1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5?±?3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

1979-01-01

361

Temperature-dependent deliquescent and efflorescent properties of methanesulfonate sodium studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Modeling of aerosols and cloud formation processes in the marine boundary layer (MBL) require extensive data on hygroscopic properties of relevant methanesulfonate particles, which are currently scarce. In this work, methanesulfonate sodium (CH3SO3Na, MSA-Na), the most abundant methanesulfonate salt, was selected, and its deliquescent and efflorescent properties at temperatures relevant to the lower troposphere were studied using an ATR-FTIR flow system. To validate the approach, we investigated hygroscopic properties of NaCl particles, and our measured deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of the NaCl particles obtained from the changes in integrated absorbance of water peaks in infrared spectra agreed with literature data well. We then reported DRH and ERH of MSA-Na particles as a function of temperature for the first time using both the changes in integrated absorbance of water peaks and the changes in peak position and shape of CH3SO3(-) symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes. Our experiments showed that MSA-Na particles present quite different temperature-dependent hygroscopic behaviors from NaCl. Both the DRH and ERH of MSA-Na particles increase with decreasing temperatures. Due to the significant differences in temperature-dependent DRH and ERH, NaCl particles, if processed in MBL by methanesulfonic acid, are expected to deliquesce slightly earlier during a hydration process but effloresce at a much earlier stage during a dehydration process, especially at lower temperatures. This could considerably influence phase, size, and water content of sea salt aerosols and consequently their reactivity, lifetime, and impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate systems. PMID:24387240

Zeng, Guang; Kelley, Judas; Kish, J Duncan; Liu, Yong

2014-01-23

362

Prolonged exposure of mixed aerobic cultures to low temperature and benzalkonium chloride affect the rate and extent of nitrification.  

PubMed

The combined effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and prolonged exposure to low temperature on nitrification was investigated. Ammonia oxidation at 22-24°C by an enriched nitrifying culture was inhibited at increasing BAC concentrations and ceased at 15 mg BAC/L. The non-competitive inhibition coefficient was 1.5±0.9 mg BAC/L. Nitrification tests were conducted without and with BAC at 5mg/L using an aerobic, mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying culture maintained at a temperature range of 24-10°C. Maintaining this culture at 10°C for over one month in the absence of BAC, resulted in slower nitrification kinetics compared to those measured when the culture was first exposed to 10°C. BAC was degraded by the heterotrophic population, but its degradation rate decreased significantly as the culture temperature decreased to 10°C. These results confirm the negative impact of quaternary ammonium compounds on the nitrification process, which is further exacerbated by prolonged, low temperature conditions. PMID:25544497

Yang, Jeongwoo; Tezel, Ulas; Li, Kexun; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

2015-03-01

363

Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 292 and 535 K. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reactions are obtained from a least- squares analysis of the data. Altogether, thermochemical properties are established for five anionic complexes: Cu(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}}, Cu(OH){sub 4}{sup =}, Cu(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup =}, Cu(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup =}, and Cu(OH){sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sup {identical to}}. Precise thermochemical parameters are also derived for the Cu(OH){sup +} hydroxocomplex based on CuO solubility behavior previously observed in pure water (*) at elevated temperatures. The relative ease of Cu(II) ion hydrolysis is such that Cu(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}} species become the preferred hydroxocomplex for pH {ge} 9.4. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

1990-02-01

364

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

1990-02-01

365

Absorption behavior of vinyl chloride\\/calcium carbonate and pressure\\/temperature\\/conversion relationship for vinyl chloride suspension polymerization in the presence of calcium carbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption of vinyl chloride (VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nano-scale calcium carbonate (CaCO3), and VC suspension polymerization in the presence of CaCO3 were carried out in a 5 L autoclave. It showed that the absorption of VC on CaCO3 increased with the partial pressure of VC up to a critical point. Nano-scale CaCO3 was more effective in absorbing VC

Bao Yong-zhong; Zhang Li-feng; Huang Zhi-ming; Weng Zhi-xue

2003-01-01

366

Vinyl Chloride  

Cancer.gov

Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

367

Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

Fahey, J.J.

1937-01-01

368

Comparison of changes in facial skin temperature caused by ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing in healthy subjects.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three cryotherapeutic modalities (ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing) on facial skin temperature. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men, 15 women; mean age, 29·4 ± 3·2 years) participated in this study. Each of the three modalities was randomly applied to the skin over the right masseter muscle. The skin surface temperature was recorded at baseline and every 5 min for 60 min after the application of one of the three cryotherapeutic modalities. Immediately after application, cold gel packing demonstrated the greatest reduction in surface temperature (10·6 °C), followed by ethyl chloride spraying (4·3 °C) and ice block rubbing (3·7 °C) (P < 0·001). During the 60-min post-application period, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing produced similar skin surface temperature changes. The skin surface remained coldest for the longest period of time after cold gel packing. The median time for recovery of the baseline temperature after application of the cold gel pack was about three to four times longer than that for the other modalities (P < 0·001). Ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing resulted in less reduction and faster recovery of skin surface temperature than did cold gel packing. In conclusion, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing had a limited cooling effect on the facial skin tissue and could not reduce the skin surface temperature enough for local analgesia. Moreover, the cooling effect of cold gel packing was remarkable, but not sufficient for local analgesia. PMID:22994138

Im, Y-G; Park, H-J; Chae, H-Y; Kim, B-G; Lim, H-S; Park, J-I; Kim, J-H

2012-12-01

369

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rard, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-07-01

370

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Rard, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-07-01

371

Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy storage applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we report the anomalous enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature nanofluids. Alkali metal chloride salt eutectics were doped with silica nanoparticles at 1% mass concentration. The specific heat capacity of the nanofluid was enhanced by 14.5%. Dispersion behavior of the nanoparticles in the eutectic was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Three independent competing transport mechanisms

