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Sample records for temperature sodium chloride

  1. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  2. Plating and stripping of sodium from a room temperature 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride melt

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.E.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A.

    1996-12-01

    Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride and aluminum chloride have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium/metal chloride battery; however, the coulombic efficiency of the sodium couple is less than 95%. This work examines the reduction and oxidation efficiency of the sodium couple from a 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride/aluminum chloride neutral melt. Most of the work was performed on a tungsten substrate using cyclic voltammetry. The coulombic efficiency of the sodium couple was improved by treating the melt with gaseous HCl using a closed electrochemical cell which allowed for quantification of the effect on HCl on the electrochemical behavior of sodium. Thionyl chloride was also found to induce sodium plating and stripping in 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride/aluminum chloride melts. Optical microscopy was used to examine the surface of the tungsten electrode during sodium deposition, open-circuit periods, and sodium stripping. In comparison to the stability of sodium in two other imidazolium melts, (1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride and 1-methyl-2-ethylimidazolium chloride) the 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride system was found to have the widest stability window.

  3. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190?C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350?Wh?kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280?C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190?C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  4. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-02-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg-1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  5. The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-10-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically fabricated with a thick tubular β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at relatively high temperatures ( 300ºC) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present work, a planar-type sodium-nickel chloride battery possessing a thin BASE (~600 m thick) was tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of the battery operation at low temperatures (200°C). Electrochemical test results revealed that the battery was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175°C despite the higher cell polarization at the reduced temperature. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175°C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280°C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the performance degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride in the cathode. The cells tested at lower temperatures (e.g., 175 and 200°C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in cell voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of NaAlCl4 melt or the poor wettability of sodium on the BASE. Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of a secondary electrolyte and sodium wetting are desirable to further enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

  6. Sodium-aluminum chloride cells

    SciTech Connect

    Granstaff, S.M. Jr.; Auborn, J.J.; Hooper, A.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary cells using solid electrolytes, with molten sodium anodes and having cathodes composed of sulfur compounds and aluminum chloride have been cycled for over 800 deep cycles on a 2.7 volt plateau at moderate temperatures (150-200/degree/C). At these temperatures and operating in a basic solution, the cells avoid the corrosion problems of other higher temperature or acidic solution sodium-sulfur cells. 14 refs.

  7. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  8. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  9. Plating and stripping of sodium from a room temperature 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride melt

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.E.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A.

    1996-07-01

    Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride and aluminum chloride have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions which provide the most efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Most work was performed on a tungsten substrate using cyclic voltammetry. Melts were treated with gaseous HCl using a closed electrochemical cell which allowed for quantification of the effect of HCl on the electrochemical behavior of sodium in the molten salt. The HCl threshold partial pressure was less than 1 kPa for sodium plating. This result was complicated by the slow equilibrium between gaseous HCl and that dissolved in the molten salt; the effect of HCl addition was found to last for months, demonstrating the slow equilibrium. Small amounts of water contamination were found to produce a similar effect. At elevated temperatures the melt had higher conductivity, an order of magnitude higher current densities, and higher coulombic efficiency.

  10. Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

    2000-04-01

    New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

  11. Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350°C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200°C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ”-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175°C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

  12. Infrared optical constants of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate: application to study the crystallization of aqueous sodium chloride solution droplets at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Mhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin

    2012-08-23

    Complex refractive indices of sodium chloride dihydrate, NaCl2H(2)O, have been retrieved in the 6000-800 cm(-1) wavenumber regime from the infrared extinction spectra of crystallized aqueous NaCl solution droplets. The data set is valid in the temperature range from 235 to 216 K and was inferred from crystallization experiments with airborne particles performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The retrieval concept was based on the Kramers-Kronig relationship for a complex function of the optical constants n and k whose imaginary part is proportional to the optical depth of a small particle absorption spectrum in the Rayleigh approximation. The appropriate proportionality factor was inferred from a fitting algorithm applied to the extinction spectra of about 1 ?m sized particles, which, apart from absorption, also featured a pronounced scattering contribution. NaCl2H(2)O is the thermodynamically stable crystalline solid in the sodium chloride-water system below the peritectic at 273.3 K; above 273.3 K, the anhydrous NaCl is more stable. In contrast to anhydrous NaCl crystals, the dihydrate particles reveal prominent absorption signatures at mid-infrared wavelengths due to the hydration water molecules. Formation of NaCl2H(2)O was only detected at temperatures clearly below the peritectic and was first evidenced in a crystallization experiment conducted at 235 K. We have employed the retrieved refractive indices of NaCl2H(2)O to quantify the temperature dependent partitioning between anhydrous and dihydrate NaCl particles upon crystallization of aqueous NaCl solution droplets. It was found that the temperature range from 235 to 216 K represents the transition regime where the composition of the crystallized particle ensemble changes from almost only NaCl to almost only NaCl2H(2)O particles. Compared to the findings on the NaCl/NaCl2H(2)O partitioning from a recent study conducted with micron-sized NaCl particles deposited onto a surface, the transition regime from NaCl to NaCl2H(2)O is shifted by about 13 K to lower temperatures in our study. This is obviously related to the different experimental conditions of the two studies. The partitioning between the two solid phases of NaCl is essential for predicting the deliquescence and ice nucleation behavior of a crystalline aerosol population which is subjected to an increasing relative humidity. PMID:22856335

  13. High dietary sodium chloride and body temperature in the domestic fowl and the glaucous-winged gull.

    PubMed

    Kojwang, D; Hughes, M R

    1993-01-01

    Arad and Skadhauge (1986) correlated plasma sodium to calcium ratio and body temperature in domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) during increased dietary sodium chloride intake which increased plasma sodium concentration. During acclimation to high dietary NaCl, body temperature should increase in proportion to the increase in plasma sodium concentration, and body temperature should increase less in gulls than in chickens because salt gland secretion of NaCl by gulls should prevent elevation of plasma sodium concentration. Plasma osmolality, plasma sodium concentration, plasma concentrations of total calcium and ionized calcium, and body temperature and panting threshold were measured in domestic roosters and Glaucous-winged gulls before and after exposure to high NaCl diets. Gull body temperature (40.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C) increased significantly (P < 0.05) during salt acclimation. Rooster body temperature (41.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C) did not increase significantly. Plasma sodium concentration increased in gulls (5.4 +/- 0.5%, P < 0.01) and was correlated with body temperature (r = 0.497, P < 0.05); the 3.8 +/- 1.0% increase in plasma sodium concentration in roosters (P < 0.01) was not, suggesting that change in body temperature might be a response to the magnitude of increase in plasma sodium concentration. Plasma ionized calcium concentration increased by 12.9 +/- 4.6% (P < 0.01) in gulls and by 5.3 +/- 1.0% (P < 0.01) in roosters. Plasma sodium concentration was correlated with calcium ion concentration in both gulls (r = 0.635, P < 0.05) and roosters (r = 0.664, P < 0.05). In neither species were ratios of sodium to total calcium plasma concentration or sodium to ionized calcium concentration altered or related to body temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8254119

  14. The Use of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum as Phase Change Materials for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized by Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM) have a great deal of potential for the storage of thermal energy in a wide range of applications. The present work is aimed at developing encapsulated phase change materials capable of storing thermal energy at temperatures above 700C for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. EPCM with a phase change material (PCM) with both a salt (sodium chloride) and a metal (aluminum) are considered here. Sodium chloride and aluminum are effective storage mediums because of their high melting points and large latent heats of fusion, 800C and 660C and 430kJ/kg and 397kJ/kg, respectively. Based on the heat capacities and the latent heat of fusion, for a 100 degree temperature range centered on the melting point of the PCM, 80% of the energy stored by the sodium chloride PCM can be attributed to the latent heat and 79% for the aluminum PCM. These large fractions attributed to latent heat have the potential for making EPCM based thermal energy storage devices smaller and less expensive. To study the performance of the candidate PCMs considered here, a specialized immersion calorimeter was designed, calibrated, and used to evaluate the storage capabilities of sodium chloride and aluminum based EPCMs. Additionally, the EPCMs were studied to ensure no loss of capacity would occur over the lifetime of the EPCM. While no reduction in the storage capacity of the sodium chloride EPCMs was found after repeated thermal cycles, there was a decrease in the storage capacity of the aluminum EPCMs after prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

  15. The Lewis acidity of room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts buffered with sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Riechel, T.L.; Wilkes, J.S. . Frank J. Seiler Research Lab.)

    1993-11-01

    Lewis neutral room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts made by mixing 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC1) and aluminum chloride are being investigated as possible batter electrolytes because of their wide potential windows. The electrochemistry of a NaCl-buffered, MEIC1/AlCl[sub 3] melt was studied using Pt and W electrodes. When excess NaCl is added to an N = 0.55 melt (N = the mole fraction AlCl[sub 3]) a neutral melt results, saturated with NaCl. The cyclic voltammetry shows several small overlapping reduction peaks which lead to a small, but distinct oxidation peak about [minus]0.1V (vs an Al/Al[sup 3+] N = 0.6 melt reference). Comparison to the voltammogram of an N = 0.5002 melt (no NaCl) suggests that the oxidation process is aluminum stripping. A series of plating and stripping experiments and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of the electrode surfaces verify this. The presence of the Al stripping peak in the voltammogram of the buffered melt means that this melt is still slightly Lewis acidic even when saturated with NaCl. The concentration of Al[sub 2]Cl[sub 7][sup [minus

  16. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  17. A fiber-optic sensor using an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to measure temperature and water level simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  18. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  19. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE, 0-3%) on heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags submerged in ...

  20. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  1. Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-01-01

    Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

  2. Effect of temperature on the formation of creep substructure in sodium chloride single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Pharr, George M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the substructure morphology and the cell and subgrain size was investigated experimentally in NaCl single crystals under creep in the temperature range 573-873 K. It is found that the effect of temperature on the cell and subgrain sizes is weak in comparison with the effect of stress. However, there was a qualitative change in the substructure morphology with temperature, with the cells and subgrains better defined at higher temperatures. The volume fraction of the cell boundaries decreased with increasing temperature, thereby indicating a refinement of the microstructure at higher temperatures.

  3. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  4. Thermodynamic calculation of self-diffusion in sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baohua; Li, Chengbo; Shan, Shuangming

    2016-02-01

    Using the available pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of sodium chloride, we show that the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium and chloride in sodium chloride as a function of temperature and pressure can be successfully reproduced in terms of bulk elastic and expansivity data. We use a thermodynamic model that interconnects point-defect parameters with bulk properties. Our calculated diffusion coefficients and point-defect parameters, including activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume, well agree with reported experimental results when uncertainties are considered. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity of sodium chloride inferred from our predicted diffusivities of sodium through the Nernst-Einstein equation is compared with previous experimental data.

  5. Standard state thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride using high dilution calorimetry at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

    2009-04-16

    In this communication, we report the first calorimetric data for the standard state enthalpies of a solution of sodium chloride obtained from high dilution, down to (10(-3) m), integral heats of solution measurements to 596.30 K. Although there are no comparable thermodynamic data available at such high dilutions in the literature, the present results for NaCl(aq) can be used for many thermodynamic studies by others to achieve a complete thermodynamic description of this key electrolyte over very wide ranges of concentration. From the recently developed unified theory of electrolytes, the experimental data from this study were used to predict Gibbs free energies of hydration of sodium chloride up to 1100 K. These Gibbs free energies of hydration at different pressures and densities compare well with reported values obtained from ab initio calculations by others. PMID:19354306

  6. Secondary electron emission from sodium chloride, glass and aluminum oxide at various temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shulman, A. R.; Makedonskiy, V. L.; Yaroshetskiy, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    The method of single impulses was used to measure the coefficients of the secondary electronic emission for 2 types of Al2O2, monocrystalline NaCl and glass at different temperatures and for different values of the energy of the primary electrons. The value of the secondary electron emission does not depend upon temperature. The effect of a gas film on the value of the secondary electron emission was detected.

  7. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  8. The sodium/metal chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

    This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

  9. Slow Sodium: An Oral Slowly Released Sodium Chloride Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, E. M.; Curtis, J. R.; Jewkes, R. J.; Jones, B. E.; Luck, V. A.; de Wardener, H. E.; Phillips, N.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a slowly released oral preparation of sodium chloride is described. It was given to patients and athletes to treat or prevent acute and chronic sodium chloride deficiency. Gastrointestinal side effects were not encountered after the ingestion of up to 500 mEq in one day or 200 mEq in 10 minutes. PMID:5569979

  10. Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems butanols + water + sodium chloride or + potassium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Gomis, V.; Ruiz, F.; Asensi, J.C.; Saquete, M.D.

    1996-03-01

    Liquid-liquid-solid equilibria for the ternary systems water + sodium chloride + 2-butanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, water + sodium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol, water + potassium chloride + 1-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-butanol, water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-1-propanol, and water + potassium chloride + 2-methyl-2-propanol have been measured at 25 C.

  11. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  12. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Thomas; Marsik, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  13. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  14. Sodium/metal chloride batteries: Summary of status

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, R.K.

    1988-09-01

    In 1972, there was an effort underway at ESB to try to develop a sodium/antimony trichloride battery that would operate at 200/degree/C or less. These cells, like their sodium/sulfur counterpart, used beta alumina electrolyte tubes, but with a second component in the electrolyte, namely molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate. The latter was used on the acid side, i.e., with an excess of aluminum chloride. Starting a little later, about 1975 it is rumored, workers at the Anglo American Company in South Africa began experimenting with positive electrodes consisting of iron or nickel chloride, using an electrolyte system that was similar to that of ESB except that the sodium tetrachloroaluminate was used on the basic side, i.e., with an excess of sodium chloride. The Anglo American work was focused on the high-temperature chlorination of the metal carbides as the means to form the porous iron or nickel chloride positive electrodes. Ultimately, the work at ESB was abandoned, while that at Anglo American blossomed, eventually leading to the formation of Zebra Power Systems S.A. in South Africa. The latter has been involved, since about 1980, in a number of collaborative programs with UKAEA Harwell and Beta RandD Ltd. in the UK to develop the sodium/metal chloride battery technology. The embodiment with iron chloride has become known as the Zebra battery, while the nickel chloride variant is known as the Cheetah battery. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Louis

    2003-05-01

    Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10 -30 g cm -3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77 K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

  16. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  17. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  18. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution. PMID:23759127

  19. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride, and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Garcia-Dvila, Jimena; Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; Pena-Ramos, Etna Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product. PMID:25285486

  20. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  1. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  2. Effect of Sodium Chloride and pH on the Outgrowth of Spores of Type E Clostridium botulinum at Optimal and Suboptimal Temperatures1

    PubMed Central

    Segner, W. P.; Schmidt, C. F.; Boltz, J. K.

    1966-01-01

    The sodium chloride inhibition of spore outgrowth of four strains of type E Clostridium bolulinum was determined in a Trypticase-peptone-glucose (TPG) medium. At 16, 21, and 30 C, spores of three strains required 5.0% and one strain 4.5% salt for complete inhibition during 1 year of incubation. At 8 and 10 C, spores of the four strains required 4.5% salt for definite inhibition. Salt concentrations slightly lower than those providing inhibition tended to extend spore outgrowth time at low temperatures. The minimal pH permitting outgrowth of type E spore inocula was affected by the concentration of reducing compound present in the system. When either 0.02% sodium thioglycolate or 0.05% L-cysteine hydrochloride was used, outgrowth at 30 and 8 C occurred at much lower pH levels than when 0.2% thioglycolate was added. At 30 C, spores of one strain showed outgrowth in TPG medium as low as pH 5.21 with an inoculum of 2 million spores per replicate tube. At a 10-fold higher inoculum, the same strain showed outgrowth at pH 5.03 in one of five replicate tubes. At 8 C, spore outgrowth of the four strains occurred at pH 5.9, but not at pH 5.7, in TPG medium containing L-cysteine hydrochloride. PMID:5330680

  3. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  4. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role. PMID:26197394

  5. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  6. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  7. Emissions of oil-fired furnaces burning with sodium chloride-contained air

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.Y.; Hsieh, M.J.

    1995-10-01

    In this study, a small furnace associated with an industrial burner was employed to investigate the influences of the existence of sodium chloride in atmospheric air on the emissions of marine or industrial oil-fired furnaces. The burning gas characteristics such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, gas temperature were analyzed using a gas analyzer and a L-type thermocouple. This study shows that the emission is affected to a significant extent by the presence of sodium chloride. Poorer atomization and in turn less complete burning of the injected oil was caused by the addition of NaCl in the inlet air. The formation of excess oxygen, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide were enhanced while the emission of carbon dioxide was inhibited with the existence of sodium chloride in the inlet air. In addition, the nitrogen oxides emission decreased with the addition of sodium chloride primarily due to the lower attainable gas temperature. 20 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Physiochemical Properties of Sodium Chloride Particles on Laboratory Ice Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, E. P.; Simpson, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous halides (e.g. Cl- and Br-) on environmental ice surfaces are converted to reactive gases through heterogeneous chemistry that has broad consequences for springtime Arctic tropospheric oxidation chemistry. Recent studies indicate that atmospherically contaminated snow (e.g. more acidic snow) is more effective at activating halogens than frozen seawater. This study investigates the microstructure created by the addition of salts onto ice surfaces as a function of temperature. Microscopic sodium chloride salt crystals were labeled with a fluorescent dye (fluorescein) and placed onto laboratory ice surface below the hydrohalite (NaCl 2H2O)-water eutectic temperature. As temperature was increased above the eutectic, a discrete brine area formed around the crystal. Size and morphology of the brine area was determined using an Axioscope II epifluorescence microscope. Initially, the salt crystal did not entirely dissolve and three distinct phases (solid salt, brine, ice) were present for some time. Timescales for crystal dissolving, brine formation, and wetting across the ice surfaces where thus constrained. Similar experiments using a fluorescently labeled, laboratory-generated sea salt aerosol particles were also carried out and compared to the larger microscopic sodium chloride crystals. This work gives insight into how atmospheric particles deliver contaminants to ice surfaces, how those contaminants interact with ice surfaces and thus how they may impact halogen activation.

  9. Ammonia inhibits sodium and chloride absorption in rat distal colon.

    PubMed

    Cermak, R; Minck, K; Lawnitzak, C; Scharrer, E

    2002-05-01

    It was recently demonstrated that ammonia inhibits sodium absorption in the proximal colon of rats. In order to investigate the effect of luminal ammonia in the distal colon, sodium and chloride transport were measured in Ussing chambers. Under short-circuit conditions, distal colon absorbed sodium and chloride. When luminal ammonia (30 mmol l(-1)) was present, sodium and chloride absorption was diminished. Inhibition of the two Na(+)-H(+) exchanger isoforms NHE2 and NHE3, which are known to be located in the apical membrane of the distal colon epithelium, failed to influence the effect of ammonia on transepithelial sodium and chloride fluxes. The inhibitory effect of ammonia was eliminated under the following conditions: after block of carbonic anhydrases with acetazolamide, in the presence of an unspecific blocker of Na(+)-H(+) exchangers, and under chloride-free conditions. Ammonia did not alter electrogenic sodium absorption. These results demonstrate that luminal ammonia inhibits sodium and chloride absorption in rat distal colon. We suggest that ammonia inhibits NaCl absorption by interfering with a Na(+)-H(+) exchanger that is not NHE2 or NHE3 PMID:12089598

  10. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  11. Kinetics and mechanism of chloride based chlorine dioxide generation process from acidic sodium chlorate.

    PubMed

    Deshwal, B R; Lee, H-K

    2004-05-20

    The reaction between sodium chlorate and sodium chloride in presence of aqueous sulfuric acid is studied in a well stirred reactor at various temperatures and molar concentrations of chlorate, chloride and acid. The reaction rate is evaluated by analyzing the consumption of chlorate or chloride iodometrically or argentometrically. The rate law is established. Reaction has been found first and second order with respect to chlorate and chloride concentration, respectively. Reaction order is found about 13-14 with respect to molar concentration of sulfuric acid but it reduced to 2.4 when acidity function, h_, is substituted in place of molar concentration. The temperature dependence of the reaction is also investigated and pre-exponential Arrhenius parameter as well as activation energy are determined. It has been observed that ClO(2)/Cl(2) ratio is markedly affected by chlorate to chloride ratio. Reaction mechanism compatible with the reaction kinetics is proposed. PMID:15120870

  12. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  13. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  14. Effects of low chloride intake on performance, clinical characteristics, and chloride, sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, D L; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Whitlock, R H; Allen, J C

    1979-12-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were effected adversely. Although the chloride intake of the low-chloride calves was only one-sixteenth that of controls, body chloride retention was similar for the two groups. The similar retention of body chloride was due to effective homeostatic mechanisms in which urinary chloride excretion was reduced by 95% in the low-chloride calves. Low-chloride calves consumed more water and excreted more urine than control calves. Although the exact minimum chloride requirement for growth in calves was not established, .038% chloride was adequate for normal growth for the 7 wk. PMID:541461

  15. Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

  16. Rechargeable lithium and sodium anodes in chloroaluminate molten salts containing thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, J.; Osteryoung, R.A.; Carlin, R.T.

    1995-11-01

    Lithium and sodium deposition-stripping studies were performed in room temperature buffered neutral chloroaluminate melts containing low concentrations of thionyl chloride (SOCl{sub 2}). The SOCl{sub 2} solute promotes high cycling efficiencies of the alkali metals in these electrolytes. Staircase cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry show cycling efficiencies of approximately 90% for both lithium and sodium. High cycling efficiencies are maintained following extended exposure of the melt to the dry box atmosphere and after time delays at open circuit. The performance of the SOCl{sub 2}-promoted systems is substantially improved over previous studies in room temperature melts containing hydrogen chloride as the promoting solute.

  17. Europa's surface color suggests an ocean rich with sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K. P.; Carlson, R. W.

    2015-05-01

    The composition of Europa's surface may be representative of the subsurface ocean; however, considerable debate persists regarding the endogenous or exogenous nature of a hydrated sulfate feature on Europa. Direct evidence of oceanic salts on Europa's surface has been largely inconclusive. We show that the observed color within geologically young features on Europa's surface can be explained by sodium chloride delivered from the ocean below. We find that sodium chloride, when exposed to Europa surface conditions, accumulates electrons in F and M centers, yielding a yellow-brown discoloration comparable to Europa's surface. Irradiation of sodium chloride from Europa's ocean thus provides a simple and elegant solution to the color of the non-ice material observed on Europa. This evidence for endogenous salts suggests that Europa's ocean is interacting with a silicate seafloor, a critical consideration for assessing habitability.

  18. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  19. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  20. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  1. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  2. Heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert; MöHler, Ottmar

    2013-05-01

    The aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has been used to quantify the deposition mode ice nucleation ability of airborne crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate (NaCl • 2H2O) particles with median diameters between 0.06 and 1.1 µm. For this purpose, expansion cooling experiments with starting temperatures from 235 to 216 K were conducted. Recently, supermicron-sized NaCl • 2H2O particles deposited onto a surface have been observed to be ice-active in the deposition mode at temperatures below 238 K, requiring a median threshold ice saturation ratio of only 1.02 in the range from 238 to 221 K. In AIDA, heterogeneous ice nucleation by NaCl • 2H2O was first detected at a temperature of 227.1 K with a concomitant threshold ice saturation ratio of 1.25. Above that temperature, the crystallized salt particles underwent a deliquescence transition to form aqueous NaCl solution droplets upon increasing relative humidity. At nucleation temperatures below 225 K, the inferred threshold ice saturation ratios varied between 1.15 and 1.20. The number concentration of the nucleated ice crystals was related to the surface area of the seed aerosol particles to deduce the ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) density of the aerosol population as a function of the ice supersaturation. Maximum INAS densities of about 6 ṡ 1010 m-2 at an ice saturation ratio of 1.20 were found for temperatures below 225 K. These INAS densities are similar to those recently derived for deposition mode ice nucleation on mineral dust particles.

  3. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  4. Sodium chloride on Si(100) grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jen-Yang; Li, Hong-Dao; Chang, Wan-Heng; Leung, T. C.; Lin, Deng-Sung

    2011-02-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) films were grown on an Si(100)-(2 1) surface at near room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The atomic structure and growth mode of the prototypical ionic materials on the covalent bonded semiconductor surface is examined by synchrotron core-level x-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles calculations. The Si 2p, Na 2p, and Cl 2p core-level spectra together indicate that adsorbed NaCl molecules at submonolayer coverage [i.e., below 0.4 monolayer (ML)] partially dissociate and form Si-Cl species, and that a significant portion of the dangling-bond characteristics of the clean surface remains after NaCl deposition of 1.8 MLs. The deposition of 0.65-ML NaCl forms a partially ordered adlayer, which includes NaCl networks, Si-Cl species, adsorbed Na species, and isolated dangling bonds. The STM results revealed that the first adlayer consists of bright protrusions which form small c(2 4) and (2 2) patches. Above 0.65 ML, the two-dimensional NaCl double-layer growth proceeds on top of the first adlayer.

  5. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  6. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  7. Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

  8. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium chloride is one of the primary contaminants that enter gas turbine engines and contribute, either directly or indirectly, to the hot corrosion degradation of hot-gas-path components. The paper surveys the results of laboratory experiments along with thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, intended for elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments. It is shown that besides being a source of sodium for the formation of corrosive liquid Na2SO4, the NaCl itself contributes in other indirect ways to the material degradation associated with the high-temperature environmental attack. In addition, the experimental results lend credence to the conceptual scheme presented schematically (behavior of NaCl in a turbine engine combustion gas environment) and resolve conflicting aspects of relevant NaCl misconceptions.

  9. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. PMID:25872427

  10. Effect of chromuium, aluminum, and titanium on the corrosion resistance of nickel in molten sodium sulfate and chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshich, I.V.

    1985-09-01

    The author reports on a study whose purpose was to determine the corrosion of binary nickel alloys, containing aluminum, titanium and chromium, in molten sodium sulfate and chloride. The work was undertaken because under operating conditions, gas-turbine materials are subject to oxidation and high-temperature corrosion caused by contact with molten salt based on sodium sulfate formed during fuel combustion. It is concluded that: on alloying nickel with chromium, resistance to sulfide corrosion increases, but with aluminum and titanium it is reduced; alloying nickel with aluminum, titanium (up to 6-8 %) and chromium (up to 10-12 %) leads to an increase in its resistance to the action of molten sodium chloride; and, binary Ni-Al, Ni-Ti and ternary Ni-Al-Ti alloys have a lower corrosion resistance in sodium solfate than in sodium chloride.

  11. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  12. Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfide and ammonia.

    PubMed

    Palaghias, G

    1986-06-01

    Specimens were prepared from three different dental amalgams and were immersed in 0.5% aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide, ammonia and sodium chloride. Every month and over a 6-month experimental period the solutions were replaced with fresh electrolyte and were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with respect to their content in silver, mercury, copper, tin and zinc. In sulfide solutions large amounts of tin and mercury were released from the amalgams while none of the other elements could be detected. Copper, tin and mercury were mostly dissolved in ammonia solutions. An increased silver dissolution could also be observed. Zinc was the first element to be released in sodium chloride solutions. After a 4-month immersion, considerable amounts of copper and mercury could also be found in the same solutions. PMID:3461549

  13. Stability of cidofovir in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, L C; Samuels, G J; Visor, G C

    1996-08-15

    The stability of cidofovir in i.v. admixtures under refrigerator and room temperature conditions was studied. Admixtures of cidofovir 0.21 and 8.12 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and of 0.085 and 3.51 mg/mL in 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection were prepared in triplicate in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or polyethylene-polypropylene containers and i.v. administration sets and stored for 24 hours at 2-8 or 30 degrees C. The lower concentration of cidofovir corresponded to an assumed dose of 0.5 mg/kg for a 40-kg patient, and the higher concentration to an assumed dose of 10 mg/kg for a 100-kg patient. Samples were removed at 0 and 24 hours and analyzed for cidofovir concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography. Physical compatibility was also studied. The stability of cidofovir in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection at low- and high-dose concentrations was unaffected by storage at either temperature. All admixtures were clear, colorless, and free of visible particles or precipitation. There were no substantial changes in pH or number of particles of > or = 10 microns in diameter. Cidofovir 0.21 and 0.12 mg/mL was stable in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in PVC and polyethylene-polypropylene containers and i.v. administration sets for up to 24 hours at 2-8 and 30 degrees C. Cidofovir was compatible with the injectable solutions studied. PMID:8862207

  14. Calibration of the On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) with ammonium chloride and sodium chloride aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Brockmann, J.E.; Lucero, D.A.; Romero, T.; Pentecost, G.

    1993-12-01

    The On-Line Aerosol Monitor (OLAM) is a light attenuation device designed and built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by EG&G Idaho. Its purpose is to provide an on-line indication of aerosol concentration in the PHEBUS-FP tests. It does this by measuring the attenuation of a light beam across a tube through which an aerosol is flowing. The OLAM does not inherently give an absolute response and must be calibrated. A calibration has been performed at Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) Sandia Aerosol Research Laboratory (SARL) and the results are described here. Ammonium chloride and sodium chloride calibration aerosols are used for the calibration and the data for the sodium chloride aerosol is well described by a model presented in this report. Detectable instrument response is seen over a range of 0.1 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas to 10 cm{sup 3} of particulate material per m{sup 3} of gas.

  15. Stability of Levothyroxine in Sodium Chloride for IV Administration

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Dawn K; Decarie, Diane; Ensom, Mary H H

    2010-01-01

    Background Levothyroxine by IV administration is often prescribed in the intensive care unit for the management of potential solid organ donors, following declaration of brain death and provision of consent for organ donation. Published data on the stability of levothyroxine in IV solutions are limited. Objective To evaluate the physical compatibility and chemical stability, over a 24-h period, of 2 concentrations of levothyroxine in 0.9% sodium chloride with storage at room temperature and with exposure to or protection from light. Methods Levothyroxine solutions (0.4 ?g/mL and 2.0 ?g/mL) were prepared in 50-mL minibags of 0.9% NaCl and stored at room temperature (25C) with exposure to or protection from light. Samples were collected from each minibag at time 0 and after 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 24.0 h. The samples were analyzed in triplicate with a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method using ultraviolet detection. A solution was considered stable if it maintained 90% of its initial concentration of levothyroxine. Changes in colour, clarity, and pH were assessed to determine the physical compatibility of the solutions. Results All samples remained clear, colourless, and free of precipitate throughout the study, and there were no significant changes in pH. Based on the 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time determined by linear regression, solutions of levothyroxine with concentration 0.4 ?g/mL would maintain at least 90% of the initial concentration for 16.9 h with exposure to light and for 18.0 h if kept in the dark. Solutions of levothyroxine with concentration 2.0 ?g/mL would maintain at least 90% of the initial concentration for 6.5 h with exposure to light and for 12.0 h if kept in the dark, with 95% confidence. Conclusions Extemporaneously prepared solutions of levothyroxine in 0.9% NaCl can be expected to remain stable for at least 6.5 h if stored without protection from light and at least 12 h if stored in the dark. Stability is related to concentration, with more dilute solutions having greater stability. PMID:22479016

  16. Deep ultraviolet and visible crystalloluminescence of sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Andrew J.

    2012-02-01

    A protocol has been developed for production of intense crystalloluminescence (XTL) from sodium chloride in aqueous solution by selective doping with transition metal salts (Ag+, Cu2+, and Dy3+). The method was used to record complete, fully dispersed deep UV-visible (200-650 nm) XTL spectra of sodium chloride for the first time. The results show conclusively that the emissions are due to dopant cations in the NaCl lattice, with no evidence for emission directly from NaCl, e.g., by triboluminescence resulting from crystalline fracture. The UV components of the XTL spectrum are attributed to single cation substituents (Ag+ and Cu+), and a strong visible component (415 nm) of the XTL is attributed to emission from silver-pair centers, (Ag+)2. The nature of the electronic transitions of the dopant cations is discussed. The results suggest that the timescale for transformation of a cluster to the crystalline phase is rapid, with efficient relaxation to the lowest excited electronic states of the dopant cation. This transformation is followed by photoemission of the cation in the nascent crystal.

  17. Deep ultraviolet and visible crystalloluminescence of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Andrew J

    2012-02-14

    A protocol has been developed for production of intense crystalloluminescence (XTL) from sodium chloride in aqueous solution by selective doping with transition metal salts (Ag(+), Cu(2+), and Dy(3+)). The method was used to record complete, fully dispersed deep UV-visible (200-650 nm) XTL spectra of sodium chloride for the first time. The results show conclusively that the emissions are due to dopant cations in the NaCl lattice, with no evidence for emission directly from NaCl, e.g., by triboluminescence resulting from crystalline fracture. The UV components of the XTL spectrum are attributed to single cation substituents (Ag(+) and Cu(+)), and a strong visible component (~415 nm) of the XTL is attributed to emission from silver-pair centers, (Ag(+))(2). The nature of the electronic transitions of the dopant cations is discussed. The results suggest that the timescale for transformation of a cluster to the crystalline phase is rapid, with efficient relaxation to the lowest excited electronic states of the dopant cation. This transformation is followed by photoemission of the cation in the nascent crystal. PMID:22360200

  18. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  19. Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

  20. Alternative approach to modeling bacterial lag time, using logistic regression as a function of time, temperature, pH, and sodium chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Shige; Nonaka, Junko

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (?) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed ? model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for ?, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether ? had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ? 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ? 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ? 20C). The probability of the end of ? was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of ? was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The ? model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the ? model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of ? using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation. PMID:22729541

  1. Alternative Approach To Modeling Bacterial Lag Time, Using Logistic Regression as a Function of Time, Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Junko

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (λ) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed λ model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for λ, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether λ had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ∼ 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ∼ 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ∼ 20°C). The probability of the end of λ was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of λ was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The λ model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the λ model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of λ using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation. PMID:22729541

  2. Mathematical Models for the Effects of pH, Temperature, and Sodium Chloride on the Growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus in Salty Carrots

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T. M.; Schaffner, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    Estimating the shelf life and safety of any food product is an important part of food product development. Predictive food microbiology reduces the time and expense associated with conventional challenge and shelf life testing. The purpose of this study was to characterize and model germination, outgrowth, and lag (GOL) time and the exponential growth rate (EGR) of Bacillus stearothermophilus in salty carrot medium (SCM) as a function of pH, temperature, and NaCl concentration. B. stearothermophilus is a spore-forming thermophilic organism associated with flat sour spoilage of canned foods. A split-split plot design was used to measure the effects and interactions of pH (5.5 to 7.0), temperature (45 to 60(deg)C), and NaCl (0 to 1%) on the growth kinetics of B. stearothermophilus in SCM. A total of 96 experiments were analyzed, with individual curve parameters determined by using the Gompertz equation. Quadratic polynomial models for GOL time and EGR of B. stearothermophilus in terms of temperature, pH, and NaCl were generated by response surface analysis. The r(sup2) values for the GOL time and EGR models were 0.917 and 0.916, respectively. These models provide an estimate of bacterial growth in response to combinations of the variables studied within the specified ranges. The models were used to predict GOL times and EGRs for additional experimental conditions. The accuracy of these predictions validated the model's predictive ability in SCM. PMID:16535566

  3. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kendal W; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

  4. Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

  5. Sodium Chloride, NaCl/ϵ: New Force Field.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Azcatl, Raúl; Barbosa, Marcia C

    2016-03-10

    A new computational model for sodium chloride, the NaCl/ϵ, is proposed. The force field employed for the description of the NaCl is based on a set of radial particle-particle pair potentials involving Lennard-Jones (LJ) and Coulombic forces. The parametrization is obtained by fitting the density of the crystal and the density and the dielectric constant of the mixture of the salt with water at a diluted solution. Our model shows good agreement with the experimental values for the density and for the surface tension of the pure system, and for the density, the viscosity, the diffusion, and the dielectric constant for the mixture with water at various molal concentrations. The NaCl/ϵ together with the water TIP4P/ϵ models provide a good approximation for studying electrolyte solutions. PMID:26890321

  6. A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

  7. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride...

  8. Extracellular sodium and chloride depletion enhances nonexocytotic noradrenaline release induced by energy deficiency in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Schömig, A

    1989-09-01

    The effect of either extracellular sodium or extracellular chloride reduction on the release of endogenous noradrenaline and its deaminated metabolite dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG) has been studied in the isolated perfused rat heart under conditions of ischaemia and cyanide intoxication. The overflow of noradrenaline and DOPEG was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography. The efflux of DOPEG, the predominant neuronal noradrenaline adrenaline metabolite, served as indicator of the free axoplasmic plasmic amine concentration. A calcium-free perfusion buffer was used to avoid exocytotic noradrenaline release. Sodium and chloride in the perfusion buffer were replaced by lithium and isethionate, respectively. (1) Reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride increased noradrenaline overflow in ischaemia. The release was suppressed by the uptake1 blocker cocaine indicating carrier-mediated outward transport of noradrenaline. (2) In cyanide intoxication sodium or chloride reduction accelerated the onset of DOPEG efflux reflecting increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations. This was accompanied by increased noradrenaline release. The ratio of noradrenaline/DOPEG overflow was increased by reduced sodium or chloride, indicating facilitation of carrier-mediated noradrenaline net outward transport. (3) In the presence of unaltered energy metabolism overflow of both, noradrenaline and DOPEG, was not enhanced by sodium or chloride reduction. The results demonstrate that reduction of extracellular sodium or chloride has two effects on noradrenaline release from the sympathetic neuron with reduced energy supply. First, reduced sodium or chloride induces increased axoplasmic noradrenaline concentrations by interference with vesicular storage function. Second, both interventions enhance carrier-mediated noradrenaline release. PMID:2812038

  9. [Determination of sodium chloride in preserving brines using ion selective electrodes].

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, L; Sikola, J

    1983-11-01

    The determination of sodium chloride content in salt brines is important for many reasons, including that of influencing the organoleptic properties of final products already prior to production. The method of determination by direct potentiometry is rapid, simple, requires no chemicals and has sufficient accuracy for use in producers' laboratories. The comparison of both methods of sodium chloride determination--direct potentiometry and direct titration without previous adjustment of samples--showed that titration gave higher sodium chloride levels (by 2.5 g per litre, i. e. 2.15%) than did ISE determination. For current laboratory examinations and for sodium chloride determination in meat plants, this difference is almost negligible. However, if sodium chloride is to be determined by the so called conclusive method, the measurement cannot be performed without previous mineralization of samples and without the use of buffer to damp down the effect of interfering ions. PMID:6422609

  10. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  11. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities

  12. Activity coefficients of aqueous sodium chloride from 15° to 50°C measured with a glass electrode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1968-01-01

    Values of the mean activity coefficient of sodium chloride at 15°, 25°, 38° and 50°C were determined for aqueous NaCl solutions of 0.01 to 1.0 molal from electromotive force measurements on the cell: (sodium-sensitive glass electrode, aqueous sodium chloride, silver chloride-silver).

  13. Kinematic Viscosity and Density of Binary and Ternary Mixtures Containing Hydrocolloids, Sodium Chloride, and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, Tassia F.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Guimares, Guilherme C.; Coelho, Marcos C.; Ramos, Andresa V.; Costa, Bernardo S.; Coimbra, Jane S. R.

    2010-03-01

    The kinematic viscosity and density of binary aqueous solutions containing xanthan gum and ternary aqueous solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium chloride have been measured from 303 K to 318 K at different values of pH. The viscosity and density for binary and ternary systems showed increases with a higher concentration of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum or carboxymethyl cellulose) and reductions with increasing temperature. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The models used to predict the viscosity, density, and apparent specific volume demonstrated satisfactory results in comparisons with experimental data.