Donghyun Shin; Debjyoti Banerjee

2011-01-01

372

Mesopause temperatures derived from probing the hyperfine structure of the D2 resonance line of sodium by lidar  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 80-100 km altitude region, free sodium atoms are abundant enough to allow the probing of the Doppler-widened hyperfine structure (hfs) of the D2 resonance transition by ground-based lidar and hence to deduce atmospheric temperatures. The dependence of the observed shape of the hfs on the temperature, on geographic location and on polarization of the lidar, on differential extinction,

K. H. Fricke; U. von Zahn

1985-01-01

373

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31

374

A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W. [Rapidly Solidified Materials Research Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-08-01

375

Stress corrosion behavior of stainless steel welds in high temperature water containing chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of delta ferrite, carbon content and postweld heat treatment on the stress corrosion susceptibility of AISI Types 308, 309, and 316 stainless steel surfacing welds in high temperature water have been investigated. For each type of stainless steel, the initial ferrite level was controlled at three predetermined levels in the range 1 to 10%, and the carbon content

R. Viswanathan; J. I. Nurminen; R. G. Aspden

1979-01-01

376

Galvanic currents and corrosion rates of reinforcements measured in cells simulating different pitting areas caused by chloride attack in sodium hydroxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorides induce localized corrosion in the reinforcement. The pits formed a substantial reduction in the cross-sectional area. The smaller is the ratio between the size of the corrosion spot and the surrounding passive metal area acting as cathode, the higher is the corrosion rate or the progression in the pit depth. This, however, is not always the case. To understand

C. Andrade; P. Garcés; I. Martínez

2008-01-01

377

A Novel Flexible Room Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on SnO2 Doped Poly-Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride  

PubMed Central

A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

378

Transcorneal permeation of diclofenac as a function of temperature from film formulation in presence of triethanolamine and benzalkonium chloride.  

PubMed

The objective of this report was to evaluate the transcorneal permeation of diclofenac potassium (DCP) as a function of temperature from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix film containing triethanolamine (TEM) as plasticizer and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as preservative. Activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (?H), entropy (?S) and free energy (?G) of permeation, diffusion and partition were evaluated to understand the underlying mechanism of permeation. Permeation improved with the presence of both the plasticizer and preservative compared to preservative alone. Further, increased amount of TEM in the film increased drug transport across the cornea. Decreased Ea value of the film supported the fact. Rise of temperature from 26 to 30, 34 and 40 °C increased permeation in all the films. Ocular residence of the film in vivo in the rabbit revealed that the film swelled by pronounced lachrymal fluid uptake and traces of hydrogel remained still at the end of 6 h of application. Absence of characteristic exothermic peak of the drug in the thermogram of film formulations indicated the molecular dispersion of drug in polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the drug crystal size decreased with increasing concentration of TEM in presence of BKC due to effective wetting of drug particles by the polymer. PMID:25255701

Mohapatra, Rajaram; Senapati, Sibananda; Sahoo, Chinmaya; Mallick, Subrata

2014-11-01

379

Low temperature and chemical rescue affect molecular proximity of DeltaF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC).  

PubMed

An imbalance of chloride and sodium ion transport in several epithelia is a feature of cystic fibrosis (CF), an inherited disease that is a consequence of mutations in the cftr gene. The cftr gene codes for a Cl(-) channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Some mutations in this gene cause the balance between Cl(-) secretion and Na(+) absorption to be disturbed in the airways; Cl(-) secretion is impaired, whereas Na(+) absorption is elevated. Enhanced Na(+) absorption through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) is attributed to the failure of mutated CFTR to restrict ENaC-mediated Na(+) transport. The mechanism of this regulation is controversial. Recently, we have found evidence for a close association of wild type (WT) CFTR and WT ENaC, further underscoring the role of ENaC along with CFTR in the pathophysiology of CF airway disease. In this study, we have examined the association of ENaC subunits with mutated ?F508-CFTR, the most common mutation in CF. Deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (?F508) prevents proper processing and targeting of CFTR to the plasma membrane. When ?F508-CFTR and ENaC subunits were co-expressed in HEK293T cells, we found that individual ENaC subunits could be co-immunoprecipitated with ?F508-CFTR, much like WT CFTR. However, when we evaluated the ?F508-CFTR and ENaC association using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), FRET efficiencies were not significantly different from negative controls, suggesting that ?F508-CFTR and ENaC are not in close proximity to each other under basal conditions. However, with partial correction of ?F508-CFTR misprocessing by low temperature and chemical rescue, leading to surface expression as assessed by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed a positive FRET signal. Our findings suggest that the ?F508 mutation alters the close association of CFTR and ENaC. PMID:22442149

Qadri, Yawar J; Cormet-Boyaka, Estelle; Rooj, Arun K; Lee, William; Parpura, Vladimir; Fuller, Cathy M; Berdiev, Bakhrom K

2012-05-11

380

Design, Analysis and Implementation of an Experimental System to Harvest Energy From Atmospheric Temperature Variations Using Ethyl Chloride Filled Bellows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in global warming and the dwindling supplies of fossil fuels have shifted the focus from traditional to alternate sources of energy. This has resulted in a concerted effort towards finding new energy sources as well as better understanding traditional renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. In addition to the shift in focus towards alternate energy, the last two decades have offered a dramatic rise in the use of digital technologies such as wireless sensor networks that require small but isolated power supplies. Energy harvesting, a method to gather energy from ambient sources including sunlight, vibrations, heat, etc., has provided some success in powering these systems. One of the unexplored areas of energy harvesting is the use of atmospheric temperature variations to obtain usable energy. This thesis investigates an innovative mechanism to extract energy from atmospheric variations using ethyl chloride filled mechanical bellows. The energy harvesting process was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of extracting energy from the temperature variations and converting it into the potential energy stored in a linear coil spring. This was achieved by designing and fabricating an apparatus that consisted of an ethyl chloride filled bellows working against a mechanical spring in a closed and controlled environment. The bellows expanded/contracted depending upon the ambient temperature and the energy harvested was calculated as a function of the bellows' length. The experiments showed that 6 J of potential energy may be harvested for a 23°C change in temperature. The numerical results closely correlated to the experimental data with an error magnitude of 1%. In regions with high diurnal temperature variation, such an apparatus may yield approximately 250 microwatts depending on the diurnal temperature range. The second part of the energy harvesting process consisted of transforming linear expansion of the bellows into electric power. A system was designed and simulated using Mathworks Simulink and SimDriveline packages that converted the linear oscillations of the bellows into electric power. This was achieved in two steps; a gear train was designed that would convert the linear displacement of the bellows into potential energy stored in a spiral spring. The spiral spring would then periodically engage to a small generator producing electric power. The electrical power generated was found to depend solely on the potential energy stored in the spring. It was discovered that for a sinusoidal force with constant amplitude and frequency, the potential energy stored in the spring depended on the duration of force input and the parameters of the drivetrain such as the spring stiffness, the gear ratios, and the pinion radii. After simulating the system for different parameters, an optimal set of values was presented to maximize the electrical energy output for a given duration of time. For constant amplitude (120 N) sinusoidal force input with a time period of T seconds, the system stored 37 J, 65 J, and 90 J after a time of 3T, 5T, and 7T, respectively. The electric power output was 7.14 microwatts for a conversion efficiency of 5%. The next step is building a physical geartrain generator assembly based on the design presented in the thesis. The physical system will first be verified by simulating the force input using a pneumatic cylinder. The two parts of the research experiment can then be integrated into one system that would generate electric power directly from temporal temperature and pressure variations.

Ali, Gibran

381

THE EFFECT OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM DIACETATE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN HAM STORED AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) meats contaminated with L. monocytogenes have been implicated in several listeriosis outbreaks. Lactate and diacetate have been shown to control L. monocytogenes in RTE meats at refrigerated temperature. However, there are no models describing their effects under tem...

382

Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate\\/carbonate buffer solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO3\\/Na2CO3 buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the

D. G. Li; Y. R. Feng; Z. Q. Bai; J. W. Zhu; M. S. Zheng

2007-01-01

383

Interrelationships of light, temperature, sodium chloride and carbon source in growth of halotolerant and halophilic strains of Dunaliella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth rate of several Dunaliella strains was measured as a function of several environmental parameters. The strains tested fell into two groups, the halotolerant capable of growing at 0·5 m NaCl and above, and the halophilic which cannot grow in media containing less than 2 m NaCl. It proved to be difficult to find optima for the different parameters

Margaret Ginzburg; B. Z. Ginzburg

1981-01-01

384

The synergistic inhibition between 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ion for the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M sulfuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5M sulfuric acid in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline at the same temperature, but decreases with increasing temperature studied. A synergistic effect exists when 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ions are used

Libin Tang; Xueming Li; Yunsen Si; Guannan Mu; Guangheng Liu

2006-01-01

385

Gaseous Reaction Rates at High Temperatures. II. The Dissociation of Hydrogen Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shock tube has been employed to study the dissociation of HCl in an argon diluent in the temperature range 3300°—5400°K and at total gas concentrations of 0.21, 0.42, and 0.84×10?5 moles\\/cc. The rate constant was determined to be k1=1.92×1011T12exp(?69 700?RT) cc?mole·sec. Experiments were conducted employing gas mixtures containing 1% HCl and 99% Ar; 2% HCl and 98% Ar; and

E. Stokes Fishburne

1966-01-01

386

Reaction of chlorine nitrate with hydrogen chloride and water at Antarctic stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) with H2O and HCl on surfacers that simulate polar stratospheric clouds are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The gaseous products of the resulting reactions, HOCl, Cl2O, and Cl2, could readily photolyze in the Antarctic spring to produce active chlorine for ozone depletion. Furthermore, the additional formation of condensed-phase HNO3 could serve as a sink for odd nitrogen species that would otherwise scavenge the active chlorine.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

1987-01-01

387

Temperature dependencies of the Henry's law constant and the aqueous phase dissociation constant of bromine chloride  

SciTech Connect

Modeling ozone depletion observed in the Arctic troposphere requires mass transport of halogen species between the aqueous and the gas phases, which is proportional to its Henry's Law constant (H{sub x}). UV measurements are made in both the aqueous and gas phases to determine the solubility (H{sub BrCl} = [BrCl(aq)]/[BrCl(g)]RT) of BrCl (279--299 K). The gas-phase absorbance spectrum (330--450 nm, 1 nm intervals) is fit for [BrCl(g)], [Br{sub 2}(g)], and [Cl{sub 2}(g)], while the absorbance value at 343 nm is used to determine [BrCl(aq)] (and [BrCl{sub 2}{sup {minus}}]). Dissociation (K{sub aq} = [Br{sub 2}(aq)][Cl{sub 2}(aq)]/[BrCl(aq)]{sup 2}) data are obtained from K{sub aq} = H{sub Cl2}H{sub Br2}K{sub g}/H{sub BrCl}{sup 2} where H{sub Cl2}, H{sub Br2}, and K{sub g} have analogous definitions to H{sub BrCl} and K{sub aq}. Comparison of Henry's Law constants in Table 2 reveals that the order of solubility at 298.2 is BrCl > Br{sub 2} {much{underscore}gt} Cl{sub 2}. At temperatures relevant to the Arctic, BrCl is much more soluble than Br{sub 2} because of differences in {Delta}H{degree}. Consequently, the relative flux of BrCl from the aqueous to the gas phase should not be as large as that of Br{sub 2}. Comparison of dissociation constants in Table 2 reveals the relatively high degree of association of BrCl with H{sub 2}O molecules in the aqueous phase.