  14. Stability of thiotepa (lyophilized) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Murray, K M; Erkkila, D; Gombotz, W R; Pankey, S

    1997-11-15

    The stability of thiotepa in a new formulation of the drug was studied. Vials of Thioplex (Immunex), a relatively new lyophilized formulation of thiotepa, were reconstituted with sterile water and diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride infusion bags to thiotepa concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 3 mg/mL. The solutions were stored at 8 and 25 degrees C in ambient light and analyzed at 0, 8, 24, and in most cases 48 hours for thiotepa concentration and chloro-adduct formation by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Thiotepa 1 and 3 mg/mL was stable for 48 hours at 8 degrees C and for 24 hours at 25 degrees C. Thiotepa 0.5 mg/mL was not stable at either temperature. Storage at 8 degrees C slowed but did not prevent chloro-adduct formation and loss of potency. The pH tended to increase with time; turbidity remained low. Thiotepa (lyophilized) 1 and 3 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection was stable for 48 hours at 8 degrees C and for 24 hours at 25 degrees C; the drug was unstable when diluted to 0.5 mg/mL and stored under the same conditions. PMID:9397220

  15. High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.

    2010-07-01

    Widespread penetration of renewable energy and increasing demands on reliability/security of the electrical grid require extensive advances in energy storage technologies. One most promising technology is the sodium-beta batteries (NBBs) based on a sodium-ion conducting β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at elevated temperatures (300-350oC). Current NBBs, constructed on a 1-3 mm thick tubular electrolyte, have high capital cost, performance/safety issues and relatively high operating temperature that limit market penetration of the technology. In this work we report a new generation NBB that utilizes a planar design, incorporating a thinner BASE that reduces the area of specific resistance and may be operated at reduced temperatures. The lower operating temperatures allows for use of more cost-effective cell materials and decreases adverse temperature effects that impact cycle life and overall cost. We here present recent progress generated from planar NBB button cells, including initial cell performance, cathode design and chemistry.

  16. Regional analysis of the effect of paved roads on sodium and chloride in lakes.

    PubMed

    Kelting, Daniel L; Laxson, Corey L; Yerger, Elizabeth C

    2012-05-15

    Salinization of surface water from sodium chloride (road salt) applied to paved roads is a widely recognized environmental concern in the northern hemisphere, yet practical information to improve winter road management to reduce the environmental impacts of this deicer is lacking. The purpose of our study was to provide such information by developing baseline concentrations for sodium and chloride for lakes in watersheds without paved roads, and then determining the relationship between these ions and density, type, and proximity of paved roads to shoreline. We used average summer (June-September) sodium and chloride data for 138 lakes combined in a watershed based analysis of paved road networks in the Adirondack Park of New York, U.S.A. The watersheds used in our study represented a broad range in paved road density and type, 56 of which had no paved roads. Median lake sodium and chloride concentrations in these 56 watersheds averaged 0.55 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively. In contrast, the median sodium and chloride concentrations for the 82 lakes in watersheds with paved roads were 3.60 and 7.22 mg/L, respectively. Paved road density (lane-km/km(2)) was positively correlated with sodium and chloride concentrations, but only state roads were significantly correlated with sodium and chloride while local roads were not. State road density alone explained 84 percent of the variation in both ions. We also successfully modeled the relationship between road proximity to shoreline and sodium and chloride concentrations in lakes, which allowed us to identify sections of road that contributed more to explaining the variation in sodium and chloride in lakes. This model and our approach could be used as part of larger efforts to identify environmentally sensitive areas where alternative winter road management treatments should be applied. PMID:22406283

  17. Water deprivation-sodium chloride intoxication in a group of feeder lambs.

    PubMed

    Scarratt, W K; Collins, T J; Sponenberg, D P

    1985-05-01

    Six of a group of 100 feeder lambs that had been deprived of sodium chloride, then more recently deprived of water, developed water deprivation-sodium chloride intoxication soon after water and a mineral supplement containing sodium chloride were reintroduced. The clinical signs included somnolence, intense thirst, and generalized muscle fasciculations. Serum chemical analyses revealed profound hypernatremia and hyperchloremia. Two mildly affected lambs recovered with partial water restriction and 2 severely affected lambs died despite medication to reduce cerebral edema. Postmortem examination of the 2 treated lambs and the 2 lambs found dead revealed microscopic evidence of cerebral edema and cerebrocorticonecrosis. PMID:3997652

  18. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  19. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  20. Stability of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Lorazepam, and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polypropylene Syringes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Collin R; Halford, Zachery; MacKay, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting is problematic for many patients undergoing chemotherapy. Multiple-drug treatments have been developed to mitigate chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting. A patient-controlled infusion of diphenhydramine hydrochloride, lorazepam, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate has been studied in patients who are refractory to first-line therapy. Unfortunately, the physical and chemical compatibility of this three-drug combination is not available in the published literature. Chemical compatibility was evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Visual observation was employed to detect change in color, clarity, or gas evolution. Turbidity and pH measurements were performed in conjunction with visual observation at hours 0, 24, and 48. Results showed that diphenhydramine hydrochloride 4 mg/mL, lorazepam 0.16 mg/mL, and dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.27 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polypropylene syringes were compatible, and components retained greater than 95% of their original concentration over 48 hours when stored at room temperature. PMID:26625573

  1. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  2. Lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar for the enumeration of bifidobacteria in fermented dairy products.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, L; Undeland, P; Cox, L J

    1992-05-01

    Lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar has been developed for the enumeration of bifidobacteria in fermented dairy products. The medium contains lithium chloride and sodium propionate to inhibit the growth of other lactic acid bacteria. Pure cultures of bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, and streptococci were tested for growth in this medium. With one exception, all bifidobacteria were able to grow in this medium and in a nonselective agar with a difference not exceeding .4 log units. However, none of the lactobacilli tested and only one strain each of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris grew in lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar. In those cases, the numbers of colonies were lower in lithium chloride-sodium propionate agar by 1.26 and 2.51 log units, respectively, compared with a nonselective agar. Bifidobacteria were also selectively isolated from all fermented milks and cheeses analyzed. PMID:1317893

  3. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide). PMID:26867107

  4. Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products. PMID:24099538

  5. [Chloride and lactate composition of hypertonic sodium solution for fluid resuscitation of burn injury].

    PubMed

    Yokota, J; Uenishi, M; Sakamoto, T; Yukioka, T; Sugimoto, H; Yoshioka, T; Sugimoto, T

    1985-11-01

    This study was performed to determine the appropriate anion composition of hypertonic sodium solution for fluid therapy of severely burned patients. Two different solutions with equal sodium concentration (Na 300 mEq/1) were prepared. The first one, low chloride solution (C1 88 mEq/1), was used for ten patients (group I); the second, high chloride solution (C1 244 mEq/1), for other ten patients (group II). Two groups had the same severity of burn injury. The infusion rate was controlled to achieve an adequate urine output (1.0 ml/kg/hour). The observation period was eight hours after injury and water and sodium intake and renal function were measured. Ccr and FENa were identical in two groups. Although both had same urine output, CH2O of group I increased. Water and sodium intake of group I were lower than those of group II. Water diuresis was related with limited chloride intake in group I and this suggested the relation between urine concentration and chloride loading in kidney. conclusively, hypertonic sodium solution with low chloride concentration requires less volume for resuscitation and may be preferred to high chloride solution in the initial therapy of burn injury. PMID:4079901

  6. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. . E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-07-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  7. Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.E.; Kohl, P.A.; Winnick, J.

    1995-11-01

    Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using both cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Melts were protonated using a closed electrochemical cell to allow quantification of the effect of dissolved HCl on the efficiency of the sodium couple. A threshold of approximately 6 Torr HCl partial pressure was observed for sodium plating-stripping. Below this threshold, the sodium couple was not observed. The results, show that the sodium plating-stripping efficiency increases with increasing current density; however, the efficiency reaches a maximum and is adversely affected by high over potentials and extended exposure of the sodium to the melt. It appears that some passivation occurs as even a very thin layer of plated sodium exhibits a steady open-circuit voltage over long periods in the melt.

  8. Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  9. Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

  10. Salt-induced aggregation and fusion of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride and sodium dihexadecylphosphate vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Ribeiro, A M; Chaimovich, H

    1986-01-01

    Small dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) vesicles prepared by sonication fuse upon addition of NaCl as detected by several methods (electron microscopy, trapped volume determinations, temperature-dependent phase transition curves, and osmometer behavior. In contrast, small sodium dihexadecyl phosphate (DHP) vesicles mainly aggregate upon NaCl addition as shown by electron microscopy and the lack of osmometer behavior. Scatter-derived absorbance changes of small and large DODAC or DHP vesicles as a function of time after salt addition were obtained for a range of NaCl or amphiphile concentration. These changes were interpreted in accordance with a phenomenological model based upon fundamental light-scattering laws and simple geometrical considerations. Short-range hydration repulsion between DODAC (or DHP) vesicles is possibly the main energy barrier for the fusion process. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 9 PMID:3779002

  11. Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition using sodium chloride support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teong Ooi, Jeremy Hor; Liu, Wei-Wen; Thota, Venugopal; Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Chai, Siang-Piao

    2011-02-01

    Bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) together with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were directly grown on a water-soluble support catalyst that was prepared via sublimation of ferrocene on sodium chloride. The synthesis of nanotubes was carried out at a growth temperature of 700 C in a combined methane and nitrogen environment of 1:1 volumetric ratio at a total flowrate of 80 ml/min for 1 h in a vertical reactor. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to study the carbon deposits. Transmission electron microscope shows the presence of SWCNTs with an average diameter of ca. 1.18 nm on the catalyst. The radial breathing mode (RBM) of Raman for shifts below 350 cm -1 further confirmed the presence of SWCNTs and the diameters were calculated to be 0.93, 1.36, 1.5 and 1.85 nm.

  12. A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-02-28

    The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253°C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280°C and 240°C. At 280°C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240°C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280°C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

  13. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    PubMed

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts. PMID:21621814

  14. Hemolytic effects of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride in human blood.

    PubMed

    Brando, Ricardo; Lara, Fabiana S; Pagliosa, Letcia B; Soares, Flix A; Rocha, Joo B T; Nogueira, Cristina W; Farina, Marcelo

    2005-01-01

    Many works have reported the interaction between selenium and mercury in the mammalian body and that chalcogen seems to have a protective effect against mercury toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemolytic effects of sodium selenite and/or mercuric chloride in human blood under in vitro conditions. For this, total venous blood from healthy subjects (males and females) was heparinized and incubated at 37 degrees C for 90 min with different concentrations of sodium selenite and/or mercuric chloride. The hemolytic effects of compounds were evaluated by measuring plasma hemoglobin concentration after centrifugation. In addition, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) from plasma and erythrocytes, as well as erythrocyte nonprotein thiols (NPSH), were also evaluated in order to investigate molecular mechanisms related to selenite- or mercury-induced hemolysis. Mercuric chloride and sodium selenite, alone (400 microM), promoted a small in vitro hemolytic effect in human erythrocytes. However, when blood was exposed to both compounds (200 microM of each), there was an extremely high synergistic hemolytic effect. The exposure of blood to sodium selenite (400 microM), mercuric chloride (400 microM), and both compounds (200 microM each) did not alter erythrocyte TBARS levels. Sodium selenite presented a high oxidant effect toward erythrocyte NPSH; however, this effect was inhibited by mercuric chloride. The current results point to a synergistic hemolytic effect of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride in human blood, suggesting new understanding on the selenium-mercury antagonism. Moreover, this observed hemolysis seems to be not related to lipoperoxidation or thiol depletion. PMID:16298871

  15. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  16. Response of the Higher Basidiomycetic Ganoderma resinaceum to Sodium Chloride Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Eman H. F. A.; Abd Elzaher, E. H. F.

    2007-01-01

    Ganoderma resinaceum tolerated sodium chloride salt stress within a range of 0 mM till 300 mM. It responded to salt stress with fluctuation in proline formation at different NaCl concentrations. However,the mycelial dry weight,total protein contents and exopolysaccharides did not changed considerably. Increasing sodium chloride concentration led to morphological alteration in fungal mycelia with disappearance of fungal cell wall,plasmolysis,and vacuolation as indicated with electron microscopic examination of the fungal growth. PMID:24015082

  17. Electrical conductivity measurements for the ternary systems of glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water and their applications in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Hung; Zhou, Xiaoming; Shu, Zhiquan; Woods, Erik J; Gao, Dayong

    2009-03-01

    Electrical conductivity of a solution is a property that can be easily determined through the measurement of a conductivity probe. The present study demonstrates the measurements of electrical conductivity for two ternary solutions: glycerol/sodium chloride/water and ethylene glycol/sodium chloride/water. When the concentration of sodium chloride to water ratio (R) is fixed, the existence of either glycerol or ethylene glycol, both cryoprotective agents (CPAs), can be quantitatively determined by their depressive influence on electrical conductivity of the solution. The measurements were performed on solutions with a set of 10 different concentrations of CPAs, ranging from 3.2% to 50% (v/v), along with five ratios of NaCl/water solutions. Equations to fit the experimental measurements were devised to characterize the relations among electrical conductivity, CPAs concentration, and R. A conductivity meter used in this study required <5 s to read the solution's electrical conductivity, which is faster than the measurement using osmometry method. The charts of ternary solutions associated with their electrical conductivity and concentrations make it especially useful for monitoring the cryopreservation processes, including addition and removal of CPAs, to prevent osmotic damages to biological samples. PMID:24845766

  18. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Several studies from the 1970s and more recently (for example, Hall (1975), Daley and others (2009) and Mullaney (2009)) have found that concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire have increased during the past 50 years. Increases likely are related to road salt and other anthropogenic sources, such as septic systems, wastewater, and contamination from landfills and salt-storage areas. According to water-quality data reported to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES), about 100 public water systems (5 percent) in 2010 had at least one groundwater sample with chloride concentrations that were equal to or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 250 mg/L before the water was treated for public consumption. The SMCL for chloride is a measurement of potential cosmetic or aesthetic effects of chloride in water. High concentrations of chloride and sodium in drinking-water sources can be costly to remove. A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  19. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2009-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and salt (sodium chloride) on DMI, daily water intake (DWI), body temperature, and respiration rate (RR) in Bos taurus beef cattle. In Exp. 1 and 2, whole soybeans (SB) were used as the supplemental fat source. In Exp. 3, palm kernel meal and tallow were used. Experiment 1 (winter) and Exp. 2 (summer) were undertaken in an outside feedlot. Experiment 3 was conducted in a climate-controlled facility (mean ambient temperature = 29.9 degrees C). In Exp. 1, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 1% sodium chloride); and 3) salt-SB (control + 5% SB + 1% sodium chloride), were fed to 144 cattle (BW = 327.7 kg), using a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (BW = 334.1 kg) were used. In Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were used as in Exp. 1, and a 5% SB dietary treatment was included in an incomplete 3 x 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 3, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 0.92% NaCl); and 3) salt-fat (control + 3.2% added fat + 0.92% NaCl) were fed to 12 steers (BW = 602 kg) in a replicated Latin square design. In Exp. 1, cattle fed the salt-SB diet had elevated (P < 0.05) tympanic temperature (TT; 38.83 degrees C) compared with cattle fed the control (38.56 degrees C) or salt (38.50 degrees C) diet. In Exp. 2, cattle fed the salt and salt-SB diets had less (P < 0.05) DMI and greater (P < 0.05) DWI than cattle in the control and SB treatments. Cattle fed the salt-SB diet had the greatest (P < 0.05) TT (38.89 degrees C). Those fed only the salt diet or only the SB diet had the least (P < 0.05) TT, at 38.72 and 38.78 degrees C, respectively. Under hot conditions (Exp. 3), DMI of steers fed the salt and salt-fat diets declined by approximately 40% compared with only 24% for the control cattle. During hot conditions, DWI was greatest (P < 0.05) for steers on the salt-fat diet. These steers also had the greatest (P < 0.05) mean rectal temperature (40.03 +/- 0.1 degrees C) and RR (112.7 +/- 1.7 breaths/min). The RR of steers on the control diet was the least (P < 0.05; 98.3 +/- 1.7 breaths/min). Although added salt plus fat decreased DMI under hot conditions, these data suggest that switching to diets containing the combination of added salt and fat can elevate body temperature, which would be a detriment in the summer but a benefit to the animal during winter. Nevertheless, adding salt plus fat to diets resulted in increased DWI under hot conditions. Diet ingredients or the combination of ingredients that can be used to regulate DMI may be useful to limit large increases in DMI during adverse weather events. PMID:18997076

  20. The role of chlorides and alkalis in high temperature coal gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Feitelberg, A.S.; Ayala, R.E.; Hurley, J.P.; Toman, D.

    1994-12-31

    Reusable zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbents are being developed for high temperature (1,000 F) coal gas desulfurization applications. Bench scale and pilot scale tests reveal that zinc-based sorbents chemisorb HCl present in low Btu fuel. Volatile chlorides (ZnCl{sub 2} and HCl) are released when the sorbents are regenerated in a higher-temperature oxidizing atmosphere. As a result of these chloride/sorbent interactions, solid ZnSO{sub 4} and ZnCl{sub 2} deposit in downstream process equipment and degrade process operability. The HCI concentration in coal gas can be reduced to about 1 ppmv with sodium bicarbonate, which decomposes in hot coal gas and reacts with HCl to form solid sodium chloride. Models and laboratory scale tests indicate these low HCl concentrations can be achieved with reasonable reactor sizes. Equilibrium calculations and pilot plant measurements show that contacting hot coal gas with large quantities of sodium bicarbonate will result in fuel vapor phase sodium levels that are well below gas turbine limits.

  1. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level

  2. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  3. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-10-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow.

  4. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Bar, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry. PMID:22410229

  5. Effect of water stress by Polyethylene Glycol 8000 and Sodium Chloride on germination of Ephedra alata Decne seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Taisan, Wafa'a A; Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Alsubiee, Moodi S

    2010-07-01

    Ephedra alata Decne is a perennial shrub and it is a very effective sand-binder. In Saudi Arabia, the species is associated with sand dunes formation, especially the mobile, non-saline and low moisture content ones. Its geographical distribution in Saudi Arabia includes the Northern, Eastern and Central regions. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of temperature, water potential and Sodium Chloride on germination of E. alata. Seeds were collected from King Khalid Centre of Wildlife Research and Development at Thumama (80km north east of Riyadh), Saudi Arabia. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperature regimes (8/22; 9/23; 13/27 and 18/35C). Seeds were also germinated under stress of aqueous Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) solutions mixed to create water potentials of 0; -0.3; -0.6; -1.2 and -1.5MPa. Seed were also germinated in Sodium Chloride solutions of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3moll(-1). Optimum germination was attained at 13/28C that corresponds to temperatures prevailing during spring time. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.3MPa. Germination was also negatively affected by 0.1moll(-1) Sodium Chloride solution or above. Results indicated that the germination temperature responses of the nondormant seeds synchronize the event of germination with the season when environmental conditions are more favorable for subsequent growth and seedling establishment. Germination was also sensitive to both water potential and salinity. PMID:23961087

  6. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt %) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes ...

  7. Kinetic analysis and partitioning of sodium and chloride influxes across the gills of sea water adapted trout.

    PubMed Central

    Girard, J P; Payan, P

    1977-01-01

    1. Sodium and chloride influxes across the gills of sea water adapted trout were studied with the perfused isolated head technique. 2. The haemodynamic scheme describing anastomoses between efferent gill arteries and the filamentous sinus was confirmed and utilized to determine partitioning of sodium and chloride influxes. 3. Two routes of sodium and chloride entry were demonstrated, one lamellar and the other sinusal. The lamellar sodium and chloride fluxes are respectively 133+/-21-8 and 271+/-43-7 micronequiv/hr. 100 g. The sinus sodium and chloride fluxes are: 50+/-18-3 and 50+/-11-3 micronequiv/hr. 100 g. 4. The relative permeabilities of the apical and basal barriers of the lamellar epithelium were determined with influx experiments coupled to radioactive unloading experiments. The basal membrane is 30 times less permeable than the apical to sodium, while this ratio is 45 for chloride. Thus, the basal membrane represents the limiting factor in salt movement across the branchial epithelium. 5. The intracellular pools of the lamellar compartment were calculated for sodium: 1-1+/-0-17 micronequiv/100 g of fish weight; and for chloride: 5-1+/-0-83 micronequiv/100 g of fish weight. PMID:874871

  8. [The sodium-potassium-chloride cotransport of the cell membrane].

    PubMed

    Urazaev, A Kh

    1998-01-01

    Discovery and active exploration of the furosemid-sensitive derived-active co-transport of sodium-potassium-chlorine ions took place in the end of 1970-es-1980-es. This transportation mechanism was discovered in various types of cells, both of plant and of animal origin. This review describes properties of the transportation process, which was most comprehensive explored in experiments with erythrocytes, epithelium cells and muscles. The review covers the following properties: anion and cation selectivity of the chlorine transportation, its sensitivity to the specific blocking agents (furocemid, bumetanid, etc.), stoichiometry of the transportation process, etc. For energy source, the chlorine transportation is based on transmembrane electrochemical gradient for sodium ions. The article provides the most recent results of investigation of the chemical nature of the molecule of the chlorine membrane transport. Based on various studies, the molecule of this protein weighs from 120 to 200 kD, includes about 1200 amino acid residua, and forms long cytoplasmatic NH2 and COOH-termini. The gene encoding the amino acid sequence has been cloned. The article discusses the issues of regulation of the chlorine transportation. Humoral control of intensity of the chlorine transportation has been mostly studied in experiments with plain muscles, the issues related to nervous regulation--with only skeleton muscle fibers. The article provides specific data on the mechanisms of the above types of the physiological regulation of active chlorine transportation. In general, the humoral factors, which increase the intracellular concentration of cAMF stimulate chlorine transportation. On the contrary, the hormones, which increase concentration of cGMF in cytoplasm reduce its activity in plain muscles. The discussion of the mechanisms of the nervous controls of the chlorine transportation in the skeleton muscles includes the original results of the author. These results indicate that the suppressive influence of the motor innervation on intensity of the chlorine transportation involves the non-quantum acetilcholine and glutamate secreted from the motor nerves. These agents produce Ca(2+)-dependent molecules of nitrogen oxide in sarcoplasm, which act in the retrograde mode on the nervous terminal and activate there the synthesis of cGMF. Disruption of this bilateral transsynaptic signalization resulting from cutting a nerve of blocking of its axoflow creates more active chlorine transportation and subsequent de-innervation changes in properties of the muscle fibers. The functions of chlorine transportation, which are best studies as of today and therefore, discussed in more detail in the review, include participation of this process in the regulatory rehabilitation of the volume of various cells in non-isotonic medium, and the role of chlorine transportation in development of a negative charge at the interior side of membrane of the skeleton muscle fibers. The former function essentially means that dehydration of a cell in the hypertonic medium increases activity of the sodium, potassium and chlorine co-transport directed to the cell, resulting in increase of the amount of the osmosis-active cytoplasm material, and inflow of water, which fully restores the cell volume in these conditions. Starting from the pioneer studies by Hodgkin and Horowicz [correction of Hojkin and Gorovits], the role of chlorine ions in forming a charge on the membrane of excited cells has been generally interpreted as exclusively passive. I.e., distribution of these ions over both sides of membrane was assumed as equilibrium with the existing values of the membrane potential in the non-excited state. The review provides data obtained in the recent decade, which have proved that the non-excited membrane potential in muscle fibers is co-created by the diffusional potassium and chlorine potential. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9659682

  9. Renal handling of sodium chloride and its control in birds.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, H; Miwa, T; Bailey, J R

    1984-12-01

    Avian kidneys show features of both mammalian and non-mammalian kidneys, possessing cortical reptilian-type (RT) and medullary mammalian-type (MT) nephrons, blood supplies from renal arterial and renal portal systems, and a primitive macula densa. To determine how these morphological characteristics contribute to unique renal functions, we examined first a possible functional link between the renal tubules and the preglomerular vasculature and, second, the function of the loop of Henle of the MT nephrons. Infusion of 5% NaCl (2.0 ml/kg/h) into the renal portal system of the pullet Gallus domesticus caused diuresis and natriuresis in the infused side, whereas infusion of the same dose into the systemic circulation showed no effect. Infusion of 10% NaCl at a higher flow rate into either the renal portal or systemic routes caused hypernaturemia and a prolonged antidiuresis, presumably due to a release of arginine vasotocin. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased during renal portal infusion of hypertonic saline, suggesting that increases in intratubular or peritubular NaCl levels may suppress PRA. The thick limb of the loop of Henle (TLH) isolated from the MT nephron of the quail Coturnix coturnix revealed a lumen-positive, furosemide-sensitive transepithelial voltage (Vt) that requires the presence of both Na and Cl. Net water flux (Jv) was nearly zero when the TLH was perfused and bathed with isosmotic solution. Net water flux increased only slightly and osmotic water permeability (Lp) was low when the osmotic gradient was imposed. Vasotocin altered neither Vt, Jv, nor Lp. Chloride efflux was higher than Cl influx, and net Cl absorption was comparable to that of the TLH of the mammalian kidney.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6394706

  10. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods. PMID:25577894

  11. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log?? cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log?? cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log?? cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also reduced during storage, but by less than 1.5 log10 cfu/g after 50 d. However, cheese with a 50% reduction in sodium without KCl had higher counts than full-sodium cheese at the end of 50 d of incubation at 4 C when inoculated at 3 mo. When inoculated at 8 mo postmanufacture, this trend was only observed in 50% reduced sodium with KCl, for cheese manufactured with both cultures. This enhanced survival for 50% reduced-sodium cheese was not seen when a higher incubation temperature (12 C) was used when cheese was inoculated at 3 mo of age and monitored for 27 d (no difference in treatments was observed at this incubation temperature). In the event of postprocessing contamination during later stages of ripening, L. monocytogenes was capable of survival in Cheddar cheese regardless of which culture was used, whether or not sodium had been reduced by as much as 50% from standard concentrations, or if KCl had been added to maintain the effective S/M of full-sodium Cheddar cheese. PMID:23910550

  12. Comparison of a sodium chloride aerosol filter test method to silica-dust and silica-mist filter test methods.

    PubMed

    Lowry, P L; Revoir, W H

    1978-09-01

    A LASL-developed sodium chloride aerosol filter penetration test has been compared to the silica-dust and silica-mist tests used by NIOSH for respirator approval testing. Filter discs were made from two types of resin impregnated electrostatic felt filter materials and tested at LASL for resistance to air flow and sodium chloride aerosol penetration. Sets of these filters were sent to four respirator manufacturing companies, where silica-dust and silica-mist penetration tests were performed. One set of filters was sent to NIOSH Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering in Cincinnati where sodium chloride aerosol penetration tests were performed by NIOSH personnel. PMID:215024

  13. Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cygan, R.T.; Jarrell, G.D.

    1992-08-18

    The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields. The high temperature values for {sigma} at 1.0 N NaCl concentration suggest an expansion of the migration field to smaller inclusion sizes, which for a single halite crystal at these conditions, approach a dimension of one micron. The corresponding fluid inclusion size for the polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries retard the migration, is approximately 10 microns. Although the Soret results obtained in the present study provide additional data for high temperature applications in nuclear waste isolation, more experimentation and new equipment design are required in order to obtain data at temperatures above 80{degree}C. The experimental approach utilized in this study is limited in that respect. The almost immeasurable nature of the thermal diffusion process for the brines as examined in the laboratory, suggests that this effect will be insignificant (outside of fluid inclusion migration) in most rock-water interactions associated with a rocksalt nuclear waste repository. Other effects, such as convective fluid transport, pressure solution, and groundwater flow, will be orders-of-magnitude more important in evaluating the critical nature of brine migration, waste canister corrosion, and the potential for leaching radioisotopes from waste repositories.

  14. Electron-phonon interaction and superconductivity in SnAs with the sodium chloride crystal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tütüncü, H. M.; Srivastava, G. P.

    2015-11-01

    The ground state and electronic properties of the recently discovered superconducting SnAs in the sodium chloride crystal structure have been examined using density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation. The results indicate that the density of states at the Fermi level is primarily derived from As p states, which strongly hybridize with Sn p states. The phonon dispersion curves and the phonon density of states are calculated using the Density Functional Perturbation Theory. By integrating the Eliashberg spectral function, the average electron-phonon coupling parameter is found to be λ=0.64. Using this value the superconducting critical temperature Tc is estimated to be 3.24 K, which is in good accordance with its experimental value of 3.58 K. The agreement between our results and the experimentally derived results for λ and Tc supports the concept of single valence state for Sn in the three-dimensional NaCl structure by Wang et al. [Chem. Mater. 26 (2014) 7209] [10].

  15. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose-induced aggregation of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Ray, Dhiman; Das, Sourav; De, Ranjit; Das, Bijan

    2015-07-10

    Aggregation behavior of a surface active ionic liquid 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C10MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions in absence and in presence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) by electrical conductivity, surface tension, vapor pressure, and fluorescence measurements. Ion-association behavior of C10MeImCl (aq) in the premicellar regime has also been investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C10MeImCl micelles appear in C10MeImCl-NaCMC solutions were identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the bulk solution structural property on the self-aggregation of C10MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C10MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. Thermodynamics of the micellization processes provided important insight regarding the (a) release of water molecules from the hydration layer around the hydrophilic domain, and from the water cage around the hydrophobic moiety of the SAIL, and (b) transfer of the hydrocarbon chains into the micelle and restoration of the H-bonding structure of the water around the micelle. PMID:25857982

  16. Influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose on the aggregation behavior of aqueous 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijan; Ray, Dhiman; De, Ranjit

    2014-11-26

    The influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) on the aggregation phenomena of a surface active ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements. The counterion condensation behavior of NaCMC (aq) and the premicellar ion-association behavior of C16MeImCl (aq) were also investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C16MeImCl micelles appear in C16MeImCl-NaCMC solutions have been identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the charge density parameter of NaCMC on the self-aggregation of the C16MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C16MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. The thermodynamic parameters for micellization of C16MeImCl were estimated both in absence and in the presence of NaCMC. The observed enthalpy-entropy compensation effect in C16MeImCl and C16MeImCl-NaCMC systems provided important insight as to how micellization processes are governed by the bulk structural property of the solution with respect to that of the water. PMID:25256477

  17. WNK kinases regulate sodium chloride and potassium transport by the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron.

    PubMed

    Subramanya, A R; Yang, C-L; McCormick, J A; Ellison, D H

    2006-08-01

    With-No-Lysine [K] (WNKs) are a recently discovered family of serine/threonine protein kinases that contain a uniquely structured catalytic domain. Mutations in the genes encoding two family members, WNK1 and WNK4, cause a chloride-dependent, thiazide-sensitive inherited syndrome of hypertension and hyperkalemia. Over the past 5 years, physiologic studies have demonstrated that these proteins regulate transcellular and paracellular epithelial ion flux. In this mini review, we discuss WNK1 and WNK4 gene products and their regulatory effects on sodium chloride and potassium handling in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron. Experimental observations regarding the effects of these proteins on transport processes mediated by the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl co-transporter, the epithelial sodium channel, the renal outer medullary potassium channel, and the paracellular pathway integrate into a model that suggests an essential role for WNKs in coordinating renal Na-Cl reabsorption and K(+) secretion. PMID:16820787

  18. Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

  19. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana

    2016-01-01

    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions. PMID:26942543

  20. Stability of nafcillin sodium after reconstitution in 0.9% sodium chloride injeciton and storage in polypropylene syringes for pediatric use.

    PubMed

    Ling, J; Gupta, V D

    2000-01-01

    The stability of nafcillin sodium (10 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection has been studied at 25 deg C and 5 deg C in polypropylene syringes by means of a stablilty-indicating high-performance liquid chromatograph assay method. The concentrations of the drug were directly related to peak heights and the percent relative standard deviation based on 5 injections was 1.2. The sodium citrate (added as a buffering agent in the powder) did not interfere with the assay procedure. The product(s) of decomposition separated from the intact drug. At 25 deg C, the loss in potency was less than 2% after 7 days of storage, and at 5 deg C it was also less than 2% when stored for 44 days. The pH values of the injections were between 6.2 to 7.0 throughout this study, except after 14 days of storage at room temperature (potency, 82.3%; pH,5.3). The drug did not adsorb to the syringes, and the physical appearance of the injection did not change. Nafcillin sodium was considered stable for at least 7 days at 25 deg C and 44 days at 5 deg C. PMID:23981740

  1. Synthesis and characterization of sodium chloride thin films obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, A.; Mera, S.; Diamant, R.; Fernndez-Guasti, M.; Sosa, R.; Escobar-Alarcn, L.; Muoz, A. F.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    Sodium chloride thin films were synthesized by pulsed laser ablation from monocrystalline and sintered targets. The structure of the films is characterized by X-ray diffraction and their surface quality is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. From thermoluminescence spectra, two different types of defects are identified as cation vacancies and chlorine interstitials. This thermoluminescence in the UV-visible has been observed by heating the samples up to 600 K.

  2. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  3. Density and Viscosity of Ternary Mixtures of kappa -Carrageenan, Sodium Chloride, and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Andresa V.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Giraldo-Zuniga, Abraham D.

    2013-02-01

    The viscosity and density of ternary mixtures containing kappa -carrageenan, sodium chloride, and water have been measured from (303 to 318) K at different values of pH. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The polynomial models used to correlate the viscosity and density gave good fits to the experimental data.

  4. Sodium chloride as aid in identification of Phaeoannellomyces werneckii and other medically important dematiaceous fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J; Summerbell, R C

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen taxa of dematiaceous fungi isolated from humans were tested to determine their responses to various concentrations of sodium chloride in vitro. Five groups of species were recognized on the basis of differing tolerances. Phaeoannellomyces werneckii was distinguished by its tolerance of greater than or equal to 15% NaCl; most dematiaceous pathogens were suppressed at less than or equal to 7% NaCl. PMID:3584433

  5. Confinement-induced vitrification of aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lishan; Pan, Liqing; Cao, Zexian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Bulk aqueous solution of NaCl is a poor glass former, it vitrifies only under high pressure. Here we report the investigation of glass transition of NaCl solutions confined in nanopores. By inspecting the dependence of glass transition temperature and heat flow jump at transition it is concluded that vitrification of confined NaCl solutions involves only the eutectic phase and the precipitated ice core may help furnish the demanded confinement strength. Ion-water interaction still plays a dominant role in determining vitrification of solutions even under nano-confinement, as under exactly the same confinement conditions vitrification of aqueous KCl solutions was not detected.

  6. Hyponatremia due to Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency Successfully Treated by Dexamethasone with Sodium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Itsuro; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 60 Final Diagnosis: Hyponatremia due to secondary adrenal insufficiency Symptoms: prolonged general fatigue and anorexia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Successfully treated by dexamethasone with sodium chloride Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Patients who were surgically treated for Cushing’s syndrome postoperatively surrender to “primary” adrenal insufficiency. However, the preoperative over-secretion of cortisol or the postoperative administration of excessive glucocorticoids can cause “secondary” adrenal insufficiency, in which the prevalence of hyponatremia is usually lower than that of primary adrenal insufficiency. Case Report: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of Cushing’s syndrome developed hyponatremia with symptoms of acute glucocorticoid deficiency, such as prolonged general fatigue and anorexia, after upper respiratory tract infection. A decrease in the serum cortisol level and the lack of increase in the ACTH level, despite the increased demand for cortisol, enabled a diagnosis of “secondary” adrenal insufficiency. Although the initial fluid replacement therapy was not effective, co-administration of dexamethasone and sodium chloride quickly resolved her symptoms and ameliorated the refractory hyponatremia. Conclusions: In this case, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of the patient was thought to have become suppressed long after the surgical treatment for Cushing’s syndrome. This case suggested a mechanism of refractory hyponatremia caused by secondary adrenal insufficiency, for which the administration of dexamethasone and sodium chloride exerted additional therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26319655

  7. Stability of ButorphanolTropisetron Mixtures in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection for Patient-Controlled Analgesia Use

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Tropisetron is an adjuvant for butorphanol used in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and has been reported to provide superior pain control. It is efficacious in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. This study aimed to describe the drug compounding and evaluates the long-term (up to 14 days) stability of butorphanol and tropisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA use. In this study, commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and tropisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08?mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05?mg/mL. The polyolefin bags and glass bottles were stored at 4C and 25C for up to 14 days. The drug stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay of drug concentrations. The data obtained for admixtures prepared and stored at temperatures of 25C and 4C show the drugs have maintained at least 98% of the initial concentration. All solutions remained clear and colorless over the 14-day period, and the pH value did not change significantly. The results indicate that admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08?mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05?mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags or glass bottles at 4C and 25C and protected from light. The infusion is feasible for manufacturing in pharmacy aseptic units and can be stored for up to 14 days for routine use in PCA infusions. PMID:25674732

  8. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  9. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium–nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg−1, higher than that of conventional tubular sodium–nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium–nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs. PMID:26864635

  10. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para-casein protein matrix changed with the Ca content of the test solution. Compared with test solutions containing 10g/L Ca, at low Ca levels (i.e., 1 and 5g/L) the proportion of bound Ca was lower, whereas at 20g/L Ca, the proportion of bound Ca was higher. Both Ca and salt concentration influence the physicochemical properties of the protein matrix such that at low concentrations the curd expands, whereas at high concentrations the curd contracts and expels whey. PMID:25465634

  11. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  12. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, C.J.

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  13. Ambient temperature sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Manthiram, Arumugam; Yu, Xingwen

    2015-05-13

    Ambient- or room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries (RT Na-S) are gaining much attention as a low-cost option for large-scale electrical energy storage applications. However, their adoption is hampered by severe challenges. This concept paper summarizes first the operating principles, history, recent progress, and challenges of RT Na-S battery technology, and then suggests future directions towards enhancing performance in order for it to be a viable technology. PMID:25565554

  14. Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

    2012-12-01

    The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

  15. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  16. Mercuric chloride-induced testicular toxicity in rats and the protective role of sodium selenite and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Suna; Uzun, Fatma Gokce; Demir, Filiz; Uzunhisarc?kl?, Meltem; Aslanturk, Ayse

    2013-05-01

    Mercury has been recognized as an environmental pollutant that adversely affects male reproductive systems of animals. This study examined the effects of mercuric chloride on the antioxidant system and histopathological changes and also evaluated the ameliorating effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E in the rat testis tissues. Sexually mature male Wistar rats (weighing 300-320g and each group six animals) were given mercuric chloride (1mg/kg bw) and/or sodium selenite (0.25mg/kg bw)+vitamin E (100mg/kg) daily via gavage for 4weeks. In the present study, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the TBARS level and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPx activities, with respect to the control. Further, light microscopic investigation revealed that mercury exposure induced histopathological alterations in the testis tissues. Supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercury-induced groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. While some histopathological changes were detected in mercuric chloride treated group, milder histopathological changes were observed in animal co-treated with sodium selenite and/or vitamin E supplementation to mercuric chloride-treated rats. As a result, mercuric chloride induced testicular toxicity is reduced by sodium selenite and/or vitamin E, but not ameliorate completely. PMID:23369933

  17. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  1. Protection of Neurovascular Unit Cells with Lithium Chloride and Sodium Valproate Prevents Brain Damage in Neonatal Ischemia/Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Silachev, D N; Plotnikov, E Yu; Babenko, V A; Savchenko, E S; Zorova, L D; Pevzner, I B; Gulyaev, M V; Pirogov, Yu A; Sukhikh, G T; Zorov, D B

    2016-01-01

    Here we studied the cytoprotective effect of lithium chloride and sodium valproate in the in vivo model of neonatal cerebral ischemia/hypoxia and analyzed the influence of these substances on the death of the major neurovascular unit components in experimental ischemia in vitro. Lithium chloride and sodium valproate effectively prevented death of neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells in the oxygen-glucose deprivation. This treatment protected the brain of newborn rats from ischemia/hypoxia injury. The results suggest that lithium and sodium valproate can be used for the treatment of neurodegenerative pathologies associated with hypoxia and ischemia in newborns. PMID:26742738

  2. Long-term Sodium and Chloride Surface Water Exports from a Humid Subtropical Urban Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, M.; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of sodium and chloride in surface water are strongly related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water and salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on these exports has been found to occur in warmer climates as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate long term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex in a humid subtropical climate and compare exports to common characteristics of urbanization: urban land use, impervious surface area, and wastewater discharges. Long term data (1980 to 2008) was obtained from five USGS gauges located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalizing for time and the watershed area. In addition, grab samples were collected from the period of June 2009 to May 2010 and analyzed for Na and Cl. Results show a very strong positive relationship between urban land use, water fluxes, and impervious surface and the fluxes of both sodium and chloride from each watershed for the decades available. Long-term increases in fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percent urban land use. Fluxes were not related to the estimates of wastewater discharge, nor could atmospheric deposition or deicing salts account for significant amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. Based on the results the most likely source of Na and Cl is impervious surface deposition and erosion from within the watershed. Estimates of urban fluxes were lower than but similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts and suggest that other mechanisms may contribute to the climbing salinity in northern states.