Bartlett, W.P.; Margerum, D.W.

1999-10-01

388

Cardiac Sodium Channel Markov Model with Temperature Dependence and Recovery from Inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Markov model of the cardiac sodium channel is presented. The model is similar to the CA1 hippocampal neuron sodium channel model developed by Kuo and Bean (1994. Neuron. 12:819–829) with the following modifications: 1) an additional open state is added; 2) open-inactivated transitions are made voltage-dependent; and 3) channel rate constants are exponential functions of enthalpy, entropy, and voltage

Lisa A. Irvine; M. Saleet Jafri; Raimond L. Winslow

1999-01-01

389

Distributed temperature monitoring for liquid sodium leakage detection using OFDR-based Rayleigh backscattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.

Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladéjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.

2014-05-01

390

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

1986-01-01

391

A proposed all-solid-state transportable narrow-band sodium lidar for mesopause region temperature and horizontal wind measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An all-solid-state narrowband sodium lidar transmitter based on proven technologies is proposed. These proven technologies include: (i) the sum frequency generation of 589 nm coherent radiation with pulsed solid-state Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 and 1319 nm, developed for laser-guided star research and used in lidar measurements of mesopause-region temperatures by Shinshu University, (ii) the Doppler-free spectroscopic seed control developed by the Colorado State University and employed in a lidar system with hybrid solid-state and dye technologies for mesopause-region temperature and horizontal wind measurements, and (iii) the low-power continuous wave, tunable light around 589 nm via sum frequency generation developed by the University of Nevada. The proper combination of these mature technologies, deployed along with sodium-vapor Faraday filters, also developed by Colorado State University, will lead to a new all-solid-state sodium fluorescence lidar, capable of measuring mesopause-region temperatures and horizontal winds on a 24 h continuous basis, weather permitting. The integration of these proven solid-state technologies will make this proposed lidar transportable and suitable for remote operation in harsh environments.

She, Chiao-Yao; Vance, J. D.; Kawahara, Takuya D.; Williams, Bifford P.; Wu, Qian

2007-02-01

392

Watching the world sweat: Development and utilization of an in-situ conductivity sensor for monitoring chloride dynamics in high temperature hydrothermal fluids at divergent plate boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magmatic upwelling that drives plate tectonic motion at divergent plate boundaries also heats seawater circulating within the Earth's crust. The seawater undergoes physical and chemical changes beneath the surface and the resulting buoyant hydrothermal fluid ascends to the seafloor where it is comes out of structures called hydrothermal vents. One subsurface process of particular interest is phase separation, which is the transformation of a homogenous fluid into two phases, each with properties different from the original fluid. Phase separation is the dominant control on chloride in hydrothermal systems and chloride controls the distribution of all other chemical species. Thus, the measurement of chloride in hydrothermal fluids gives insight into extreme subsurface processes that are inherently difficult to probe. Since these processes evolve with time, measurements must be taken on a continuous basis. The research presented herein discusses the development and utilization of an instrument capable of continuously monitoring the hot salty solutions that flow out of hydrothermal pores in the Earth's crust. Instruments were deployed at two different mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. An array of instruments was deployed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge at the Main Endeavour Field 12-15 months after a magmatic intrusion. Tidal changes and non-tidal changes on timescales of minutes to hours were observed. Chloride data were also used to infer subsurface mixing between two non-seawater fluids at depths below the seafloor between 486 and 695 meters. Another instrument was deployed at Bio 9' vent at 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise in the immediate vicinity of seismometers monitoring earthquake activity. The hydrothermal response to intense seismicity was observed on two separate occasions. On the basis of these observations, conditions of subsurface phase separation were estimated at pressures between 269 and 288 bars and temperatures between 369.7 and 403.5°C. Recurrent chloride spikes were also observed, with magnitudes up to 720 mmol/kg and durations up to 7 minutes. At both study sites, data indicate the influence of subsurface fluids with chloride concentrations greater than seawater. These observations may help resolve the apparent chloride deficit indicated by venting of chloride-depleted fluids over decadal timescales.

Larson, Benjamin Isaac

393

Electrochemistry and passivity of Ti15 V-3 Cr3 Al3 Sn [beta]-titanium alloy in ambient temperature aqueous chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the electrochemical behavior of Ti-15 V-3 Cr-3 Al-3 Sn (Ti-15-3) alloy was performed as an initial step in understanding mechanism for environmentally assisted cracking of [beta]-titanium alloys in room temperature aqueous chloride solutions. both solution heat-treated (SHT) and peak-aged (PA) Ti-15-3 were studied, in addition to SHT commercially pure Ti (grade 2 Ti) and Ti-5 Al-2.5 Sn (grade

D. G. Kolman; J. R. Scully

1994-01-01

394

Effect of surface machining and cold working on the ambient temperature chloride stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of AISI 304L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of plastic deformation induced by cold rolling or surface machining on the susceptibility to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking at ambient temperature of 304L austenitic stainless steel was investigated in this study. The test material was subjected to three treatments: (a) solution annealed, (b) cold rolled and (c) surface machined to induce different levels of strain\\/stresses in the material. Subsequently

Swati Ghosh; Vivekanand Kain

2010-01-01

395

AsCat and FurCat: new Pd catalysts for selective room-temperature Stille cross-couplings of benzyl chlorides with organostannanes.  

PubMed

Two novel succinimide-based palladium complexes, AsCat and FurCat, are highly efficient catalysts for room-temperature Stille cross-coupling of organostannanes with benzyl chlorides. The air- and moisture-stable catalysts are prepared in one step, and the coupling reactions proceed with a high selectivity for the benzyl position under mild conditions without the need for additives. PMID:25626327

Ronson, Thomas O; Carney, Jonathan R; Whitwood, Adrian C; Taylor, Richard J K; Fairlamb, Ian J S

2015-02-10

396

Effect of chloride salts, curing compounds and heating and freezing on Trichinella spiralis in pork products  

E-print Network

shoulders were used to make linked pork sausage. Phase one of this study used chloride salt replacements calculated to an ionic strength equivalent to that of sodium chloride (2, 5/). Phase two of this study consisted of sodium chloride replace- ments.... The use of 1. 35X magnesium chloride or 1. 58/ calcium chloride de- creased (P&0. 05) pH in comparison to that for sausages made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05...

Kayfus, Timothy Jon

1981-01-01

397

Assessment of high-temperature battery systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three classes of high-temperature batteries are being developed internationally with transportation and stationary energy storage applications in mind: sodium/sulfur, lithium/metal sulfide, and sodium/metal chloride. Most attention is being given to the sodium/sulfur system. The Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD) and the Office of Transportation Systems (OTS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) are actively supporting the development of this battery system. It is anticipated that pilot-scale production facilities for sodium/sulfur batteries will be in operation in the next couple of years. The lithium/metal sulfide and the sodium/metal chloride systems are not receiving the same level of attention as the sodium/sulfur battery. Both of these systems are in an earlier stage of development than sodium/sulfur. OTS and OESD are supporting work on the lithium/iron sulfide battery in collaboration with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the work is being carried out at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The sodium/metal chloride battery, the newest member of the group, is being developed by a Consortium of South African and British companies. The assessment includes recommendations to DOE for a proposed high-temperature battery research and development program.

Sen, R. K.

1989-02-01

398

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

399

Temperature distribution in the reactive jet of water vapor and liquid sodium - contribution to wastage modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of water vapor leaks across the wall of one or more of the heat exchanger tubes in the steam generator constitutes one of the important problems of safety of the Fast Breeder Reactors cooled by sodium. The jet thus formed can, in fact, destroy the neighbouring tubes. The hydrodynamic, chemical and thermal factors play an important role in

F. Roger; J.-L. Carreau; L. Gbahoue; P. Hobbes; K. Y. Park

1984-01-01

400

Liquid-liquid equilibrium of poly(ethylene glycol) 6000 + sodium succinate + water system at different temperatures.  

PubMed

Phase diagrams and the compositions of coexisting phases of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000 + sodium succinate + water system have been determined experimentally at 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15?K. The effects of temperature on the binodal curve and tie lines have been studied. The binodal curves were successfully fitted to a nonlinear equation relating the concentrations of PEG 6000 and sodium succinate, and the coefficients were estimated for the formentioned systems (low AARD, high R(2), and low SD). Tie-line compositions were estimated and correlated using Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations, and the parameters were reported. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability has been studied by fitting the binodal data to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. The effective excluded volume (EEV) values were also calculated from the binodal data, and it was found out that the values increased with an increase in the temperature. Furthermore, the effect of MW of PEG on the phase diagram has been studied and verified. PMID:23864835

Raja, Selvaraj; Murty, Vytla Ramachandra

2013-01-01

401

Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) 6000 + Sodium Succinate + Water System at Different Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Phase diagrams and the compositions of coexisting phases of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000 + sodium succinate + water system have been determined experimentally at 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15?K. The effects of temperature on the binodal curve and tie lines have been studied. The binodal curves were successfully fitted to a nonlinear equation relating the concentrations of PEG 6000 and sodium succinate, and the coefficients were estimated for the formentioned systems (low AARD, high R2, and low SD). Tie-line compositions were estimated and correlated using Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations, and the parameters were reported. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability has been studied by fitting the binodal data to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. The effective excluded volume (EEV) values were also calculated from the binodal data, and it was found out that the values increased with an increase in the temperature. Furthermore, the effect of MW of PEG on the phase diagram has been studied and verified. PMID:23864835

Raja, Selvaraj; Murty, Vytla Ramachandra

2013-01-01

402

Recovering Indium from the Liquid Crystal Display of Discarded Cellular Phones by Means of Chloride-Induced Vaporization at Relatively Low Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Broadly speaking, indium (In) is extensively being used in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Nevertheless, LCDs, included in various types of end-of-life electronic devices (for example, discarded cellular phones), are generally discarded without recovering indium. Thus, the objective of this work is to recover indium from the LCD of the discarded cellular phone. The authors are putting forward a novel process in order to recover indium from the LCD of discarded cellular phones by means of chloride-induced vaporization at relatively low temperature. The samples are first treated with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to alter the structure of the indium(III) oxide found in LCDs into a chloride-induced indium compound and, therefore, enabling the vaporization of indium at relatively low temperature. The chloride-induced indium compound is then vaporized. Finally, the vaporized indium compound is condensed on a cooled surface of the apparatus and then recovered. The experimental results indicated that by using this process 84.3 pct of indium can be recovered from LCDs of discarded cellular phones.

Takahashi, Kunihiko; Sasaki, Atsushi; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Sadaki, Jun; Sato, Nobuaki; Fujita, Toyohisa

2009-04-01

403

Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model.  

PubMed

The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations. PMID:20185187

Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

2010-04-15

404

METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of ; liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method ; is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a ; molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize ; out and form solid deposits, therefore, the

W. H. Bruggeman; B. G. Voorhees

1957-01-01

405

PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE COMBINED EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, AND SODIUM DIACETATE ON THE HEAT RESISTANCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN BEEF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Listeria monocytogenes continues to be one of the most important foodborne psychrotrophic pathogens of public health significance and a major concern to the food industry and regulatory agencies. Sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium diacetate (SDA) are generally regarded as safe and are used in meat prod...