  3. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  4. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  5. Inhibition of copper corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution by various forms of the piperidine moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.M.; Rastogi, R.B.; Upadhyay, B.N. . Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-08-01

    The inhibition of copper (Cu) corrosion in 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied in the presence of different concentrations of piperidine, piperidine dithiocarbamate, and its Cu(II) complex at 25 C. All three additives were found to be excellent inhibitors of Cu corrosion. The difference in inhibition efficiencies (IE) of the three inhibitors was not large, but the optimum concentration for maximum efficiency was very dependent on the nature of the inhibitor. These molecules may be classified as mixed inhibitors, although this classification was less certain in the case of piperidine, which conferred a large IE without markedly influencing the anodic or cathodic polarization curves.

  6. Conductivity of molten sodium chloride in an arbitrarily weak dc electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delhommelle, Jerome; Cummings, Peter T.; Petravic, Janka

    2005-09-01

    We use nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics (NEMD) simulations to characterize the response of a fluid subjected to an electric field. We focus on the response for very weak fields. Fields accessible by conventional NEMD methods are typically of the order of 109Vm-1, i.e., several orders of magnitude larger than those typically used in experiments. Using the transient time-correlation function, we show how NEMD simulations can be extended to study systems subjected to a realistic dc electric field. We then apply this approach to study the response of molten sodium chloride for a wide range of dc electric fields.

  7. Conductivity of molten sodium chloride in an arbitrarily weak dc electric field.

    PubMed

    Delhommelle, Jerome; Cummings, Peter T; Petravic, Janka

    2005-09-15

    We use nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics (NEMD) simulations to characterize the response of a fluid subjected to an electric field. We focus on the response for very weak fields. Fields accessible by conventional NEMD methods are typically of the order of 10(9) V m(-1), i.e., several orders of magnitude larger than those typically used in experiments. Using the transient time-correlation function, we show how NEMD simulations can be extended to study systems subjected to a realistic dc electric field. We then apply this approach to study the response of molten sodium chloride for a wide range of dc electric fields. PMID:16392571

  8. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  9. [Chemical composition of one source of sodium chloride mineral water from Neam? county].

    PubMed

    Stefanache, Alina; Stam, C?t?lina; N?stase, V; Miftode, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the analytical study of a sodium chloride mineral water from B?l??te?ti Spa--Neam? county. From the obtained analytical data it was observed that the dominant ions are those of Cl- (48.11 mEq%) and Na+ (43.07 mEq%), respectively. Also, the water contains a significant proportion of Mg2+ ions (6.12 mEq%) compared with the one of Ca2+ ions (0.339 mEq%). It can be remarked that the analysed source consists of a very concentrated, hypertonic water with a high content in chlorine, sodium and magnesium. This kind of mineral water is recommended in external treatments. PMID:16607770

  10. An empirical equation with tables of smoothed solubilities of methane in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions up to 25 weight percent, 360 degrees C, and 138 MPa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, John L.

    1978-01-01

    The total pressure for the system H2O-CH 4 is given by p(total) = P(H2O,t) + exp10[log x(CH 4) - a - b x(CH4)], where P(H2O,t) is the vapor pressure of H2O liquid at the temperature t (?C) and x(CH 4) is the molal concentration of methane in the solution. The terms a and b are functions of temperature only. Where the total pressure and temperature are known, the concentration of methane, x(CH4), is found by iteration. The concentration of methane in a sodium chloride brine, y(CH4), is estimated using the function log y(CH4) = log x(CH4) - A I, where A is the salting out constant and I is the ionic strength. For sodium chloride solutions, the ionic strength is equal to the molality of the salt. The equations are valid to 360?C, 138 MPa, and 25 weight percent sodium chloride.

  11. Long-term sodium chloride retention in a rural watershed: legacy effects of road salt on streamwater concentration.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Victoria R; Lovett, Gary M; Weathers, Kathleen C; Findlay, Stuart E G; Strayer, David L; Burns, David I; Likens, Gene E

    2008-01-15

    Sodium and chloride concentrations and export increased from 1986 to 2005 in a rural stream in southeastern New York. Concentrations increased 1.5 mg/L per year (chloride) and 0.9 mg/L per year (sodium), and export increased 33,000 kg/year (chloride) and 20,000 kg/year (sodium) during this period. We estimate that salt used for deicing accounted for 91% of the sodium chloride input to the watershed, while sewage and water softeners accounted for less than 10% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study, but sodium and chloride from sewage and water softeners is likely to have increased slightly due to a small increase in population. Increased input from sewage and water softeners cannot account for the increase in concentration and export from the watershed. Model results suggest that the increase in streamwater concentration and export was likely due to a lag effect of long-term road salt use and subsurface buildup. PMID:18284139

  12. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (Mv) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [?] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ?Mv were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [?] and ?Mv and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. PMID:26344278

  13. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground beef treated with sodium lactate and sodium chloride during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Kh. I.; Samejima, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium chloride (NaCl), either alone (30 g/kg) or in combination (20+20 g/kg), on the microbiological and chemical quality of raw ground beef during vacuum-packaged storage at 2C were investigated. The results showed that addition of NaL alone or in combination with NaCl significantly delayed the proliferation of aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and extended the shelf life of the product up to 15 and 21 days, respectively, versus 8 days only for control. Over the storage time (21 days), NaL maintained the ground beef at almost constant pH, while the pH of control or NaCl-treated samples significantly decreased. Lipid oxidation (TBA value) was not affected by addition of NaL. At storage day 21 however, TBA values of both NaL-treated (0.309) and control (0.318) samples were significantly lower than those of samples treated with NaCl (0.463). The combination of NaCl with NaL significantly reduced the oxidative changes caused by NaCl (0.384 versus 0.463). Therefore, NaL alone or in combination with NaCl could be utilized successfully to reduce the microbial growth, maintain the chemical quality, and extend the shelf life of ground beef during refrigerated storage. PMID:17330155

  14. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04mM Na(+)) for 3d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20mg/l, 3d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake. PMID:26678829

  15. Interfacial tensions and phase behavior of alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-sodium chloride systems

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, J.E.; Hemker, D.L.; Gupta, A.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1987-02-26

    The phase behavior and interfacial tensions of mixtures of alcohol, alkane, water, and sodium chloride that split into two or three liquid phases at 25/sup 0/C are reported as a function of type of alcohol and alkane and sodium chloride concentration. The patterns of phase and tension behavior are similar to those observed with surfactant-based microemulsion systems but in a higher tension regime. The qualitative patterns of phase and tension behavior in the alcohol systems appear to be characteristic of all amphiphile-oil-brine systems, although the magnitudes of the interfacial tensions of microemulsion against oil-rich or water-rich phases can be some hundredfold smaller than the corresponding tensions of the alcohol-rich phase against oil-rich or water-rich phases. This difference appears to be a distinguishing feature of microemulsions and presumably arises from the relatively large scale of microemulsion microstructure. Microemulsions in multiphase equilibria incorporate tenfold or more water or oil than do corresponding alcohol solutions, and this argues for the topology and persistence of that microstructure.

  16. Sodium chloride in separation medium enhances cell compatibility of free flow electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bondy, B; Bauer, J; Seuffert, I; Weber, G

    1995-01-01

    Free flow electrophoresis of cell suspensions in buffers containing sodium chloride was investigated using a modified procedure and the new apparatus Octopus PZE. The major methodical innovations are upward fluid flow, margin buffers flowing through the electrophoresis chamber at both sides of a central cell suspension buffer, adjacent to the electrode membranes, and a sample injection device which focuses the cells hydrodynamically to the middle of the chamber thickness. Mononuclear leukocytes, suspended in a buffer containing 35 mM NaCl, could be fractionated with the same accuracy as by conventional free flow electrophoresis, operated with a single NaCl-free chamber buffer. However, testing the vitality of separated cells with the help of the calcium indicator FURA2-AM clearly demonstrated the biological importance of the presence of a minimum amount of sodium chloride during cell electrophoresis. Only if at least 35 mM NaCl were present could an undisturbed cytosolic Ca2+ metabolism be maintained for the time of a free flow electrophoresis cell separation experiment. PMID:7737096

  17. Changes in metabolites, antioxidant system, and gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa under sodium chloride stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Mao, Feijian; Kirumba, George Chira; Jiang, Cheng; Manefield, Mike; He, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa, one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria, occurs worldwide. The Qingcaosha (QCS) Reservoir is undergoing eutrophication and faces the problem of saltwater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sudden salinity changes on physiological parameters and related gene transcription in M. aeruginosa under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that sodium chloride (50, 200 and 500 mg L(-1) NaCl) inhibited the algal growth and decreased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a, carotenoid and phycocyanin). Sodium chloride increased both the intracellular and extracellular microcystin contents and elevated the mcyD transcript level in M. aeruginosa. It also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused cytomembrane damage. This damage caused the release of intracellular toxins into the culture medium. In addition, NaCl decreased the maximum electron transport rate, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changed the cellular redox status. Consequently, NaCl inhibited the expression of cpcB, psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, NaCl increased the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The transcript levels of sod and reduced glutathione (gsh) were also increased after exposure to NaCl. Our results indicate that a sudden increase in salinity increases the production and excretion of microcystin, changes the cellular redox status, enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibits photosynthesis, and affects transcript levels of related genes in M. aeruginosa. PMID:26232039

  18. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

  19. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  20. Preparation of lead titanate and of solid solutions based on it from sodium and potassium chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, S.S.; Lupeiko, T.G.; Ivleva, T.I.; Medvedev, B.S.; Protasenya, T.S.; Lobas, L.M.

    1987-06-01

    The authors determine the kinetics and the mechanism of formation of lead titanate from the oxides in a melt of the equimolecular mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides. Tests were performed with capacitor-grade TiO/sub 2/ with a rutile structure, and pure-grade PbO, NaCl, and KCl. The properties of ceramic samples of lead titanate and of the solid solution based on it, prepared by the solid-phase method and in the presence of molten sodium and potassium chlorides are presented. The interaction between the oxides of lead and titanium in molten sodium and potassium chlorides takes place in the diffusion regime. The kinetics of the reaction are described by Jander's equation.

  1. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Thirkill, Twanda L.; Ji, Jennifer; Monte, Louise H.; Douglas, Gordon C.

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator) induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion). Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNF? production. The results provide valuable tools to manipulate trophoblast differentiation in vitro and to better understand the differentiation pathways that occur during early gestation. PMID:26266541

  2. Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

  3. Elasticity and phase transitions of stishovite and sodium chloride at high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshtanov, Dmitry Leonidovich

    2007-12-01

    Knowledge of elastic properties of the phases constituting the Earth's mantle are of extreme importance for determination of Earth's chemical composition, the distribution of phases and the processes that result in such distribution. Data on elasticity of these constituent phases are critical not only for interpreting seismic observations, but are also essential for geochemical and geodynamical modeling. This dissertation is mainly devoted to determination of the elasticity and stability of stishovite, the high-pressure silica polymorph, as a major constituent of the MORB layer of subducting lithospheric slabs. These thin (10km thick) layers subducted into the Earth mantle create regions of thermal, compositional and, hence, rheological heterogeneity. Being a key component of the mantle convection system, subducting slabs may counteract compositional stratification of the Earth by acting to remix differentiated lithospheric material. In addition, there has recently been great interest in subducting slabs as possible carriers of volatiles - mainly water - back to the lower mantle. Stishovite is likely the primary water-bearing phase. The elastic properties and thermodynamic stability of water-bearing stishovite, and the effect of other impurities on these properties, is the main focus of this work. An important related issue I addressed is the establishment of a self-consistent (absolute) equation of state for the B2 phase of sodium chloride (NaCl). NaCl is a commonly-used pressure transmitting medium in high-pressure devices. Accurate knowledge of the NaCl equation of state therefore reduces errors in pressure determination resulting from the use of the secondary pressure calibrants. In order to perform these tasks I used Brillouin scattering and Raman spectroscopy, combined with synchrotron x-ray diffraction at standard conditions, and at high pressures and temperatures in the diamond anvil cell. Experiments were performed in Merrill-Bassett and piston-cylinder types of diamond anvil cells with Ne, KBr, NaCl, Ar, N2, silicone oil, and a ethanol-methanol-water mixture as pressure transmitting media up to 78 GPa at 300K.

  4. Baroreflex impairment precedes hypertension during chronic cerebroventricular infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Buñag, R D; Miyajima, E

    1984-01-01

    Osmotic minipumps were implanted chronically for continuous 11-d infusion of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl) into the third cerebral ventricle (ICV) of awake rats to determine whether baroreflex sensitivity would be altered. Systolic and mean pressures, recorded from aortic catheters on day 11 while the rats were anesthetized with alpha-chloralose, were significantly higher in rats infused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) containing hypertonic NaCl than in controls similarly infused with artificial CSF alone. Reflex changes in heart rate produced by subsequent intravenous infusions of either phenylephrine or sodium nitroprusside were inhibited, but reflex changes in renal nerve activity were unaltered. Magnitude of reflex bradycardia during pressor responses to phenylephrine, as well as of reflex tachycardia during depressor responses to sodium nitroprusside, was consistently smaller in NaCl-infused than in control rats. By contrast, group differences in attendant renal nerve firing were not significant. After sinoaortic denervation, drug-induced blood pressure effects persisted, but reflex responses in heart rate and renal nerve firing were abolished or markedly diminished. Peripheral effects produced by hypertonic NaCl leakage from the infusion site were considered unlikely because after 11 d of ICV infusion, sodium concentration, though appreciably elevated in CSF samples collected from the cisterna magna, was unaffected in corresponding serum samples. When cardiovascular responses to phenylephrine were recorded while chronic ICV infusions were in progress, awake rats receiving hypertonic NaCl were still normotensive on day 2 yet reflex bradycardia was already attenuated. In showing that baroreflex impairment preceded the development of hypertension, our results suggest that by depressing the anterior hypothalamus, chronic ICV infusion of hypertonic NaCl reduces sympatho-inhibition, and the ensuing baroreflex impairment then elevates blood pressure. However, other mechanisms could also be involved. Images PMID:6511915

  5. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  6. Nanoscale supramolecular structures in the gels of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) interacting with sodium dodecyl sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, F.; Sokolov, E.L.; Khokhlov, A.R.; Chu, B.

    1996-07-17

    A highly ordered supramolecular structure is formed in the polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexe between the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the cationic network of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMACl). From small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the complexes between PDADMACI and SDS were shown to exhibit a hexagonal type of microstructure which is different from that of pure SDS. A d spacing of 3.7 nm corresponding to the interdistance between SDS aggregates in the gel network was obtained. The intensity of the diffraction peaks and the degree of order increased with increasing initial SDS concentration and charge content of the PDADMACl gels. The diffraction peaks were broadened when the concentration of SDS in the external solution phase was higher than its critical micelle concentration (cmc). The SAXS profiles were unexpectedly independent of the degree of cross-linking of the PDADMACI gels in the range of 0.5-2%. 27 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  8. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium was investigated in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 1 under potential control at 70 C. Grade 2 titanium was, at most, slightly susceptible to HE under the test conditions, whereas grade 3 titanium was very susceptible at an electrochemical potential below {minus}800 mV{sub SCE}. This phase could be observed in the interior of grade 3 titanium at lower potentials (e.g., {minus}1,400 mV{sub SCE}) after extended cathodic charging. Hydrides were never observed in the interior of grade 2 titanium. Formation of these hydrides in the interior of grade 3 titanium and not in grade 2 was attributed to the higher oxygen content of grade 3.

  10. Surfactant Behavior of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Deep Eutectic Solvent Choline Chloride/Urea.

    PubMed

    Arnold, T; Jackson, A J; Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Magnone, D; Terry, A E; Edler, K J

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) resemble ionic liquids but are formed from an ionic mixture instead of being a single ionic compound. Here we present some results that demonstrate that surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remains surface-active and shows self-assembly phenomena in the most commonly studied DES, choline chloride/urea. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) suggest that the behavior is significantly different from that in water. Our SANS data supports our determination of the critical micelle concentration using surface-tension measurements and suggests that the micelles formed in DES do not have the same shape and size as those seen in water. Reflectivity measurements have also demonstrated that the surfactants remain surface-active below this concentration. PMID:26540438

  11. Experimental evaluation of sodium silicate-based nanosilica against chloride effects in offshore concrete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (-) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (−) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  13. Regulation of OSR1 and the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter by convergent signals.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Samarpita; Lorente-Rodrguez, Andrs; Earnest, Svetlana; Stippec, Steve; Guo, Xiaofeng; Trudgian, David C; Mirzaei, Hamid; Cobb, Melanie H

    2013-11-19

    The Ste20 family protein kinases oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) and the STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase directly regulate the solute carrier 12 family of cation-chloride cotransporters and thereby modulate a range of processes including cell volume homeostasis, blood pressure, hearing, and kidney function. OSR1 and STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase are activated by with no lysine [K] protein kinases that phosphorylate the essential activation loop regulatory site on these kinases. We found that inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reduced OSR1 activation by osmotic stress. Inhibition of the PI3K target pathway, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), by depletion of Sin1, one of its components, decreased activation of OSR1 by sorbitol and reduced activity of the OSR1 substrate, the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter, in HeLa cells. OSR1 activity was also reduced with a pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR. mTORC2 phosphorylated OSR1 on S339 in vitro, and mutation of this residue eliminated OSR1 phosphorylation by mTORC2. Thus, we identify a previously unrecognized connection of the PI3K pathway through mTORC2 to a Ste20 protein kinase and ion homeostasis. PMID:24191005

  14. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80 % of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis. PMID:26233742

  15. Regulation of OSR1 and the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter by convergent signals

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Samarpita; Lorente-Rodríguez, Andrés; Earnest, Svetlana; Stippec, Steve; Guo, Xiaofeng; Trudgian, David C.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2013-01-01

    The Ste20 family protein kinases oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) and the STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase directly regulate the solute carrier 12 family of cation-chloride cotransporters and thereby modulate a range of processes including cell volume homeostasis, blood pressure, hearing, and kidney function. OSR1 and STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase are activated by with no lysine [K] protein kinases that phosphorylate the essential activation loop regulatory site on these kinases. We found that inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reduced OSR1 activation by osmotic stress. Inhibition of the PI3K target pathway, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), by depletion of Sin1, one of its components, decreased activation of OSR1 by sorbitol and reduced activity of the OSR1 substrate, the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter, in HeLa cells. OSR1 activity was also reduced with a pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR. mTORC2 phosphorylated OSR1 on S339 in vitro, and mutation of this residue eliminated OSR1 phosphorylation by mTORC2. Thus, we identify a previously unrecognized connection of the PI3K pathway through mTORC2 to a Ste20 protein kinase and ion homeostasis. PMID:24191005

  16. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%). PMID:21645975

  17. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  18. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-01

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment. PMID:21067131

  19. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    PubMed

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these adulterants in CS and procedures to isolate ASD from CS matrixes containing these adulterants. The authors describe in this paper utilization of an orthogonal approach to establish the identity of Z1 as sodium hexametaphosphate and to confirm the identity of ASD, including ethanol fractionation, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy. The authors suggest that CAME is a cost-effective and easy to use methodfor detecting certain impurities in CS raw ingredients and recommend that CPC and CAME be used in combination by QC laboratories as a means of effectively deterring the practice of adulterating CS raw materials with the known adulterants ASD and Z1 and/or other non-chondroitin substances that can be separated from CSby CAME and that exhibit CPC titration behavior similar to CS. PMID:25372663

  20. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs. PMID:23456787

  1. Ether-based nonflammable electrolyte for room temperature sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lifei; Yang, Jian; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2015-06-01

    Safety problem is one of the key points that hinder the development of room temperature sodium batteries. In this paper, four well-known nonflammable organic compounds, Trimethyl Phosphate (TMP), Tri(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TFEP), Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP), Methyl nonafluorobuyl Ether (MFE), are investigated as nonflammable solvents in sodium batteries for the first time. Among them, MFE is stable towards sodium metal at room temperature. The electrochemical properties and electrode compatibility of MFE based electrolyte are investigated. Both Prussian blue cathode and carbon nanotube anode show good electrochemical performance retention in this electrolyte. The results suggest that MFE is a promising option as nonflammable electrolyte additive for sodium batteries.

  2. High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses.

    PubMed

    Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Fimmers, Rolf; May, Francisca; Kluge, Goetz; Heer, Martina

    2011-08-01

    We examined, in immobilization, the effect of a diet high in sodium chloride (NaCl) on bone markers, nitrogen balance, and acid-base status. Eight healthy male test subjects participated in a 14-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) study. During the bed rest period they received, in a randomized crossover design, a high (7.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) and a low (0.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) NaCl diet. As expected, 24-h excretion of urinary calcium was significantly greater in the high-NaCl-intake HDBR phase than in the low-NaCl-intake HDBR phase (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake caused a 43-50% greater excretion of the bone resorption markers COOH- (CTX) and NH(2)- (NTX) terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in HDBR than low NaCl in HDBR (CTX/NTX: P < 0.001). Serum concentrations of the bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were identical in both NaCl intake phases. High NaCl intake led to a more negative nitrogen balance in HDBR (P < 0.001). Changes were accompanied by increased serum chloride concentration (P = 0.008), reduced blood bicarbonate (P = 0.017), and base excess (P = 0.009) whereas net acid excretion was lower during high than during low NaCl intake in immobilization (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake during immobilization exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. Changes in the acid-base status, mainly caused by disturbances in electrolyte metabolism, seem to determine NaCl-induced degradation processes. PMID:21596917

  3. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.

    PubMed

    Sherif, El-Sayed M

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. PMID:25010468

  4. Sodium Chloride Increases A? Levels by Suppressing A? Clearance in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimers disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the amyloid cascade hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase A? levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear A? and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing A? when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating A? levels. PMID:26075716

  5. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  6. Analysis of antibacterial efficacy of plasma-treated sodium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Mareike A. C.; Mann, Miriam; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the change of chemical composition of sodium chloride solutions (NaCl, 0.85%) induced by non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment and subsequent effects on bacteria (Escherichia coli) are investigated. Besides acidification caused by APP, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (\\text{NO}2- ), and nitrate (\\text{NO}3- ) are generated as stable end-products of various chemical reactions in APP-treated liquids. Inactivation kinetics and reduction factors were recorded for E. coli (K12). Almost identical antimicrobial effects were observed with both direct APP exposure to bacteria suspension and exposure of APP-treated liquids to bacteria (indirect treatment). Consequently, main bactericidal effects are caused by chemical reactions which are mediated via the liquid phase. Moreover, APP-treated liquids have shown long-term activity (30 min) that possibly correlates with the ratio of \\text{NO}2- /H2O2. Therefore, \\text{NO}2- and H2O2 are identified as key agents for antimicrobial short- and long-term effects, respectively. The antimicrobial stability observed is strongly dependent on the used treatment regime and correlates additionally with the altered chemical composition of APP-treated liquids. Besides these effects, it was also shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to such APP-treated solutions.

  7. Uncoupling of sodium and chloride to assist breeding for salinity tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    Genc, Yusuf; Oldach, Klaus; Taylor, Julian; Lyons, Graham H

    2016-04-01

    The separation of toxic effects of sodium (Na(+) ) and chloride (Cl(-) ) by the current methods of mixed salts and subsequent determination of their relevance to breeding has been problematic. We report a novel method (Na(+) humate) to study the ionic effects of Na(+) toxicity without interference from Cl(-) , and ionic and osmotic effects when combined with salinity (NaCl). Three cereal species (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum with and without the Na(+) exclusion gene Nax2) differing in Na(+) exclusion were grown in a potting mix under sodicity (Na(+) humate) and salinity (NaCl), and water use, leaf nutrient profiles and yield were determined. Under sodicity, Na(+) -excluding bread wheat and durum wheat with the Nax2 gene had higher yield than Na(+) -accumulating barley and durum wheat without the Nax2 gene. However, under salinity, despite a 100-fold difference in leaf Na(+) , all species yielded similarly, indicating that osmotic stress negated the benefits of Na(+) exclusion. In conclusion, Na(+) exclusion can be an effective mechanism for sodicity tolerance, while osmoregulation and tissue tolerance to Na(+) and/or Cl(-) should be the main foci for further improvement of salinity tolerance in cereals. This represents a paradigm shift for breeding cereals with salinity tolerance. PMID:26607560

  8. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. PMID:25721585

  9. Effect of sodium chloride on hydration structures of PMEA and P(MPC-r-BMA).

    PubMed

    Morita, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Masaru

    2014-09-01

    The hydration structures of two different types of biomaterials, i.e., poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) and a random copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine and n-butyl methacrylate (P(MPC-r-BMA)), were investigated by means of attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of the addition of sodium chloride to liquid water in contact with the surfaces of the polymer films were examined. The neutral polymer of PMEA was easily dehydrated by NaCl addition, whereas the zwitterionic polymer of P(MPC-r-BMA) was hardly dehydrated. More specifically, nonfreezing water having a strong interaction with the PMEA chain and freezing bound water having an intermediate interaction were hardly dehydrated by contacting with normal saline solution, whereas freezing water having a weak interaction with the PMEA chain was readily dehydrated. In contrast, freezing water in P(MPC-r-BMA) is exchanged for the saline solution contacting with the material surface without dehydration. PMID:25133748

  10. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  11. A conductivity study and calorimetric analysis of dried poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) polyelectrolyte complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, rpd W.; Schnhoff, Monika; Cramer, Cornelia

    2008-04-01

    Ionically cross-linked polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) of anionic poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), xPSS ?(1-x)PDADMAC, with molar fractions x ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, were prepared and subsequently dried. The PEC samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, and the ionic conductivity ?dc of the samples was measured as a function of temperature by means of impedance spectroscopy. The thermograms display an endothermic peak in the temperature range of 90-143C, which is attributed to a glass transition of the PEC. The glass transition temperature Tg has a symmetric x dependence with a minimum at x =0.50. The temperature dependence of ?dcT is not affected by the glass transition. The ionic conductivity of the samples before drying is three orders of magnitude larger than ?dc after drying; nevertheless, their activation enthalpies are identical. Arrhenius parameters obtained from the systematic study of several PEC compositions are discussed. The ionic conductivity of the PSS-rich samples is significantly higher than ?dc of PDADMAC-rich samples. This implies a relatively high Na+ mobility as compared to Cl- mobility in PEC. In contrast to the symmetric x dependence of Tg, the conductivity of PEC increases and the activation enthalpy decreases with increasing x in the investigated composition range. A strong x dependence of ?dc is observed for PSS-rich PEC, which is attributed to a significant variation in the mobility of the charge carriers.

  12. Study on Corrosion Performance of Cu-Te-Se Alloys in a 3.5% Sodium Chloride Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Lin; Li, Meng; Zeng, Tao; Zhu, Dachuan

    2015-11-01

    Samples of Cu-Te-Se alloys, previously aged or treated as a solid solution, were immersed in 3.5% (mass fraction) sodium chloride solution to investigate their corrosion resistance at room temperature by determining their corrosive weight loss. The morphologies of the precipitated phase and surface products following immersion were observed by scanning electron microscope. In addition, energy-dispersive spectroscopic analysis was used to determine the elemental constituents of precipitated phase and corroded surface of the alloy samples. The phase composition was measured by x-ray diffraction, and the electrochemical polarization behavior of the samples was determined using an electrochemical workstation. The experimental results revealed that the alloy samples appeared to corrode uniformly, which was accompanied by a small amount of localized corrosion. There was the possibility that localized corrosion could increase following aging treatment. The addition of a small amount of tellurium and selenium to the alloy appeared to retard oxygen adsorption on the copper in the alloy, which has ameliorated the alloy corrosion due to the similar physical and chemical properties of oxygen. In comparison to the solid solution state, the corrosion resistance of the alloy appeared to decline slightly following aging treatment.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking of type 403 stainless steel in sodium chloride at 95 C under different heat treatment conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M.; Martinez-Villafane, A.

    1999-10-01

    Slow strain rate tests were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking (SC) susceptibility of type AISI 34 (UNS S40300) martensitic stainless steel in 20% sodium chloride (NaCl) at 95 C. Heat treatments included water-quenched, quenched, and tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C and annealed at 850 C. When tested in oil (90 C), the highest loss in ductility was shown by the quenched specimen, and the lowest by the annealed specimen. Between these two specimens, there were specimens tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C, respectively. When tested in 20% NaCl (wt%) at pH 7, 6, and 5, all specimens were embrittled by the environment, the most severe one being the solution with pH 5, showing at least 50% reduction in the elongation exhibited in oil. Fracture morphology was completely intergranular along the prior austenite for the quenched specimen and completely transgranular for the annealed specimen. The percentage of intergranular cracking decreased as the tempering temperature increased from 200 C to 600 C, and as the pH increased from 5 to 7. The fracture mechanism was thought to be hydrogen embrittlement.

  14. Effect of intra- and extra-liposomal distribution of sodium chloride on the stability of large unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Siow, Lee Fong; Rades, Thomas; Lim, Miang Hoong

    2007-01-01

    Three groups of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) dispersions were studied: LUV (A) dispersions with only extraliposomal sodium chloride (NaCl), LUV (B) dispersions with intra- and extraliposomal NaCl, and LUV (C) dispersions with only intraliposomal NaCl. The NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 150 mM. An abrupt increase in leakage was observed around -10 degree C for all the three groups of LUV, which coincided with the temperature of extraliposomal ice formation. Within the three groups, leakage of LUV (C) was significantly higher than the other groups. Extraliposomal ice formation and the resulting freeze-concentration of LUV may be the major cause of the leakage. Intraliposomal ice formation observed at -43 degree C seemed to stop leakage of LUV when LUV were frozen below -43 degree C. An exotherm of eutectic crystallization of NaCl was occasionally observed at -37 degree C, with a higher probability of formation at 150 mM extraliposomal NaCl than at 50 mM. The eutectic crystals were thought to cause additional leakage from the LUV (B). PMID:18183324

  15. The effect of sodium chloride extract and commercial lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium on chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, K; Abe, F

    1988-01-01

    In chickens inoculated into the heart with a sodium chloride extract of Escherichia coli strain (serotype O2) isolated from a chicken with colibacillosis, characteristic hemorrhages into the anterior chamber of the eyes (hyphema) were found. Significant lesions were limited to the eyes. Cyclophosphamide-treated chickens were more sensitive to the extract than untreated chickens and hyphema was usually seen in association with hemorrhages of the iris. These activities were not reduced by heating the extract at 60 degrees C for one hour or by trypsin digestion. Chickens inoculated into the heart with commercial lipopolysaccharides of E. coli (serotypes O111:B4 and O55:B5) and Salmonella typhimurium showed similar lesions in the eyes as the chickens inoculated with the sodium chloride extract. These findings suggest that the endotoxin may induce hyphema in chickens. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3285982

  16. Solubilities and other physical parameters of aromatic hydrocarbons in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions as determined by headspace analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M.A.H.

    1991-12-31

    The solubility, Henry`s law constant, aqueous-vapor partition coefficients, and oil-aqueous distribution coefficients of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene,m-xylene and p-xylene were determined in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions at 25C. Values are in agreement with using gas chromatography of headspace literature. The salting-out effect of sodium chloride on the solute properties measured was illustrated using the empirical relationship deduced by Setschenow (1889). The empirical relationship predicts that the logarithm of solubility will be a function of ionic strength. The solubility data obtained in this work obeys this relationship. It was also found that the logarithm of the Henry`s law constant, partition coefficient, and distribution coefficient are linear functions of ionic strength. 10 tabs, 6 figs.

  17. [Steroid metabolism in primates. XVI. Secretion of corticosteroids in the baboon Papio hamadryas during chronic administration of sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    Gontscharow, N P; Simarina, A J; Jefremova, S K; Schn, R; Schubert, K

    1975-01-01

    The adrenal steroid secretion was investigated in male baboons (Papio hamadryas) treated for a long time with sodium chloride, in comparison to an untreated control group. In animals treated with NaCl, the secretion of progesterone, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone was decreased, while cortisone, pregnenolone, 7-keto-cholesterol, 7-keto-DHEA, DHEA and adrenosterone were increased. PMID:125195

  18. Sodium chloride reduces production of curvacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus strain LTH 1174, originating from fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (k(B)) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an a(w)-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (X(B)) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in X(B), an increase in k(B), and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity. PMID:15066822

  19. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C. PMID:19056176

  20. HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE INDUCE A 'POSITIVE' RESPONSE AT THE TK LOCUS OF L5178Y/TK(+)/(-)MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The experiment with sodium chloride demonstrates the importance of carefully evaluating weak mutagenic responses observed with high concentrations of test compounds. The positive mutagenicity is likely not due to a direct interaction with DNA but from some indirect mechanism resu...

  1. EVALUATION OF SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE MICROTOX R ASSAY: COMPARISON TO FISH AND CLADOCERAN TESTS WITH FRESHWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). he latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose for osmotic protection of the...

  2. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  3. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220. PMID:26935095

  4. Standard state thermodynamic properties of completely dissociated hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodium hydroxide at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

    2009-08-01

    Standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated hydrochloric acid were fixed by ionic additivity, using the data from other strong electrolytes perrhenic acid, sodium perrhenate, and sodium chloride from 298.15 to 598.15 K and at p(sat). The standard electrode potential for the important silver-silver chloride electrode system and the equilibrium constants for the volatility of HCl from aqueous solutions were then calculated and compared with literature data. Using the experimental data from this study and auxiliary data from literature, the logarithm of the molal association constant of HCl at the critical temperature of water and at 673.15 K up to 1000 MPa was predicted from the unified theory of electrolytes (UTE). The standard state thermodynamic properties for completely dissociated aqueous sodium hydroxide were also calculated by ionic additivity over the same temperature range from aqueous sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and the dissociation constant of water. The results were compared with literature data. PMID:19606908

  5. Investigation of Longitudinal Variation by Using Sodium Temperature Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, M. K.; Nakamura, T.; Kawahara, T. D.; Shepherd, G. G.; Oberheide, J. D.; Shiokawa, K.

    2009-05-01

    Recent observation and model studies show not only latitudinal variation but also large longitudinal variations of density, temperature, and dynamics in the middle atmosphere and ionosphere. Long-term observations by sodium temperature lidar at the mid-latitude were mainly in the US longitude [e.g., She et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2005]. In the Western Pacific longitude, occurrence rate of sporadic sodium (Nas) layer were reported by statistical analysis of sodium density profiles [Nagasawa and Abo, 1995; Gong et al., 2002]. However, vertical distributions of temperature in the mesosphere and lower-thermosphere (MLT) region were not measured well. We have observed the temperature and sodium density profiles since August, 2007 at Uji (34.9oN, 135.8oE) located 25 km west from Shigaraki Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) observatory by a sodium temperature lidar, which was developed by Shinshu University and National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) and was operated at Syowa in Antarctica, in order to reveal these variations in the Western Pacific longitude. These profiles for 147 nights (more than 1300 hours) have been obtained. Comparisons of seasonal variations of these profiles between Japan and the US longitudes showed some similarities and differences. Sodium density in Japan showed similar seasonal variation to that in the US, except for an enhancement (90-100 km) in June-July caused by Nas in Japan. Temperatures below 98 km showed semi-annual variation in both longitudes, but months of temperature maximum were slightly different. Because the long-term observation periods are different between Japan and the US, the differences between two longitudes include longitudinal variation and also year-to-year variation. An estimate for the vertical motion associated with long-period waves such as the tides can be determined from the temperature perturbations assuming long-period wave motions are adiabatic. A remarkable increase of sodium column density of 70-120 km and OI (557.7 nm) emission were observed on December 9, 2007, simultaneously. The sodium lidar temperature profiles showed long-period wave with a downward phase propagation, and vertical displacement of atomic oxygen, oxygen, and nitrogen estimated from the temperature profiles could explain the OI enhancement. The long-period wave was probably a part of tides, which had unusual large amplitude shown by TIMED/SABER temperature measurements. Further studies of detailed comparison with the Na lidar results in the US, as well as investigation of atmospheric stability characteristics and its longitudinal dependencies are being carried out under collaboration between Japan, the US and China.

  6. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  7. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, Wayne H.; Christiansen, David W.

    1987-01-01

    A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  8. Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

    2013-07-01

    The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials. PMID:23750871

  9. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, Jos A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive. PMID:26615710

  10. Insights on activity and stability of subtilisin E towards guanidinium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenwei; Roccatano, Danilo; Lorenz, Michael; Martinez, Ronny; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    A subtilisin E variant (M4) showing high activity and resistance towards guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was previously identified after three rounds of directed evolution [Li et al., ChemBioChem 2012, 13(5), 691-699.]. In this report, 10 additional positions, identified during directed subtilisin E evolution, were saturated on the previously reported SeSaM1-5 variant (S62/A153/G166/I205). Screening confirmed that chaotolerant variants included amino acid substitutions either in the active site, or the substrate binding pocket. Two variants, M5 (S62I/A153V/G166S/T224A/T240S) and M6 (S62I/A153V/G166S/I205V/N218S/T224A) were finally generated to maximize activity and stability in the presence of GdmCl or SDS. The inactivation concentration (IC50) of M6 using Suc-AAPF-pNA as substrate was significantly increased compared to M4 in the presence of GdmCl (IC50 (M4): 2.7M; IC50 (M6): 4.6M) and SDS (IC50 (M4): 1.5%; IC50 (M6): 4.0%). The half-life in 5M GdmCl was also significantly improved for M6 compared to M4 (t 1/2 (M4): 2min; t 1/2 (M6): 15min). M5 retained resistance towards GdmCl or SDS as in M4. The activity of M5 towards a complex protein substrate (Azocasein) was increased by ?1.5 fold compared to M4 and M6. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis for subtilisin E wild type (WT) and three variants (M4, M5 and M6) indicated that secondary structures of all variants including wild type at 1-2M GdmCl (except M4) were not significantly perturbed, with unfolding occurring for WT and all three variants above 3M GdmCl. In SDS, the secondary structures of WT and all three variants remained intact at concentrations of 0.5 to 2.0% (w/v) SDS. Results suggest that subtilisin E inactivation occurred most likely due to inhibitory effect, since a general unfolding of the enzyme was not observed through circular dichroism. Such inhibition could be avoided by limiting the access of GdmCl and SDS to the active site and/or to residues involved in substrate binding. PMID:24280236

  11. Osmotic virial coefficients of hydroxyethyl starch from aqueous hydroxyethyl starch-sodium chloride vapor pressure osmometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingjiang; Gier, Martin; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Prasad, Vinay; Elliott, Janet A W; Sputtek, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is an important industrial additive in the paper, textile, food, and cosmetic industries and has been shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for red blood cells; however, little is known about its thermodynamic solution properties. In many applications, in particular those in biology, HES is used in an aqueous solution with sodium chloride (NaCl). The osmotic virial solution thermodynamics approach accurately captures the dependence of osmolality on molality for many types of solutes in aqueous systems, including electrolytes, sugars, alcohols, proteins, and starches. Elliott et al. proposed mixing rules for the osmotic virial equation to be used for osmolality of multisolute aqueous solutions [Elliott, J. A. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1775-1785] and recently applied this approach to the fitting of one set of aqueous HES-NaCl solution data reported by Jochem and Krber [Cryobiology 1987, 24, 513-536], indicating that the HES osmotic virial coefficients are dependent on HES-to-NaCl mass ratios. The current study reports new aqueous HES-NaCl vapor pressure osmometry data which are analyzed using the osmotic virial equation. HES modifications were measured after dialysis (membrane cut off: 10,000 g/mol) and freeze-drying using vapor pressure osmometry at different mass ratios of HES to NaCl for HES up to 50% and NaCl up to 25% with three different HES modifications (weight average molecular weights [g/mol]/degree of substitution: 40,000/0.5; 200,000/0.5; 450,000/0.7). Equations were then fit to the data to provide a model for HES osmotic virial coefficient dependence on mass ratio of HES to NaCl. The osmolality data of the three HES modifications were accurately described over a broad range of HES-to-NaCl mass ratios using only four parameters, illustrating the power of the osmotic virial approach in analyzing complex data sets. As expected, the second osmotic virial coefficients increase with molecular weight of the HES and increase with HES-to-NaCl mass ratio. PMID:23862979

  12. A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures. ?? 1983.

  13. Sonophotocatalytic Reaction of Sodium Chloride Solution: Comparison of Reaction Products from Sodium Chloride Solution with Those from Pure Water and Influence of Insoluble Photocatalyst on Sonochemical Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Hisashi

    2000-05-01

    A sonophotocatalytic reaction of NaCl solution was performed. Hydrogen and oxygen were obtained continuously. A sonophotocatalytic reaction is a photocatalytic reaction with ultrasonic irradiation or the simultaneous irradiation of light and ultrasound with a photocatalyst. The higher the concentration of NaCl in a solution, the lower the amount of products obtained. However, there was negligible influence on the products at lower concentrations. Therefore, it was concluded that the impurities such as chloride ions, from the photocatalyst had negligible effect on the sonophotocatalysis of water. It was also demonstrated that a suitable photocatalyst particle size must be selected for the sonophotocatalytic reaction to proceed. The possibility of decomposition of seawater to H2 and O2 was also examined.

  14. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  15. Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar Observations of the Mesopause Region Temperature and Wind Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senft, Daniel C.; Scherrer, Daniel R.; Gardner, Chester S.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of the mesopause region temperature structure are being routinely conducted at Urbana, Illinois with the University of Illinois (UIUC) Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar. The first measurements were taken with this system in Jan. 1991 and are now being made, and will soon be done routinely in conjunction with the temperature measurements. The results obtained with the UIUC Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar (SDTL) are presented. A description of the system is given in accompanying articles.

  16. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  17. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium-air and sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Adelhelm, Philipp; Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Research devoted to room temperature lithium-sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium-oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems. PMID:25977873

  18. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Nave and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (?eq/min) Nave+NS: 9.4 0.2 vs. Nave+HS: 7 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:26608659

  19. Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol. However, pressure drop increased much more rapidly in the welding fume test than the NaCl aerosol test. The data and images clearly show differences in performance trends between respirator models. Therefore, general correlations between NaCl and weld fume data could not be made. These findings suggest that respirators certified with a surrogate test aerosol such as NaCl are appropriate for filtering welding fume (based on penetration). However, some respirators may have a more rapid increase in pressure drop from the welding fume accumulating on the filter. Therefore, welders will need to choose which models are easier to breathe through for the duration of their use and replace respirators or filters according to the user instructions and local regulations. PMID:21742627

  20. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in immobilization with low NaCl diet ( 0.34 ± 1.2 g/d). However, high NaCl intake in HDBR exacerbated the negative nitrogen balance to 1.34 ± 1.0 g/d (p¡0.001) compared to low NaCl. We conclude that high dietary NaCl intake induces low grade metabolic acidosis during HDBR. Low grade metabolic acidosis may be a reason for an increased protein turnover reflected by an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance in HDBR. Accordingly, a high dietary NaCl intake may exacerbate loss of body protein in µG via low grade metabolic acidosis.

  1. Human body frequency modulation by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions: a new paradigm and perspective for human health.

    PubMed

    Sudan, B J

    2000-08-01

    This case study demonstrates that the normal human body frequency, which can be disturbed by electromagnetic influences of the environment, can be modulated by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions (physiological saline) and that occurrence of allergic reactions have subsequently been suppressed as a result of this modulation. The use of distilled water as control showed no effect on occurrence of allergic reactions. Further observations on the growth of various plants in a greenhouse exposed to various geomagnetic fields support the previous observations on humans. The neutralization of electromagnetic influences on humans using 0.9% sodium chloride solution or by enclosure of plants within a copper wire Faraday cage resulting in a normal and uniform growth of plants as compared with disturbed and irregular growth in unenclosed controls, is demonstrated. These original observations propose a new strategy to suppress or prevent allergic reactions and possibly other effects observed in various human pathologies in relation to a disturbance of human body frequencies. It is hypothesized that the double helix structure of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) could be modified by environmental electromagnetic fields and that disresonance between the two chains of DNA could lead to the expression of specific pathology. PMID:10904434

  2. SPAK Isoforms and OSR1 Regulate Sodium-Chloride Co-transporters in a Nephron-specific Manner*

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, P. Richard; Taneja, Tarvinder K.; Liu, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Chen, Yang-Yi; Delpire, Eric; Wade, James B.; Welling, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-related kinase (OSR1) activate the potassium-dependent sodium-chloride co-transporter, NKCC2, and thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vitro, and both co-localize with a kinase regulatory molecule, Cab39/MO25?, at the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Yet genetic ablation of SPAK in mice causes a selective loss of NCC function, whereas NKCC2 becomes hyperphosphorylated. Here, we explore the underlying mechanisms in wild-type and SPAK-null mice. Unlike in the DCT, OSR1 remains at the TAL apical membrane of KO mice where it is accompanied by an increase in the active, phosphorylated form of AMP-activated kinase. We found an alterative SPAK isoform (putative SPAK2 form), which modestly inhibits co-transporter activity in vitro, is more abundant in the medulla than the cortex. Thus, enhanced NKCC2 phosphorylation in the SPAK knock-out may be explained by removal of inhibitory SPAK2, sustained activity of OSR1, and activation of other kinases. By contrast, the OSR1/SPAK/M025? signaling apparatus is disrupted in the DCT. OSR1 becomes largely inactive and displaced from M025? and NCC at the apical membrane, and redistributes to dense punctate structures, containing WNK1, within the cytoplasm. These changes are paralleled by a decrease in NCC phosphorylation and a decrease in the mass of the distal convoluted tubule, exclusive to DCT1. As a result of the dependent nature of OSR1 on SPAK in the DCT, NCC is unable to be activated. Consequently, SPAK?/? mice are highly sensitive to dietary salt restriction, displaying prolonged negative sodium balance and hypotension. PMID:22977235

  3. Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122mEq/L) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis--vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (IV) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5mL/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6mEq/L. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129mEq/L was rapidly corrected with 0.25l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127mEq/L. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to IV 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

  4. Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

    2009-01-01

    To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO3 transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved substitution of the aspartate at position 555 with a glutamate) produced decreasing HCO3? currents at more positive membrane voltages. Immunohistochemistry showed D555E protein expression in oocyte membranes. D555E induced Na/HCO3-dependent pH recovery from a CO2-induced acidification. Current-voltage relationships revealed that D555E produced an outwardly rectifying current in the nominally CO2/HCO3?-free solution that was abolished by Cl? removal from the bath. In the presence of CO2/HCO3?, however, the outward current produced by D555E decreased only slightly after Cl? removal. Starting from a Cl?-free condition, D555E produced dose-dependent outward currents in response to a series of chloride additions. The D555E-mediated chloride current decreased by 70% in the presence of CO2/HCO3?. The substitution of Asp555 with an asparagine also produced a Cl? current. Anion selectivity experiments revealed that D555E was broadly permissive to other anions including NO3?. Fluorescence measurements of chloride transport were done with human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells expressing NBCe1 and D555E. A marked increase in chloride transport was detected in cells expressing D555E. We conclude that Asp555 plays a role in HCO3? selectivity. PMID:19336397

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabrcio Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7?days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5?years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. PMID:24762210

  6. Chemistry of Frozen Sodium-Magnesium-Sulfate-Chloride Brines: Implications for Surface Expression of Europa's Ocean Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Tuan H.; Hodyss, Robert; Choukroun, Mathieu; Johnson, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The composition of Europa’s subsurface ocean is a critical determinant of its habitability. However, our current understanding of the ocean composition is limited to its expression on the surface. This work investigates experimentally the composition of mixed sodium-magnesium-sulfate-chloride solutions when frozen to 100 K, simulating conditions that likely occur as ocean fluids are emplaced onto Europa’s surface. Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to characterize phase composition of the frozen brines at 100 K. Our results show that solutions containing Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, and {{{SO}}4}2- preferentially crystallize into Na2SO4 and MgCl2 hydrated minerals upon freezing, even at elevated [Mg2+]/[Na+] ratios. The detection of epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O) on Europa’s surface, if confirmed, may thus imply a relatively sodium-poor ocean composition or a radiolytic process that converts MgCl2 to MgSO4 as suggested by Brown & Hand. The formation of NaCl on the surface, while dependent upon a number of factors such as freezing rate, may indicate an ocean significantly more concentrated in sodium than in magnesium.

  7. A glutamine residue conserved in the neurotransmitter:sodium:symporters is essential for the interaction of chloride with the GABA transporter GAT-1.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yona, Assaf; Bendahan, Annie; Kanner, Baruch I

    2011-01-28

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters are crucial for efficient synaptic transmission. The transporter GAT-1 mediates electrogenic cotransport of GABA, sodium, and chloride. The presence of chloride enables the transporter to couple the transport of the neurotransmitter to multiple sodium ions, thereby enabling its accumulation against steep concentration gradients. Here we study the functional impact of mutations of the putative chloride-binding residues on transport by GAT-1, with the emphasis on a conserved glutamine residue. In contrast to another putative chloride coordinating residue, Ser-331, where mutation to glutamate led to chloride-independent GABA transport, the Q291E mutant was devoid of any transport activity, despite substantial expression at the plasma membrane. Low but significant transport activity was observed with substitution mutants with small side chains such as Q291S/A/G. Remarkably, when these mutations were combined with the S331E mutation, transport was increased significantly, even though the activity of the S331E single mutant was only ∼25% of that of wild type GAT-1. Transport by these double mutants was largely chloride-independent. Like mutants of other putative chloride coordinating residues, the apparent affinity of the active Gln-291 single mutants for chloride was markedly reduced along with a change their anion selectivity. In addition to the interaction of the transporter with chloride, Gln-291 is also required at an additional step during transport. Electrophysiological analysis of the Q291N and Q291S mutants, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, is consistent with the idea that this additional step is associated with the gating of the transporter. PMID:21098479

  8. A New Approach to Determining Gas-Particle Reaction Probabilities and Application to the Heterogeneous Reaction of Deliquesced Sodium Chloride Particles with Gas-Phase Hydroxyl Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Hai; Robertson, William H.; Cowin, James P.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2006-09-14

    The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaClaq) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with deliquesced NaCl particles in the micron size range at 70-80% RH and with OH concentrations in the range of 1 to 7?109 cm-3. The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from measurements of changes in the chloride concentration of individual particles upon reaction with OH as a function of the particle loading on the substrate. Quantitative treatment of the data using a model that incorporates both diffusion and reaction kinetics yields a lower-limit to the net reaction probability of ?net > 0.1, with an overall uncertainty of a factor of two.

  9. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Binnor, Anil K.; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V.; Roy, Sunilendu B.

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 2C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms. PMID:24482769

  10. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  11. Corrosion behavior of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes during production of sodium chlorate by electrolysis of chloride-chlorate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Uzbekov, A.A.; Klement 'pva, V.S.; Kubasov, V.L.; Lambrev, V.G.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the influence of specific factors in chlorate electrilysis on the corrosion behavior of ROTA. The technique used in the investigation was based on neutron activation of the test specimens followed by corrosion tests. Figures show the dependence rate of ruthenium dissolution on the sodium chloride production during production of chlorate by electrolysis with ROTA, and dependence of the rate of ruthenium dissolution and of the rate of oxygen evolution during polarization of ROTA. Over the entire range of ROTA potentials studied the process of oxygen evolution conforms to the Tafel relationship. The rate of ruthenium dissolution in chlorate solution rises by more than 4 orders of magnitude with increase of the ROTA potential.

  12. Effect of Heat Stable and Heat Labile Escherichia coli Enterotoxins, Cholera Toxin and Theophylline on Unidirectional Sodium and Chloride Fluxes in the Proximal and Distal Jejunum of Weanling Swine

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D. L.; Roe, W. E.; Nielsen, N. O.

    1977-01-01

    Acute, isolated loops of proximal and distal jejunum of weanling swine were exposed to either heat stable porcine Escherichia coli enterotoxin, heat labile porcine Escherichia coli enterotoxin, cholera toxin or theophylline. Unidirectional sodium fluxes in response to heat stable in the proximal jejunum were dependent on the length of time that the intestinal mucosae was exposed to the enterotoxin. Net water, sodium and chloride and unidirectional sodium and chloride flux measurements in the proximal jejunum in response to each agent uniformly indicated that net secretion of fluid and electrolytes was the result of increased unidirectional sodium secretion or blood-to-lumen flux and decreased unidirectional chloride absorption or lumen-to-blood flux. In addition heat stable cholera toxin and theophylline but not heat labile decreased unidirectional chloride secretion a small but significant amount in the proximal jejunum. Sodium and chloride flux measurements in the distal jejunum demonstrated that all four secretory agents could stimulate net secretion of water, sodium and chloride in that region. The response to these secretory agents as measured by sodium and chloride unidirectional flux rates was not similar to changes observed in the proximal jejunum. In the distal small intestine, whereas heat labile cholera toxin and theophylline induced similar qualitative changes in unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes, that induced by heat stable differed. PMID:332292

  13. Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Woo; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2009-12-15

    Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

  14. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry. PMID:26243959

  15. Intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride differentially modulates sympathetic nerve activity to the heart and kidney

    PubMed Central

    Frithiof, Robert; Xing, Tao; McKinley, Michael J.; May, Clive N.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl infused into the carotid arteries increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and changes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via cerebral mechanisms. We hypothesized that elevated sodium levels in the blood supply to the brain would induce differential responses in renal and cardiac SNA via sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured renal and cardiac SNA simultaneously in conscious sheep during intracarotid infusions of NaCl (1.2 M), sorbitol (2.4 M), or urea (2.4 M) at 1 ml/min for 4 min into each carotid. Intracarotid NaCl significantly increased MAP (91 ± 2 to 97 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) without changing heart rate (HR). Intracarotid NaCl was associated with no change in cardiac SNA (11 ± 5.0%), but a significant inhibition of renal SNA (−32.5 ± 6.4%, P < 0.05). Neither intracarotid sorbitol nor urea changed MAP, HR, central venous pressure, cardiac SNA, and renal SNA. The changes in MAP and renal SNA were completely abolished by microinjection of the GABA agonist muscimol (5 mM, 500 nl each side) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Infusion of intracarotid NaCl for 20 min stimulated a larger increase in water intake (1,100 ± 75 ml) than intracarotid sorbitol (683 ± 125 ml) or intracarotid urea (0 ml). These results demonstrate that acute increases in blood sodium levels cause a decrease in renal SNA, but no change in cardiac SNA in conscious sheep. These effects are mediated by cerebral sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier that are more responsive to changes in sodium concentration than osmolality. The renal sympathoinhibitory effects of sodium are mediated via a pathway that synapses in the PVN. PMID:24523342

  16. Temperature controlled icy dust reservoir of sodium: A possible mechanism for the formation of sporadic sodium layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shican; Tang, Yihuan; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-06-01

    Using seven years, from 2006 to 2013, sodium lidar observations over Hefei, China (31.80N, 117.3E), we attempt to propose a possible mechanism for the formation of sporadic sodium layers (SSLs or NaS). We analyze the relationship between low temperature (<150 K) and SSL occurrence and detect a statistically significant link that the low temperature (<150 K) occur in three days before an SSL with an occurrence rate of 93.4% (57/61). The sharp decrease of water vapor concentration nearby before an SSL and the recover after the SSL are also detected frequently. Based upon these evidences and some case studies, we propose an icy dust reservoir in the formation of an SSL. The icy dust could form in the extremely cold mesopause region where the temperature falls below 150 K and it will absorb sodium atoms to form a solid sodium metal film as a sodium reservoir. The icy dust will then sublimate rapidly when meeting with warm air (e.g., 150 K < T < 190 K) and leave behind the solid metal atom film. The remanent sodium film might release vapor sodium atoms finally by some means through high temperature (e.g., >190 K and sometimes even >230 K) and form a sporadic sodium layer. Although not conclusive and highly uncertain, the icy dust reservoir model not only provides a good explanation for the observed characteristics of SSLs; it is also in good agreement with many other observations, such as the simultaneous sporadic sodium and iron layers, the behavior of SSLs on small time scale, the deviation of the sodium density profile of SSLs from the normal one, and the sharply decreased scale height above the peak of the sodium layer. These results further suggest that the icy dust might be a viable option of sodium reservoir for the formation of SSLs.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid composition of cattle with endotoxin-induced mastitis treated with isotonic (0.9%) or hypertonic (7.5%) sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tyler, J W; Welles, E G; Sorjonen, D C; Spano, J S; Gaslin, J T; Spears, H

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the safety of intravenous hypertonic saline in cattle with experimental gram-negative endotoxemia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition was examined in five control cows and eight treated cows 24 hours after the intramammary infusion of 1 mg of endotoxin. Four of the endotoxin challenged cows were treated intravenously with isotonic (0.9%) sodium chloride and four cows were treated intravenously with hypertonic (7.5%) sodium chloride. Decreased CSF osmolality, and sodium and alpha globulin concentrations and increased CSF concentrations of beta globulin were observed in both endotoxin-challenged saline-treated groups. No CSF compositional differences were observed between endotoxin-challenged cows receiving isotonic or hypertonic saline. Although no cytologic or biochemical evidence of salt poisoning was observed in cows receiving hypertonic saline, significant changes were observed in the CSF composition of both endotoxin-infused saline-treated groups. PMID:8501700

  19. PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of survival data of an eight strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate (NaL) obtained after heating at different temperatures (55, 60, 65, and 71.1°C) indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella i...

  20. EFFECTS AND INTERACTIONS OF TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, SODIUM DIACETATE AND PEDIOCIN ON THE STARVED CELLS OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of temperature (55-60 degrees C), sodium lactate (SL; 0.0-4.8%), sodium diacetate (SDA; 0.0-0.4%) and pediocin (0.0-10000 AU) on the starved cells of L. monocytogenes inoculated on the surface of the frankfurters were investigated, and a predictive model was developed. C...

  1. Detection of sodium chloride in cured salmon roe by SW-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Rogers, T M; Wenz, M A; Cavinato, A G; Mayes, D M; Bledsoe, G E; Rasco, B A

    2001-09-01

    Salt and moisture content of cured salmon roe (ikura) was determined using short-wavelength-near-infrared (SW-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm). SW-NIR can be used to measure chloride species. Calibrations for salt in bulk samples of high-quality roe (R(2) = 0.904, SEP = 0.421%, RPD = 3.21) and average-quality roe (R(2) = 0.711, SEP = 1.13%, RPD = 1.81), crushed eggs (R(2) = 0.857, SEP = 0.509%, RPD = 2.62), and individual eggs (R(2) = 0.731, SEP = 0.698%, RPD = 1.98) were developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The heterogeneous distribution of lipid and moisture in the individual eggs limit the sensitivity of this method; however, this method provides a rapid nondestructive method for high-value food products where destructive testing is expensive or impractical and for process control applications. PMID:11559103

  2. Accounting for Electronic Polarization Effects in Aqueous Sodium Chloride via Molecular Dynamics Aided by Neutron Scattering.

    PubMed

    Kohagen, Miriam; Mason, Philip E; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Modeled ions, described by nonpolarizable force fields, can suffer from unphysical ion pairing and clustering in aqueous solutions well below their solubility limit. The electronic continuum correction takes electronic polarization effects of the solvent into account in an effective way by scaling the charges on the ions, resulting in a much better description of the ionic behavior. Here, we present parameters for the sodium ion consistent with this effective polarizability approach and in agreement with experimental data from neutron scattering, which could be used for simulations of complex aqueous systems where polarization effects are important. PMID:26172524

  3. Interim storage of sodium in ferritic steel tanks at ambient temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1994-09-30

    Sodium tanks originally fabricated for elevated temperature service in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) will be used to store sodium removed from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the Sodium Storage Facility (SSF) at ambient temperature. This report presents an engineering review to confirm that protection against brittle fracture of the ferritic steel tanks is adequate for the intended service.

  4. Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z.

    1993-12-01

    The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

  5. Task 20 - Prevention of Chloride Corrosion in High-Temperature Waste Treatment Systems (Corrosives Removals from Vitrification Slurries)

    SciTech Connect

    Timpe, R.C.; Aulich, T.R.

    1998-11-01

    GTS Duratek is working with BNFL Incorporated on a US Department of Energy (DOE) contract to develop a facility to treat and immobilize radioactive waste at the Hanford site in southeast Washington. Development of the 10-ton/day Hanford facility will be based on findings from work at Duratek's 3.3-ton/day pilot plant in Columbia, Maryland, which is in the final stage of construction and scheduled for shakedown testing in early 1999. In prior work with the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Duratek has found that slurrying is the most efficient way to introduce low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes into vitrification melters. However, many of the Hanford tank wastes to be vitrified contain species (primarily chloride and sulfate) that are corrosive to the vitrifier or the downstream air pollution control equipment, especially under the elevated temperature conditions existent in these components. Removal of these corrosives presents a significant challenge because most tank wastes contain high (up to 10-molar) concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with significant levels of nitrate, nitrite, and other anions, which render standard ion-exchange, membrane filtration, and other separation technologies relatively ineffective. In Task 20, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) will work with Duratek to develop and optimize a vitrification pretreatment process for consistent, quantitative removal of chloride and sulfate prior to vitrifier injection.

  6. Interaction of dicyclopentadienyl chloride complexes of yttrium and lutetium with sodium naphthalenide

    SciTech Connect

    Protchenko, A.V.; Fedorova, E.A.; Bochkarev, M.N.; Schumann, H.; Loebel, J.; Kociok-Koehn, G.

    1995-05-01

    The reaction of Cp{sub 2}LuCl with sodium naphthalenide gives an anionic hydride complex [(Cp{sub 2}LuH){sub 3}H][Na(THF){sub 6}] (1) and complex Cp{sub 2}Lu(2-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})(THF) containing a {sigma}-bonded naphthyl ligand. The structure of 1 was confirmed by X-ray analysis. When Cp{sub 2}YCl is used as the starting material, Cp{sub 3}Y and an anionic hydride complex also containing a {sigma}-naphthyl ligand are formed. A reaction mechanism involving the formation of an unstable complex [(Cp{sub 2}Ln{sup +}){sub 2}(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}{sup 2})] and its fragmentation into hydride and {sigma}-naphthyl species is proposed.

  7. Sensory evaluation of sodium chloride-containing water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, Matthew R; Rousseau, Drick; Duizer, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    The sensory perception of water-in-oil emulsions containing a saline-dispersed aqueous phase was investigated. Manipulating saltiness perception was achieved by varying the mass fraction aqueous phase (MFAP), initial salt load, and surfactant concentration [(polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PgPr)] of the emulsions, with formulations based on a central composite design. Saltiness and emulsion thickness were evaluated using a trained sensory panel, and collected data were analyzed using response surface analysis. Emulsion MFAP was the most important factor correlated with increased salt taste intensity. Emulsifier concentration and interactions between NaCl and PgPr had only minor effects. Emulsions more prone to destabilization were perceived as saltier irrespective of their initial salt load. The knowledge gained from this study provides a powerful tool for the development of novel sodium-reduced liquid-processed foods. PMID:22463684

  8. Reduction of mercury from mackerel fillet using combined solution of cysteine, EDTA, and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Hajeb, P; Jinap, S

    2012-06-13

    An acidic solution containing mercury chelating agents to eliminate mercury in raw fish (mackerel) fillet was developed. The solution contained hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, cysteine, EDTA, and NaCl. The optimum conditions for mercury reduction were achieved using response surface methodology (RSM) at cysteine concentration of 1.25%, EDTA of 275 mg/L, NaCl of 0.5%, pH of 3.75, and exposure time of 18 min. The optimized conditions produced a solution which can remove up to 91% mercury from raw fish fillet. Cysteine and EDTA were identified as potential chelating agents with the greatest potential for use. The solution can be employed in fish industries to reduce mercury in highly contaminated fish. PMID:22515475

  9. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

  10. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of growth and toxicity. No significant toxicity was noted until concentrations of 1-10 ppm for Ag+ and 10-100 ppm for AgNPs. In all NaCl concentrations, Ag+ is more toxic than for AgNPs. In addition, we noted that AgNPs in the .5 M of NaCl had the largest toxicity compared to the other salt concentrations and can be explained by the high Cl/Ag ratio. The concentrations for which toxicity has been observed are fewer orders of magnitude higher than the predicted Ag-NPs concentration released in natural waters in the next years.

  11. LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS FOR THE REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF CHLORIDES AND NITRATES FROM AQUEOUS NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Savolainen, J.E.

    1963-01-29

    A method is described for reducing the chloride content of a solution derived from the dissolution of a stainless steel clad nuclear fuel element with an aqua regia dissolution medium. The solutlon is adjusted to a nitric acid concentration in the range 5 to 10 M and is countercurrently contacted at room temperature with a gaseous oxide of nitrogen selected from NO, NO/sub 2/, N/sub 2/ O/sub 3/, and N/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Chlo ride is recovered from the contacted solution as nitrosyl chloride. After reduction of the chloride content, the solution is then contacted with gaseous NO to reduce the nitric acid molarity to a desired level. (AEC)

  12. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intensity? Seasonal Fitness Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down When is the best time of day ... Stress Four Ways to Deal With Stress Quit Smoking Quitting Smoking Why Quit Smoking? Smoking: Do you ...

  13. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  14. Effect of temperature gradient on the optical quality of mercurous chloride crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Davies, D. K.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Mazelsky, R.

    1989-01-01

    Single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown at temperature gradients of 8, 11 and 17 K/cm by the physical vapor transport method. The optical quality of these crystals was evaluated by measuring bulk scattering and inhomogeneity of refractive index by birefringence interferometry. It was observed that a high temperature gradient at the solid-vapor interface induced thermal stresses and crystals showed higher scattering and irregular fringes.

  15. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of carcasses with calcium chloride or a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates on beef display-color stability.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M C; Schoenbeck, J J; Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Loughin, T M; Addis, P B

    2003-03-01

    Hereford x Angus crossbred steers (n = 36) were stunned, exsanguinated, and infused via the carotid artery either with an aqueous solution containing 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphates (MPSC; n = 12) or with 0.3 M CaCl2 (n = 12). The remaining 12 steers served as noninfused controls. At 48 h postmortem, the quadriceps muscles and subcutaneous fat were removed from the carcasses, frozen, and later made into ground beef (18 to 20% fat). The longissimus lumborum (LL), semimembranosus, and psoas major (PM) also were removed, vacuum packaged, aged until 14 d postmortem, and then one steak was sliced from each muscle for visual and instrumental color evaluations. The inside (ISM) and outside (OSM) portions of the SM were evaluated separately. The LL and OSM steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses had a lighter red (P < 0.05) initial appearance than steaks from the other treatments. The LL steaks from noninfused carcasses had the most (P < 0.05) uniform color; the MPSC treatment was intermediate, and the CaCl2 treatment was the most two-toned. Steaks from both infusion treatments had higher (P < 0.05) L* values for the LL, ISM, and OSM muscles compared with noninfused carcasses. In general, the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses had lower (P < 0.05) a* values, saturation indices, and 630 nm to 580 nm reflectance values, and had larger (P < 0.05) hue angles. Infusion with MPSC increased (P < 0.05) hue angles in the LL and OSM. Display color stability was lowest (P < 0.05) for LL steaks from CaCl2-infused carcasses, whereas steaks from MPSC-infused carcasses were lighter red in initial color, but otherwise had display color stability similar to those from noninfused carcasses. No differences (P > 0.05) due to infusion were found for any color traits for the PM muscle and ground beef. Carotid artery vascular infusion of carcasses with CaCl2 resulted in undesirable meat colors, whereas the MPSC solution lightened loin and inside round color in a desirable way, but the color stability was slightly less compared to muscle from noninfused carcasses. Infusion effects were not consistent among muscles, and further research will be needed to determine what caused these differences. PMID:12661647

  16. Some aspects of the atmospheric corrosion of copper in the presence of sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, H.; Johansson, L.G.

    1998-04-01

    The effect of NaCl in combination with O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on the atmospheric corrosion of copper was investigated. Corrosion products formed after 4 weeks exposure were characterized qualitatively by X-ray diffraction and quantitatively by gravimetry and ion chromatography of leaching solutions. Studies of SO{sub 2} deposition and O{sub 3} consumption were performed using on-line gas analysis. Large amounts of cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) formed in all environments at 70 and 90% relative humidity. The corrosive effect of salt was strong in pure humid air and in air containing O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Corrosion rate was correlated to the amount of chloride applied to the surface and to humidity. In an atmosphere containing a combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at 90% relative humidity, corrosion was rapid in the absence of NaCl. In this case, small additions of NaCl resulted in a marked decrease in corrosion rate. In the absence of SO{sub 2}, tenorite (CuO), nantokite (CuCl), clinoatacamite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl], and malachite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}] were identified. In the presence of SO{sub 2}, brochantite [Cu{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}SO{sub 4}], soluble sulfate, and an unknown phase occurred, while no tenorite or malachite was formed. The combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} resulted in the formation of antlerite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4}] and Cu{sub 2.5}(OH){sub 3}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O as well.

  17. INS, DFT and temperature dependent IR investigations of dynamical properties of low temperature phase of choline chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlukoj?, A.; Hetma?czyk, ?.

    2014-12-01

    Within the framework of the research the inelastic neutron scattering and temperature dependent infra-red spectroscopy investigations of the low temperature phase of choline chloride were performed. The infra-red spectra in wavenumber region 4000-80 cm-1 and in a temperature range 9-300 K were collected. The density functional theory calculations with the periodic boundary conditions for determination and description of the normal modes in the vibration spectra of choline chloride were applied. Bands assigned to the CH3 torsional vibration were observed at 288 and 249 cm-1. From the analysis of the temperature dependence of the full-width-at-half-maximum the activation energy for CH3 group reorientation is found to be equal to 1.6 0.2 kcal/mol.

  18. Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants. PMID:25194697

  19. Exacerbation of lupus nephritis by high sodium chloride related to activation of SGK1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Yao, Genhong; Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Xiaojun; Feng, Xuebing; Sun, Lingyun

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of high salt diet (HSD) on the severity of lupus nephritis (LN) and its mechanism. MRL/lpr mice were randomly divided into two groups, which were fed with normal diet or sodium-rich chow and tap. C57BL/6 mice were selected as control. Spleen Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry. Serum TGF-β and IL-17 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD4(+) T cells from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy donors were treated by NaCl with or without SGK1 inhibitor. Then, Th17 and Treg cells were detected. The HSD MRL/lpr mice had decreased survival rate and increased disease severity. The frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells increased in HSD treatment group. The ratios of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in HSD treated MRL/lpr mice significantly increased. Serum TGF-β increased after HSD treatment. In vitro, high salt could up-regulate Th17 cells of CD4(+) T cells. The effects of high salt treatment on CD4(+) T cells were reversed by SGK1 inhibitor. Our findings demonstrated that excessive intake of salt in diet is an aggravating factor for LN. High salt diet may deteriorate LN through SGK1 pathway. PMID:26474695

  20. Fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for structural steels in 3 Pct sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Saburo; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Shimodaira, Masuo

    1990-08-01

    The fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for a carbon steel, two high-strength steels, and two stainless steels were investigated in a 3 pct sodium chloride aqueous solution at frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Tests were conducted in a manner designed to avoid crack closure. Under freely corroding conditions, the effective values of the threshold stress intensity factor range, ?Kth,eff, were lower than in air for all of the steels. In particular, the ?Kth,eff values for the carbon and high-strength steels were almost equal to the theoretical ?Kth value of about 1 MPa m1/2 calculated on the basis of the dislocation emission from the crack tip. At a given ?K level higher than the threshold, the fatigue crack propagation rates accelerated with decreasing frequency for all of the steels. Under cathodic protection, the threshold and fatigue crack propagation properties were coincident with those in air regardless of material and frequency. The observed fatigue crack propagation behavior in a 3 pct NaCl solution was closely related to the corrosion reaction of the bare surface formed at the crack tip during each loading cycle.

  1. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  2. The vesicle-to-micelle transition of phosphatidylcholine vesicles induced by nonionic detergents: effects of sodium chloride, sucrose and urea.

    PubMed

    Walter, A; Kuehl, G; Barnes, K; VanderWaerdt, G

    2000-11-23

    The vesicle-to-micelle transition of egg phosphatidylcholine LUVs induced by octylglucoside was studied in buffers with 0-4 M sodium chloride, sucrose or urea. We used both light scattering and fluorescent probes to follow the lipid-detergent complexes in these buffers. The vesicle-to-micelle transition process was fundamentally the same in each solute. However, the detergent-to-lipid ratio required for micelle formation shifted in ways that depended on the aqueous solute. The partitioning of octylglucoside between the vesicles and the aqueous phase was primarily determined by the change in its critical micelle concentration (cmc) induced by each solute. Specifically, the cmc decreased in high salt and sucrose buffers but increased in high concentrations of urea. Cmc for two additional nonionic detergents, decyl- and dodecyl-maltoside, and three zwittergents (3-12, 3-14 and 3-16) were determined as a function of concentration for each of the solutes. In all cases NaCl and sucrose decreased the solubility of the detergents, whereas urea increased their solubilities. The effects clearly depended on acyl chain length in urea-containing solutions, but this dependence was less clear with increasing NaCl and sucrose concentrations. The contributions of these solutes to solubility and to interfacial interactions in the bilayers, pure and mixed micelles are considered. PMID:11090816

  3. Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Activates Renal Tubular Sodium Chloride Cotransporter through Angiotension II-dependent WNK4-SPAK Phosphorylation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yu-Wei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Tseng, Min-Hua; Hsu, Hui-Min; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) regulates sodium (Na+)-chloride (Cl−) cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubules remains unexplored. We examined the role of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and with-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) on expression of NCC in mouse models of CMA. CMA was induced by NH4Cl in wild type mice (WTA mice), SPAK, and WNK4 knockout mice. The quantities of Ncc mRNA, expression of total NCC, phosphorylated (p)-NCC, SPAK and WNK4 in the kidneys as well as NCC inhibition with hydrochlorothiazide and Na+ balance were evaluated. Relative to WT mice, WTA mice had similar levels of Ncc mRNA, but increased expression of total and p-NCC, SPAK, and WNK4 and an exaggerated response to hydrochlorothiazide which could not be observed in SPAK or WNK4 knockout mice with CMA. In WTA mice, increased plasma renin activity, aldosterone and angiotensin II concentrations accompanied by a significantly negative Na+ balance. High Na+ diet abolished the enhanced NCC expression in WTA mice. Furthermore, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker rather than a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist exerted a marked inhibition on Na+ reabsorption and NCC phosphorylation in WTA mice. CMA increases WNK4-SPAK-dependent NCC phosphorylation and appears to be secondary to previous natriuresis with volume-dependent angiotensin II activation. PMID:26728390

  4. Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Activates Renal Tubular Sodium Chloride Cotransporter through Angiotension II-dependent WNK4-SPAK Phosphorylation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Wei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Tseng, Min-Hua; Hsu, Hui-Min; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) regulates sodium (Na(+))-chloride (Cl(-)) cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubules remains unexplored. We examined the role of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and with-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) on expression of NCC in mouse models of CMA. CMA was induced by NH4Cl in wild type mice (WTA mice), SPAK, and WNK4 knockout mice. The quantities of Ncc mRNA, expression of total NCC, phosphorylated (p)-NCC, SPAK and WNK4 in the kidneys as well as NCC inhibition with hydrochlorothiazide and Na(+) balance were evaluated. Relative to WT mice, WTA mice had similar levels of Ncc mRNA, but increased expression of total and p-NCC, SPAK, and WNK4 and an exaggerated response to hydrochlorothiazide which could not be observed in SPAK or WNK4 knockout mice with CMA. In WTA mice, increased plasma renin activity, aldosterone and angiotensin II concentrations accompanied by a significantly negative Na(+) balance. High Na(+) diet abolished the enhanced NCC expression in WTA mice. Furthermore, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker rather than a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist exerted a marked inhibition on Na(+) reabsorption and NCC phosphorylation in WTA mice. CMA increases WNK4-SPAK-dependent NCC phosphorylation and appears to be secondary to previous natriuresis with volume-dependent angiotensin II activation. PMID:26728390

  5. Effects of butyrate on active sodium and chloride transport in rat and rabbit distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Vidyasagar, S; Ramakrishna, B S

    2002-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, stimulate electroneutral NaCl absorption from the colon. Their effect in colonic epithelia lacking basal electroneutral NaCl absorption is unknown. Butyrate is also reported to inhibit active Cl− secretion in the colon. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the inter-relationships between the effects of butyrate on active Na+ and Cl− transport in the colon. Studies were carried out in rabbit distal colon (known to have predominant electrogenic Na+ absorption), rat distal colon (characterised by electroneutral Na+ absorption), and hyperaldosteronaemic rat distal colon (characterised by electrogenic Na+ absorption). The effect of cholera toxin (CT) was also noted. Potential difference, short-circuit current (ISC) and fluxes of Na+ and Cl− were measured in stripped mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Butyrate stimulated electroneutral Na+ and Cl− absorption in distal colon of normal and salt-depleted rats, and stimulated Na+ absorption in rabbit distal colon. Amiloride (10−4m) or CT did not inhibit this process. In rabbit distal colon, stimulation of Na+ absorption by butyrate was not dependent on the presence of Cl− in the medium. Butyrate significantly decreased conductance, decreased flux of sodium from serosa to mucosa (particularly in rabbit distal colon), and decreased ISC. Net Cl− secretion, induced by CT, was completely inhibited by butyrate. Stimulation of Na+ absorption was independent of exposure to CT. Bumetanide reversed net Cl− secretion to net absorption, but did not alter Na+ or Cl− fluxes in tissues exposed to butyrate. Thus butyrate stimulates active Na+ absorption in colonic epithelia, with or without expression of basal Na+-H+ exchange. Independently, butyrate inhibits active Cl− secretion induced by cAMP in these epithelia. PMID:11850510

  6. Sodium Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  7. Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987-September 1998 (water years 1988-98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley began in 1987.

  8. A STUDY OF THE ACIDOSIS, BLOOD UREA, AND PLASMA CHLORIDES IN URANIUM NEPHRITIS IN THE DOG, AND OF THE PROTECTIVE ACTION OF SODIUM BICARBONATE.

    PubMed

    Goto, K

    1917-05-01

    1. The presence of an acidosis in dogs with experimental uranium nephritis is demonstrable by the Van Slyke-Stillman-Cullen method and that of Marriott. It is detected more readily by the former method. 2. This acidosis is associated with increase in the blood urea and plasma chlorides and with the appearance of albumin and casts in the urine. 3. The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate diminishes the acidosis, the increase in plasma chlorides, the amount of albumin and casts in the urine, and, to a lesser degree, the increase in the blood urea following the administration of uranium. It also diminishes the severity of the changes produced by uranium in the kidneys. 4. The oral administration of sodium bicarbonate to normal dogs raises the carbon dioxide content of the plasma as determined by the. Van Slyke-Stillman-Cullen method. PMID:19868118

  9. Creep substructure formation in sodium chloride single crystals in the power law and exponential creep regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Pharr, G. M.

    1989-01-01

    Creep tests conducted on NaCl single crystals in the temperature range from 373 to 1023 K show that true steady state creep is obtained only above 873 K when the ratio of the applied stress to the shear modulus is less than or equal to 0.0001. Under other stress and temperature conditions, corresponding to both power law and exponential creep, the creep rate decreases monotonically with increasing strain. The transition from power law to exponential creep is shown to be associated with increases in the dislocation density, the cell boundary width, and the aspect ratio of the subgrains along the primary slip planes. The relation between dislocation structure and creep behavior is also assessed.

  10. Establishment of an activated peroxide system for low-temperature cotton bleaching using N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changhai; Hinks, David; Sun, Chang; Wei, Qufu

    2015-03-30

    Cotton bleaching is traditionally carried out in strongly alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at temperatures close to the boil. Such harsh processing conditions can result in extensive water and energy consumptions as well as severe chemical damage to textiles. In this study, an activated peroxide system was established for low-temperature cotton bleaching by incorporating a bleach activator, namely N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride (TBBC) into an aqueous H2O2 solution. Experimental results showed that the TBBC-activated peroxide system exhibited the most effective bleaching performance in a pH range of 6-8 which could be approximated by adding sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system led to rapid bleaching of cotton at a temperature as low as 50°C. In comparison with the hot alkaline peroxide bleaching system, the TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system provided cotton fabric with an equivalent degree of whiteness, higher degree of polymerization, and slightly lower water absorbency. The new activated peroxide system may provide a more environmentally benign approach to cotton bleaching. PMID:25563946

  11. Reactions occurring during the sulfation of sodium chloride deposited on alumina substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Birks, N.