406

Thermodynamic study of gaseous sodium-phosphorous-oxygen ternary molecules by high temperature mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

of commercial grade sodium tripolyphosphate, Na P 0 , obtained from Alfa Inorganics, Beverly, Massachusetts, which had been purified by recrystallization, was 16 introduced into a molybdenum Knudsen cell containing a similar zirconia Knudsen cell... that the zirconia cell was cracked. This is believed to have happened at about 1420 K when a sudden drop in the intensities of the ternary species was observed (See set 20, Table I (p. 12)). Ionization efficiency curves (plots of ion intensity versus electron...

Miller, Federico

1974-01-01

407

Unusual Influence of the Temperature on the Standard Rate Constants of Charge Transfer for the Eu(III)/Eu(II) Redox Couple in Chloride-Bromide Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of bromide ions and temperature on the standard rate constants of the Eu(III)/Eu(II) redox reaction was determined. Cyclic voltammetry was used for the calculation of the kinetic parameters. It was shown that in NaCl-KCl (equimolar mixture)-NaBr (15 wt%)-EuCl3 melts increase of the temperature from 973 K up to 1023 K leads to a drastical decrease of the standard rate constant ks for the Eu(III)/Eu(II) redox reaction. This unusual influence of the temperature on the ks value was explained by a change of the electron transfer mechanism. It is suggested that at 1023 K another mechanism becomes dominant - the transfer of electrons through dissolved bromine in the melt. Bromine appeared in the melt due to the decomposition of chloride-bromide or bromide complexes of Eu(III), and the concentration of bromine in the melt increased with the growth of temperature.

Kuznetsov, Sergey A.; Gaune-Escard, Marcelle

2007-08-01

408

Osmotic coefficients of aqueous sodium carbonate solutions at 25°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements are reported for aqueous sodium carbonate solutions at 25°C using sodium chloride as reference electrolyte. Osmotic and activity coefficients are calculated from the concentrations of the solutions in isopiestic equilibrium. The results are used to calculate the trace activity coefficients of carbonate ion in sodium chloride solutions; these should approximate the trace activity coefficient of carbonate

R. A. Robinson; J. B. Macaskill

1979-01-01

409

Chloride dependent amino acid transport in the human small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carriers of beta amino acids and imino acids in the small intestine of rabbits and guinea pigs are chloride dependent, and a cotransport of chloride, sodium, and 2-methyl-aminoisobutyric acid has been shown. This study examines the chloride dependence of amino acid transport in the human small intestine. The steady state tissue uptake of amino acids, given as the ratio between

L K Munck

1995-01-01

410

Constant strain rate testing of type 304 stainless steel in high temperature water. Part II. An investigation of the chloride effect on stress corrosion cracking. [Strain rate 5 x 10⁻⁴ minute⁻¹ at 286°C with chlorides up to 100 ppM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constant strain rate tests of Type 304 stainless steel were continued in high temperatures with varying chloride ion concentrations up to 100 ppM. A strain rate of 5 x 10⁻⁴ minute⁻¹ was employed. The effects of dissolved oxygen content in the water, heat treatment, especially slight sensitization, and most importantly chloride ion concentration on the susceptibility of Type 304 stainless

M. Hishida; H. Nakada

1977-01-01

411

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor treatment When to Get ... fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . Chloride is present in all body fluids ...

412

Thermodynamics and cell chemistry of room temperature sodium/sulfur cells with liquid and liquid/solid electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell chemistry of sodium/sulfur cells operating at room temperature (RT-Na/S cells) is being studied electrochemically and structurally. We show by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that the cell reaction is incomplete but prove that the end members of the cell reaction (S and Na2S) form among the expected polysulfide species Na2Sx. The sulfur utilization can be improved by employing a solid electrolyte membrane (beta?-alumina) that prevents the diffusion of the soluble polysulfide species toward the sodium side. As an important finding, the Na+ conduction within the solid electrolyte phase and across the two liquid/solid interfaces results in only small overpotentials. Nevertheless the utilization of sulfur in the present RT-Na/S (475 mAh g-1) cells is lower than the theoretical value (1675 mAh g-1). One probable reason is the chemical instability of the widely used PVDF binder. Also, the thermodynamic properties of RT-Na/S cells operating at room temperature are discussed and compared with the currently much more studied RT-Li/S cells.

Wenzel, Sebastian; Metelmann, Hauke; Raiß, Christine; Dürr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jürgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-12-01

413

The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.  

PubMed

Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85 % of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2015-03-01

414

Effects of sodium lactate on the microbiological, chemical and color attributes of cooked, vacuum-packaged beef stored at various temperatures  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND COLOR ATTRIBUTES OF COOKED, VACUUM- PACKAGED BEEF STORFD AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES A Thesis hv MARNIE ELIZABFTH BIGNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTFRS OF SCII=. NCE August I')')3 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECT OF SODIUM LACTATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND COLOR ATI'RIBUTES OF COOKED, VACUUM...

Bigner, Marnie Elizabeth

1993-01-01

415

Crystal structure and temperature-dependent luminescence of a heterotetranuclear sodium-europium(III) ?-diketonate complex.  

PubMed

A heterotetranuclear Na2Eu2 complex with uncommon photoluminescence properties is reported. The complex exhibits good emission efficiency at ambient temperature, coupled with strong temperature dependence of the emission intensity and lifetime in the 273-333 K range, all of which are key features for non-contact luminescence-based thermometers capable of sensing and imaging temperatures in the physiological range. PMID:25420939

Bruno, Sofia M; Ananias, Duarte; Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Pillinger, Martyn; Valente, Anabela A; Carlos, Luís D; Gonçalves, Isabel S

2015-01-14

416

The effect of different dietary ratios of sodium and chloride on the physiological responses of lactating dairy cattle in hot weather  

E-print Network

) claimed that milk yield is reduced 15(o, accompanied by a 35fo decrease in efficiency of energy utilization for productive purposes, when a lactating Holstein is transferred from an air temperature of 18 to 30 CD Milk fat, SNF, and milk protein... effects combined. Bia'nca (9 ) reviewed many research studies conducted 15 before 1965 on the effect of a hot climate on lactation. Milk composition was affected; there was a fall in milk fat, total solids, SNF, total nitrogen, lactose, short- chain...