    1986-01-01

    The reaction between solid NaCl and air containing 1 pct SO2 has been studied between 500 and 700 C. The reaction product, Na2SO4, forms not only on the surface of the NaCl but also on surrounding areas of the substrate due to the volatility of the NaCl at these temperatures. At the higher temperatures, the vapor pressure of NaCl is so high that the majority of the reaction product is distributed on the substrate. Above 625 C, the reaction product is a liquid solution of NaCl and Na2SO4 that exists only so long as NaCl is supplied from the original crystal source. Eventually, the liquid solidifies by constitutional solidification as the NaCl is converted to Na2SO4. While it exists, the liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 solution is shown to be highly corrosive to Al2O3 and, on a scale of Al2O3 growing on alloy HOS 875, particularly attacks the grain boundaries of the scale at preferred sites where chromium and iron oxides and sulfides rapidly develop. This is proposed as one mechanism by which NaCl deposition contributes to the initiation of low temperature hot corrosion.

  12. Low-temperature phase transitions in barium sodium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipic, C.; Kutnjak, Z.; Lortz, R.; Torres-Pardo, A.; Dawber, M.; Scott, J. F.

    2007-06-01

    We present dielectric and specific heat data on barium sodium niobate (Ba2Na1-xNb5O15) from 4 to 460 K with an emphasis on the low-temperature incommensurate phase transitions. This material is ferroelectric below Tc(x) = ca 830 K, and the reciprocal dielectric constant extrapolates to zero near this temperature throughout the low-temperature phases, which involve distortions within the non-polar plane and do not affect significantly the ferroelectric properties. The transition from orthorhombic to incommensurate near 113 K has highly frequency-dispersive dynamics, reminiscent of those in relaxors, and an activation energy of 0.42 eV. The 'lock-in' transition near 30 K to a tetragonal structure with an enlarged unit cell has been controversial, with studies in Japan (1996, 1997) and the Czech Republic (2004) not finding the P4nc phase predicted by Schneck (1982) and measured directly via spallation neutron scattering by Scott et al (1990); our new studies show that this transition is limited by kinetics and requires very slow cooling for detection.

  13. Effects of polar aprotic solvents on the rate of the topochemical reaction of benzoyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, V.A.

    1985-10-01

    The kinetics of the topochemical reaction of benozyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene have been examined in the presence of varying amounts of acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. The specific rates and activation energies for the reaction have been found. These parameters have been found to increase with the amounts of polar aprotic solvent added. The observed dependence is explained by a change in the mechanism of the reaction.

  14. Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Intensity of the Spectral Lines of Elements During ARC Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunina, N. N.; Baisova, B. T.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the carrier (NaCl) during arc discharge on the intensity of the lines for elements with various ionization potentials (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Si, Ti, Zn) was investigated. It was found that the intensity of the spectral lines of the elements increases with increase in the concentration of the carrier. The relative roles of the factors responsible for the increase in the intensity of the spectral lines (the plasma temperature, the intensity of the spectral lines of the elements, and the degree of ionization of the elements, the fl ow rate and residence time of the atoms in the plasma) were analyzed.

  15. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  16. Dissociation quotient of benzoic acid in aqueous sodium chloride media to 250{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Kettler, R.M.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1995-04-01

    The dissociation quotient of benzoic acid was determined potentiometrically in a concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. The hydrogen ion molality of benzoic acid/benzoate solutions was measured relative to a standard aqueous HCl solution at seven temperatures from 5 to 250{degrees}C and at seven ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 5.0 molal (NaCl). The molal dissociation quotients and selected literature data were fitted in the isocoulombic (all anionic) form by a six-term equation. This treatment yielded the following thermodynamic quantities for the acid dissociation equilibrium at 25{degrees}C and 1 bar: logK{sub a} = -4.206{+-}0.006, {Delta}H{sub a}{sup 0} = 0.3{+-}0.3 kJ-mol{sup {minus}1}, {Delta}S{sub a}{sup 0} = -79.6{+-}1.0 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}, and {Delta}C{sub p;a}{sup 0} = -207{+-}5 J-mol{sup {minus}1}-K{sup {minus}1}. A five-term equation derived to describe the dependence of the dissociation constant on solvent density is accurate to 250{degrees}C and 200 MPa.

  17. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance. PMID:26613570

  18. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 ?s, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions. PMID:24480277

  19. Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10?4mM SA, 50mM NaCl, 100mM NaCl, 150mM NaCl, SA+50mM NaCl, SA+100mM NaCl and SA+150mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50mM and 100mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

  20. Aldosterone modulates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter abundance via DUSP6-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zhang, Yiqian; Shao, Ningjun; Wang, Yanhui; Zhuang, Zhizhi; Wu, Ping; Lee, Matthew J; Liu, Yingli; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Delpire, Eric; Gu, Dingying; Cai, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone is known to modulate NCC abundance. Previous studies reported that dietary salts modulated NCC abundance through either WNK4 [with no lysine (k) kinase 4]-SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase) or WNK4-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. To exclude the influence of SPAK signaling pathway on the role of the aldosterone-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in NCC regulation, we investigated the effects of dietary salt changes and aldosterone on NCC abundance in SPAK knockout (KO) mice. We found that in SPAK KO mice low-salt diet significantly increased total NCC abundance while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas high-salt diet decreased total NCC while increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, exogenous aldosterone administration increased total NCC abundance in SPAK KO mice while increasing DUSP6 expression, an ERK1/2-specific phosphatase, and led to decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation without changing the ratio of phospho-T53-NCC/total NCC. In mouse distal convoluted tubule (mDCT) cells, aldosterone increased DUSP6 expression while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DUSP6 Knockdown increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation while reducing total NCC expression. Inhibition of DUSP6 by (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reversed the aldosterone-mediated increments of NCC partly by increasing NCC ubiquitination. Therefore, these data suggest that aldosterone modulates NCC abundance via altering NCC ubiquitination through a DUSP6-dependent ERK1/2 signal pathway in SPAK KO mice and part of the effects of dietary salt changes may be mediated by aldosterone in the DCTs. PMID:25761881

  1. The effect of inhaled frusemide on airway sensitivity to inhaled 4.5% sodium chloride aerosol in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Rodwell, L T; Anderson, S D; du Toit, J I; Seale, J P

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frusemide inhaled by asthmatic subjects before a variety of indirect bronchial challenges inhibits the airway response to these challenges. Since inhalation of hyperosmolar saline is an indirect bronchial challenge, the effect of inhaled frusemide and its vehicle on airway sensitivity to a 4.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol challenge was investigated. METHODS: Eleven asthmatic subjects (five females, six males) who had a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second after 4.5% NaCl challenge were enrolled in this double blind controlled crossover trial. Sensitivity was measured as the dose of aerosol required to provoke a 20% fall in FEV1. Frusemide (33.2 mg) or its vehicle was delivered through a Fisoneb ultrasonic nebuliser and inhaled 10 minutes before challenge with 4.5% NaCl. A Mistogen ultrasonic nebuliser was used to generate the 4.5% NaCl aerosol and FEV1 was measured before and one minute after each challenge period of 0.5, one, two, four, eight, eight and eight minutes. The doubling dose difference for PD20 was calculated. RESULTS: Frusemide or vehicle had no effect on baseline lung function. The geometric mean PD20 after vehicle was 1.3 ml with a 95% confidence interval of 0.7-2.3 and after frusemide was 8.2 ml with a 95% confidence interval of 4.7-14.1. This represented a 2.6 doubling dose increase in PD20 after frusemide inhalation. In five of the 11 subjects an increase from baseline FEV1 occurred after exposure to 4.5% NaCl challenge in the presence of frusemide. This transient bronchodilatation may be caused by the release of prostaglandin E2. CONCLUSION: Inhalation of frusemide is very effective in delaying airway narrowing induced by an aerosol of 4.5% NaCl in asthmatic subjects. PMID:8497817

  2. Impact of sodium chloride on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus analysed using transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hajmeer, Maha; Ceylan, Erdogan; Marsden, James L; Fung, Daniel Y C

    2006-08-01

    Abundant literature information is available on sodium chloride, NaCl, as an antimicrobial and a preservative, however, information on NaCl effects on bacterial cell morphology is lacking. The effect of NaCl, on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus cells individually grown in a laboratory medium was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cultures were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth containing dissolved 0%, 5%, or 10% (w/v) commercially obtained fine (FN) and extra coarse (EC) grade granular NaCl. The pathogens were incubated at 35 degrees C for 12 and 24 h. Then, a mixture of five strains of each pathogen per treatment was prepared. Samples were centrifuged, pellets collected, fixed immediately with glutaraldehyde, and prepared for TEM examination. Cells morphology on TEM micrographs verified that the magnitude of morphological damage to E. coli O157:H7 cells was significantly greater than that of S. aureus cells. More cell injury occurred as NaCl concentration increased from 5% to 10%. Generally, S. aureus maintained its cellular structure and no severe cell wall or plasma membrane damage and/or shrinkage was observed. At 10% NaCl, the damage to E. coli O157:H7 cells was extensive, and the pathogen seemed to have lost its cellular integrity. Although NaCl affected the morphology of E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus, the coarse grade of NaCl seemed to have a milder effect with respect to cell damage, especially on S. aureus. The 24 h-old cultures were more susceptible to NaCl treatment compared to the 12 h-old cells. Thus, the age of the cells has an impact on their resistance to salt--the environmental stressor. PMID:16943036

  3. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  4. High-temperature resistivity of shocked liquid sodium at pressures up to 230 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golyshev, A. A.; Shakhray, D. V.; Kim, V. V.; Molodets, A. M.; Fortov, V. E.

    2011-03-01

    The experimental multiple-shock technique and a computer-code simulation were used for investigations of electrophysical properties of dense molten sodium up to pressures of 230(5) GPa and temperatures up to 8000(600) K. The multiple-shock data show that the resistivity of shocked sodium increases with pressure and temperature up to 270(30) ??cm. This change was interpreted via the pressure-induced metal-semiconductor transition in shocked molten sodium.

  5. Aqueous Electrolyte Ionization over Extreme Ranges as Simple Fundamental Relation with Density and Believed Universal; Sodium Chloride Ionization for 0o to 1000oC and to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm.).

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William {Bill} L

    2008-01-01

    The chemical nature of aqueous electrolyte ionization is illustrated by a simple relationship with water as a reactant believed to correlate ionization of aqueous sodium chloride approaching infinite dilution over the entire range of temperature and pressure [0 to 1000oC; 0.1 to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm)]. The derived equation accurately and smoothly describes the ionization constant of sodium chloride [K(NaCl)] in both water and water strongly diluted by inert solvent. Effects of water density on ionization are quantitatively and simply described that oppose conventional theory that ionization is a function only of dielectric constant, and theorists should apply this simplicity with density in understanding aqueous electrolyte ionization. There appears to be no substantive evidence for Pitzer's earlier proposal (1983) that K(NaCl) with decreasing very low densities (if known) would diverge sharply downward by several orders of magnitude. Classical ionization theories are limited in universal application, and it seems that theory must adjust to this observed simple fundamental relationship.

  6. Seasonal variations of gravity wave activity and spectra derived from sodium temperature lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guotao; Clemesha, Barclay; Batista, Paulo; Simonich, Dale

    Gravity wave measurements were carried out by a newly developed sodium temperature lidar at So Jos dos Campos (23 S, 46 W). The temperature lidar was first put into operation in a March, 2007, and 51 nights observation data were obtained, until April 2008. The seasonal variations of gravity wave activity and spectra derived from temperature data are investigated. The total temperature perturbation, and temperature vertical power spectra, Ft(m) at 2/(8km), 2/(4km), and 2/(2km) all show that the semiannual maxima occur near the equinoxes, which agrees with our earlier study [Yang et al., 2006] using only sodium concentration data. Large nightly variability of the temperature perturbation spectral slope was also found, in common with other sodium concentration lidar studies. The comparison between temperature and den-sity perturbations induced by quasi-random waves was investigated, and the agreement was found to be good on most nights. The comparisons between their vertical power spectra are also approached. Good agreement between monochromatic wave-induced temperature pertur-bations and sodium concentration perturbations has also been found, and the wave parameters derived from temperature data and sodium concentration data are comparable. The good com-parison obtained in this paper not only validates the fundamental assumptions of gravity wave measurements from sodium concentration data, but also indicates our previous method and steps for gravity wave measurements from sodium concentration data are effective.

  7. Development of Disposable Sorbents for Chloride Removal from High-Temperature Coal-Derived Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Canizales, A.; Gupta, R.; Ayala, R.

    1996-12-31

    The integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle approach is an efficient process for producing electric power from coal by gasification, followed by high-temperature removal of gaseous impurities, then electricity generation by gas turbines. Alternatively, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) may be used instead of gas turbine generators. The coal gas must be treated to remove impurities such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), a reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas, which is produced during gasification from chloride species in the coal. HCl vapor must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipments such as fuel cells or gas turbines, and to minimize deterioration of hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate methods to fabricate reactive sorbent pellets or granules that are capable of reducing HCl vapor in high-temperature coal gas streams to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range 400{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C and the pressure range 1 to 20 atm; (2) testing their suitability in bench-scale fixed- or fluidized-bed reactors; (3) testing a superior sorbent in a circulating fluidized- bed reactor using a gas stream from an operating coal gasifier; and (4) updating the economics of high temperature HCl removal.

  8. Effect of sodium fluoride and stannous chloride associated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the progression of enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Joo-Souza, Samira Helena; Bezerra, Svio Jos Cardoso; Borges, Alessandra Bhler; Aranha, Ana Ceclia; Scaramucci, Tais

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the progression of enamel erosion after treatment with gels containing sodium fluoride (NaF; 9047 ppm F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2; 3000 ppm Sn), associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Sixty enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and protected by a tape, leaving an exposed surface area of 4??1 mm. The specimens were immersed in 1 % citric acid (pH?=?2.3) for 10 min to create an initial erosion lesion. After, they were randomly divided into six groups: (C) control: gel without active ingredient; (F): NaF gel; (F?+?Sn): NaF?+?SnCl2 gel; (laser): Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.5 W; 50 mJ; ?41.66 J/cm(2); 10 Hz; 40 s); (F?+?laser): NaF gel?+?Nd:YAG; (F?+?Sn?+?laser): NaF?+?SnCl2 gel?+?Nd:YAG. All gels had pH?=?4.5 and were applied for 1 min. Laser irradiation was performed after gel application. The specimens were then submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization cycling model using 1 % citric acid (pH?=?2.3), six times per day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was analyzed by optical profilometry in the end of the cycling (in ?m). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak tests (alpha?=?0.05). The control and the laser groups presented the highest enamel loss (means??SD?=?53.52??3.65 and 53.30??2.73, respectively), followed by F?+?Sn (44.76??2.83). The groups F (36.76??2.28), F?+?laser (36.25??3.59), and F?+?Sn?+?laser (39.83??4.62) showed the lowest enamel loss, with no significant difference among them (p?>?0.05). In conclusion, NaF by itself or associated with SnCl2 and Nd:YAG laser was able to reduce enamel erosion progression. Nd:YAG laser alone did not show a protective effect. PMID:26227298

  9. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J. Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2014-05-28

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  10. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-02-15

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism.

  11. Low temperature magnetoresistance and magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube/polyvinyl chloride composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasanthkumar, M. S.; Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Prasad, V.; Jayanna, H. S.

    2015-01-01

    We present the experimental results of temperature dependent magnetoresistance (MR) and the magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites with different wt% of MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that MWCNTs are encapsulated with rod-shaped iron nanoparticles of aspect ratio of ~3. The MR behavior of 1.9 wt% MWCNT/PVC sample shows dominance of forward scattering and wave function shrinkage whereas, weak localization and electron-electron interactions explain the MR data of higher wt% samples (9.1, 16.6 and 44.4 wt%). The composites of 4.7 and 9.1 wt% exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at all temperatures with room temperature coercivities of ~1036 and 628 Oe, respectively.

  12. Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System

    SciTech Connect

    Yongchun Tang; John Ma

    2012-03-23

    The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

  13. Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hélio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

    The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95°C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 ±0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94±0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08±0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80°C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65±0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80°C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

  14. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  15. Lithium based alloy-thionyl chloride cells for applications at temperatures to 200 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, P.; Marincic, N.; Epstein, J.; Lindsey, A.

    A long-life lithium battery for industrial applications at temperatures up to 200 C was developed by combining Li-based alloy anodes with oxyhalide electrolytes. Cathodes were fabricated by rolling the blend of polycarbonomonofluoride, a conductive carbon additive, and a binder, while anodes were fabricated as those used in oxyhalide cells, incorporating a modified anode current collector designed to prevent the formation of 'lithium islands' at the end of discharge; nonwoven glass fiber separators were pretreated to remove excessive binders and lubricants. Various active electrode surface areas were combined with a corresponding thickness of electrodes and separators, matched in capacity. Tests of the high-rate electrode structure, using Li-Mg alloy anode in conjunction with thionyl chloride electrolyte, have demonstrated that the battery with this anode can be used under abusive conditions such as short circuit and external heating (at 175 C). Raising the operating temperature to 200 C did require some modifications of regular cell hardware.

  16. Leaching of lead slag component by sodium chloride and diluted nitric acid and synthesis of ultrafine lead oxide powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yuehong; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Longguan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-05-01

    The compounds in lead slag are transformed into [PbCl4]2- in a mixed solution of HNO3 and NaCl, which is converted into PbC2O4 by the addition of sodium oxalate and polyethylene glycol dispersant. Novel lead oxides are prepared via a combustion-calcination process from lead oxalate precursor. Key properties of the new oxides, such as crystalline phases and morphology, have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that lead oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures comprise mainly α-PbO and β-PbO phases. In battery testing, the results reveal that the α-PbO phase exhibits higher initial capacity as positive active material, discharging about 150 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. While β-PbO yields a relatively improved cycle life, in 50 cycles, its capacity loss is 5%. Further work is being carried out with the aim to optimize the battery manufacturing process or to find out the optimum ratio of α-PbO to β-PbO in order to sustain high discharge capacity and acceptable cycle life.

  17. Catalytic liquefaction by zinc chloride melts at pre-pyrolysis temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeulen, T.; Onu, C.; Joyce, P.J.; Hershkowitz, F.; Grens, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Liquid-phase catalysts have proved effective for opening chemical linkages in subbituminous coal and capping the reactive segments with hydrogen atoms or other low-molecular-weight groups. The preferred temperature range is 275 to 325/sup 0/C (530 to 620/sup 0/F), so that the linkages are opened by controlled catalytic action rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably higher temperatures. The best catalyst melt compositions used to date are zinc chloride with 10% water together with tetralin, and zinc chloride with 15% methanol and 3% of zinc metal. Useful residence times range from 30 minutes, or less, to as high as 90 minutes. The products of the treatment have predominately low (300) to medium (3000) molecular weights, analogous to syncrudes and solvent-refined coal. Conversions to pyridine-soluble products of 95% or better are achieved with Wyodak Roland Seam coal, and to date as much as 70% of that coal has been recovered as toluene-solubles (oils and asphaltenes). A major benefit of these conversion conditions is the almost complete absence of by-product char or gas. At these lower temperatures the hydrogen pressures used can be less than in conventional liquefaction; for example, 40 atm rather than 100 atm or more. Hydrogen consumption is significantly lower than in conventional liquefaction; the product yield is higher; and simpler procedures are foreseen for product recovery. The research performed so far clearly shows the industrial potential of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in penetrating and interacting with the mild temperature and pressure of these studies.

  18. Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0.80, while at Q = 1400 l/s aRWT:aNaCl is 0.98 (Figure 1). We expect to expand the scope of our results by analyzing a larger set of experiments and exploring different modeling techniques of BTC tails. These results have implications for experimental design of conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

  19. Investigating the chemical composition of mixed organic-inorganic particles by "soft" vacuum ultraviolet photoionization: The reaction of ozone with anthracene on sodium chloride particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloaguen, Eric; Mysak, Erin R.; Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2006-12-01

    The ozone reaction with anthracene coated sodium chloride particles is measured by single photon ionization of the resulting volatilized gas phase molecules. To investigate in detail the organic fraction of particles, a vacuum ultraviolet aerosol mass spectrometer (VUV-AMS) has been developed at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. This instrument combines a thermal vaporization particle source with tunable synchrotron radiation. Since VUV is a "soft" ionization method, the roles of both the vaporization and ionization steps on the fragmentation patterns of C30H62 hydrocarbons are observed. Conditions can be found to obtain mass spectra without significant fragmentation of the molecules. This technique is used to characterize the products of the heterogeneous reaction of gas phase ozone with particle phase anthracene on size-selected sodium chloride particles, conducted in a flow tube experiment. The recorded fragment-free mass spectra show several new products from mono- to penta-oxygenated anthracene. The kinetics of the product formation and particle size measurements are simultaneously recorded, revealing that an increase of the particle size accompanies the formation of the products.

  20. Potential of salt-accumulating and salt-secreting halophytic plants for recycling sodium chloride in human urine in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Shklavtsova, E. S.; Balnokin, Yu. V.; Popova, L. G.; Myasoedov, N. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-07-01

    This study addresses the possibility of growing different halophytic plants on mineralized human urine as a way to recycle NaCl from human wastes in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). Two halophytic plant species were studied: the salt-accumulating Salicornia europaea and the salt-secreting Limonium gmelinii. During the first two weeks, plants were grown on Knop's solution, then an average daily amount of urine produced by one human, which had been preliminarily mineralized, was gradually added to the experimental solutions. Nutrient solutions simulating urine mineral composition were gradually added to control solutions. NaCl concentrations in the stock solutions added to the experimental and control solutions were 9 g/L in the first treatment and 20 g/L in the second treatment. The mineralized human urine showed some inhibitory effects on S. europaea and L. gmelinii. The biomass yield of experimental plants was lower than that of control ones. If calculated for the same time period (120 d) and area (1 m 2), the amount of sodium chloride taken up by S. europaea plants would be 11.7 times larger than the amount taken up by L. gmelinii plants (486 g/m 2 vs. 41 g/m 2). Thus, S. europaea is the better choice of halophyte for recycling sodium chloride from human wastes in BLSS.

  1. Dilution method study on the interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural parameters of W/O microemulsions stabilized by 1-pentanol and surfactants in absence and presence of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bidyut K; Nandy, Debdurlav

    2007-12-15

    The phase behaviors, interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural characteristics of water-in-oil microemulsions under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant (omega) at 303 K and also by varying temperatures at a fixed omega(=40) by mixing with 1-pentanol and decane or dodecane in absence and presence of sodium chloride have been studied by the method of dilution. The surfactants used were cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35). The compositions of 1-pentanol and the surfactant at the interfacial region, the distribution of 1-pentanol between the interfacial region and the continuous oil phase, and the effective packing parameter (P(eff)) at the threshold level of stability have been estimated. The thermodynamics of transfer of 1-pentanol from the continuous oil phase to the interface have been evaluated. The structural parameters viz. radii of the droplet (R(e)) and the waterpool (R(w)), effective thickness of the interfacial layer (d(I)), average aggregation numbers of surfactants (N (s)) and the cosurfactant (1-pentanol) (N (a)) and the number of droplets (N(d)) have also been estimated. The prospect of using these w/o microemulsions for the synthesis of nanoparticles with small size, have been discussed in the light of the radii of the droplet, and waterpool, the extent of variation of effective thickness of the droplet under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant and temperature. An attempt has been made to rationalize the results in a comprehensive manner. PMID:17904572

  2. Interaction of alkylmercuric compounds with sodium selenite. III. Biotransformation, levels of metallothioneinlike proteins and endogenous copper in some tissues of rats exposed to methyl or ethylmercuric chloride with and without sodium selenite.

    PubMed Central

    Brze?nicka, E A; Chmielnicka, J

    1985-01-01

    The biotransformation efficiency of alkylmercurial compounds was studied in rat liver, kidneys, blood, and brain after 2-week administration of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) and ethylmercuric chloride (EtHg) at doses of 0.25 or 2.5 mg Hg/kg, alone or in combination with sodium selenite (Se) at a level of 0.5 mg Se/kg. Simultaneously, the level of metallothioneinlike proteins (MTP) and endogenous copper (Cu) was monitored in tissues of control rats and intoxicated rats. Regardless of the dose, the highest concentrations of inorganic mercury from both the alkylmercurials was found in the rat kidneys. Sodium selenite had a variable effect on the amount of inorganic mercury liberated, depending on the organ and the molar ratio of Hg:Se administered. A statistically significant increase in the levels of MTP and endogenous Cu, compared with control group, was found only in the kidneys of intoxicated rats. This increase was dependent on the concentration of inorganic mercury liberated by biotransformation of alkylmercurials. The observed changes appeared when the level of inorganic mercury exceeded 10 micrograms Hg/g tissue and reached a plateau at about 40 micrograms Hg/g tissue. In the presence of selenium the plateau of MTP and Cu levels were no observed in the kidneys, regardless of the amount of inorganic mercury liberated. PMID:3928366

  3. Sodium and chloride requirements of young broiler chickens fed corn-soybean diets (one to twenty-one days of age).

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Rondn, E O; Murakami, A E; Furlan, A C; Moreira, I; Macari, M

    2001-05-01

    Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) nutritional requirements, dietary electrolyte balance (DEB), and their effects on acid-base balance, litter moisture, and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence for young broiler chickens were evaluated in two trials. One-day-old Cobb broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, five replicates, and 50 birds per experimental unit. Treatments used in both experiments were a basal diet with 0.10% Na+ (Experiment 1) or Cl- (Experiment 2) supplemented to result in diets with Na+ or Cl- levels of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, or 0.35%, respectively. In Experiment 1, results indicated an optimum Na+ requirement of 0.26%. Sodium levels caused a linear increase in arterial blood gas parameters, indicating an alkalogenic effect of Na+. The hypertrophic area of growth plate in the proximal tibiotarsi decreased with Na+ levels. The TD incidence decreased with increases in dietary Na+. Litter moisture increased linearly with sodium levels. In Experiment 2, the Cl- requirement was estimated as 0.25%. Chloride levels caused a quadratic effect (P < or = 0.01) on blood gas parameters, with an estimated equilibrium [blood base excess (BE) = 0] at 0.30% of dietary Cl-. No Cl- treatment effects (P > or = 0.05) were observed on litter moisture or TD incidence. The best DEB for maximum performance was 298 to 315 mEq/kg in Experiment 1 and 246 to 264 mEq/kg in Experiment 2. We concluded that the Na+ and Cl- requirements for optimum performance of young broiler chickens were 0.28 and 0.25%, respectively. PMID:11372708

  4. Symmetry breaking in a dense liquid: Why sodium melts at room temperature.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raty, Jean-Yves; Schwegler, Eric; Bonev, Stanimir

    2007-03-01

    The melting curve of sodium measured in [1] exhibits unusual features under pressure : the melting temperature, Tm, reaches a maximum around 30 GPa followed by a sharp decline from 1000 K to 300 K in the pressure range from 30 to 120 GPa. In this study, the structural and electronic properties of molten sodium are studied using first principles theory. With increasing pressure, liquid sodium initially evolves by assuming a more compact local structure, which accounts for the maximum of Tm at 30 GPas. However, at pressure around 65 gigapascals a transition to a lower coordinated structure takes place, driven by the opening of a pseudogap at the Fermi level. Remarkably, the broken symmetry liquid phase emerges at rather elevated temperatures and above the stability region of a closed packed free electron-like metal. The theory explains the measured drop of the sodium melting temperature, down to 300 kelvin at 105 GPas. [1] Gregoryantz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185502 (2005).

  5. Influence of temperature acclimatization on sodium--glucose interactions in the goldfish intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, M W

    1966-02-01

    1. Transmural potentials across goldfish intestines in vitro were found to depend on the acclimatization temperature of the fish. At any incubation temperature potentials were lower in fish kept previously at a high temperature, and if the transmural potentials were recorded at incubation temperatures equal to the previous acclimatization temperatures the values remained constant from 8 to 30 degrees C. The glucose-evoked potential was also reduced by previous acclimatization of the fish to a high temperature.2. As the sodium concentration was reduced the steady transmural potential increased and later fell in proportion to the low external sodium concentration, but the glucose-evoked potential fell as soon as the sodium concentration was reduced below 140 mM. Similar changes were seen with intestines taken from fish acclimatized to a high temperature but both the steady-state potential and the transitory glucose-evoked potential were more dependent on the external sodium concentration.3. The maximum glucose-evoked potential depended on the concentration of glucose used and temperature acclimatization had no significant effect on this relation. The steady potential was lower in the presence of glucose at low incubation temperatures but higher at higher incubation temperatures, and the temperature at which glucose ceased to inhibit depended on the previous acclimatization temperature. Glucose also lowered the steady potential, whatever the previous acclimatization temperature, when the external sodium concentration was low.4. The inhibitory effect of glucose on the steady potential of an intestine taken from a 30 degrees -acclimatized fish could be abolished by lowering the external concentration of glucose from 27 to 16 mM.5. Intestines taken from fish acclimatized to 3 degrees C gave variable results.6. It is concluded that sodium moves across the luminal membrane of the goldfish mucosa attached to a carrier which can exist in one of two forms. It is changes in this postulated carrier which serve to stabilize sodium transport at different acclimatization temperatures. Changes in the concentration of this postulated carrier may also occur and function in the regulation of sodium transport, particularly at acclimatization temperatures below 15 degrees C, where the switching of the carrier does not operate. PMID:5943001

  6. Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2009-06-01

    Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  8. Solvatochromic probe behavior within choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents: effect of temperature and water.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-12-18

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

  9. Cerium concentrate and mixed rare earth chloride by the oxidative decomposition of bastnaesite in molten sodium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Iijima, Toshio; Kato, Kazuhiro; Kuno, Toyohiko; Okuwaki, Akitsugu; Umetsu, Yoshiaki; Okabe, Taijiro )

    1993-04-01

    Bastnaesite was treated in molten NaOH at 623-777 K for 10-60 min under atmosphere. Cerium-(III) in the ore was easily oxidized 95% or more within 30 min to give an oxidation product composed of solid solutions of CeO[sub 2]-rich and CeO[sub 2]-lean phases and Ce-free rare earth oxide phase. Simultaneously fluoride ion was removed 97% or more. Cerium concentrate was prepared from the oxidation product by leaching with 0.1-3 M HCl solution. The yield of cerium concentrate and the CeO[sub 2] content reached 55-57% and 70-72%, respectively. Mixed rare earth chloride is composed of about 90% rare earth chloride and 10% alkaline earth chloride, and the contents of CeCl[sub 3], LaCl[sub 3], NdCl[sub 3], and PrCl[sub 3] are 11.5, 58.5, 14.4, and 5.4%, respectively. The particle size of resulting cerium concentrate was fairly uniform and about 0.1 [mu]m.

  10. The shape of the sodium D lines in a high-temperature helium atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was performed to measure the shape of the sodium resonance doublet (lambda 5890, lambda 5896) in a high-temperature helium atmosphere. A piston compressor was used to produce temperatures in the range 3000 K to 5500 K. Absorption-line widths and shifts are reported and the widths agree well with calculations.

  11. Combustion-engine Temperatures by the Sodium Line-reversal Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brevoort, Maurice J

    1936-01-01

    The sodium line-reversal method has been used in some preliminary measurements of flame temperature. Improvements in the method involving a photographic recorder and a means of correcting for the dirtiness of the windows are described. The temperatures so obtained are compared with those calculated from pressure diagrams.

  12. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate).

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Eduardo; Maestro, Armando; Llamas, Sara; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Jesús; Ortega, Francisco; Maroto-Valiente, Ángel; Rubio, Ramón G

    2016-01-01

    This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:26977377

  13. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Maestro, Armando; Llamas, Sara; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Jesús; Ortega, Francisco; Maroto-Valiente, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Summary This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:26977377

  14. Effect of sodium chloride on glassy and crystalline transitions of wheat starch treated with high hydrostatic pressure: Prediction of solute-induced barostability from nonmonotonic solute-induced thermostability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat starch was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated in various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0 to near-saturation), in order to explore the effects of salt on glassy and crystalline transitions of starch during the treatment, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For wheat st...

  15. Microscopic evidence of "necklace and bead"-like morphology of polymer-surfactant complexes: a comparative study on poly(vinylpyrrolidone)-sodium dodecyl sulfate and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-sodium dodecyl sulfate systems.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Surajit; Prajapati, Roopali; Bhattacharya, Arpan; Mukherjee, Tushar K

    2014-08-19

    Here, we report the microscopic evidence of "necklace and bead"-like morphology, which has long been the most widely accepted model for polymer-surfactant complexes. The lack of microscopic evidence of the initial complexation between surfactant and polymer has resulted in many contradictory reports in the literature. In this paper, we visualized these initial complexes formed between negatively charged surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with neutral poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) polymer through photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) using silicon quantum dot (Si QD) as an external PL marker. It is observed that, for the PVP-SDS system, SDS molecules bind at the hydrophobic sites on the random-coiled PVP chain through their hydrocarbon tails, while for the PDADMAC-SDS system, SDS head groups are associated with the positively charged nitrogen centers of the polymer, where the polymer chain wraps around the surfactant head groups. PMID:25105837

  16. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  17. Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

    2012-06-12

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

  18. Effects of thiosulfate on susceptibility of type 316 stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking in 3.5% aqueous sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Ashour, E.A.; Abd El Meguid, E.A.; Ateya, B.G.

    1997-08-01

    Effects of thiosulfate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility (S) of type 316 stainless steel were studied. Addition of sodium thiosulfate to 3.5% sodium chloride increased S of type 316 SS to SCC. A quantitative expression for S was given by: S = ((1{minus}(s(sol)/s(air))))(1{minus}(t(sol)/t(air))){sup 1/2} where s and t are the maximum stress and time to failure, respectively. Metallographic observations revealed the fracture mode changed from ductile to brittle for S > {approximately} 0.2. An increase in potential in the noble direction increased S significantly. An increase in Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration increased S at higher potentials but had no tangible effect around the free-corrosion potential ({approximately} 100 mV{sub NHE}). Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} also shifted the pitting potential of type 316 SS to more active values and led to formation of wider and more open pits.

  19. The effects of sodium oxybate on core body and skin temperature regulation in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Astrid; Donjacour, Claire E H M; Pijl, Hanno; Reijntjes, Robert H A M; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Lammers, Gert J; Van Someren, Eus J W; Fronczek, Rolf

    2015-10-01

    Patients suffering from narcolepsy type 1 show altered skin temperatures, resembling the profile that is related to sleep onset in healthy controls. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sodium oxybate, a widely used drug to treat narcolepsy, on the 24-h profiles of temperature and sleep-wakefulness in patients with narcolepsy and controls. Eight hypocretin-deficient male narcolepsy type 1 patients and eight healthy matched controls underwent temperature measurement of core body and proximal and distal skin twice, and the sleep-wake state for 24 h. After the baseline assessment, 2 × 3 g of sodium oxybate was administered for 5 nights, immediately followed by the second assessment. At baseline, daytime core body temperature and proximal skin temperature were significantly lower in patients with narcolepsy (core: 36.8 ± 0.05 °C versus 37.0 ± 0.05 °C, F = 8.31, P = 0.01; proximal: 33.4 ± 0.26 °C versus 34.3 ± 0.26 °C, F = 5.66, P = 0.03). In patients, sodium oxybate administration increased proximal skin temperature during the day (F = 6.46, P = 0.04) to a level similar as in controls, but did not affect core body temperature, distal temperature or distal-proximal temperature gradient. Sodium oxybate administration normalised the predictive value of distal skin temperature and distal-proximal temperature gradient for the onset of daytime naps (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sodium oxybate administration resulted in a partial normalisation of the skin temperature profile, by increasing daytime proximal skin temperature, and by strengthening the known relationship between skin temperature and daytime sleep propensity. These changes seem to be related to the clinical improvement induced by sodium oxybate treatment. A causal relationship is not proven. PMID:25913575

  20. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15C) and high temperature (HT; 28C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

  1. Dimethylammonium Trichlorocuprate(II): Structural Transition, Low-temperature Crystal Structure, and Unusual Two-magnetic Chain Structure Dictated by Non-bonding Chloride-chloride Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, Roger D.; Twamley, Brendan; Montfrooij, W.; Granroth, Garrett E; Nagler, Stephen E; Hall, Donavan W.; Park, Ju-Hyun; Watson, Brian C.; Meisel, Mark W.; Talham, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Catena(dimethylammonium-bis({mu}{sub 2}-chloro)-chlorocuprate), (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}CuCl{sub 3}, forms chains of Cu{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}{sup 2-} bifold dimers linked along the structural chain axis by terminal chlorides forming long semicoordinate bonds to adjacent dimers. The structural chains are separated by dimethylammonium ions that hydrogen bond to chloride ions of the dimers. A structural phase transition below room temperature removes disorder in the hydrogen bonding, leaving adjacent dimers along the chain structurally and magnetically inequivalent, with alternating ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic pairs. The coupled dimers are magnetically isolated from each other along the structural chain axis by the long semicoordinate Cu-Cl bond. However, the dimers couple to like counterparts on adjacent chains via nonbonding Cl {hor_ellipsis} Cl contacts. The result is two independent magnetic chains, one an alternating antiferromagnetic chain and the other an antiferromagnetic chain of ferromagnetically coupled copper dimers, which run perpendicular to the structural chains. This magnetostructural analysis is used to fit unusual low-temperature (1.6 K) magnetization vs field data that display a two-step saturation. The structural phase transition is identified with neutron scattering and capacitance measurements, and the X-ray crystal structures are determined at room temperature and 84 K. The results appear to resolve long-standing confusion about the origins of the magnetic behavior of this compound and provide a compelling example of the importance of two-halide magnetic exchange.

  2. Vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons by surfactant micelles. Final report, April 1, 1984-December 31, 1984. [Solubilization data for system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/ and 45/sup 0/C

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, S.D.; Tucker, E.E.

    1985-04-01

    This final report describes vapor pressure studies of the solubilization of hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives by aqueous micellar solutions. An automated vapor pressure apparatus and a manual apparatus incorporating a mercury-covered sintered-glass disk inlet valve were used to obtain highly precise data for the solubilization of hydrocarbons and aliphatic alcohols into aqueous solutions of the ionic surfactants sodium octylsulfate and n-hexadecylpyridinium chloride (cetylpyridinium chloride). A mass-action model based on a modification of the Poisson distribution equations has been developed and applied to data for the system benzene/sodium octylsulfate/sodium chloride/water at 15/sup 0/, 25/sup 0/, 35/sup 0/, and 45/sup 0/C. An excellent goodness of fit is achieved with the model. Tabulated experimental results (485 sets of activity and concentration data) are included in this report. 12 references, 2 figures.

  3. Reaction of Chlorine Nitrate with Hydrogen Chloride and Water at Antarctic Stratospheric Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

    1987-11-01

    Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) with H2O and hydrogen chloride (HCl) on surfaces that simulate polar stratospheric clouds [ice and nitric acid (HNO3)--ice and sulfuric acid] are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The reaction of ClONO2 on ice and certain mixtures of HNO3 and ice proceeded readily. The sticking coefficient of ClONO2 on ice of 0.009 0.002 was observed. A reaction produced gas-phase hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and condensed-phase HNO3; HOCl underwent a secondary reaction on ice producing dichlorine monoxide (Cl2O). In addition to the reaction with H2O, ClONO2 reacted with HCl on ice to form gas-phase chlorine (Cl2) and condensed-phase HNO3. Essentially all of the HCl in the bulk of the ice can react with ClONO2 on the ice surface. The gaseous products of the above reactions, HOCl, Cl2O, and Cl2, could readily photolyze in the Antarctic spring to produce active chlorine for ozone depletion. Furthermore, the formation of condensed-phase HNO3 could serve as a sink for odd nitrogen species that would otherwise scavenge the active chlorine.

  4. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825C to 1300C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

  5. Design of High Temperature Ultrasonic Linear Arrays for Under-Sodium Viewing

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Bond, Leonard J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2010-11-07

    This paper summarizes the design process for high temperature ultrasonic phased array transducers for imaging in liquid sodium at temperatures up to 260C. The project is funded by the USDOE Generation IV Reactor Program and includes collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency. The transducer system is being designed to be able to provide images inside a sodium cooled fast reactor, to support operation and maintenance activities including potentially location of looseor damaged parts during service outages. The prototype transducer array is being designed for 8 to 16, 3MHz rectangular lead niobate (K-81) or bismuth titanate (K-15) piezoelectric elements spaced at ?/2 (wavelength in sodium). A nickel or nickel alloy faceplate serves as the sodium wetting surface. Scan angle of the focused ultrasonic beam is 30 degrees. Imaging spatial resolution is ? 1mm. The array is designed to be operated using a commercial phased array control system and it is planned that array testing will be performed in room temperature water, hot oil (260C), and molten sodium (260C).

  6. Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

    2012-08-01

    We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China (31.5 N, 117 E). Patterned after the Colorado State University (CSU) narrowband sodium lidar with a dye laser-based transmitter, the USTC sodium temperature/wind lidar was deployed with a number of technical improvements that facilitate automation and ease of operation; these include a home constructed pulsed dye amplifier (PDA), a beam-steering system, a star-tracking program, and an electronic timing control. With the averaged power of ?1.2 W output from PDA and the receiving telescope diameter of 0.76 m, our lidar system has a power aperture product of ?0.55 Wm(2) and is comparable to the CSU and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) sodium lidar systems. The uncertainties of typical measurements induced by photon noise and laser locking fluctuation for the temperature and wind with a 2 km vertical and 15 min temporal resolutions under the nighttime clear sky condition are estimated to be ?1.0 K and ?1.5 m/s, respectively, at the sodium peak (e.g., 91 km), and 8 K and 10 m/s, respectively, at both sodium layer edges (e.g., 81 km and 105 km). The USTC narrowband sodium lidar has been operated regularly during the night since November 2011. Using the initial data collected, we demonstrate the reliability and suitability of these high resolution and precision datasets for studying the wave perturbations in the mesopause region. PMID:22859028

  7. Effects of stress and temperature on stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steels in concentrated magnesium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, X.C.; Staehle, R.W.

    1997-06-01

    Experimental data from published literature on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic stainless steels (SS) as influences by temperature and stress in concentrated chloride solutions were analyzed using the chemical-mechanical correlation model. Effects of stress and temperature on SCC were analyzed using 63 sets of data of times to failure (t{sub f}) from 17 references. The data followed a systematic pattern which was described by the chemical-mechanical correlation model. An equation of t{sub f} as a function of stress and temperature was developed using an environmental parameter {beta} that depends upon temperature, molybdenum concentration, and yield strength of the SS.

  8. Effect of temperature on accumulation of methylmercuric chloride and p,p'DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Willford, Wayne A.

    1974-01-01

    Amounts of mercury and DDT residues accumulated from water by yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the laboratory increased as water temperature increased. Fish exposed to methylmercuric chloride at concentrations of 234-263 parts per trillion for 12 wk at 5, 10, and 15 C accumulated 1.19, 1.71, and 1.96 ppm; fish exposed to p,p'DDT at concentrations of 133-176 parts per trillion accumulated 3.76, 5.93, and 6.82 ppm. Concentrations of mercury accumulated by the fish were significantly different (P < 0.01) at each of the three temperatures, and the concentrations of DDT were significantly different at 5 and 10 and 5 and 15 C. Throughout the period of exposure, the concentration factors (concentration of contaminant in the fish/concentration in water) at each of the three temperatures were far higher for p,p'DDT than for methylmercuric chloride.

  9. Temperature and concentration effects in electron-stimulated desorption of sodium atoms from sodium layers adsorbed on tungsten coated with a gold film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, V. N.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.; Potekhina, N. D.

    2008-08-01

    The yield and energy distributions of sodium atoms upon electron-stimulated desorption from sodium layers adsorbed on tungsten coated with a gold film are investigated for the first time as functions of the thickness of the gold film, the concentration of deposited sodium, and the surface temperature. It is found that the energy distributions exhibit two peaks, namely, a narrow peak with a maximum at about 0.15 eV, whose intensity continuously increases with increasing temperature, and a broad peak with a maximum at about 0.35 eV, whose intensity either decreases or remains constant with increasing temperature. It is shown that both peaks arise as a result of the same excitation, which gives rise to different channels of electron-stimulated desorption of sodium atoms. Possible mechanisms of electron-stimulated desorption and the kinetics of destruction of the surface coating are discussed.

  10. Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

    1993-09-01

    The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

  11. Purification and localization of brain-type creatine kinase in sodium chloride transporting epithelia of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D L; Roberts, R

    1992-02-25

    The targeting of creatine kinase isoenzymes to specific sites within muscle cells provides a system for the regeneration of ATP in situ from ADP and creatine phosphate. We have recently reported the colocalization of brain-type (B) creatine kinase and the nonsarcomeric mitochondrial creatine kinase isoenzymes in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle in the rat kidney, suggesting that creatine kinase may regenerate ATP for sodium transport (Friedman, D.L., and Perryman, M.B. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 22404-22410). In order to test the hypothesis regarding the association of B creatine kinase with sodium transport, we examined the creatine kinase enzymes in the rectal (salt-secreting) gland of the dogfish shark which contains high levels of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. The creatine kinase isoform composition was determined by non-denaturing electrophoresis, immunoblotting, protein purification, and amino acid sequence analysis. The results demonstrate both B creatine kinase and mitochondrial creatine kinase proteins are present in the rectal gland, an isoform composition which is the same as in the mammalian kidney. By using a combination of chromatographic techniques, shark B creatine kinase was purified to homogeneity and partial sequence data was obtained from two cyanogen bromide peptide fragments. One of these fragments contains the active site and is identical at all sequenced residues with the corresponding region from the echinoderm sperm flagellar creatine kinase, and is 96% homologous with both chicken and rat B creatine kinase subunits. The other fragment corresponds to a region near the N-terminal of mammalian creatine kinases and is 89% homologous with B creatine kinase from chicken. The localization of these isoforms was examined by immunocytochemistry using subunit specific antisera. Mitochondrial creatine kinase and B creatine kinase immunoreactivity are detected in all tubules, and is restricted to the basal region of the cells, which is the site of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. The conservation of creatine kinase isoform expression in excretory tissue, and the localization of creatine kinase immunoreactivity in the basal region of the tubule cells, demonstrate that subcellular compartmentation of B creatine kinase may underly the functional coupling of creatine kinase activity with sodium transport. PMID:1310991

  12. Comparison of the effects of isotonic and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solutions on acidemic calves experimentally induced by ammonium chloride administration.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Abe, Izumi; Asano, Ryuji

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the effects of intravenously (IV) administered infusion of isotonic solution (ISB) or hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solution (HSB) on acid-base equilibrium and the plasma osmolarity in acidemic calves experimentally induced by 5 M-NH(4)Cl, IV infusion (1.0 ml/kg, over 1 hr). The ISB and HSB infusion induced progressive and significant increases in their HCO(3)(-) and BE levels that persisted throughout the period of fluid administration. The plasma osmolarity in the ISB groups was significantly decreased. The plasma osmolarity in the HSB group was significantly higher than in the calves in the other groups (p<0.05). ISB solution might be safe and effective for treating and reviving conscious calves from experimentally induced metabolic acidosis. PMID:14709830

  13. Catalytic destruction of perchlorate in ferric chloride and hydrochloric acid solution with control of temperature, pressure and chemical reagents

    DOEpatents

    Gu, Baohua; Cole, David R.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2004-10-05

    A method is described to decompose perchlorate in a FeCl.sub.3 /HCl aqueous solution such as would be used to regenerate an anion exchange resin used to remove perchlorate. The solution is mixed with a reducing agent, preferably an organic alcohol and/or ferrous chloride, and can be heated to accelerate the decomposition of perchlorate. Lower temperatures may be employed if a catalyst is added.

  14. Superionic glass-ceramic electrolytes for room-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Noi, Kousuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Innovative rechargeable batteries that can effectively store renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, urgently need to be developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes and electrodes are promising power sources for a wide range of applications because of their safety, long-cycle lives and versatile geometries. Rechargeable sodium batteries are more suitable than lithium-ion batteries, because they use abundant and ubiquitous sodium sources. Solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state sodium batteries. Here we show that stabilization of a high-temperature phase by crystallization from the glassy state dramatically enhances the Na(+) ion conductivity. An ambient temperature conductivity of over 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained in a glass-ceramic electrolyte, in which a cubic Na(3)PS(4) crystal with superionic conductivity was first realized. All-solid-state sodium batteries, with a powder-compressed Na(3)PS(4) electrolyte, functioned as a rechargeable battery at room temperature. PMID:22617296

  15. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the cheese cracker. We detected significantly lower yeast counts for nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) at 4mo compared with control (regular) salt (1, 1.5 and 2%). We detected no mold growth in any of the treatments at any time. At 4mo, we found no significant differences in sensory color, aroma, crunchiness, overall liking, or acceptability scores of cheese crackers using 1.5 and 1% nano spray-dried salt compared with control. Therefore, 25 to 50% less salt would be suitable for cheese crackers if the particle size of regular salt was reduced 3 log to form nano spray-dried salt. A 3-log reduction in sodium chloride particle size from regular salt to nano spray-dried salt increased saltiness, but a 1-log reduction in salt size from Microsized salt to nano spray-dried salt did not increase saltiness of surface-salted cheese crackers. The use of salt with reduced particle size by nano spray drying is recommended for use in surface-salted cheese crackers to reduce sodium intake. PMID:26142862

  16. Na2S-carbon nanotube fabric electrodes for room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-03-01

    A unique sodium sulfide (Na2S) cathode is developed, which will allow the use of sodium-free anodes for room-temperature sodium-sulfur (Na-S) batteries. To overcome the "inert" nature of the Na2S, a special cathode structure is developed by spreading the multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-wrapped Na2S particles onto MWCNT fabrics. Spectroscopic and electrochemical analyses reveal a series of polysulfide intermediates involved in the charge/discharge of the cell. The Na-S battery prepared in full discharge state with the Na2S/MWCNT cathode provides a remarkable capacity of 500?A?h?kg(-1) (based on sulfur mass) after 50?cycles. PMID:25640023

  17. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Sug Lee, Hyo; Han, Young-Kyu; Hwan Park, Jong; Hwan Jeon, Jae; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Jae Kim, Ki; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-08-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153?mAh g-1 based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3?V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system.

  18. Behavior of UO2 and fissium in sodium vapor atmosphere at temperatures up to 2800 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, H.; Oschinski, J.

    1986-11-01

    An experimental technique was developed to study the behavior of fuel and fission products in out-of-pile tests in a sodium vapor atmosphere. Evaporation rates of UO2 were measured up to 2800 C. The evaporation is found to depend on temperature and the active surface. Evaporation restructures the surface of the samples, however no new active surface is formed; UO2 can form well shaped crystals and curious erosion products. The efficiency of the used condenser/filter lines is 99.99%. In an HCDA, all the evaporated substances condense in the sodium pool. Thermal reduction of the UO2 reduces the oxygen potential of the system. The final composition at 2500 C is UO1.95. The only influence of the sodium vapor is found for the diffusion of UO2 into the thoria of the crucible. Compared with experiments in an atmosphere of pure argon, the diffusion rate is reduced.

  19. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350?C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150?C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95?C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation. PMID:25081362

  20. Highly Reversible Room-Temperature Sulfur/Long-Chain Sodium Polysulfide Batteries.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingwen; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2014-06-01

    In a room-temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) battery, the complicated reduction reaction of the sulfur cathode generally involves two main steps: (i) transformation of elemental sulfur into long-chain soluble sodium polysulfides (Na2Sn 4 ≤ n ≤ 8) and (ii) conversion of the long-chain sodium polysulfides into solid-state short-chain polysulfide Na2S2 or disulfide Na2S. It is found that the slow kinetics of the second step limits the efficiency of discharge and induces irreversible capacity loss during cycling. Accordingly, we present here a RT Na-S cell operated with the sulfur/long-chain sodium polysulfide redox couple to avoid the capacity fade. An advanced cathode structure has been developed by inserting a carbon nanofoam interlayer between the sulfur cathode and the separator to localize the soluble polysulfide species and prevent its migration to the anode. The highly reversible sulfur/long-chain sodium polysulfide cell presented here can provide a stable output energy density of 450 Wh kg(-1) at an extremely low energy cost of ∼$10 kWh(-1) (based on the active material of anode and cathode). PMID:26273877

  1. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR THE COMBINED EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, AND SODIUM DIACETATE ON THE HEAT RESISTANCE OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN BEEF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of heating temperature (60 - 73.9C), sodium lactate (NaL; 0.0 - 4.8%, w/w) and/or sodium diacetate SDA; 0.0 - 0.25%, w/w) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Thermal death times were determined...

  2. Predictive thermal inactivation model for effects and interactions of temperature, NaCl, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of heating temperature (60 to 73.9C), salt (0.0 to 4.5% w/v), sodium pyrophosphate (0.0 to 0.5% w/v), and sodium lactate (0.0 to 4.5% w/v) on the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Meat samples in st...

  3. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  4. Evidence of a two-step process and pathway dependency in the thermodynamics of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(sodium acrylate) complexation.

    PubMed

    Vitorazi, L; Ould-Moussa, N; Sekar, S; Fresnais, J; Loh, W; Chapel, J-P; Berret, J-F

    2014-12-21

    Recent studies have pointed out the importance of polyelectrolyte assembly in the elaboration of innovative nanomaterials. Beyond their structures, many important questions on the thermodynamics of association remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the complexation between poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PANa) chains using a combination of three techniques: isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), static and dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis. Upon addition of PDADMAC to PANa or vice-versa, the results obtained by the different techniques agree well with each other, and reveal a two-step process. The primary process is the formation of highly charged polyelectrolyte complexes of size 100 nm. The secondary process is the transition towards a coacervate phase made of rich and poor polymer droplets. The binding isotherms measured are accounted for using a phenomenological model that provides the thermodynamic parameters for each reaction. Small positive enthalpies and large positive entropies consistent with a counterion release scenario are found throughout this study. Furthermore, this work stresses the importance of the underestimated formulation pathway or mixing order in polyelectrolyte complexation. PMID:25347132

  5. Effect of linear nonionic polymer additives on the kinetic stability of dispersions of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecylsulfate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pojjk, Katalin; Fegyver, Edit; Mszros, Rbert

    2013-08-13

    In this article, the impact of different neutral polymers on the kinetic stability of charge-stabilized poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)/sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) colloidal dispersions is analyzed using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, turbidity, and coagulation kinetics measurements. Poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and dextran of comparable molecular masses as well as a higher-molecular-weight dextran sample were tested as nonionic additives. The light scattering and mobility data indicate that the PEO and PVP molecules may adsorb on the surface of the PDADMAC/SDS nanoparticles formed in the presence of excess surfactant. The primary effect of these additives is manifested in enhanced coagulation of the PDADMAC/SDS nanoparticles due to bridging at lower polymer concentrations and depletion flocculation at higher polymer concentrations. These findings are in sharp contrast to the earlier published effect of the same nonionic polymers on the poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)/SDS colloidal dispersions, which can be sterically stabilized at appropriate PEO or PVP concentrations. However, the adsorption of the investigated dextran samples is negligible on the PDADMAC/SDS nanoparticles. Therefore, dextran molecules may cause only depletion flocculation in the PDADMAC/SDS system in the vicinity of the critical overlap concentration. PMID:23869814

  6. Corrosion resistance of AA6063-Type Al-Mg-Si alloy by silicon carbide in sodium chloride solution for marine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fayomi, Ojo Sunday Isaac; Abdulwahab, Malik; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Asuke, Ferdinand

    2015-12-01

    The present work focused on corrosion inhibition of AA6063 type (Al-Mg-Si) alloy in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with a silicon carbide inhibitor, using the potentiodynamic electrochemical method. The aluminium alloy surface morphology was examined, in the as-received and as-corroded in the un-inhibited state, with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The results obtained via linear polarization indicated a high corrosion potential for the unprotected as-received alloy. Equally, inhibition efficiency as high as 98.82% at 10.0 g/v silicon carbide addition was obtained with increased polarization resistance ( R p), while the current density reduced significantly for inhibited samples compared to the un-inhibited aluminium alloy. The adsorption mechanism of the inhibitor aluminium alloy follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. This shows that the corrosion rate of aluminium alloy with silicon carbide in NaCl environment decreased significantly with addition of the inhibitor.

  7. Evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in an alkaline NaCl solution with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and lanthanum chloride inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Biner; Wang, Yishan; Zuo, Yu

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in 0.58 g L-1 NaCl solution (pH 10) with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and lanthanum chloride inhibitors was studied with electrochemical and surface analysis methods. With the addition of the compounded LaCl3 and SDBS inhibitors, in the early stage the polarization behavior of AA 2024-T3 changed from active corrosion to passivation, and both the general corrosion and pitting corrosion were inhibited. However, with the immersion time extended, the passive behavior gradually disappeared and pitting happened at the Cu-rich phases. After 24 h immersion, the compounded inhibitors still showed good inhibition for general corrosion, but the polarization curve again presented the characteristic similar to active polarization. The compounded inhibitors also inhibited the pitting corrosion to some extent. The acting mechanism of the inhibitors SDBS and La3Cl on the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in the test solution was discussed.

  8. Water-soluble copolymers. XLV. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Salazar, L.C. )

    1993-05-10

    Water-soluble, low charge density polyampholytes have been synthesized by free-radical terpolymerization of acrylamide (AM) with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC). Terpolymer compositions obtained by [sup 13]C0NMR reflect monomer feed concentrations. Molecular weights and second virial coefficients range from 3.43 to 19.4 [times] 10[sup 6] g/mol and from 1.63 to 3.61 mL mol/g[sup [minus]2], respectively, as determined by low-angle laser light scattering. Ionic associations were explored by investigating the dilute solution properties as a function of terpolymer concentration, terpolymer charge density, and added electrolytes. Terpolymers with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mol% of both of the cationic (AMTAC) and anionic (NaAMB) monomers were soluble in deionized water, whereas those with 10 and 15 mol% of each monomer required electrolyte addition. The higher-density terpolymers undergo a 700% increase in intrinsic viscosity upon changing NaCl concentration from 0.05 to 1M. Polyelectrolyte behavior could be induced by decreasing solution pH below the pK[sub a] of the NaAMB mer. Intermolecular ionic associations resulting in gel networks were studied utilizing dynamic mechanical analysis.

  9. Effects of Trisodium Phosphate and Sodium Chloride Dipping on the Microbial Quality and Shelf Life of Refrigerated Tray-packaged Chicken Breasts

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim; Samejima, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    Effects of trisodium phosphate (TSP) and/or sodium chloride (NaCl) dipping on microbial quality and shelf life of chicken breasts were investigated during refrigeration. Chicken breasts were dipped in aqueous solution (w/v) of 10% TSP, 10% NaCl, combination of TSP and NaCl (7.5% + 7.5%) or distilled water (control) for 10 min, followed by tray-packaging storage at 2°C. During storage, chicken breasts dipped in TSP maintained almost constant pH, while pH of control or NaCl-treated samples significantly increased (P<0.05). TSP dipping resulted in initial reduction of 0.48 and 0.91 log10 CFU/g in aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae count, respectively, when compared with control. By storage day 6, APC of control chicken breasts reached 6.91 log10 CFU/g, while TSP-treatment either alone or in combination with NaCl significantly delayed microbial growth (P<0.05) and extended shelf life of refrigerated chicken breasts up to 12 days, at which APC were 6.87 and 6.39, respectively, versus 9.58 log10 CFU/g for control. Significant reductions in psychrotrophic and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected at the end of storage period in chicken breasts treated with TSP alone or in combination with NaCl, whereas such treatments had no significant effects on lactobacilli or mold and yeast populations. PMID:17330156

  10. Worst case aerosol testing parameters. I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.A.; Moyer, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called ''worst case'' set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory.

  11. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Kartnaller, Vinicius; Mariano, Danielly C O; Cajaiba, João

    2016-03-01

    The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite has been known for its application as a source of heat because of its large enthalpy of reaction, for which it has been used by the oil industry. There have been no known calorimetric studies for the experimental determination of its molar enthalpy of reaction, which is necessary in order to predict the limits achieved for up-scale applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and reaction calorimetry were used to determine this value by using a simple methodology. Both techniques were used concomitantly as a source of information regarding the time-dependent moles converted (Δn) and the amount of exchanged heat (ΔH). The molar enthalpy of reaction was calculated to be -74 ± 4 kcal mol(-1). The percentage between the confidence interval and the calculated value was 5.4%, which shows that the methodology was precise. After the determination of the molar enthalpy of reaction, it was proved that the ATR FT-IR alone was able to be used as a substitute for the reaction calorimetry technique, in which the IR signal is converted to the heat information, presenting as an easier technique for the monitoring of the heat released by this system for future applications. PMID:26798078

  12. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103–104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 21% of those measured by reference instruments for polydisperse aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +130% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. PMID:23473056

  13. Size-selective DNA separation: recovery spectra help determine the sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations required.

    PubMed

    He, Zhangyong; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Min; Gu, Hongchen

    2014-10-01

    In the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), DNA fragments can be size-selectively separated by varying the final concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This separation strategy in combination with the use of paramagnetic particles provides a valuable platform for achieving the desired DNA size interval, which is important in automated library preparation for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Here, we report the establishment of recovery spectra of DNA fragments that enable the determination of suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective separation. Firstly, at a given NaCl concentration, the recovery equation was obtained by fitting the DNA recovery ratios versus the PEG concentrations using the logistic function to determine the required parameters. Secondly, the slope function of the recovery equation was achieved by deducing its first derivative. Therefore, the recovery spectrum can be generated using the slope function based on those parameters. According to the recovery spectra of different length DNA fragments, suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations can be determined, respectively, by calculating their resolution values and recovery ratios. The strategy was effectively applied to the size-selective separation of 532-, 400-, and 307-bp fragments at the selected reagent concentrations with recoveries of 96.9, 64.7, and 85.9%, respectively. Our method enables good predictions of NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective DNA separation. PMID:25044673

  14. The study of the varying characteristics of cathodic regions for defective coating in 3.5% sodium chloride solution by EIS and WBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijie; Wang, Jia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The current distributions over carbon steel under iron red alkyd primer exposed to 3.5% sodium chloride solution were mapped using the wire beam electrode (WBE). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the WBE was carried out to analyze the performance of coating delamination and corrosion behavior of carbon steel beneath defective coating. The EIS data revealed that protective capability of coating decreased with immersion time and the degree of cathodic delamination showed a rapid rise. The current density distribution of WBE indicated that cathodic sites was located at the defect at the beginning of immersion and gradually spread into the intact coating. The cathodic regions were distinguished from the anodic area and distributed over the WBE. The changes of cathodic sites could reflect the deterioration process of defective coating. The cathodic area ratio was a more useful parameter than the cathodic delamination degree to evaluate the coating cathodic delamination. The polarity reversals of electrodes at the defect and beneath coating were observed. A simple discussion of relationship between the blister and the polarity reversal was made from a standpoint of electrochemical distribution. WBE method was able to map and record the changes of local cathodic sites beneath defective coating in real time, which could provide more detailed information about the local degradation of coating.

  15. "Worst case" aerosol testing parameters: I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Stevens, G A; Moyer, E S

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called "worst case" set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory. PMID:2729101

  16. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Addist, P B; Schoenbeck, H J; Pullen, M; Katsanidis, E; Yancey, E J

    2003-01-01

    Grain-finished Hereford x Angus steers (n = 36) were assigned to one of three treatmentgroups. Immediately after jugular exsanguination, 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the left carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend (MPSC); 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight with 0.30 M CaCl2 (CaCl2); and 12 steers were exsanguinated conventionally and served as noninfused controls (CON). Declines in pH for three muscles were measured. CaCl2-infused carcasses exhibited extensive muscle contraction at the time of cooler entry. Carcasses were graded at 24 h postmortem and fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were removed, vacuum packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut from the LL and ST for shear force and sensory evaluations. Ground beef was formulated from the QF to contain 20% fat. Steers infused with MPSC and CaCl2 had 4.0 and 2.3% higher dressing percentage points, respectively, than CON steers. Calcium concentrations of the LL muscle for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses, as well as the CON carcasses, were 892.0, 158.9, and 216.6 ppm, respectively. For the TB and longissimus thoracis muscles, pH decline was more rapid for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses than for CON carcasses, but there were no differences in 24-h pH. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were much higher (P < 0.05), and descriptive attribute sensory panel tenderness scores much lower (P < 0.05), for the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses than for MPSC-infused and CON carcasses. Flavor intensity of the LL of CaCl2-infused carcasses was reduced (P < 0.05); however, overall tenderness and flavor of the ST were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CaCl2 infusion. Beef flavor identification, brown-roasted flavor, and bloody/serumy flavor were lowest and soapy/chemical flavor was highest (P < 0.05) for both freshly cooked and warmed-over LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses. There were no distinct meat quality advantages for infusing cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates. Infusion with 0.30 M CaCl2 increased dressing percentage, but caused severe muscle contraction early postmortem, decreased LL tenderness markedly, and reduced flavor of LL steaks and ground beef. PMID:12597386

  17. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented. PMID:18491938

  18. A metal mixture lowers the reaction temperature of copper chloride as shown using in situ quick XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanino, Yuta; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2009-11-01

    Trace chlorinated organic compounds are generated via thermal processes. Their formation is promoted by copper chloride in solid phase such as fly ash, especially in the post-combustion zone in municipal solid waste incineration. Previously, we reported the chemical state and change of copper chloride in a single model using the in situ quick scan x-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS). However, a real solid phase, which is a complex system involving many elements, was not simulated. In this paper, we measured the Cu-K XAFS of a metal-mixture model upon heating to discuss the effect of mixing. The in situ QXAFS technique revealed that the reaction temperature of copper was lower, compared with the single model, when a mixture was measured. The result shows that the formation mechanism of chlorinated organic compounds derived from anthropogenic thermal sources can be described more correctly.

  19. Effect of heat stable and heat labile Escherichia coli enterotoxins and cholera toxin in combination with theophylline on unidirectional sodium and chloride flux in the small intestine of weanling swine.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, D L; Forsyth, G W; Roe, W E; Nielsen, N O

    1978-01-01

    The effect of heat stable and heat labile Escherichia coli enterotoxins or cholera toxin in combination with theophylline on net water, sodium and chloride and unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes was examined in acute isolated loops of jejunum of weanling swine. The effect of heat stable enterotoxin in combination with theophylline was determined in loops located in the proximal jejunum, while combinations of theophylline and either heat labile enterotoxin or cholera toxin were studied in the distal jejunum. In each situation the addition of theophylline resulted in an additive rather than a synergistic increment of intestinal secretory activity. This study implies that the intestinal adenyl cyclase system and enterotoxin induced intestinal secretion may not be directly related in the swine small intestine. PMID:356942

  20. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  1. Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D.; Mulcahy, B. A.

    1943-01-01

    A thermocouple was installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was then tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 F was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 rpm. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

  2. Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J C; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of a thermocouple installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 degrees F. was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 r.p.m. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear-spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

  3. Molecular structure and dynamics of an aqueous sodium chloride solution in nano-pores between portlandite surfaces: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Dongshuai, Hou; Zeyu, Lu; Peng, Zhang; Qingjun, Ding

    2016-01-21

    Portlandite plays an important role in the hydration phase of cement-based materials and influences the strength and durability of such materials. This study describes a molecular dynamics study of the structure and dynamics of water and ions confined at ambient temperature in calcium hydroxyl nanopores with widths of 35 Å. Strong layering of water in the vicinity of the (001) surface of portlandite demonstrates special structural features such as large density, good orientation preference, ordered interfacial organization and low diffusion rate. Due to the fixed vibration and rotation of the hydroxyl groups at the interface, water molecules within the first adsorbed layer adopt both H-downward and H-upward orientations by donating H-bonds and accepting H-bonds from the OH groups in the solid surface. Regarding the interaction of the ions and portlandite, Na(+) ions, deeply rooted in spaces in the surface hydroxyl groups, are significantly slowed and remain near the surface for long periods of time. On the other hand, due to the weak H-bonds formed by chloride ions and hydroxyl groups, adsorbed chloride ions near the surface cannot remain for longer times. In addition, when water and ions are confined in the nano-pores, the residence time for the ion-water and ion-ion clusters is lengthened so that the ion adsorption capability of the porlandite surface is enhanced due to the stable Na-Cl connections in the electrolyte solution. PMID:26687688

  4. The influence of drinking water containing sodium chloride on performance and eggshell quality of a modern, colored layer strain.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Balnave, D

    2001-01-01

    Hubbard ISA IsaBrown pullets were purchased from a commercial supplier at 16 wk of age and kept at a constant 18 C or a constant 30 C in temperature-controlled rooms. The purpose of our experiment was to determine the effect of ambient temperature on the eggshell quality responses of laying hens receiving saline drinking water with or without simultaneous supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid or Zn methionine. Four treatments were investigated: 1) a basal layer diet (C) and local drinking water, 2) diet C and local drinking water containing 2 g NaCl/L, 3) diet C containing 200 mg ascorbic acid/kg and local drinking water containing 2 g NaCl/L, and 4) diet C with 360 mg Zinpro 100 (Zn methionine)/kg and local drinking water containing 2 g NaCl/L. The local drinking water contained <1 mmol Cl/ L. The pullets received a continuous daily photoperiod of 16 h from fluorescent lighting, and production measures were made between 20 and 60 wk of age. Production and eggshell quality were significantly reduced at 30 C compared with 18 C but were not significantly affected by the dietary and water treatments. The results indicated that the IsaBrown hens were relatively insensitive to intakes of NaCl from the drinking water at concentrations of 2 g/L. This lack of sensitivity in eggshell quality contrasts with the majority of published reports, including earlier work with local Australian layer strains. It is suggested that this contrasting sensitivity may relate to the concentration of dietary NaCl used during the selection of layer genotypes. PMID:11214342

  5. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  6. Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestergaard, B.

    1992-09-01

    A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

  7. Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganitesA potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Suresh, K. G.

    2014-03-03

    Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300?K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5?Jkg{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} was observed near 300?K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300?K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300?K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62?K at 280?K.

  8. Management of metal chlorides in high temperature processes--application to the nuclear wastes treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemont, Florent

    2012-04-30

    Thermal processes are now the benchmark for the destruction of some waste whose toxicity requires special attention and management. Over many years the Commissariat l'nergie Atomique (French atomic energy commission) has developed technologies to process radioactive waste containing many metals together with chlorine, and thus with a major risk of producing volatile chlorides with potentially catastrophic effects on plant facilities. To mitigate these difficulties in an incineration process for radioactive waste contaminated by plutonium (IRIS), the CEA has investigated the processes by which potentially hazardous compounds are produced in order to eliminate them or prevent their formation. The studies have led to propose a phosphate-based stabilization technique thanks to an addition of phosphorus in the waste. Through a reaction occurring in gas phase, the metals are stabilized under a phosphate form when the formation of volatiles chlorides is avoided. While this technique has substantially improved process maintenance and security, it has revealed other difficulties related to potentially large phosphate deposits capable to cause unacceptable pressure drops detrimental to the gas flow conditions. This article describes the results of recent studies seeking to prevent the formation of volatile chlorides and phosphate deposits liable to obstruct the system flow lines. PMID:22365141

  9. Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of β"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

  10. Temperature dependent structural and spectroscopic studies of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Gesing, Thorsten M.; Schmidt, Burkhard C.; Murshed, M. Mangir

    2010-11-15

    We report on temperature dependent crystal structures of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite Na{sub 8}[GaSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} between 293 and 973 K. The crystal structures were refined from X-ray powder data Rietveld refinements in the space group P4-bar 3n. The gallium and silicon atoms on the tetrahedral framework positions are totally ordered. The nitrite anion was found slightly away from the center of the sodalite cage, which is tetrahedrally surrounded by four sodium atoms. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was calculated from the lattice expansion data. The change of the geometries of the framework has been observed on heating the polycrystalline sample, that is, T-O bond lengths slightly decreased, T-O-T angle non-linearly increased, tilt of the TO{sub 4} tetrahedra decreased (framework untwist) and their tetragonal tetrahedral distortion decreased with some scatterings. Of particular note, the tetragonal tetrahedra distortion of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra approached close to zero at higher temperatures, which points to a distortion direction to a relaxed state of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra on heating. The mobility of sodium atoms above 600 K leads to different sodium content in some sodalite cages and results in the appearance of different domains. The consequence of this domain formation to the strain of the crystalline system and to the average crystals size have been explained. Both Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra showed typical absorption bands of nitrite sodalite. The change of the frequency shift and full-width at half-maximum of some selected bands has been studied as function of temperature.

  11. Variable Temperature Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Benzoic Acid Desorption from Sodium and Calcium Montmorillonite Clays.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Tara M; Ingram, Audrey L; Maraoulaite, Dalia K; White, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Processes involved in thermal desorption of benzoic acid from sodium and calcium montmorillonite clays are investigated by using variable temperature diffuse reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). By monitoring the temperature dependence of infrared absorbance bands while heating samples, subtle changes in molecular vibrations are detected and employed to characterize specific benzoic acid adsorption sites. Abrupt changes in benzoic acid adsorption site properties occur for both clay samples at about 125 C. Difference spectra absorbance band frequency variations indicate that adsorbed benzoic acid interacts with interlayer cations through water bridges and that these interactions can be disrupted by the presence of organic anions, in particular, benzoate. PMID:26647147

  12. Surface Phonon Dispersion Curves of Rubidium Chloride, Potassium Bromide, Rubidium Bromide and Sodium Iodide Studied by Inelastic Helium Atom Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Gung

    The alkali halide surfaces were the first for which full surface phonon dispersion curves were measured. Most of the early work was mainly concerned with the low-energy modes for the lighter alkali halides, such as LiF and NaF, and a full survey of a more representative sampling of these crystals was never made. A recent theoretical calculation has also suggested that relaxation effects might provide interesting features on the surface phonon modes especially for the optical modes of the heavier compounds. The work of this dissertation is an effort to measure the surface dynamics of other, usually heavier, alkali halide crystals. This work describes measurements on the surfaces of RbCl(001), RbBr(001), KBr(001), and NaI(001) with the inelastic He atom scattering technique. The energy gain or loss and the momentum change is measured by the time of flight method. For the four crystals, the surface phonon dispersion curves are obtained along both high symmetry directions. The general agreement between the theory and the experimental results is very good. Some new features of the surface vibration have been found. First, the optical mode, crossing resonance and acoustic modes were clearly seen from the KBr surface over the entire zone. The strong interaction coupling between the He and the optical mode is rather unique. Secondly, crossing resonances (S_8 mode) were observed for the KBr, RbBr and NaI surfaces. This observation suggests that this mode is a general feature of all the alkali halide surfaces. The origin of this mode might be due to the perpendicular polarized bulk acoustic motion. Thirdly, NaI results show that bound-state resonance effects could strongly enhance the bulk mode especially when there is a high density of phonon states. Finally, there is no experimental evidence supporting any surface relaxation effects. In fact, the experimental results seem to agree better with the unrelaxed calculations. In addition to the inelastic scattering measurements, we also did angular distribution, low pressure He beam scattering and a temperature-dependent dynamical study. Information such as the surface corrugation, He-surface potential, bound state energies, the surface Debye-Waller temperature and a measure of multi-phonon contributions can be obtained from these experimental results.

  13. Numerical modeling of two-phase flow in the sodium chloride-water system with applications to seafloor hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Kayla C.

    In order to explain the observed time-dependent salinity variations in seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids, quasi-numerical and fully numerical fluid flow models of the NaCl-H2O system are constructed. For the quasi-numerical model, a simplified treatment of phase separation of seawater near an igneous dike is employed to obtain rough estimates of the thickness and duration of the two-phase zone, the amount of brine formed, and its distribution in the subsurface. Under the assumption that heat transfer occurs mainly by thermal conduction it is shown that, for a two-meter wide dike, the maximum width of the two phase zone is approximately 20 cm and that a zone of halite is deposited near the dike wall. The two-phase zone is mainly filled with vapor. After 13 days, the two-phase zone begins to disappear at the base of the system, and disappears completely by 16 days. The results of this simplified model agree reasonably well with transient numerical solutions for the analogous two-phase flow in a pure water system. The seafloor values of vapor salinity given by the model are compared with vapor salinity data from the "A" vent at 9-10N on the East Pacific Rise and it is argued that either non-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior or near-surface mixing of brine with vapor in the two-phase region may explain the discrepancies between model predictions and data. For the fully numerical model, the equations governing fluid flow, the thermodynamic relations between various quantities employed, and the coupling of these elements together in a time marching scheme is discussed. The thermodynamic relations are expressed in terms of equations of state, and the latter are shown to vary both smoothly and physically in P-T-X space. In particular, vapor salinity values near the vapor-liquid-halite coexistence surface are shown to be in strong agreement with recently measured values. The fully numerical model is benchmarked against previously published heat pipe and Elder problem simulation results, and is shown to be largely in agreement with those results. Additionally, code output from an approximately one-dimensional scenario is compared to the analytic solution of the classical one-dimensional thermal advection-diffusion equation, and it is found that the numerical output and analytic solution are in strong agreement. A number of simulation results are presented in the context of two-phase flow and phase separation within the framework of the single pass model, a model that has been shown to be useful in the study of seafloor hydrothermal systems. It is found that a quasi-stable two-phase (liquid + vapor) zone at depth below the hydrothermal discharge outlet gives rise to vent fluid with lower than normal seawater salinity. Additionally, it is shown that increasing the spatial extent of the two-phase zone can lower vent fluid salinity, even with the average temperature of the two-phase zone held constant. As the two-phase zone evolves, brine of high salinity and density collects at the bottom of the system and is held there primarily via the effect of vapor on the liquid phase's relative permeability; however, it is found that lowering the temperature of the heat source until the two-phase zone vanishes and allowing the system to evolve for some time results in the flushing of this brine from the system. The resulting pattern of vent fluid salinities resembles that described in a widely held conceptual model of vent fluid salinity variation in seafloor hydrothermal systems, where low salinity fluids emerge from venting systems during early stages, and high salinity fluids emerge at later stages as brine is flushed from the system. The effect of varying the permeability is investigated, and it is found that peaks in vent fluid salinities occur later in time for lower permeabilities than one might expect for a simple linear relationship. Finally, it is argued that the numerical approach used in this thesis may be able to explain the vent fluid salinities and temperatures found at the Main Endeavour Vent Field on the Juan de Fu

  14. Anisometric Polyelectrolyte/Mixed Surfactant Nanoassemblies Formed by the Association of Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Dodecyl Maltoside.