Grant, Pamela Ann

1980-01-01

417

Synergistic inhibition between o-phenanthroline and chloride ion for steel corrosion in sulphuric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5M sulphuric acid in the presence of o-phenanthroline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The experimental data suggest that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing NaCl concentration in the presence of 0.0002M o-phenanthroline, but decreases with increasing temperature. A synergistic effect is observed when

Xueming Li; Libin Tang; Lin Li; Guannan Mu; Guangheng Liu

2006-01-01

418

23Na NMR study of sodium order in NaxCoO2 with 22 K Néel temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a systematic study of the c-lattice parameter in the NaxCoO2 phases versus Na content x>0.5, in which sodium always displays ordered arrangements. This allows us to single out the first phase which exhibits an antiferromagnetic order at a Néel temperature TN=22 K, which is found to occur for x?0.77(1). Pure samples of this phase have been studied both as aligned powders and single crystals. They exhibit identical 23Na NMR spectra in which three sets of Na sites could be fully resolved, and are found to display T dependencies of their NMR shifts, which scale with each other. This allows us to establish that the T variation of the shifts is due to the paramagnetism of the Co sites with formal charge state larger than 3+. The existence of a sodium site with axial charge symmetry and the intensity ratio between the sets of 23Na lines permits us to reveal that the two-dimensional structure of the Na order corresponds to ten Na sites on top of a thirteen-Co-sites unit cell, that is with x=10/13?0.77. This structure fits with that determined from local density calculations and involves triangles of three Na sites located on top of Co sites [so-called Na1 sites]. The associated ordering of the Na vacancies is quite distinct from that found for x<0.75.

Alloul, H.; Mukhamedshin, I. R.; Dooglav, A. V.; Dmitriev, Ya. V.; Ciomaga, V.-C.; Pinsard-Gaudart, L.; Collin, G.

2012-04-01

419

Ionic liquid electrolytes with various sodium solutes for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 batteries operated at elevated temperatures.  

PubMed

NaFePO4 with an olivine structure is synthesized via chemical delithiation of LiFePO4 followed by electrochemical sodiation of FePO4. Butylmethylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with various sodium solutes, namely NaBF4, NaClO4, NaPF6, and NaN(CN)2, is used as an electrolyte for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 cells. The IL electrolytes show high thermal stability (>350 °C) and nonflammability, and are thus ideal for high-safety applications. The highest conductivity and the lowest viscosity of the electrolyte are obtained with NaBF4. At an elevated temperature (above 50 °C), the IL electrolyte is more suitable than a conventional organic electrolyte for the sodium cell. At 75 °C, the measured capacity of NaFePO4 in a NaBF4-incorporated IL electrolyte is as high as 152 mAh g(-1) (at 0.05 C), which is near the theoretical value (154 mAh g(-1)). Moreover, 60% of this capacity can be retained when the charge-discharge rate is increased to 1 C. PMID:25295391

Wongittharom, Nithinai; Wang, Chueh-Han; Wang, Yi-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

2014-10-22

420

Effects of hydrothermal temperature and time on hydrothermal synthesis of colloidal hydroxyapatite nanorods in the presence of sodium citrate.  

PubMed

In this paper, colloidal hydrophilic hydroxyapatite nanorods were synthesized in the presence of sodium citrate via thermal-decomplexing method. The influences of hydrothermal temperature and time on the synthesis of HA nanorods were characterized in terms of structure, size, morphology, and colloidal stability through TEM, XRD, zeta potential, DLS and long-term standing test. Results show that increasing hydrothermal temperature and prolonging hydrothermal time would evidently improve crystallinity and enlarge size of HA nanorods but decrease the colloidal stability of nanorods. It is worth noting that the effect of raising the hydrothermal temperature and time on diameter increase is far greater than that on length increase; meanwhile, the colloidal stability would be seriously deteriorated when the hydrothermal temperature is over 180°C for 24h or when the hydrothermal temperature is 150°C for over 48h, in these cases, dispersion of HA nanorods would apparently settle within 2months. The origin responding to the results is that although the charge density of HA nanorods is not obviously affected, the dynamic diameters of HA particles increase greatly, which reduces colloidal stability of the dispersion. This work provides new insights into the role of hydrothermal temperature and time on tailoring morphology, crystallinity and colloidal stability of HA nanorods. Moreover, it would be helpful to optimize the experimental procedure both on scientific and industrial applications related to HA. For example, on the premise of satisfying the necessary requirements including crystallinity, size, morphology and colloid stability, it is feasible to compress the consumption of experimental time through raising the hydrothermal temperature, or vice versa. PMID:25818354

Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Xiaohu; Cheng, Yute; Wang, Longshen; Hu, Bing; Tan, Junjun

2015-07-15

421

Solubility and phase behavior of nickel oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures. [NiO  

SciTech Connect

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility was used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of nickel oxide (NiO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560/sup 0/K. A layer of hydrous nickel oxide was concluded to exist on the nickel oxide surface at temperatures below 468/sup 0/K; only at higher temperatures did the anhydrous nickel oxide phase control the nickel ion solubility behavior. The measured solubility behavior was examined via a nickelous ion hydrolysis/complexing model, and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing rection equilibria were obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new nickel ion complexes, Ni(OH)/sub 2/(HPO/sub 4/)/sup =/ and ni(OH)/sub 3/(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sup =/, is reported for the first time. The positive entropy change associated with the formation of Ni(OH)/sub 3/(H/sub 2/PO/sub 4/)/sup =/ leads to its dominance in alkaline phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

1986-02-01

422

Chloride channelopathies.  