    PubMed

    Plazzotta, Beatrice; Fegyver, Edit; Mszros, Rbert; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2015-07-01

    The soluble complexes of oppositely charged macromolecules and amphiphiles, formed in the one-phase concentration range, are usually described on the basis of the beads on a string model assuming spherelike bound surfactant micelles. However, around and above the charge neutralization ionic surfactant to polyion ratio, a variety of ordered structures of the precipitates and large polyion/surfactant aggregates have been reported for the different systems which are difficult to connect to globular-like surfactant self-assembly units. In this article we have demonstrated through SAXS measurements that the structure of precipitates and those of the soluble polyion/mixed surfactant complexes of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and dodecyl-maltoside (DDM) are strongly correlated. Specifically, SDS binds to the PDADMAC molecules in the form of small cylindrical surfactant micelles even at very low SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios. In this way, these anisometric surfactant self-assemblies formed in excess polyelectrolyte mimic the basic building units of the hexagonal structure of the PDADMAC/SDS precipitate and/or suspensions formed at charge equivalence or at higher SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios. The presence of DDM reduces the cmc and cac for the system but does not alter significantly the structure of the complexes in either the one-phase or two-phase region. The only exception is for samples at SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios close to charge neutralization and a high concentration of DDM where the precipitate forms a multiphasic or distorted hexagonal structure. PMID:26057578

  15. Stability of sufentanil and levobupivacaine solutions and a mixture in a 0.9% sodium chloride infusion stored in polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Jäppinen, Annaliisa; Turpeinen, Miia; Kokki, Hannu; Rasi, Anu; Ojanen, Tarja; Pelkonen, Olavi; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2003-05-01

    We have evaluated the chemical and microbiological stability of sufentanil citrate, levobupivacaine hydrochloride and a mixture in a 0.9% sodium chloride infusion in order to provide background information on the storage of a sufentanil-levobupivacaine mixture in polypropylene (PP) syringes. Chemical assays were performed by HPLC on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 8, 14, 23, 28 and 30 after storage at 4, 21, and 36 degrees C. Microbiological stability was evaluated under aseptic conditions using a laminar air flow station, with a grade A environment and a B background. The samples taken for microbiological analysis were collected immediately after preparation of the solutions and then after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days storage. At 4 degrees C the sufentanil citrate solution was stable for 23 days. At 21 degrees C the sufentanil citrate solution maintained chemical stability for 3 days, but thereafter the concentration of sufentanil decreased 15% from day 3 to day 8. At 36 degrees C a similar decrease was noticed from day 1 to day 3. On the contrary, the levobupivacaine hydrochloride solution maintained chemical stability for 28 days at 4 and 21 degrees C and for 23 days at 36 degrees C. The sufentanil-levobupivacaine mixture maintained chemical stability for 28 days at 4, 21 and 36 degrees C. The sufentanil and levobupivacaine solutions and the mixture studied maintained microbiological stability for 28 days. According to the chemical and microbiological stability studies, the sufentanil-levobupivacaine mixture in PP syringes could be stored for 28 days at 4 and 21 degrees C. PMID:12729859

  16. Effects of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, and cetylpyridinium chloride on dentin hypersensitivity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate (KNO3) as its main component, along with sodium fluoride (NaF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The primary endpoint was the relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) against the cold stimuli. The effects on other DH tests and periodontal inflammation were also evaluated. Methods We used a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. A total of 82 patients with DH (40 in the test group, 42 placebo controls) were analyzed using visual analog scales (VASs) for a cold test, a tactile test, a compressive air test, and self-reported pain during daily activities, as well as clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index (mSBI), gingival recession, and probing depth, which were collected at baseline and after four and six weeks of mouthwash use. Results VAS scores for cold sensations, tactile sensations, the compressive air test, and self-reported pain significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks in both groups (P<0.01), and no significant differences between the groups were found. In male patients (10 in the test group and 7 in the control group), both groups showed significant reductions in VAS scores for the cold test over the six weeks, and greater reductions were found in the test group than in the control group between four and six weeks (P=0.01) and between baseline and six weeks (P<0.01). In addition, the mSBI in the test group significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks (P<0.01), and the changes at four and six weeks from baseline were significantly greater in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions A mouthwash containing a mixture of KNO3, NaF, and CPC reduced DH and gingival inflammation, however, the efficacy was comparable to the control group. PMID:26937293

  17. Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J.; Kim, H.P.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

  18. Concomitant administration of sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulphonate (DMPS) and diphenyl diselenide reduces effectiveness of DMPS in restoring damage induced by mercuric chloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Brando, Ricardo; Borges, Lysandro Pinto; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2009-08-01

    The effect of combined therapy with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2) and sodium 2,3-dimercapto-propane-1-sulphonate (DMPS) against alterations induced by mercury (Hg(2+)) was evaluated. Mice were exposed to mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)) (1mg/kg, subcutaneously) for two weeks. After that, mice received (PhSe)(2) (15.6 mg/kg), or DMPS (12.6 mg/kg), or a combination of both for one week. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), ascorbic acid and Hg(2+) levels and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities were carried out in kidney. Hematological parameters, plasmatic bilirubin, uric acid, urea and creatinine levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. (PhSe)(2) or DMPS restored the increase in LDH activity and TBARS, bilirubin, uric acid, urea and creatinine levels caused by HgCl(2). The levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit reduced by HgCl(2) exposure were restored by (PhSe)(2) or DMPS administration in mice. Leukocyte and platelet counts modified by HgCl(2) exposure were restored by (PhSe)(2) or DMPS therapy. DMPS restored the increase in Hg(2+) levels induced by exposure to HgCl(2). Concomitant administration of (PhSe)(2) and DMPS reduced the effectiveness of DMPS in restoring damage induced by HgCl(2). Combined therapy with (PhSe)(2) and DMPS was less effective than isolated therapies in restoring the damage induced by HgCl(2) in mice. PMID:19406194

  19. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    PubMed

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis. PMID:20738803

  20. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50mM NaCl but increased in 100mM and 150mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen. PMID:23000814

  1. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-01-01

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. PMID:26637600

  2. Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2013-12-10

    Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.833.2, 403.5107.9, and 239.321.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of <195.9 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of freshwater aspiration and that of >282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.840.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings. PMID:24314517

  3. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <10(3); Medium, 10(3)-10(4); and High, >10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.]. PMID:23473056

  4. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jacob A; Bugbee, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The use of LED technology is commonly assumed to result in significantly cooler leaf temperatures than high pressure sodium technology. To evaluate the magnitude of this effect, we measured radiation incident to and absorbed by a leaf under four radiation sources: clear sky sunlight in the field, sunlight in a glass greenhouse, and indoor plants under either high pressure sodium or light emitting diodes. We then applied a common mechanistic energy-balance model to compare leaf to air temperature difference among the radiation sources and environments. At equal photosynthetic photon flux, our results indicate that the effect of plant water status and leaf evaporative cooling is much larger than the effect of radiation source. If plants are not water stressed, leaves in all four radiation sources were typically within 2C of air temperature. Under clear sky conditions, cool sky temperatures mean that leaves in the field are always cooler than greenhouse or indoor plants-when photosynthetic photon flux, stomatal conductance, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and leaf size are equivalent. As water stress increases and cooling via transpiration decreases, leaf temperatures can increase well above air temperature. In a near-worst case scenario of water stress and low wind, our model indicates that leaves would increase 6, 8, 10, and 12C above air temperature under field, LED, greenhouse, and HPS scenarios, respectively. Because LED fixtures emit much of their heat through convection rather than radiative cooling, they result in slightly cooler leaf temperatures than leaves in greenhouses and under HPS fixtures, but the effect of LED technology on leaf temperature is smaller than is often assumed. Quantifying the thermodynamic outputs of these lamps, and their physiological consequences, will allow both researchers and the horticulture industry to make informed decisions when employing these technologies. PMID:26448613

  5. Analysis of Environmental Effects on Leaf Temperature under Sunlight, High Pressure Sodium and Light Emitting Diodes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The use of LED technology is commonly assumed to result in significantly cooler leaf temperatures than high pressure sodium technology. To evaluate the magnitude of this effect, we measured radiation incident to and absorbed by a leaf under four radiation sources: clear sky sunlight in the field, sunlight in a glass greenhouse, and indoor plants under either high pressure sodium or light emitting diodes. We then applied a common mechanistic energy-balance model to compare leaf to air temperature difference among the radiation sources and environments. At equal photosynthetic photon flux, our results indicate that the effect of plant water status and leaf evaporative cooling is much larger than the effect of radiation source. If plants are not water stressed, leaves in all four radiation sources were typically within 2°C of air temperature. Under clear sky conditions, cool sky temperatures mean that leaves in the field are always cooler than greenhouse or indoor plants-when photosynthetic photon flux, stomatal conductance, wind speed, vapor pressure deficit, and leaf size are equivalent. As water stress increases and cooling via transpiration decreases, leaf temperatures can increase well above air temperature. In a near-worst case scenario of water stress and low wind, our model indicates that leaves would increase 6°, 8°, 10°, and 12°C above air temperature under field, LED, greenhouse, and HPS scenarios, respectively. Because LED fixtures emit much of their heat through convection rather than radiative cooling, they result in slightly cooler leaf temperatures than leaves in greenhouses and under HPS fixtures, but the effect of LED technology on leaf temperature is smaller than is often assumed. Quantifying the thermodynamic outputs of these lamps, and their physiological consequences, will allow both researchers and the horticulture industry to make informed decisions when employing these technologies. PMID:26448613

  6. Microstructural Evolution and Grain Boundary Structure During Static Recrystallization in Synthetic Polycrystals of Sodium Chloride Containing Saturated Brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urai, J.; Schenk, O.

    2003-12-01

    The effects of brine on recrystallization processes in halite are well known from nature and experiment. However, the detailed properties of the brine such as morphology, connectivity, diffusivity and their resulting influences on deformation mechanisms are still a matter of debate. This paper presents a microstructural study of dense, statically recrystallizing synthetic polycrystalline halite containing small amounts of brine. We used powders of two different grain size classes: <10 ? m and 200-355 ? m. The aggregates were compacted to brine-filled porosities less than about 2% and annealed at room temperature, without an external stress field. Coarse-grained samples undergo recrystallization manifested by the growth of large (up to 300 ? m) strain-free grains into the deformed old grains. The new grains are frequently euhedral, with mobile grain boundaries moving at rates up to 6 nm/s. Their mobility is interpreted to be high due to the presence of water. Grain surfaces are smooth and the width of the water-rich zones is usually below the resolution of the SEM (less than 50 nm). The evolution of fine-grained samples starts with primary recrystallization and a reorganization of grain boundaries. After this stage which lasts a few hours, normal grain growth effectively stops, and no significant increase of grain size is observed even after several months. Microstructural observations indicate contact healing at the grain boundaries, with dihedral angles ranging between 20 and 110 . We interpret these boundaries to be fluid-free, with the brine residing in a network of triple junction tubes. This system of triple junctions is interconnected and associated with significant permeability. While grain growth is inhibited in the fine-grained samples, after a few hours of annealing exaggerated grain growth is commonly initiated. This is manifested by the growth of large, euhedral grains replacing the fine-grained matrix. These grains also grow with low-index facets and their boundaries are also interpreted to be mobile due to the existence of a water-rich phase.

  7. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the Federal State of Lower Saxony and industry partner Baker Hughes Celle.

  8. Solvent and temperature effects on ion association and mobility of 2,6-lutidinium chloride in non-aqueous solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Leito, R. E.; Martins, F.

    Molar conductivity values (?m) of 2,6-lutidinium chloride at ten different concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 0.01 mol dm-3, in several solvents and temperatures are reported for: seven solvents (dimethyl sulphoxide, acetonitrile, propylene carbonate, N,N-dimethylacetamide, ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-butanol) at five different temperatures (60.00, 65.00, 70.00, 75.00 and 80.00C) and three additional solvents (nitromethane, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-ethoxyethanol) at 60.00C. Molar conductivities at infinite dilution ( ), association constants (KA) and respective errors are also determined. The temperature dependence of ILM0002 and KA shows positive, negative and negligible trends. ILM0003 versus viscosity plots reveal a breakdown of Walden's rule. KA is markedly dependent on the solvent's features, revealing strong deviations from the predictions of classical dielectric theories. It is reasoned that specific ion-solvent-solvent interactions may play an important role.

  9. DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

    2005-12-01

    The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

  10. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Lee, Hyo Sug; Han, Young-Kyu; Park, Jong Hwan; Jeon, Jae Hwan; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g(-1) based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na-SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system. PMID:26243052

  11. A room-temperature sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based nonflammable inorganic liquid catholyte

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Hansu; Sug Lee, Hyo; Han, Young-Kyu; Hwan Park, Jong; Hwan Jeon, Jae; Song, Juhye; Lee, Keonjoon; Yim, Taeeun; Jae Kim, Ki; Lee, Hyukjae; Kim, Young-Jun; Sohn, Hun-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Sodium rechargeable batteries can be excellent alternatives to replace lithium rechargeable ones because of the high abundance and low cost of sodium; however, there is a need to further improve the battery performance, cost-effectiveness, and safety for practical use. Here we demonstrate a new type of room-temperature and high-energy density sodium rechargeable battery using an SO2-based inorganic molten complex catholyte, which showed a discharge capacity of 153 mAh g−1 based on the mass of catholyte and carbon electrode with an operating voltage of 3 V, good rate capability and excellent cycle performance over 300 cycles. In particular, non-flammability and intrinsic self-regeneration mechanism of the inorganic liquid electrolyte presented here can accelerate the realization of commercialized Na rechargeable battery system with outstanding reliability. Given that high performance and unique properties of Na–SO2 rechargeable battery, it can be another promising candidate for next generation energy storage system. PMID:26243052

  12. Temperature dependence of non-electrolyte and sodium permeability in giant axon of squid

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Cecilia; Latorre, Ramón

    1970-01-01

    1. The efflux of [14C]urea was measured in micro-injected axons at 18° C. A permeability constant for urea of (0·55 ± 0·18) × 10-6 cm/sec was calculated from these experiments. 2. The influxes of urea, thiourea, ethylene glycol, urethane and toluene were measured in perfused axons at 18 ± 1° C. The permeability constants obtained from these determinations increased in the order listed, from (0·76 ± 0·19) × 10-6 cm/sec for urea to 0·80 × 10-4 cm/sec for toluene. 3. The influxes of tritiated water and sodium ions at 18° C were measured in perfused axons. An average permeability of (0·78 ± 0·22) × 10-4 cm/sec for titriated water and an average influx of 23 ± 6 p-mole/cm2 sec for sodium were obtained. 4. Lowering the temperature of the external sea-water bathing the axon from 18 to 5° C produced a decrease of 12% in the permeability of toluene, 30% for tritiated water and urethane, 55% for ethylene glycol and urea and 60% for thiourea. There was a 50% reduction in the influx of sodium for this same temperature change. 5. The results obtained with the effect of temperature on permeabilities suggest that the axonal membrane has a non-homogeneous composition. A model based on the assumption of structured aqueous channels in the membrane is postulated. PMID:5500990

  13. Role of second-sphere coordination in anion binding: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structure of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride hydrogen phthalate trihydrate and sodium hexaamminecobalt(III) benzoate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Raj Pal; Bala, Ritu; Sharma, Rajni; Kariuki, B. M.; Rychlewska, Urszula; War?ajtis, Beata

    2005-06-01

    In an effort to utilize [Co(NH 3) 6] 3+cation as a new host for carboxylate ions, orange coloured crystalline solids of composition [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 8H 5O 4) 23H 2O ( 1) and Na[Co(NH 3) 6](C 7H 5O 2) 4H 2O ( 2) were obtained by reacting hot aqueous solutions of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride with potassium hydrogen phthalate and sodium benzoate in 1:3 molar ratio, respectively. The title complex salts were characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic studies (IR, UV/Visible and NMR). Single crystal X-ray structure determinations revealed the formation of second-sphere coordination complexes based on hydrogen bond interactions. In complex salt 1 only two out of three ionisable chloride ions present in [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl 3 were replaced by two CHO4- ions whereas in complex salt 2 all the three ionisable chloride ions present in [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl 3 were replaced and the final product was an adduct with another mole of sodium benzoate in solid state. The crystal lattice is stabilized by electrostatic forces of attraction and predominantly N-H⋯O interactions.

  14. Sensory neuron sodium channel Nav1.8 is essential for pain at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Leffler, Andreas; Babes, Alexandru; Cendan, Cruz Miguel; Carr, Richard W; Kobayashi, Jin-ichi; Nau, Carla; Wood, John N; Reeh, Peter W

    2007-06-14

    Sensory acuity and motor dexterity deteriorate when human limbs cool down, but pain perception persists and cold-induced pain can become excruciating. Evolutionary pressure to enforce protective behaviour requires that damage-sensing neurons (nociceptors) continue to function at low temperatures. Here we show that this goal is achieved by endowing superficial endings of slowly conducting nociceptive fibres with the tetrodotoxin-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) Na(v)1.8 (ref. 2). This channel is essential for sustained excitability of nociceptors when the skin is cooled. We show that cooling excitable membranes progressively enhances the voltage-dependent slow inactivation of tetrodotoxin-sensitive VGSCs. In contrast, the inactivation properties of Na(v)1.8 are entirely cold-resistant. Moreover, low temperatures decrease the activation threshold of the sodium currents and increase the membrane resistance, augmenting the voltage change caused by any membrane current. Thus, in the cold, Na(v)1.8 remains available as the sole electrical impulse generator in nociceptors that transmits nociceptive information to the central nervous system. Consistent with this concept is the observation that Na(v)1.8-null mutant mice show negligible responses to noxious cold and mechanical stimulation at low temperatures. Our data present strong evidence for a specialized role of Na(v)1.8 in nociceptors as the critical molecule for the perception of cold pain and pain in the cold. PMID:17568746

  15. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P < 0.05) of SSS treatment time. Immersion of samples for 10 or 20 s in SSS resulted in pathogen reductions of 0.8 to 0.9 and 1.1 to 1.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Results of the second study showed that there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between antimicrobial type and storage time. Efficacy against Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings. PMID:26555519

  16. Effect of photodynamic therapy combined with torasemide on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 1 in rat peritumoral edema and glioma

    PubMed Central

    LI, BO; MENG, CHAO; ZHANG, XUFENG; CONG, DAMIN; GAO, XIN; GAO, WANLONG; JU, DONGHUI; HU, SHAOSHAN

    2016-01-01

    Peritumoral edema is a key stage in the infiltration and recurrence of glioma. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) increases the extent of peritumoral edema, which leads to a decrease in the effectiveness of PDT in treating glioma. The present study evaluated the effects of PDT combined with torasemide on the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 and sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter (NKCC) 1 in peritumoral edema regions of rat glioma. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with rat glioma C6 cells, and the presence of glioma was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging 7 days subsequent to injection. The rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=15): Control group, the rats received no treatment; PDT group, the rats received PDT at 80 J/cm2 for 10 min; torasemide group, the rats received 5 mg/kg torasemide intraperitoneally; and PDT + torasemide group, the rats received 5 mg/kg torasemide intraperitoneally for 3 days following PDT at 80 J/cm2 for 10 min. A total of 5 rats from each group were sacrificed 21 days following injection and the peritumoral edema tissues were harvested. MMP2 and NKCC1 expression levels were detected in the tissues using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The mRNA expression levels of MMP2 and NKCC1 were observed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Peritumoral edema was measured using a wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio, and survival times of the remaining 10 rats in each group were evaluated. Compared with the control group, tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the PDT group and the survival time was prolonged through a reduction in the expression of MMP2 (P<0.05), and an increased W/D ratio resulted in significantly increased expression of NKCC1 (P<0.05). Compared with the PDT group, the expression of NKCC1 and the W/D ratio in the PDT + torasemide group were significantly decreased (P<0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the expression levels of MMP2. In conclusion, PDT combined with torasemide prolonged the survival time of rats by inhibiting the growth of glioma through a reduction in the expression of MMP2, and by reducing peritumoral edema through a reduction in the expression levels of NKCC1. PMID:26998126

  17. Temperature dependent van der Pauw-Hall measurements on sodium doped single crystalline cadmium telluride

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Faisal R.

    2015-03-21

    In this report, results of the temperature dependent electrical conductivity measurements conducted on single crystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe), containing sodium (Na) impurities are presented and discussed. The electrical conductivity measurements were conducted using an apparatus that allowed the implementation of a standard van der Pauw-Hall effect technique through which the electrical resistivity, concentration of majority carriers, as well as the carrier mobility were determined for temperatures ranging between 24 K and 350 K. Over this temperature range, the electrical resistivity was observed to change by 7 orders of magnitude. Hall measurements showed that the hole concentration at 300 K was ∼3 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup –3} and the hole mobility at the same temperature was ∼80 cm{sup 2}/V s. Measuring the concentration of holes as a function of the sample temperature enabled the estimation of the acceptor energy level with respect to the valence band maximum to be ∼60 meV. The same data also revealed the potential presence of a compensating donor level. Furthermore, the hole mobility was also analyzed over the entire temperature range and the data revealed that above 100 K, the carrier mobility was dominated by the scattering of holes from lattice vibrations.

  18. New layered metal oxides as positive electrode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Lin-Qin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Quan

    2015-03-01

    In order to achieve better Na storage performance, most layered oxide positive electrode materials contain toxic and expensive transition metals Ni and/or Co, which are also widely used for lithium-ion batteries. Here we report a new quaternary layered oxide consisting of Cu, Fe, Mn, and Ti transition metals with O3-type oxygen stacking as a positive electrode for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The material can be simply prepared by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route and delivers a reversible capacity of 94 mAh/g with an average storage voltage of 3.2 V. This paves the way for cheaper and non-toxic batteries with high Na storage performance. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51222210 and 11234013) and the One Hundred Talent Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Zinc chloride catalysis in coal and biomass liquefaction at prepyrolysis temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Onu, C.O.; Vermeulen, T.

    1980-06-01

    Coal liquefaction processes currently under development operate with thermal decomposition of coal. This step is nonselective, and wastefully forms light hydrocarbon gases and refractory char as byproducts. It requires severe operating conditions (over 400/sup 0/C and 100 atm.), giving rise to high capital costs, and relatively low thermal efficiencies. In the present study, coal liquefaction has been investigated under milder, more selective conditions, utilizing a zinc chloride-methanol melt as a liquid-phase catalyst. Operating at 275/sup 0/C with 35 to 55 atm. of H/sub 2/, this catalytic medium has been found to give over 95% conversion of Wyodak subbituminous coal to solvent-extractible, but not yet truly liquid, products. The products are identified in a standard manner as oils, asphaltenes, and preasphaltenes, with hydrogen-to-carbon atomic ratios in the ranges of 1.2 to 1.4, 1.0 to 1.1, and 0.8 to 0.9, respectively.

  20. Analysis of self-broadened pure rotational and rovibrational lines of methyl chloride at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, C.; Jacquemart, D.; Lacome, N.; Guinet, M.; Cuisset, A.; Eliet, S.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Rohart, F.; Buldyreva, J.

    2013-02-01

    Rovibrational absorption spectra of methyl chloride in the spectral region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1 were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A multispectrum fitting procedure was used to analyze 527 transitions of the ?1 band and to retrieve the self-broadening coefficients for various J- and K-values with an estimated accuracy around 8%. Pure rotational transitions of CH3Cl in the submillimeter/terahertz region (0.2-1.4 THz) were also investigated using two complementary techniques of frequency-multiplication and continuous-wave photomixing. Forty-three pure rotational self-broadening coefficients were extracted with the accuracy between 3 and 5%. The whole set of measured values was used to model the J- and K-rotational dependences of the self-broadening coefficients by second-order polynomials. In addition, semi-classical calculations were performed, based on the real symmetric-top geometry of the active molecule, an intermolecular potential model including not only the dominant electrostatic but also the short-range forces, as well as on an exact classical treatment of the relative translational motion of the colliding partners. Comparison of all experimental and theoretical results shows similar rotational dependences and no significant vibrational dependence, so that extrapolations to other spectral regions should be straightforward.

  1. Electrolytic Deposition and Diffusion of Lithium onto Magnesium-9 Wt Pct Yttrium Bulk Alloy in Low-Temperature Molten Salt of Lithium Chloride and Potassium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hanwu; Wu, Yaoming; Wang, Lidong; Wang, Limin

    2009-10-01

    The electrolytic deposition and diffusion of lithium onto bulk magnesium-9 wt pct yttrium alloy cathode in molten salt of 47 wt pct lithium chloride and 53 wt pct potassium chloride at 693 K were investigated. Results show that magnesium-yttrium-lithium ternary alloys are formed on the surface of the cathodes, and a penetration depth of 642 ?m is acquired after 2 hours of electrolysis at the cathodic current density of 0.06 Acm-2. The diffusion of lithium results in a great amount of precipitates in the lithium containing layer. These precipitates are the compound of Mg41Y5, which arrange along the grain boundaries and hinder the diffusion of lithium, and solid solution of yttrium in magnesium. The grain boundaries and the twins of the magnesium-9 wt pct yttrium substrate also have negative effects on the diffusion of lithium.

  2. Prolonged exposure of mixed aerobic cultures to low temperature and benzalkonium chloride affect the rate and extent of nitrification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeongwoo; Tezel, Ulas; Li, Kexun; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

    2015-03-01

    The combined effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and prolonged exposure to low temperature on nitrification was investigated. Ammonia oxidation at 22-24C by an enriched nitrifying culture was inhibited at increasing BAC concentrations and ceased at 15 mg BAC/L. The non-competitive inhibition coefficient was 1.50.9 mg BAC/L. Nitrification tests were conducted without and with BAC at 5mg/L using an aerobic, mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying culture maintained at a temperature range of 24-10C. Maintaining this culture at 10C for over one month in the absence of BAC, resulted in slower nitrification kinetics compared to those measured when the culture was first exposed to 10C. BAC was degraded by the heterotrophic population, but its degradation rate decreased significantly as the culture temperature decreased to 10C. These results confirm the negative impact of quaternary ammonium compounds on the nitrification process, which is further exacerbated by prolonged, low temperature conditions. PMID:25544497

  3. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350 °C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150 °C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95 °C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

  4. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  5. Temperature dependence of the nonexponential decay of photoproduced N,N,Nscript,Nscript-tetramethylbenzidine cation radicals in sodium dodecylsulfate micelles: Determination of activation energy distributions and relation to dynamic cooperativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plonka, Andrzej; Kevan, Larry

    1985-05-01

    The temperature dependence of the decay of photoproduced N,N,N',N'-tetramethylbenzidine cation radicals (TMB+) in sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micellar solutions was studied with and without added sodium chloride. The distributions of activation energies g(E) associated with the lifetime distributions f(?) for the cation radical decay were determined. The f(?) distributions over a range of 287 to 328 K were determined from the inverse Laplace transform of the radical cation decay curves described by [TMB]/[TMB]0=exp[-t/?0)?]. The g(E) distributions show a maximum at about 1.5 of the theoretical potential energy maximum for single bond rotation in isolated hydrocarbon chains which is consistent with values estimated for constrained environments. This supports the importance of cooperativity as the origin of time dependent decay of embedded species in constrained environments such as micelles.

  6. Low-temperature NMR characterization of reaction of sodium pyruvate with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Asmus, Christopher; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schneich, Christian

    2015-02-12

    It was proposed that the reaction of sodium pyruvate and H2O2 generates the intermediate 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate, which converts into acetate, CO2, and H2O ( Aleksankin et al. Kernenergie 1962 , 5 , 362 - 365 ). These conclusions were based on the products generated in (18)O-enriched water and H2O2 reacting with pyruvic acid at room temperature; however, the lifetime of 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate at room temperature is too short for direct spectroscopic observation. Therefore, we applied the combination of low-temperature and (13)C NMR techniques to verify, for the first time, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate in mixtures of D2O and methanol-d4 and to monitor directly each species involved in the reaction between D2O2 and (13)C-enriched pyruvate. Our NMR results confirm the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate, where the respective chemical shifts are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At near-neutral apparent pD (pD*) and -35 C, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate occurred with k = 2.43 10(-3) dm(3)mol(-1)s(-1). The subsequent decomposition of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate into acetate, CO2, and D2O occurred with k = 2.58 10(-4) s(-1) at -35 C. In order to provide a full kinetic analysis, we also monitored the equilibrium of pyruvate and methanol with the hemiacetal (2-deuteroxy-2-methoxypropanoate). The kinetics for the reaction of sodium pyruvate and D2O2 were fitted by taking into account all these equilibria and species. PMID:25587753

  7. The effects of inorganic chloride on the partitioning and speciation of heavy metals in a laboratory incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, K.Y.; Wang, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The effects of inorganic chloride on the partitioning and speciation of heavy metals during waste incineration, considering different chloride contents, combustion temperatures, and metal concentrations in the wastes were examined using a tube furnace. The results indicated that heavy metal partitioning was fundamentally affected by the sodium chloride content, combustion temperature, and the volatility of the heavy metals and their compounds. The volatility was enhanced by increasing the combustion temperature and sodium chloride content in the waste. A higher combustion temperature and sodium chloride content in the waste tended to partition the metals into the fly ash or flue gases by forming volatile metal chlorides. The analysis of heavy metal species analysis for the incinerator ashes showed that most metal compounds were formed as oxides. Crystalline phase identification identified, the compounds, PbO, NaCl and KCl, in the fly ash, and ZnO, Zn(OH){sub 2}, NaCl, KCl, Pb{sub 2}O{sub 3}, as well as elemental copper, lead, and zinc in the bottom ash. The formation of NaCl and KCl in both the fly and bottom ash may be explained by the stronger affinity of Na and K to the spiked chloride.

  8. EBR-II secondary sodium loop Plugging Temperature Indicator control system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.B.; Gehrman, R.L.

    1995-06-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary sodium coolant loop Plugging Temperature Indicator (PTI) control system was upgraded in 1993 to a real-time computer based system. This was done to improve control, to remove obsolete and high maintenance equipment, and to provide a graphical CRT based operator interface. A goal was to accomplish this inexpensively using small, reliable computer and display hardware with a minimum of purchased software. This paper describes the PTI system, the upgraded control system and its operator interface, and development methods and tools. The paper then assesses how well the system met its goals, discusses lessons learned and operational improvements noted, and provides some recommendations and suggestions on applying small real-time control systems of this type.

  9. Sodium sulfate - Vaporization thermodynamics and role in corrosive flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, F. J.; Stearns, C. A.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    Mass spectrometer experiments were conducted to determine the thermodynamic properties of gaseous Na2SO4, and these data were used in a computer program to calculate equilibrium flame compositions and temperatures for representative turbine engine and burner rig flames. The work is important in that sodium sulfate is the major phase recovered from turbine surfaces after instances of corrosion, due to the presence of sulfur in fuels and sodium chloride in intake air.

  10. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P.

    2013-01-25

    In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  11. Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?22–25 °C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7?±?1.9%, 59.8?±?1.9%, and 77.4?±?1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5?±?3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

  12. Temperature Dependence of Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chloride and Thallium Bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanoz, H. B.

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties as lattice parameters, thermal expansion, heat capacities Cp and Cv, bulk modulus, and Gruneisen parameter of ionic halides TlCl and TlBr in solid and liquid phases were studied using classical molecular dynamics simulation (MD) with interionic Vashistha-Rahman (VR) model potential. In addition to the static and transport properties which have been previously reported by the author [13], this study further confirms that temperature dependence of the calculated thermophysical properties of TlCl and TlBr are in agreement with the available experimental data at both solid and liquid phases in terms of providing an alternative rigid ion potential. The results give a fairly good description of TlCl and TlBr in the temperature range 10-1000 K.

  13. A Novel Flexible Room Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on SnO2 Doped Poly-Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

  14. Wetting of Sodium on ??-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, David M.; Coffey, Greg W.; Mast, Eric S.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Lu, Xiaochuan; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2013-04-01

    Wetting of Na on B-Al2O3/YSZ composites was investigated using the sessile drop technique. The effects of moisture and surface preparation were studied at low temperatures. Electrical conductivity of Na/B-Al2O3-YSZ/Na cells was also investigated at low temperatures and correlated to the wetting behavior. The use of planar B-Al2O3 substrates at low temperature with low cost polymeric seals is realized due to improved wetting at low temperature and conductivity values consistent with the literature.

  15. Reaction of chlorine nitrate with hydrogen chloride and water at Antarctic stratospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Malhotra, Ripudaman; Golden, David M.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory studies of heterogeneous reactions important for ozone depletion over Antarctica are reported. The reaction of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) with H2O and HCl on surfacers that simulate polar stratospheric clouds are studied at temperatures relevant to the Antarctic stratosphere. The gaseous products of the resulting reactions, HOCl, Cl2O, and Cl2, could readily photolyze in the Antarctic spring to produce active chlorine for ozone depletion. Furthermore, the additional formation of condensed-phase HNO3 could serve as a sink for odd nitrogen species that would otherwise scavenge the active chlorine.

  16. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A.; Gupta, R.; Sheluker, S.D.; Ayala, R.

    1994-10-01

    The goal of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppm in coal gas streams at temperatures in the 480 degree C to 750 degree C range and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations (fixed-, moving-, and fluidized-bed reactors), obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  17. Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

  18. Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahey, J.J.

    1937-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

  19. Design, Analysis and Implementation of an Experimental System to Harvest Energy From Atmospheric Temperature Variations Using Ethyl Chloride Filled Bellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Gibran

    The increase in global warming and the dwindling supplies of fossil fuels have shifted the focus from traditional to alternate sources of energy. This has resulted in a concerted effort towards finding new energy sources as well as better understanding traditional renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. In addition to the shift in focus towards alternate energy, the last two decades have offered a dramatic rise in the use of digital technologies such as wireless sensor networks that require small but isolated power supplies. Energy harvesting, a method to gather energy from ambient sources including sunlight, vibrations, heat, etc., has provided some success in powering these systems. One of the unexplored areas of energy harvesting is the use of atmospheric temperature variations to obtain usable energy. This thesis investigates an innovative mechanism to extract energy from atmospheric variations using ethyl chloride filled mechanical bellows. The energy harvesting process was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of extracting energy from the temperature variations and converting it into the potential energy stored in a linear coil spring. This was achieved by designing and fabricating an apparatus that consisted of an ethyl chloride filled bellows working against a mechanical spring in a closed and controlled environment. The bellows expanded/contracted depending upon the ambient temperature and the energy harvested was calculated as a function of the bellows' length. The experiments showed that 6 J of potential energy may be harvested for a 23C change in temperature. The numerical results closely correlated to the experimental data with an error magnitude of 1%. In regions with high diurnal temperature variation, such an apparatus may yield approximately 250 microwatts depending on the diurnal temperature range. The second part of the energy harvesting process consisted of transforming linear expansion of the bellows into electric power. A system was designed and simulated using Mathworks Simulink and SimDriveline packages that converted the linear oscillations of the bellows into electric power. This was achieved in two steps; a gear train was designed that would convert the linear displacement of the bellows into potential energy stored in a spiral spring. The spiral spring would then periodically engage to a small generator producing electric power. The electrical power generated was found to depend solely on the potential energy stored in the spring. It was discovered that for a sinusoidal force with constant amplitude and frequency, the potential energy stored in the spring depended on the duration of force input and the parameters of the drivetrain such as the spring stiffness, the gear ratios, and the pinion radii. After simulating the system for different parameters, an optimal set of values was presented to maximize the electrical energy output for a given duration of time. For constant amplitude (120 N) sinusoidal force input with a time period of T seconds, the system stored 37 J, 65 J, and 90 J after a time of 3T, 5T, and 7T, respectively. The electric power output was 7.14 microwatts for a conversion efficiency of 5%. The next step is building a physical geartrain generator assembly based on the design presented in the thesis. The physical system will first be verified by simulating the force input using a pneumatic cylinder. The two parts of the research experiment can then be integrated into one system that would generate electric power directly from temporal temperature and pressure variations.

  20. Predictive model for the combined effect of temperature, sodium lactate, and sodium diacetate on the heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in beef.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K

    2003-05-01

    The effects of heating temperature (60 to 73.9 degrees C), sodium lactate (NaL; 0.0 to 4.8% [wt/wt]), and/or sodium diacetate (SDA; 0.0 to 0.25% [wt/wt]) and of the interactions of these factors on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Thermal death times for L. monocytogenes in filtered stomacher bags in a circulating water bath were determined. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. Decimal reduction times (D-values) were calculated by fitting a survival model to the data with a curve-fitting program. The D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaL level, and SDA level. The D-values observed for beef with no NaL or SDA at 60, 65, 71.1, and 73.9 degrees C were 4.67, 0.72, 0.17, and 0.04 min, respectively. The addition of 4.8% NaL to beef increased heat resistance at all temperatures, with D-values ranging from 14.3 min at 60 degrees C to 0.13 min at 73.9 degrees C. Sodium diacetate interacted with NaL, thereby reducing the protective effect of NaL and rendering L. monocytogenes in beef less resistant to heat. A mathematical model describing the combined effect of temperature, NaL level, and SDA level on the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes was developed. This model can predict D-values for any combination of temperature, NaL level, and SDA level that is within the range of those tested. This predictive model will have substantial practical importance to processors of cooked meat, allowing them to vary their thermal treatments of ready-to-eat meat products in a safe manner. PMID:12747689

  1. Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, S.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A.

    1997-06-01

    Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlCl{sub 3} melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function of acidity. In the basic melt, the FeCl{sub 2} was soluble; however, its reduction was not observed due to slow kinetics. In the neutral-like and acidic melts, the quasi-reversible reduction of Fe(II) to Fe(0) was observed. The redox potential of copper was approximately 1 V more positive of iron; however, the oxidized copper was soluble in the neutral-like melt, making it unacceptable without a separator. The oxidized and reduced forms of nickel were insoluble and the redox potential was 2.5 V positive of Na/Na{sup +}. The nickel electrode supported a charge density of 3.5 mC/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, suggesting that a high-surface-area electrode would be needed in a practical device.

  2. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Temperature Control and Data Acquisition System for Faraday Filter based Sodium Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerjyan, Vardan; Yuan, Tao

    2011-04-01

    Sodium (Na) Faraday filters based spectrometer is a relatively new instrument to study sodium nightglow as well as sodium and oxygen chemistry in the mesopause region. Successful spectrometer measurement demands highly accurate control of filter temperature. The ideal, long-term operation site for the Na spectrometer is an isolated location with minimum nocturnal sky background. Thus, the remote control of the filter temperature is a requirement for such operation, whereas current temperature controllers can only be operated manually. The proposed approach is aimed to not only enhance the temperature control, but also achieve spectrometer's remote and autonomous operation. In the meantime, the redesign should relief the burden of the cost for multi temperature controllers. The program will give to the operator flexibility in setting the operation temperatures of the Faraday filters, monitoring the temperature variations, and logging the data during the operation. Research will make diligent efforts to attach preliminary data analysis subroutine to the main control program. The real-time observation results will be posted online after the observation is completed. This approach also can be a good substitute for the temperature control system currently used to run the Lidar system at Utah State University (USU).

  3. In situ bioinspired synthesis of silver chloride nanocrystals on silk fibroin fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huilan; Han, Jie; Dong, Qun; Xu, Jia; Chen, Ying; Gu, Yu; Song, Weiqiang; Zhang, Di

    2011-02-01

    Silver chloride (AgCl) nanocrystals were formed and grown on silk fibroin fibers (SFFs) by a room-temperature process. Practically, the degummed SFFs were immersed into silver nitrate solution and sodium chloride solution in turn. The amino acids on the SFF surface were negatively charged in alkaline impregnant, providing locations to immobilize silver ions and form silver chloride seeds. AgCl nanocrystals can further grow into cubic AgCl nanocrystals with an edge of about 100 nm. The morphologies of the AgCl nanocrystals were mostly influenced by the concentration of sodium chloride solution and the special configurations of the SFFs. The target AgCl/SFF nanocomposites constructed by AgCl nanocrystals and substrate SFFs could be used as photocatalysts in water splitting and antibacterial agents. This work provides an important example in the introduction of natural biofibers to the synthesis of functional hybrid nanocomposites by a green and mild technique.