PubMed

Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms. Impaired chloride transport can cause diseases as diverse as cystic fibrosis, myotonia, epilepsy, hyperekplexia, lysosomal storage disease, deafness, renal salt loss, kidney stones and osteopetrosis. These disorders are caused by mutations in genes belonging to non-related gene families, i.e. CLC chloride channels and transporters, ABC transporters, and GABA- and glycine receptors. Diseases due to mutations in TMEM16E and bestrophin 1 might be due to a loss of Ca++-activated Cl- channels, although this remains to be shown. PMID:19708126

Planells-Cases, Rosa; Jentsch, Thomas J

2009-03-01

423

Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.  

PubMed

Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions. PMID:16683620

Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

2006-04-15

424

Effect of secondary structure on the interactions of peptide T4 LYS (11-36) in mixtures of aqueous sodium chloride and 2,2,2,-Trifluoroethanol  

SciTech Connect

The potential of mean force for protein-protein interactions is key to the development of a statistical-mechanical model for salt-induced protein precipitation and crystallization, and for understanding certain disease states, including cataract formation and {beta}-amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Fluorescence anisotropy provides a method for quantitative characterization of intermolecular interactions due to reversible association. Monomer-dimer equilibria for the peptide T4 LYS(11-36) were studied by fluorescence anisotropy. This peptide, derived from the {beta}-sheet region of the T4 lysozyme molecule, has the potential to form amyloid fibrils. 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces a change in peptide secondary structure, and was used in aqueous solutions at concentrations from 0 to 50% (v/v) at 25 and 37 C to examine the role of peptide conformation on peptide-peptide interactions. The association constant for dimerization increased with rising TFE concentration and with falling temperature. The peptide-peptide potential of mean force was computed from these association constants. Circular-dichroism measurements showed that the secondary structure of the peptide plays an important role in these strong attractive interactions due to intermolecular hydrogen-bond formation and hydrophobic interactions.

Anderson, Camille O.; Spiegelberg, Susanne; Prausnitz, John M.; Blanch, Harvey W.

2001-10-01

425

In situ study of water-induced segregation of bromide in bromide-doped sodium chloride by scanning polarization force microscopy.  

PubMed

The adsorption of water on Br-doped NaCl crystals has been studied in situ using scanning polarization force microscopy, a noncontact electrostatic atomic force microscopy operation mode. Both topography and contact potential images were acquired as a function of relative humidity at room temperature, from 0% to more than 55%. It was found that the surface of the freshly cleaved crystal has an inhomogeneous electrical surface potential distribution with the steps more negative than the terraces below 40% relative humidity. This difference disappears when the humidity reaches 40% and higher. Below 40% the step morphology experiences only small changes due to water adsorption; however, above 40% major changes take place due to solvation, segregation, and redistribution of lattice ions. Bromide-rich islands and crystallites segregate to the surface above 40% relative humidity followed by drying. These islands and crystallites have a negative surface potential relative to the rest of the surface. These effects are attributed to the preferential solvation and segregation of Br- ions. PMID:16833816

Ghosal, Sutapa; Verdaguer, Albert; Hemminger, John C; Salmeron, Miquel

2005-06-01

426

A high-energy room-temperature sodium-sulfur battery.  

PubMed

Employing small sulfur molecules as the active cathode component for room-temperature Na-S batteries, reveals a novel mechanism that is verified for the batteries' electrochemistry. The sulfur cathode enables a complete two-electron reaction to form Na2 S, bringing a tripled specific capacity and an increased specific energy compared with traditional high-temperature Na-S batteries. At the same time, it offers better cycling stability endowing the batteries with a longer lifespan. PMID:24338949

Xin, Sen; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

2014-02-26

427

Influence of sodium chloride on growth of lactic acid bacteria and subsequent destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during processing of Lebanon bologna.  

PubMed

Due to undesirable quality changes, Lebanon bologna is often processed at temperatures that do not exceed 48.8 degrees C (120 degrees F). Therefore, it is important to study parameters that influence the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Lebanon bologna. The objective of the present study was to determine the influence of curing salts (NaCl and NaNO2) on the destruction of E. coli O157:H7 during Lebanon bologna processing. Fermentation to pH 4.7 at 37.7 degrees C reduced populations of E. coli O157:H7 by approximately 0.3 log10, either in the presence or absence of curing salts. Subsequent destruction of E. coli O157:H7 during heating of fermented product to 46.1 degrees C was significantly reduced by the presence of 3.5% NaCl and 156 ppm NaNO2, compared to product without curing salts (P < 0.01). The presence of a higher level of NaCl (5%) in Lebanon bologna inhibited the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which yielded product with higher pH (approximately 5.0) and significantly reduced the destruction of E. coli O157:H7 even further (P < 0.05). Lower concentrations of NaCl (0, 2.5%) yielded Lebanon bologna with higher LAB counts and lower pHs, compared to product with 5% NaCl. When lactic acid was used to adjust pH in product containing different levels of NaCl, it was determined that low pH was directly influencing destruction of E. coli O157:H7, not NaCl concentration. PMID:11510650

Chikthimmah, N; Anantheswaran, R C; Roberts, R F; Mills, E W; Knabel, S J

2001-08-01

428

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

429

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

430

Kinetics of the sodium pump in red cells of different temperature sensitivity.  

PubMed

Ouabain-sensitive K influx into ground squirrel and guinea pig red cells was measured at 5 and 37 degrees C as a function of external K and internal Na. In both species the external K affinity increases on cooling, being three- and fivefold higher in guinea pig and ground squirrel, respectively, at 5