  4. Molybdenum chloride incorporated sol-gel materials for oxygen sensing above room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, D. J., III

    Maximizing the efficiency of the combustion process requires the ability to sense oxygen levels over a broad range of concentrations with fast response times under rapidly varying conditions of pressure and temperature to maintain the correct fuel/oxygen ratio in real-time. Quenching of the luminescence from organometallic compounds by oxygen has been used to develop a number of fiber-based sensors. A major drawback of these organometallic indicators for combustion applications is that the chromophores degrade with time, have a limited operational temperature range, typically room temperature +/-25C, and lack long-term reliability. This work investigates luminescent molybdenum clusters based on Mo6Cl12 were as replacements for organometallic indicators. A study of the high temperature stability of Mo6Cl 12 in air revealed irreversible changes in the optical absorption spectrum at T >250C and a loss of the red luminescence characteristic of the pristine clusters. Thermal aging experiments run in air and under nitrogen point to oxidation of the clusters as the cause of the change in optical properties. X-ray powder diffraction measurements on samples annealed at 300C under controlled conditions are consistent with oxidation of Mo6Cl 12 to form MoO3. Optical and thermal aging experiments show that K2Mo6Cl141H2O, the alkali metal salt of Mo6Cl12, has higher thermal stability and remains luminescent after long-term aging in air at 280C. Methods were developed for depositing K2Mo6Cl141H 2O-incorporated sol--gel films on planar and optical fiber substrates by dip coating and spray coating. The mechanical properties of the films depended on the film thickness; thin films were stable, but cracks often formed in the thicker films needed for sensors. This problem was addressed using two strategies: altering the components of the sol--gel solutions used to embed the clusters and by devising a composite approach to sensing layers where a slurry of fully cured sol--gel particles containing K2Mo 6Cl141H2O in a sol--gel "binder" were deposited on substrates. The optical properties of a large number of fiber sensors were tested up to 102C, with the best results obtained using the K2Mo6Cl141H2O/sol--gel composite sensing film. Fiber M demonstrated quenching of 4--6x between <0.001% and 21.1% (v/v) oxygen at 23, 42, 60, 81 and 102C respectively. The sensor switches abruptly between two well defined levels with a response time of less than 10 s. Quenching of the cluster luminescence by oxygen obeys a two-site Stern-Volmer relationship based on measurements of fiber 121 at 42, 73, and 102C, with sensitivity decreasing as temperature increases. The cycle-cycle variations for six cycles between nitrogen and oxygen at 58C for fiber 45 corresponds to an uncertainty of +/-1% to +/-15% in oxygen concentration over the entire measurement range from 21.1% (v/v) to 2.1% (v/v) oxygen respectively. The long-term performance data from cycling fiber 70 between <0.001% (v/v) and 21.1% (v/v) oxygen for 14 hours was stable over the entire period and variations in sensor signal were found to be synchronous with the temperature fluctuations in the flow through cell. The magnitude of the sensor signal up to 102C is ~3-nW for ~300 microW of incident excitation power. For the current 15-cm long fiber sensor, the autofluorescence (0.011 nW) is 40x smaller than the signal (~ 0.4 nW) in 20% (v/v) oxygen.

  5. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temperature operation than the Na-S battery. (5) If a cell fails, it fails in the short circuit mode unlike Na-S batteries. Also, cells were successfully subjected to several freeze-thaw cycles. Finally, the feasibility of assembling a planar stack was explored. A two cell stack was assembled and tested. A five cell stack was assembled.

  6. Furnace System Testing to Support Lower-Temperature Stabilization of High Chloride Plutonium Oxide Items at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Gerber, Mark A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Elmore, Monte R.

    2003-04-16

    High chloride content plutonium (HCP) oxides are impure plutonium oxide scrap which contains NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and/or CaCl2 salts at potentially high concentrations and must be stabilized at 950 C per the DOE Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000. The chlorides pose challenges to stabilization because volatile chloride salts and decomposition products can corrode furnace heating elements and downstream ventilation components. Thermal stabilization of HCP items at 750 C (without water washing) is being investigated as an alternative method for meeting the intent of DOE STD 3013-2000. This report presents the results from a series of furnace tests conducted to develop material balance and system operability data for supporting the evaluation of lower-temperature thermal stabilization.

  7. The reactivity of sodium borohydride with various species as characterized by adiabatic calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, N O; Levin, M E; Zimmerman, L W

    2007-04-11

    The reactivity of sodium borohydride in the presence of other species has been examined by adiabatic calorimetry. In combination with water, sodium borohydride exhibits an exotherm at room temperature accompanied by generation of gas (presumed to be hydrogen). Addition of potassium hydroxide to a sodium borohydride-water mixture is found to stabilize the solution and require a higher temperature for reaction to occur. However, if iron oxide is also included, reaction takes place near room temperature. Very rapid reaction was found when a metal chloride was brought in contact with a solution containing sodium borohydride, water, and potassium hydroxide. When sodium borohydride was added to an oxygenated hydrocarbon, reaction at room temperature also took place, but to a more limited extent. Peak temperatures above 200 degrees C and maximum pressures in excess of 2000 psia were observed in most cases. Kinetics extracted from the calorimetry data are presented for some of the sodium borohydride combinations. PMID:17126486

  8. Low temperature aqueous phase synthesis of silver/silver chloride plasmonic nanoparticles as visible light photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Song, Jooyoung; Roh, Jongmin; Lee, Inkyu; Jang, Jyongsik

    2013-10-14

    A one pot and environmentally benign synthetic route for plasmonic photocatalytic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles in a PVA-dissolved aqueous solution system is presented. The synthesized AgCl has a cubic-shape and its edge length can be controlled from ~57 to ~170 nm by varying the reaction temperature. In this system, PVA was used as a stabilizer for the formation of Ag@AgCl nanoparticles through interaction with Ag(+) ions. After partial reduction with l-arginine, the metallic Ag is formed on the surface of the AgCl substrates and the contents of the metallic Ag mainly affect both the visible-light absorption properties and the plasmonic photocatalytic efficiency of the Ag@AgCl nanocomposites. A plausible growth mechanism of metallic silver during the reduction process is proposed. More importantly, it is verified that the size of the AgCl substrate affected the light absorption region of the Ag@AgCl nanocomposite. PMID:23921540

  9. Examination of paralysis in Drosophila temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations affecting sodium channels; a proposed mechanism of paralysis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, J C; Wyman, R J

    1990-04-01

    We have used the identified cells of the Drosophila Giant Fiber System (GFS) to study the defects induced by the temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations no action potential (nap) and paralytic (para). These mutations paralyze at elevated temperatures, reported as due to a block of action potential propagation. We found, however, that the cells of the GFS still were able to respond to stimuli at 7-10 degrees C above the temperature causing mutant paralysis. Stimulus threshold and conduction time both decrease with increasing temperature in the mutants in a manner indistinguishable from wild-type. Since action potentials can propagate efficiently in the mutants at elevated temperatures, we looked for other neural defects that might be involved in producing paralysis. We did find reduced neuronal function at sites such as electrical synapses and axonal branch points where current may be limiting. These sites had weakened following frequency, occasional failures, and increased conduction times. We believe the non-temperature-dependent defects in nap and para uncover the normally temperature-sensitive traits latent within all neurons. Increasing temperature increases the rates of channel activation and inactivation. At higher temperatures, Na+ inactivation and K+ activation encroach upon the Na(+)-activation time, reducing inward sodium current. In addition to this normal temperature-dependent effect, the mutations decrease the number of sodium channels in neurons in a non-temperature-dependent manner. These two reductions in sodium current combine to prevent spiking threshold from being reached at current limited sites. The temperature at which a sufficient number of these sites block should be the temperature of paralysis. PMID:2161909

  10. A polytetrafluoroethylene porous membrane and dimethylhexadecylamine quaternized poly (vinyl benzyl chloride) composite membrane for intermediate temperature fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuan-Cheng; Xu, Chenxi; Zou, Linling; Scott, Keith; Liu, Jiyan

    2015-10-01

    A composite material for phosphoric acid (PA) loaded membrane was prepared using a porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin film. N, N-Dimethylhexadecylamine partially quaternized poly (vinyl benzyl chloride) (qPVBzCl-) was synthesized as the substrate for the phosphoric acid loaded polymer membrane. SEM observation indicated that the pores were filled with the qPVBzCl-. The maximum PA loading level was calculated to be 4.67-5.12 per repeat unit on average. TGA results showed that resultant composite membrane was stable in the intermediate temperature from 100 C to 200 C. The composite membrane tensile stress was 56.23 MPa, and the Young's Modulus was 0.25 GPa, and the fractured elongation was 23%. The conductivity of the composite membrane after the PA addition (H3PO4@PTFE/qPVBzCl-) increased from 0.085 S cm-1 to 0.11 S cm-1 from 105 C to 180 C. The peak power density of the H2/O2 at 175 C under low humidity condition (<1%) for H3PO4@PTFE/qPVBzCl- membranes was 360 mW cm-2.

  11. An Ambient Temperature Molten Sodium-Vanadium Battery with Aqueous Flowing Catholyte.

    PubMed

    Liu, Caihong; Shamie, Jack S; Shaw, Leon L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-01-20

    In this study, we have investigated the key factors dictating the cyclic performance of a new type of hybrid sodium-based flow batteries (HNFBs) that can operate at room temperature with high cell voltages (>3 V), multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, and decoupled design of power and energy. HNFBs are composed of a molten Na-Cs alloy anode, flowing aqueous catholyte, and a Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte as the separator. The surface functionalization of graphite felt electrodes for the flowing aqueous catholyte has been studied for its effectiveness in enhancing V(2+)/V(3+), V(3+)/V(4+), and V(4+)/V(5+) redox couples. The V(4+)/V(5+) redox reaction has been further investigated at different cell operation temperatures for its cyclic stability and how the properties of the solid electrolyte membrane play a role in cycling. These fundamental understandings provide guidelines for improving the cyclic performance and stability of HNFBs with aqueous catholytes. We show that the HNFB with aqueous V-ion catholyte can reach high storage capacity (∼70% of the theoretical capacity) with good Coulombic efficiency (90% ± 1% in 2-30 cycles) and cyclic performance (>99% capacity retention for 30 cycles). It demonstrates, for the first time, the potential of high capacity HNFBs with aqueous catholytes, good capacity retention and long cycling life. This is also the first demonstration that Na-β″-Al2O3 solid electrolyte can be used with aqueous electrolyte at near room temperature for more than 30 cycles. PMID:26720551

  12. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy. PMID:26717736

  13. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, R.H.; Pereira, C.

    1997-07-01

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95{reg_sign}, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%.

  14. Cyanuric chloride/sodium borohydride: a new reagent combination for reductive opening of 4,6-benzylidene acetals of carbohydrates to primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Tatina, Madhubabu; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Singh, Baldev; Mukherjee, Debaraj

    2013-11-15

    In the first such example, NaBH4 in combination with cyanuric chloride (TCT) has been used to obtain 6-hydroxy-4-benzyl ether derivatives from 4,6-benzylidene acetals of carbohydrates. The nature of hydride donor determines the regioselectivity of acetal opening. High regioselectivity, scope for using a broad range of substrates, functional group tolerance, mild reaction conditions, easy handling process, inexpensive reagents and wide application mark the benefits of the newly developed reagent system. PMID:24103734

  15. Study of the interaction of. beta. ''-alumina ceramic with sodium at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yankulov, P.D.; Staikov, G.; Yanakiev, A.; Kvachkov, R.; Angelov, P.V.; Budevski, E.

    1986-06-01

    The processes proceeding during contact of ..beta..''-alumina ceramic with molten sodium and sodium vapor in the presence and absence of electric current are investigated. The kinetics of chemical coloration was studied. It is shown that the rate of this process is the same for the contact with molten sodium and with sodium vapor. It was established that in the presence of an electric current flow the rate of chemical coloration changes considerably. The results obtained are explained on the basis of De Jonghe's mechanism for the interaction between ..beta..''-alumina ceramic and sodium, involving the formation of F centers, and Mott and Gurney's model for the influence of an electric field on the drift rate of F centers in alkali halides.

  16. Mixed micelles of sodium cholate and sodium dodecylsulphate 1:1 binary mixture at different temperatures--experimental and theoretical investigations.

    PubMed

    Jójárt, Balázs; Poša, Mihalj; Fiser, Béla; Szőri, Milán; Farkaš, Zita; Viskolcz, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1∶1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 0-50°C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 0-25°C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (β1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 µs long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed. PMID:25004142

  17. Time course and nature of temperature-induced changes in sodium-glucose interactions of the goldfish intestine

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M. W.

    1966-01-01

    1. Glucose-evoked potentials measured at low incubation temperatures were found to be highly temperature dependent (phase 1), but less so at high incubation temperatures (phase 2) and acclimatization of an 8C fish to 25 C resulted in the extension of phase 1 up to the environmental temperature of the fish. This change was only part of the mechanism controlling the acclimatization of sodium transport across the intestine. 2. The temperature at which the glucose-evoked potential changed from phase 1 to phase 2 was approximately equal to the temperature at which glucose began to raise the steady transmural potential of the intestine. 3. No changes in intestinal electrical parameters could be detected when fish, acclimatized to 8 C, were heated at 25 C for 15 hr, but after 20 hr at the higher temperature, acclimatization to the new temperature was complete. 4. Intestines from fish acclimatized to 8 C, but which had first spent 15 hr at 25 C and then 10 hr at 8 C, still behaved qualitatively like 8 C intestines but the magnitude of the glucose-evoked potentials was slightly reduced. 5. It is suggested as a working hypothesis that acclimatization of the sodium-glucose interaction to different environmental temperatures involves the synthesis of new carrier molecules, qualitatively different from the old ones. PMID:5919562

  18. A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W.; Lee, J.H.

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

  19. Watching the world sweat: Development and utilization of an in-situ conductivity sensor for monitoring chloride dynamics in high temperature hydrothermal fluids at divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Benjamin Isaac

    The magmatic upwelling that drives plate tectonic motion at divergent plate boundaries also heats seawater circulating within the Earth's crust. The seawater undergoes physical and chemical changes beneath the surface and the resulting buoyant hydrothermal fluid ascends to the seafloor where it is comes out of structures called hydrothermal vents. One subsurface process of particular interest is phase separation, which is the transformation of a homogenous fluid into two phases, each with properties different from the original fluid. Phase separation is the dominant control on chloride in hydrothermal systems and chloride controls the distribution of all other chemical species. Thus, the measurement of chloride in hydrothermal fluids gives insight into extreme subsurface processes that are inherently difficult to probe. Since these processes evolve with time, measurements must be taken on a continuous basis. The research presented herein discusses the development and utilization of an instrument capable of continuously monitoring the hot salty solutions that flow out of hydrothermal pores in the Earth's crust. Instruments were deployed at two different mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. An array of instruments was deployed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge at the Main Endeavour Field 12-15 months after a magmatic intrusion. Tidal changes and non-tidal changes on timescales of minutes to hours were observed. Chloride data were also used to infer subsurface mixing between two non-seawater fluids at depths below the seafloor between 486 and 695 meters. Another instrument was deployed at Bio 9' vent at 950'N on the East Pacific Rise in the immediate vicinity of seismometers monitoring earthquake activity. The hydrothermal response to intense seismicity was observed on two separate occasions. On the basis of these observations, conditions of subsurface phase separation were estimated at pressures between 269 and 288 bars and temperatures between 369.7 and 403.5C. Recurrent chloride spikes were also observed, with magnitudes up to 720 mmol/kg and durations up to 7 minutes. At both study sites, data indicate the influence of subsurface fluids with chloride concentrations greater than seawater. These observations may help resolve the apparent chloride deficit indicated by venting of chloride-depleted fluids over decadal timescales.

  20. Stability constants for the formation of lead chloride complexes as a function of temperature and ionic strength

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yanxin; Millero, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    The stability constants for the formation of lead (Pb2+) with chloride Pb2+=nCl??PbCln2?n?n(n=1,2,3) have been determined using a spectrophotometric method in NaClO4 solutions as a function of ionic strength (06 m) and temperature (1545 C). The results have been fitted to the equations: log?1?=log?1+0.21I?8.61I0.5?(1+1.2I0.5)+1927.40[I0.5?(1+1.2I0.5)]?Tlog?2?=log?2+0.32I?4.67I0.5(1+1.2I0.5)+594.54[I0.5?(1+1.2I0.5)]?Tlog?3?=log?3+0.40I?2.68I0.5(1+1.2I0.5)?43.98[I0.5?(1+1.2I0.5)]?T with standard errors of 0.05, 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. The thermodynamic values of log ?1, log?2 and log?3 at 25.0 C and the enthalpies of formation of PbCl+, PbCl20 and PbCl3? are in good agreement with literature values. We have combined our results with the earlier work of Seward (1984) to yield thermodynamic constants that are valid from 15 to 300 C: log?1=44.82+0.031T?21.21logTlog?2=61.42+0.046T?29.51logTlog?3=107.97+0.071T?51.46logT with standard errors of 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10, respectively.

  1. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium–air and sodium–sulfur batteries

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Research devoted to room temperature lithium–sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium–oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium–sulfur and lithium–oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems. PMID:25977873

  2. Distributed temperature monitoring for liquid sodium leakage detection using OFDR-based Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladéjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.

  3. Clinical and clinicopathologic changes in cows with endotoxin-induced mastitis treated with small volumes of isotonic or hypertonic sodium chloride administered intravenously.

    PubMed

    Tyler, J W; Welles, E G; Erskine, R J; Lin, H C; Williams, M A; Spano, J S; Gaslin, J T; McClure, K A

    1994-02-01

    We characterized the clinicopathologic manifestations of experimentally induced endotoxin-induced mastitis. Responses to hypertonic fluid therapy also were assessed. Eight cows received 1 mg of endotoxin by intramammary infusion in the left forequarter. Four hours after endotoxin administration, cows received 0.9% NaCl, 5 ml/kg of body weight (n = 4) or 7.5% NaCl, 5 ml/kg (n = 4) IV. Endotoxin-infused cows had expanded plasma volume, hyponatremia, transient hyperchloremia and hypophosphatemia, increased serum glucose concentration, and decreased serum activities of liver- and muscle-specific enzymes. Calculated plasma volume increased at 6 hours in cows receiving hypertonic NaCl, and at 12, 24, and 48 hours after endotoxin infusion in both groups. Concurrent observations of decreased serum protein concentration, erythrocyte count, and hematocrit supported observations of increased plasma volume. Relative plasma volume was greater in cows receiving hypertonic NaCl (124.3%) than in cows receiving isotonic NaCl (106.6%) at 6 hours after endotoxin infusion. Cattle receiving hypertonic NaCl had increased voluntary water intake after IV fluid administration. Increased water consumption was not accompanied by increased body weight, indicating probable occurrence of offsetting body water loss. Serum sodium concentration in cows receiving hypertonic NaCl was increased 2 hours after fluid administration, but the magnitude of the change was minimal (< 4 mmol/L) and transient, indicating rapid equilibration with either interstitial or intracellular spaces. Serum sodium concentration was decreased in cows receiving isotonic NaCl at 12, 24, and 48 hours after endotoxin administration, compared with concentration prior to endotoxin administration, indicating selective loss of sodium. PMID:8172420

  4. Recovering Indium from the Liquid Crystal Display of Discarded Cellular Phones by Means of Chloride-Induced Vaporization at Relatively Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kunihiko; Sasaki, Atsushi; Dodbiba, Gjergj; Sadaki, Jun; Sato, Nobuaki; Fujita, Toyohisa

    2009-04-01

    Broadly speaking, indium (In) is extensively being used in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Nevertheless, LCDs, included in various types of end-of-life electronic devices (for example, discarded cellular phones), are generally discarded without recovering indium. Thus, the objective of this work is to recover indium from the LCD of the discarded cellular phone. The authors are putting forward a novel process in order to recover indium from the LCD of discarded cellular phones by means of chloride-induced vaporization at relatively low temperature. The samples are first treated with an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) to alter the structure of the indium(III) oxide found in LCDs into a chloride-induced indium compound and, therefore, enabling the vaporization of indium at relatively low temperature. The chloride-induced indium compound is then vaporized. Finally, the vaporized indium compound is condensed on a cooled surface of the apparatus and then recovered. The experimental results indicated that by using this process 84.3 pct of indium can be recovered from LCDs of discarded cellular phones.

  5. Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H.

    2012-07-01

    The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

  6. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, D.; Frank, G. P.; Dusek, U.; Gunthe, S. S.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2007-06-01

    Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, extending over a period of more than one year and covering a wide range of operating conditions (650-1020 hPa ambient pressure, 0.5-1.0 L min-1 aerosol flow rate, 20-30°C inlet temperature, 4-34 K m-1 temperature gradient). For each set of conditions, the effective water vapor supersaturation (Seff) in the CCNC was determined from the measured CCN activation spectra and Köhler model calculations. High measurement precision was achieved under stable laboratory conditions, where relative variations of Seff in the CCNC were generally less than ±2%. During field measurements, however, the relative variability increased up to ±5-7%, which can be mostly attributed to variations of the CCNC column top temperature with ambient temperature. To assess the accuracy of the Köhler models used to calculate Seff, we have performed a comprehensive comparison and uncertainty analysis of the various Köhler models and thermodynamic parameterizations commonly used in CCN studies. For the relevant supersaturation range (0.05-2%), the relative deviations between different modeling approaches were as high as 25% for (NH4)2SO4 and 16% for NaCl. The deviations were mostly caused by the different parameterizations for the activity of water in aqueous solutions of (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl (activity parameterization, osmotic coefficient, and van't Hoff factor models). The uncertainties related to the model parameterizations of water activity clearly exceeded the CCNC measurement precision. Relative deviations caused by different ways of calculating or approximating solution density and surface tension did not exceed 3% for (NH4)2SO4 and 1.5% for NaCl. Nevertheless, they did exceed the CCNC measurement precision under well-defined operating conditions and should not be neglected in studies aimed at high accuracy. To ensure comparability of results, we suggest that CCN studies should always report exactly which Köhler model equations and parameterizations of solution properties were used. Substantial differences between the CCNC calibration results obtained with (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl aerosols under equal experimental conditions (relative deviations of Seff up to ~10%) indicate inconsistencies between widely used activity parameterizations derived from electrodynamic balance (EDB) single particle experiments (Tang and Munkelwitz, 1994; Tang, 1996) and hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) aerosol experiments (Kreidenweis et al., 2005). Therefore, we see a need for further evaluation and experimental confirmation of preferred data sets and parameterizations for the activity of water in dilute aqueous (NH4)2SO4 and NaCl solutions. The experimental results were also used to test the CCNC flow model of Lance et al.~(2006), which describes the dependence of Seff on temperature, pressure, and flow rate in the CCN counter. This model could be applied after subtraction of a near-constant temperature offset and derivation of an instrument-specific thermal resistance parameter (RT≍1.8 K W-1). At Seff>0.1% the relative deviations between the flow model and experimental results were mostly less than 5%, when the same Köhler model approach was used. At Seff≤.1%, however, the deviations exceeded 20%, which can be attributed to non-idealities which also caused the near-constant temperature offset. Therefore, we suggest that the CCNC flow model can be used to extrapolate calibration results, but should generally be complemented by calibration experiments performed under the relevant operating conditions - during field campaigns as well as in laboratory studies.

  7. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  8. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20ppt NaCl in both experiments. PMID:26744800

  9. Lattice dynamics and the phase diagram of sodium at high pressures and temperatures from ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, E. G.; Lepeshkin, S. V.; Magnitskaya, M. V.

    2011-07-01

    The melting of sodium was investigated by two ab initio methods: (i) based on the calculations of the phonon spectra in the quasi-harmonic approximation with the use of the Lindemann criterion and (ii) by molecular-dynamics simulation. It is shown that the anomalous behavior of the melting curve T m( p) for Na is explained well by the change in the phonon spectrum under compression; in particular, the decrease in T m( p) at p > 30 GPa is due to the strong softening of transverse-phonon frequencies. The results obtained within both approaches are in good agreement and yield a reasonable quantitative description of the experimental melting curve of sodium at pressures up to 1 Mbar and temperatures from 300 to 1000 K. The good agreement between the two approaches indicates the smallness of anharmonicity effects in Na.

  10. Sodium flux-assisted low-temperature high-pressure synthesis of carbon nitride with high nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreyev, Alexey; Akaishi, Minoru; Golberg, Dmitri

    2003-05-01

    Carbon nitride powders with high nitrogen content have been synthesized via a new, high-pressure (7.7 GPa) and relatively low-temperature (400-500 C) procedure that involves a chemical reaction of hexachlorobenzene (C 6Cl 6) and sodium azide (NaN 3) in an enclosed system for 50-70 h in the presence of a sodium flux. The obtained powder product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, infrared and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The nitrogen-carbon atomic ratio of the material was 1.24 0.15, which is consistent with C 3N 4 stoichiometry and represents the most nitrogen-rich carbon nitride yet prepared under high-pressure. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that the material obtained was predominantly amorphous with some fraction of nanocrystallites with the reticular distance between the lattice planes approximately 0.326 nm.

  11. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  12. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  13. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  14. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  15. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  16. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies of (acetamide + sodium/potassium thiocyanates) molten mixtures: composition and temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Guchhait, Biswajit; Gazi, Harun Al Rasid; Kashyap, Hemant K; Biswas, Ranjit

    2010-04-22

    Steady state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques have been used to explore the Stokes' shift dynamics and rotational relaxation of a dipolar solute probe in molten mixtures of acetamide (CH(3)CONH(2)) with sodium and potassium thiocyanates (Na /KSCN) at T approximately 318 K and several other higher temperatures. The dipolar solute probe employed for this study is coumarin 153 (C153). Six different fractions (f) of KSCN of the following ternary mixture composition, 0.75 CH(3)CONH(2) + 0.25[(1 - f)NaSCN + fKSCN], have been considered. The estimated experimental dynamic Stokes' shift for these systems ranges between 1800 and 2200 cm(-1) (+/-250 cm(-1)), which is similar to what has been observed with the same solute probe in several imidazolium cation based room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL) and in pure amide solvents. Interestingly, this range of estimated Stokes' shift, even though not corresponding to the megavalue of static dielectric constant reported in the literature for a binary mixture of molten CH(3)CONH(2) and NaSCN, exhibits a nonmonotonic KSCN concentration dependence. The magnitudes of the dynamic Stokes' shift detected in the present experiments are significantly less than the estimated ones, as nearly 40-60% of the total shift is missed due to the limited time resolution employed (full-width at half-maximum of the instrument response function approximately 70 ps). The solvation response function, constructed from the detected shifts in these systems, exhibits triexponential decay with the fastest time constant (tau(1)) in the 10-20 ps range, which might be much shorter if measured with a better time resolution. The second time constant (tau(2)) lies in the 70-100 ps range, and the third one (tau(3)) ranges between 300 and 800 ps. Both these time constants (tau(2) and tau(3)) show alkali metal ion concentration dependence and exhibit viscosity decoupling at higher viscosity in the NaSCN-enriched region. Time dependent rotational anisotropy has been found to be biexponential at all mixture compositions studied. Both the average solvation () and rotation () times of C153 in these mixtures exhibit fractional power law dependence on medium viscosity ( is proportional to eta(p), x being solvation or rotation). For solvation, p is found to be 0.46, which is very different from that obtained for common polar and nonpolar solvents, and RTILs (p approximately = 1). For rotation, p approximately = 0.65, which is again different from the value (p approximately = 1) obtained for common polar solvents and RTILs but very similar to that (p approximately = 0.6) found for nonpolar solvents. In addition, experimentally measured average rotation times in these mixtures are found to exhibit slip behavior in the low eta/T region, which gradually transforms to subslip as eta/T increases. Calculations using a recently developed semimolecular theory predict a total dynamic Stokes' shift for C153 (dipolar solute) in these molten mixtures near approximately 1600 cm(-1) where the solute-solvent (dipole-dipole) and the ion-solute (ion-dipole) interactions contribute respectively approximately 80% and approximately 20% to the calculated total shift. Like in experiments, the theoretically predicted solvation response function in the overdamped limit at each mixture composition has been found to be triexponential. The calculations in the underdamped limit, however, suggest a biphasic decay where a composition independent subpicosecond component and a much slower component with the time constant spreading over 150-850 ps contribute equally to constitute the total decay. The calculated average solvation times in this limit are found to be in better agreement with experimental results than the predictions from the overdamped limit. PMID:20345185

  17. Chloride Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in chloride. In addition, swallowing large amounts of baking soda or substantially more than the recommended dosage ... Health Professionals ©2001 - by American Association for Clinical Chemistry • Contact Us | Terms of Use | Privacy We comply ...

  18. Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) 6000 + Sodium Succinate + Water System at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Selvaraj; Murty, Vytla Ramachandra

    2013-01-01

    Phase diagrams and the compositions of coexisting phases of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000 + sodium succinate + water system have been determined experimentally at 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15?K. The effects of temperature on the binodal curve and tie lines have been studied. The binodal curves were successfully fitted to a nonlinear equation relating the concentrations of PEG 6000 and sodium succinate, and the coefficients were estimated for the formentioned systems (low AARD, high R2, and low SD). Tie-line compositions were estimated and correlated using Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft equations, and the parameters were reported. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability has been studied by fitting the binodal data to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. The effective excluded volume (EEV) values were also calculated from the binodal data, and it was found out that the values increased with an increase in the temperature. Furthermore, the effect of MW of PEG on the phase diagram has been studied and verified. PMID:23864835

  19. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

  20. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, phosphates, and vitamins C, E, or C+E on meat display-color stability.

    PubMed

    Yancey, E J; Hunt, M C; Dikeman, M E; Addis, P B; Katsanidis, E

    2001-10-01

    Grain-finished, high-percentage Charolais steers (n = 36) were selected for uniformity. Immediately after jugular vein exsanguination, 27 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C; n = 9), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E; n = 9), or 500 ppm vitamin C + 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E; n = 9). Uninfused controls (CON) were exsanguinated conventionally. Carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM), and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed, vacuum-packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, steaks 2.54 cm thick were sliced from the three muscles, placed on foam trays, and overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Ground beef (GB) was formulated from the quadriceps femoris to contain 20% fat, mounded into 0.45-kg portions, placed on styrofoam trays, and wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film. Steaks were visually evaluated for uniformity and initial color on display d 0. Instrumental color measurements of L*, a*, b* and trained sensory panel color evaluations were obtained daily for 4 d (PM and GB) or 5 d (LT and SM) of display. No display time x treatment interaction existed for L*, a*, or b* values. The LT from CON cattle had more uniform color (P < 0.05) and was more cherry red than that from all infused cattle on d 0. Visual scores indicated that GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from MPSC+C infused cattle throughout display, and GB from MPSC+E cattle was more red (P < 0.05) than that from CON cattle for the last 3 d of display. The vascular infusion solutions generally did not improve color or display-color stability of steaks, but the infusion solution with vitamin E did improve display-color stability of GB. PMID:11721841

  1. Probing crystalline insulator surfaces with neutral helium atom scattering: A study of mixed potassium tantalate/niobate and thin films of potassium chloride and p-quaterphenyl on sodium chloride(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trelenberg, Thomas Walter

    Results from experiments using a thermal-energy beam of helium atoms as a probe in studying three crystalline insulator surfaces are presented. The primary focus is the simple ferroelectric perovskite, KTa1- xNbxO3 (or KTN when not specifying an Nb concentration) with x = 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.52. Thin films of KCl and p-quaterphenyl grown onto NaCl(001) were also studied. Extending an earlier work on potassium tantalate (KTaO3), freshly cleaved (001) surfaces of niobium-doped potassium tantalate (KTN) were studied. While KTaO3 is an incipient ferroelectric undergoing no bulk phase changes, KTN, with Nb concentration greater than 1.5%, is a tunable ferroelectric, existing in several bulk phases depending on the temperature of the material. A metastable feature observed in KTN immediately after cleaving results in satellite peaks around the specular peak which decay over time. Also, small, broad half-order peaks were observed when the surface temperature was cycled between 50 K and 270 K for the first time. Surface hysteresis effects and responses to electric fields were also studied. Surface dispersion curves for the two high-symmetry directions are given for various Nb doping levels and substrate temperatures. This work compares the above phenomena to similar occurrences observed previously in KTaO3, and notes how the responses differ as a function of niobium doping. Also building on previous experience, the growth of KCl on NaCl was studied. Several recent works have focused on the physical interpretation of 3/4-order peaks observed during LEED investigations of this system. A HAS study of this system revealed, at best, a weak indication of several n/4-order peaks, but at film thicknesses well above those reported. In our first attempt to examine the surfaces of films of large organic molecules using HAS, p-quaterphenyl (p-4P) was deposited onto an NaCl surface held at 300K. Diffraction intensities from the NaCl were reduced but produced no other effects. However, cooling the surface to 50 K revealed many smaller diffraction peaks from the p-4P in addition to the larger NaCl peaks. The organic film peaks were isotropic, appearing as a two-dimensional diffraction powder pattern.

  2. Swelling equilibria for temperature-sensitive ampholytic hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.P.; Stephens, D.R.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Temperature-sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA)-based ampho-lytic hydrogels were synthesized by copolymerizing NIPA with the cationic monomer methacrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTAC) and the anionic monomer sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS). The total nominal charge density of the hydrogels was held constant at 8 mol % (dry basis), while the molar ratio of anionic to cationic moieties within the hydrogels was varied. Swelling equilibria were measured in water at 6C, and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}5}to 5 M and temperature ranging from 6 to 56C. Consistent with expectations, the swelling behavior of the hydrogels was found to be controlled by temperature at low salt concentrations; as the sodium chloride concentration increased, temperature control of hydrogel swelling decreased. Slight antipolyelectrolyte behavior was observed for the hydrogel prepared with equal molar amounts of MAPTAC and SSS.

  3. Study of the dependence of the specific output power of a copper chloride laser on the radial temperature profile of a gas plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sadighi-Bonabi, R; Mohammadpour, R; Tavakoli, M; Soltanmoradi, F; Zand, M

    2007-04-30

    The design of a copper chloride laser is described, and the laser is optimised by studying the dependence of its output power on the buffer gas type. The voltage and current of the laser discharge at the optimum buffer gas pressure are measured. The influence of the diaphragm diameter on the specific output power is studied after optimisation of switch parameters. When an diaphragm producing the optimal temperature gradient in the laser gas-discharge tube, the record specific output power of 123 W L{sup -1} is obtained without any admixtures. (lasers)

  4. Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Troms during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, S.; Kawahara, T. D.; Saito, N.; Hall, C. M.; Tsuda, T. T.; Kawabata, T.; Wada, S.; Brekke, A.; Takahashi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Ogawa, Y.; Fujii, R.

    2014-01-01

    A new solid-state sodium lidar installed at Ramfjordmoen, Troms (69.6N, 19.2E), started observations of neutral temperature together with sodium density in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region on 1 October 2010. The new lidar provided temperature data with a time resolution of 10 min and with good quality between 80 and 105 km from October 2010 to March 2011. This paper aims at introducing the new lidar with its observational results obtained over the first 6 months of observations. We succeeded in obtaining neutral temperature and sodium density data of 255.5 h in total. In order to evaluate our observations, we compared (1) the sodium density with that published in the literature, (2) average temperature and column sodium density data with those obtained with Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research Weber sodium lidar, and (3) the neutral temperature data with those obtained by Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry/Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite. For the night of 5 October 2010, we succeeded in conducting simultaneous observations of the new lidar and the European Incoherent Scatter UHF radar with the tristatic Common Program 1 (CP-1) mode. Comparisons of neutral and ion temperatures showed a good agreement at 104 km between 0050 and 0230 UT on 6 October 2010 when the electric field strength was smaller, while significant deviations (up to 25 K) are found at 107 km. We evaluated contributions of Joule heating and electron-ion heat exchange, but derived values seem to be underestimated.

  5. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  6. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M

    2015-08-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  7. Compatibility of azathioprine sodium with intravenous fluids.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A; Porter, W A

    1981-06-01

    The effects of storage containers, diluent, temperature, and illumination on the stability and compatibility of azathioprine sodium were studied. Reconstituted solutions were stored in the manufacturer's vial and a plastic syringe. Diluted solutions were stored in mini-bags mixed with standard intravenous solutions (5% dextrose injection, 0.9% sodium chloride injection, and 0.45% sodium chloride injection). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C in the dark and at 23 degrees C under constant illumination. Samples containing an internal standard, 6-methylmercaptopurine, were assayed by ion exchange chromatography at 0, 8, and 16 days. Accelerated decomposition studies at 70 degrees C also were performed to determine the chromatographic method's capability for separating azathioprine from its breakdown products. No solutions or admixtures differed significantly (p greater than 0.13) from initial concentrations after 16 days at 23 degrees C under constant illumination. Mixture with 5% dextrose injection caused precipitation by day 16. Azathioprine sodium reconstituted and stored in the manufacturer's vial or a plastic syringe at 4 degrees C formed a precipitate by day 4. Sterility is the limiting factor determining suitability for use of azathioprine solutions kept less than four days. PMID:7246562

  8. Photopolymer Electrolytes for Sustainable, Upscalable, Safe, and Ambient-Temperature Sodium-Ion Secondary Batteries.

    PubMed

    Bella, Federico; Col, Francesca; Nair, Jijeesh R; Gerbaldi, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    The first example of a photopolymerized electrolyte for a sodium-ion battery is proposed herein. By means of a preparation process free of solvents, catalysts, purification steps, and separation steps, it is possible to obtain a three-dimensional polymeric network capable of efficient sodium-ion transport. The thermal properties of the resulting solid electrolyte separator, characterized by means of thermogravimetric and calorimetric techniques, are excellent for use in sustainable energy systems conceived for safe large-scale grid storage. The photopolymerized electrolyte shows a wide electrochemical stability window up to 4.8?V versus Na/Na(+) along with the highest ionic conductivity (5.1?mS?cm(-1) at 20?C) obtained in the field of Na-ion polymer batteries so far and stable long-term constant-current charge/discharge cycling. Moreover, the polymeric networks are also demonstrated for the in?situ fabrication of electrode/electrolyte composites with excellent interfacial properties, which are ideal for all-solid-state, safe, and easily upscalable device assembly. PMID:26437583

  9. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natlia Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antnio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate. PMID:25944263

  10. Sodium temperature lidar based on injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using a sum-frequency generation technique.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Takuya D; Kitahara, Tsukasa; Kobayashi, Fumitoshi; Saito, Yasunori; Nomura, Akio

    2011-02-14

    We report on a sodium (Na) temperature lidar based on two injection seeded Nd:YAG pulse lasers using single-pass sum-frequency generation. The laser power at 589 nm is 400 mW (40 mJ per pulse at a repetition rate of 10 Hz) and the pulse width is 22 nsec FWHM. The narrowband laser tuned to the Doppler broadened Na D2 spectrum enables us to measure the temperature of the mesopause region (80-115 km). This solid-state transportable system demonstrated high performance and capability at Syowa Station in Antarctica for 3 years and at Uji in Japan for an additional year without any major operational troubles. PMID:21369179

  11. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distinguished from sodium chloride, or salt, which is 39 percent sodium by weight. (2) The scientific evidence... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74... claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood...

  12. Dimethoxymethane-hydrogen chloride interaction: gas phase versus low-temperature behavior studied using matrix isolation infrared and density functional theory methods.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, K; Ramanathan, N

    2013-03-21

    Premixing of dimethoxy methane (DMM) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) with Ar/N2 in the gas phase resulted in a nucleophilic substitution reaction and yielded products, cis-chloromethyl methyl ether (cis-CMME) and methanol. On the contrary, when DMM and HCl were separately codeposited in a low-temperature Ar matrix produced hydrogen-bonded alkoxy adduct, probably the intermediate in the gas phase nucleophilic substitution reaction. The formation of the alkoxy adduct was evidenced by the shifts in the vibrational frequencies of the DMM and HCl submolecules. The structure and energy of the alkoxy adduct were computed at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. The computations indicated only one minimum for the DMM-HCl adduct. The nucleophilic substitution reaction between DMM and HCl is prevented in the low-temperature matrix probably due to the cage effect in the matrix. PMID:23431963

  13. Effect of poling temperature on optical second harmonic intensity of sodium zinc tellurite glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narazaki, Aiko; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Soga, Naohiro

    1998-04-01

    Poling temperature dependence of optical second harmonic intensity has been examined for Na2O-ZnO-TeO2 glasses. All the glasses exhibit such a tendency that the second harmonic intensity increases, experiences a maximum, and decreases as the poling temperature increases. The poling temperature giving rise to the maximum second harmonic intensity, which we call an optimum poling temperature, correlates with glass transition temperature; there exists a linear relation between them. This phenomenon indicates that the structural change of glass network near the glass transition temperature affects the orientation of electric dipoles with a long range order which induces the second harmonic generation. We suggest that some electrochemical reactions take place on the anode-side surface of glass at around the glass transition temperature where viscous flow is allowed and disturb the orientation of electric dipoles.

  14. Mepiquat chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mepiquat chloride ; CASRN 24307 - 26 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  15. Acetyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 36 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  16. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl chloride ; CASRN 74 - 87 - 3 ( 07 / 17 / 2001 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  17. Hydrogen chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hydrogen chloride ; CASRN 7647 - 01 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  18. Vinyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635R - 00 / 004 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF VINYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 75 - 01 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) May 2000 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S

  19. Methyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R01 / 003 TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL CHLORIDE ( CAS No . 74 - 87 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2001 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.

  20. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff