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1

High-temperature phase diagram of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical point is calculated and a high-temperature phase diagram is constructed for sodium chloride with allowance for the structural phase transition between B1 and B2 polymorphs of NaCl crystal.

Savintsev, A. P.; Gavasheli, Yu. O.

2011-11-01

2

High-temperature sodium nickel chloride battery for electric vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Although the sodium-nickel chloride cell couple has a high voltage (2.59 V) and a high specific energy (790 Wh/kg), the performance of present incarnations of this battery tend to be limited by their power. Because the nickel chloride electrode dominates the resistance and weight of the cell, research on this cell couple at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been primarily directed toward improving both the specific power and energy of the NiCl{sub 2} electrodes. During the course of these investigations a major breakthrough was achieved in lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. This improved Ni/NiCl{sub 2} electrode has excellent performance characteristics, wide-temperature operation and fast recharge capability. Modeling studies done on this electrode indicate that a fully developed Na/NiCl{sub 2} battery based on ANL-single tube and bipolar designs would surpass the mid-term and approach the long-term goals of the US Advanced Battery Consortium.

Prakash, J.; Redey, L.; Nelson, P.A.; Vissers, D.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Electrotechnical Technology Program

1996-07-01

3

Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature  

SciTech Connect

Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

2013-07-03

4

Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl2:MnCl2(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from 60Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J., C.; Hernndez A., J.; Murrieta S., H.

2013-07-01

5

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

Microsoft Academic Search

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to

Jianzhong Xia; A. P. S. Kamps; Bernd Rumpf; Gerd Maurer

2000-01-01

6

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

SciTech Connect

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

2000-04-01

7

Effects of temperature and pressure on the thermal expansion of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk sodium chloride (NaCl) have been carried out at high pressure and temperature with the objective of establishing and validating the methodology for predicting its temperature- and pressure-dependent thermal expansion behavior. Two different potential models that consist of Coulomb, dispersion and repulsion interactions from the literature have been applied to investigate the volume thermal expansivity of NaCl in the NPT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions: the shell model (SM) potential and the two-body rigid-ion Born-Mayer-Huggins-Fumi-Tosi (BMHFT) potential. Compared with the SM potential, the MD simulation with the BMHFT potential is highly successful in accurately reproducing the measured values of NaCl. At extended pressure and temperature ranges, the volume thermal expansion coefficient has also been predicted by the reliable BMHFT potential. The properties of NaCl in the pressure range 0-30 GPa at temperatures up to 1050 K are summarized.

Sun, X. W.; Liu, Z. J.; Song, T.; Zhang, Z. R.; Kong, B.; Chen, Q. F.

2012-04-01

8

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... Fit-Friendly Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Sodium and Salt Updated:Jun 23,2014 About Sodium Frequently Asked ... Dining Out Cookbooks and Health Guides Reduce Your Sodium Intake Receive Healthy Living news every month! First ...

9

Thermoelastic parameter ?KT of sodium chloride at high pressure and high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two different potential models to the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been applied to investigate the thermoelastic parameter ?KT of sodium chloride (NaCl) under high pressure and high temperature. The first one is the shell model (SM) potential that due to the short-range interaction when pairs of ions are moved together as is the case in that polarization of a crystal due to the motion of the positive and negative ions, and the second one is the two-body rigid-ion Born-Mayer-Huggins-Fumi-Tosi (BMHFT) potential with full treatment of long-range Coulomb forces. Particular attention is paid to the comparison of the SM- and BMHFT-MD simulations with the Debye model for the first time, and this model combines with ab initio calculations within local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) using ultrasoft pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis in the framework of density functional theory (DFT), and it takes into account the phononic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Note that the MD calculated volumes using SM model is somewhat larger than both the DFT and experimental volumes despite not considering the temperature effect. Compared with SM potential, the MD simulated 300 K isotherm of NaCl with BMHFT potential is very successful in reproducing accurately the measured volumes and the GGA calculated volumes. Generally, it is found that there exist minor differences between the LDA and GGA computed the thermoelastic parameter ?KT of NaCl, with both average results giving good agreement with SM-MD simulations. At an extended pressure and temperature ranges, the variation of thermoelastic parameter ?KT which play a central role in the formulation of approximate equations of state has also been predicted. The properties of NaCl are summarized in the pressure range of 0-300 kbar and the temperature up to 2000 K.

Sun, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Qi-Feng; Cai, Ling-Cang; Jing, Fu-Qian

2012-08-01

10

Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1-10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 C, 30 C and 45 C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress. PMID:24159283

Lee, H Y; Chai, L C; Pui, C F; Mustafa, S; Cheah, Y K; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

2013-01-01

11

Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride  

PubMed Central

Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 110% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 C, 30 C and 45 C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.

Lee, H.Y.; Chai, L.C.; Pui, C.F.; Mustafa, S.; Cheah, Y.K.; Nishibuchi, M.; Radu, S.

2013-01-01

12

Thermal conductivity of sodium chloride aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations representing the thermal conductivity of water as a function of temperature and pressure, as well as the thermal conductivity of sodium chloride aqueous solutions at temperatures from 20 to 325C and pressures from 0.1 to 100 MPa and concentrations up to 5 mol/kg are obtained.

Aleksandrov, A. A.; Dzhuraeva, E. V.; Utenkov, V. F.

2013-03-01

13

Conversion of sodium chloride to hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reaction route is suggested, based on experimental results, for the conversion of sodium chloride particles to gaseous hydrogen chloride in the atmosphere. The first step is the hydrolysis of nitrogen dioxide (NO) to form nitric acid (HNO) vapor. The second step is either adsorption on the relatively dry sodium chloride and the fourth is desorption of the hydrogen chloride,

R. C. Robbins; R. D. Cadle; D. L. Eckhardt

1959-01-01

14

Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Dogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to determine whether consistent, significant differences in response to life span dietary sodium chloride levels occur in dogs, and, if so, the influence of sex and genetics and exploration of the significance in the occu...

J. B. Youmans

1972-01-01

15

Thermoelectrochemical hydrogen production using sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Three closed-cycle processes for the thermoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from water using sodium chloride are under investigation. The maximum required temperature of 700/degree/C can be achieved by solar energy using various concentration techniques. By means of photovoltaic cells or a solar power station, the required electric power can be obtained. 11 refs.

El-Bassuoni, A.M.A.; Sheffield, J.W.; Veziroglu, T.N.

1981-01-01

16

Viscosities of the ternary solution dimethyl sulfoxide/water/sodium chloride at subzero temperatures and their application in cryopreservation.  

PubMed

Vitrification is considered as the most promising method for long-term storage of tissues and organs. An effective way to reduce the accompanied cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, during CPA addition/removal, is to operate at low temperatures. The permeation process of CPA into/out of biomaterials is affected by the viscosity of CPA solution, especially at low temperatures. The objective of the present study is to measure the viscosity of the ternary solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)/water/sodium chloride (NaCl), at low temperatures and in a wide range of concentrations. A rotary viscometer coupled with a low temperature thermostat bath was used. The measurement was carried out at temperatures from -10 to -50C. The highest mass fraction of Me2SO was 75% (w/w) and the lowest mass fraction of Me2SO was the value that kept the solution unfrozen at the measurement temperature. The concentration of NaCl was kept as a constant [0.85% (w/w), the normal salt content of extracellular fluids]. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model was employed to fit the obtained viscosity data. As an example, the effect of solution viscosity on modeling the permeation of Me2SO into articular cartilage was qualitatively analyzed. PMID:23376371

Zhang, Shaozhi; Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Guangming

2013-04-01

17

The dissolution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride solutions: effects of temperature and ionic strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinetics of amorphous silica, SiO 2 (am), dissolution was quantified in deionized water and NaCl solutions. By using two sources of pure SiO 2 glass (fused purified quartz and pyrolyzed SiCl 4), rates were measured at 40C to 250C by applying three types of reactor systems to assess kinetic behavior over the full temperature range. Dissolution rates of the two materials are similar within experimental error. Absolute rates of amorphous silica dissolution in deionized water exhibit an experimental activation energy, Ea,xp, of 81.9 3.0 and 76.4 6.6 kJ/mol for the fused quartz and pyrolyzed silica, respectively. These values are similar to estimates for quartz within experimental errors. Absolute dissolution rates of SiO 2 (am) in deionized water are 10 faster compared to quartz. Amorphous silica dissolution rates are significantly enhanced with the introduction of NaCl to near-neutral pH solutions such that 0.05 molal sodium ion enhances rates by 21 compared to deionized water. The new kinetic data are combined with previous measurements of SiO 2(am) dissolution rates in 'pure' water to evaluate the temperature dependence of dissolution. The comprehensive data set spans 25C to 250C and yields the Arrhenius expression log k+ = 0.82191 - 3892.3/ T(K) to give an apparent activation energy for dissolution of 74.5 1.4 kJ/mol. These findings step toward the larger goal of understanding silica polymorph reactivity in the complex fluid compositions of natural systems.

Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Dove, Patricia M.

2000-12-01

18

Equation of state for pure sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

An equation of state for pure sodium chloride has been developed on the basis of experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations for the restricted primitive model (RPM). The experimental data base included limited vapor pressure and saturated liquid density data as well as dimerization equilibrium constants. The liquid densities have been extrapolated to the supercooled region using liquid-phase Monte Carlo data. For this purpose, the parameters of the primitive model have been calculated by assuming that sodium chloride and RPM obey the corresponding states principle over a limited range of conditions. In the near-critical region Monte Carlo data as well as results of cluster calculations have been used with parameters scaled to reproduce the critical temperature obtained by extrapolating saturation data. The RPM parameters employed in the calculations are close to those for crystalline NaCl. The experimental and scaled Monte Carlo data have been reproduced within their accuracy using a van der Waals-type equation of state with two temperature-dependent parameters a and b. The functions representing the temperature dependence of the parameters have been designed to ensure reliable extrapolation to lower and higher temperatures. Dimerization of sodium chloride has been allowed for by using a closed-form term representing the effect of association on the compressibility factor. The performance of the equation has been additionally verified by predicting compressibility factors at low reduced temperatures outside the saturation region and comparing them with scaled Monte Carlo data. 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Anderko, A; Pitzer, K S

1991-06-01

19

Sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1992-01-01

20

Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

1990-01-01

21

Effect of temperature on the formation of creep substructure in sodium chloride single crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of temperature on the substructure morphology and the cell and subgrain size was investigated experimentally in NaCl single crystals under creep in the temperature range 573-873 K. It is found that the effect of temperature on the cell and subgrain sizes is weak in comparison with the effect of stress. However, there was a qualitative change in the substructure morphology with temperature, with the cells and subgrains better defined at higher temperatures. The volume fraction of the cell boundaries decreased with increasing temperature, thereby indicating a refinement of the microstructure at higher temperatures.

Raj, Sai V.; Pharr, George M.

1992-01-01

22

Secondary electron emission from sodium chloride, glass and aluminum oxide at various temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of single impulses was used to measure the coefficients of the secondary electronic emission for 2 types of Al2O2, monocrystalline NaCl and glass at different temperatures and for different values of the energy of the primary electrons. The value of the secondary electron emission does not depend upon temperature. The effect of a gas film on the value of the secondary electron emission was detected.

Shulman, A. R.; Makedonskiy, V. L.; Yaroshetskiy, I. D.

1980-01-01

23

Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

Ravnsbk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

2011-07-01

24

The sodium/metal chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

25

Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

2005-01-01

26

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Type 304 Stainless Steel in Solutions of Hydrochloric Acid + Sodium Chloride at Ambient Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Austenitic type 304 stainless steel is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in acidic chloride (Cl) solutions at ambient temperature. In this study, a layer of adsorbed product film enriched in chromium and nickel was found to form on the metal surface in the solutions. This product film had a protective role over the base metal. The nucleation of stress

Z. Fang; F. Xiao; Y. Wu; B. Cao; R. Zhu

1994-01-01

27

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

28

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

29

A sodium/beta-alumina/nickel chloride secondary cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium/beta alumina/sodium tetrachloroaluminate/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel/sodium choride sinter. Molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte (NaAlCl4) acted as intermediate between electrode and beta alumina tube. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of low resistances and rates of discharge for cells up to 20-Ah capacity. Cells were operated over the temperature range from 230 to 400 C where the OCV of the cell reaction varied from 2.60 V to 2.56 V.

Galloway, R. C.

1987-01-01

30

Effect of sodium salicylate, sodium oxalate, and sodium chloride on the micellization and adsorption of sodium deoxycholate in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The salicylate ion increases the rate of bile flow (choleretic effect) and bile salts are known to affect the colonic absorption of oxalate. Owing to this physiological relevance of salicylate and oxalate ions, critical micelle concentration (cmc) values of sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) were determined in aqueous sodium oxalate, sodium salicylate, and sodium chloride solutions by using surface tension, fluorescence, and EMF methods. The results indicate, besides a counterion effect, the influence of coanions on the cmc. In the range from 25 to 40 C, cmc increases almost linearly with temperature. In the temperature range from 30 to 40 C, the counterion binding constant ? of NaDC micelles has the same value (0.170.01) in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium salicylate. On the other hand, in sodium oxalate solution ?=0.050.02 when oxalate concentration is less than or equal to c* and ?=0.480.04 above c*, where c*?0.038 mol kg(-1). EMF measurements also supported this type of counterion binding to NaDC micelles in sodium oxalate solutions. In sodium oxalate solution, at c* a change in the shape of deoxycholate micelles is expected to take place. Salicylate, oxalate, and chloride coanions have a similar effect on the adsorption of NaDC. This study reveals that the choleretic effect of salicylate is not due to the influence of salicylate ions on the micellization of NaDC. PMID:21402381

Das, Sujit; Dey, Jahar; Mukhim, Teiborlang; Ismail, Kochi

2011-05-15

31

Amorphous silica solubilities IV. Behavior in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate solutions up to 350C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solubilities of amorphous silica were determined in separate aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate at temperatures up to 350C. These salts, of strong interest in hydrothermal oceanography and geothermal energy, generally ranged in concentration from zero to saturation. Solubilities in the sodium chloride solutions followed closely earlier observed decreases in sodium nitrate solutions at high temperatures. Amorphous silica solubilities were depressed most by magnesium chloride, followed by magnesium sulfate, and less by sodium chloride. As the temperature rose the relative decrease in solubility caused by added salt became smaller. Surprisingly, sodium sulfate solutions, showing little effect at 25C, sharply raised the solubility as the temperature increased to 350C. Plots of the logarithms of derived activity coefficients against molalities of added salt gave approximately straight lines. These plots allow simple predictions of amorphous silica solubility in single salt solutions.

Chen, Chen-Tung A.; Marshall, William L.

1982-02-01

32

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

33

The vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium bromide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, potassium iodate, and rubidium chloride at temperatures from 227 K to 323 K  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3, NaNO2, KIO3, and RbCl were determined in the temperature rangeT=(278 to 323) K using an electronic hygrometer with an electrolyte sensor and compared with the literature data, which are available only for the first four salts. These vapour pressures serve to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients, and molar

Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

1998-01-01

34

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A. B.

1984-01-01

35

Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O...H...O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

Anderson, A.B.

1984-10-17

36

Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

2013-01-01

37

Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-09-01

38

Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

39

Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

1971-01-01

40

Compatibility and activity of enoxaparin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for 48 hours.  

PubMed

The stability of enoxaparin sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers was studied. Triplicate solutions of 120 mg (1.2 mL) of enoxaparin (as the sodium salt) and 98.8 mL of 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in 250-mL PVC containers and stored at room temperature (20-22 degrees C). Samples were taken immediately after preparation and at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 4, 12, 16, 24, and 48 hours. Inspections for color change and precipitation were performed with a clarity inspection station and a magnifying glass. Samples of the three admixtures were evaluated in duplicate for pharmacologic activity by an automated coagulation heparin assay. Throughout the 48-hour study period, the enoxaparin admixtures were free of color change, evolution of gas, and precipitates. The pharmacologic activity of enoxaparin in the PVC containers remained > 94% of the initial measured activity for 48 hours. Enoxaparin 1.2 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in PVC containers was stable for up to 48 hours at 20-22 degrees C. PMID:8653483

Mewborn, A L; Kessler, J M; Joyner, K A

1996-01-15

41

Determination of Cobalt in Cobalt-Doped Sodium Chloride Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cobalt in low concentrations in single crystals, grown from sodium chloride melts containing cobalt chloride, is rapidly determined, without destroying the crystals, by measuring the absorbance of the 215 -millimicron band. The lower limit for measurement...

M. E. Hills G. C. Whitnack

1964-01-01

42

Occurrence of methane hydrate in saturated and unsaturated solutions of sodium chloride and water in dependence of temperature and pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental results of the formation of methane hydrate in dependence of temperature and pressure in unsaturated solutions of NaCl in water will be presented in a temperature range from 261.85 to 285.98 K and pressure up to 11.0 MPa. Furthermore the four-phase equilibrium NaCl X 2HO \\/SUB s\\/ -CH X nHO \\/SUB s\\/ -L-G has been calculated from the experimental

J. L. de Roo; G. A. M. Diepen; R. N. Lichtenthaler; C. J. Peters

1983-01-01

43

Occurrence of methane hydrate in saturated and unsaturated solutions of sodium chloride and water in dependence of temperature and pressure  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results of the formation of methane hydrate in dependence of temperature and pressure in unsaturated solutions of NaCl in water will be presented in a temperature range from 261.85 to 285.98 K and pressure up to 11.0 MPa. Furthermore the four-phase equilibrium NaCl X 2H/sub 2/O /SUB s/ -CH/sub 4/ X nH/sub 2/O /SUB s/ -L-G has been calculated from the experimental results. Also the heats of transformation of several other equilibria in the ternary system CH/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O-NaCl are obtained.

de Roo, J.L.; Diepen, G.A.M.; Lichtenthaler, R.N.; Peters, C.J.

1983-07-01

44

Unexpected Stable Stoichiometries of Sodium Chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl), or rocksalt, is well characterized at ambient pressure. As a result of the large electronegativity difference between Na and Cl atoms, it has highly ionic chemical bonding (with 1:1 stoichiometry dictated by charge balance) and B1-type crystal structure. By combining theoretical predictions and diamond anvil cell experiments, we found that new materials with different stoichiometries emerge at high pressures. Compounds such as Na3Cl, Na2Cl, Na3Cl2, NaCl3, and NaCl7 are theoretically stable and have unusual bonding and electronic properties. To test this prediction, we synthesized cubic and orthorhombic NaCl3 and two-dimensional metallic tetragonal Na3Cl. These experiments establish that compounds violating chemical intuition can be thermodynamically stable even in simple systems at nonambient conditions.

Zhang, Weiwei; Oganov, Artem R.; Goncharov, Alexander F.; Zhu, Qiang; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Lyakhov, Andriy O.; Stavrou, Elissaios; Somayazulu, Maddury; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Konpkov, Zuzana

2013-12-01

45

Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

46

Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

Birks, N.

1983-01-01

47

Effect of temperature, sodium chloride, and pH on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage juice.  

PubMed Central

Human illness and death have resulted from the consumption of milk, cheese, and cole slaw contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Since the effects of temperature, NaCl, and pH on the growth of the organism in cabbage were unknown, a series of experiments was designed to investigate these factors. Two strains (LCDC 81-861 and Scott A, both serotype 4b) were examined. At 30 degrees C, the viable population of the LCDC 81-861 strain increased in sterile unclarified cabbage juice (CJ) containing 0 to 1.5% NaCl; a decrease in the population of both strains occurred in juice containing greater than or equal to 2% NaCl. At 5 degrees C, the population of the Scott A strain in CJ containing up to 5% NaCl was reduced by about 90% over a 70-day period; the LCDC 81-861 strain was more sensitive to refrigeration but remained viable in CJ containing less than or equal to 3.5% NaCl for 70 days. Growth in CJ at 30 degrees C resulted in a decrease in pH from 5.6 to 4.1 within 8 days. Death of L. monocytogenes occurred at 30 degrees C when the organism was inoculated into sterile CJ adjusted to pH less than or equal to 4.6 with lactic acid. No viable cells were detected after 3 days at pH less than or equal to 4.2. At 5 degrees C, the rate of death at pH less than or equal to 4.8 was slower than at 30 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Conner, D E; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

1986-01-01

48

Kinetics of leaching of lead sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powder dissolution method is used to study the kinetics of leaching of lead sulfate from a lead cake in the temperature range 298-353 K and the concentration range 50-270 g/l of a sodium chloride solution. The results obtained are used to calculate the apparent activation energy ( E a = 12.41 kJ/mol); its value indicates that the process of leaching of lead sulfate from a lead cake occurs in a diffusion zone. This process is shown to be described by a first-order kinetic equation.

Geidarov, A. A.; Akhmedov, M. M.; Karimov, M. A.; Valiev, B. S.; Efendieva, S. G.

2009-12-01

49

Physiochemical Properties of Sodium Chloride Particles on Laboratory Ice Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aqueous halides (e.g. Cl- and Br-) on environmental ice surfaces are converted to reactive gases through heterogeneous chemistry that has broad consequences for springtime Arctic tropospheric oxidation chemistry. Recent studies indicate that atmospherically contaminated snow (e.g. more acidic snow) is more effective at activating halogens than frozen seawater. This study investigates the microstructure created by the addition of salts onto ice surfaces as a function of temperature. Microscopic sodium chloride salt crystals were labeled with a fluorescent dye (fluorescein) and placed onto laboratory ice surface below the hydrohalite (NaCl 2H2O)-water eutectic temperature. As temperature was increased above the eutectic, a discrete brine area formed around the crystal. Size and morphology of the brine area was determined using an Axioscope II epifluorescence microscope. Initially, the salt crystal did not entirely dissolve and three distinct phases (solid salt, brine, ice) were present for some time. Timescales for crystal dissolving, brine formation, and wetting across the ice surfaces where thus constrained. Similar experiments using a fluorescently labeled, laboratory-generated sea salt aerosol particles were also carried out and compared to the larger microscopic sodium chloride crystals. This work gives insight into how atmospheric particles deliver contaminants to ice surfaces, how those contaminants interact with ice surfaces and thus how they may impact halogen activation.

Gleason, E. P.; Simpson, W. R.

2013-12-01

50

Detection of sodium chloride in Io's atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On January 14-18, 2002, we observed Io with the IRAM 30-m telescope and detected two rotational lines of NaCl at 143.237 and 234.252 GHz, obtaining the first detection of gaseous sodium chloride in Io's neutral atmosphere. The emission from SO2 was monitored by simultaneously observing SO2 lines at 143.057 and 234.187 GHz. Although intrinsically stronger by a factor ~ 300, the NaCl lines appear several times weaker than their SO2 counterparts, implying the NaCl is a minor compound. In the framework of an hydrostatic equilibrium atmosphere, the NaCl/SO2 is found to be (2.5-5)x10-4, assuming NaCl and SO2 to be colocated. Improved fits are obtained for denser and more localized than SO2 NaCl atmospheres, with a preferred solution for NaCl/SO2 = 1.5 %, covering 8 % of Io's disk, and a NaCl column density of ~4x1013 cm-2. Because of its vanishingly small vapor pressure and short atmospheric lifetime, a sublimation equilibrium NaCl atmosphere is excluded, and direct volcanic output must be the main source of NaCl. A ~1 % mixing ratio is consistent with a CI chondritic composition for Io's erupting magmas. Based on simple gaseous plume models, the data indicate a volcanic emission rate in the range 1.7x1027--8x1028 NaCl molecules sec-1. NaCl is likely to be the common parent molecule of Na and Cl in Io's environment. Based on photochemical models predictions, the escape rate of molecular NaCl is typically 1000 times smaller that this surface rate; the escape rates of atomic Na and Cl are expected to be 10--20 times larger. While the direct NaCl escape is too small, the escape of Na and Cl appears consistent with the NaX+ production rate inferred from the fast sodium observations ((1--8)x1026 sec-1). Thus, the production of fast sodium may be governed by reactions of atomic Na with molecular ions in Io torus.

Lellouch, E.; Paubert, G.; Moses, J. I.; Schneider, N. M.; Strobel, D. F.

2002-09-01

51

(1)H NMR diffusion studies of water self-diffusion in supercooled aqueous sodium chloride solutions.  

PubMed

The physical properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been studied theoretically, but so far no experimental diffusion data have been obtained under supercooled conditions. Here the results of (1)H NMR translational diffusion measurements of water in sodium chloride solutions in the temperature range 230 to 300 K and sodium chloride concentrations up to 4.2 mol/kg are presented. It was found that the diffusion data were well-described by the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher relationship with concentration-dependent parameters D0, B, and T0. The results indicate that under supercooled conditions the influence of sodium chloride on water diffusion is much smaller than predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24725279

Garbacz, Piotr; Price, William S

2014-05-01

52

Sodium Chloride Battery Development Program for Load Leveling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report covers work performed between January 1 - December 31, 1975 toward the development of a molten sodium chloride battery for load leveling. A cell has been developed which offers considerable promise for lightweight, long life, and low cost batt...

J. R. Birk J. Werth

1975-01-01

53

The interference effect of more than one salt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Part 1: Effect of magnesium chloride-sodium chloride mixture on manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous interference effects of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride on the atomization of manganese in a graphite furnace were investigated. For this purpose, the individual interference mechanisms of each salt were also studied. It was found that the interference of sodium chloride originates from expulsion of the analyte with matrix and gas phase reaction between manganese and chlorine during the atomization step. In the presence of magnesium chloride, interferences depend on the pyrolysis temperature. If low pyrolysis temperatures are applied, expulsion and gas phase reaction in the atomization step are very likely. At elevated temperatures, MgCl 2 is converted to MgO, which does not cause expulsion or gas phase reaction in the atomization step, although some loss of manganese occurs owing to the volatilization of manganese chloride formed in the pyrolysis step. If sodium chloride and magnesium chloride are present simultaneously, interferences are reduced at elevated pyrolysis temperatures. Obviously, the magnesium oxide generated by the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride acts as a modifier and partially protects the analyte, but some losses cannot be completely eliminated because of the interference due to sodium chloride and the volatilization of manganese chloride.

Ince Tekgl, H.; Akman, S.

1997-05-01

54

Diffusion of carbon dioxide (1); water (2); sodium chloride (3); magnesium chloride (4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Brnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) carbon dioxide; (2) water; (3) sodium chloride; (4) magnesium chloride

Winkelmann, J.

55

High-pressure structures and metallization of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl) is known as salt and an ionic insulator at ambient conditions. The high-pressure structures of NaCl have been extensively explored through a particle swarm structural search at zero temperature and pressure range of 0-800 GPa. In addition to the known low-pressure insulating phases, we find three novel orthorhombic high-pressure structures: oC8 (stable at 322-645 GPa), oI8 (stable at 645-683 GPa), and oP16 (stable at above 683 GPa). The oC8 structure can be metallized via band-gap closure under high pressure, while both oI8 and oP16 are metallic in their stable pressure ranges. Intriguingly, our predicted metallic high-pressure phases of NaCl retain predominant ionic behaviors. The peculiar conductive behaviors can be attributed to the extended anion sublattice.

Chen, Xin; Ma, Yanming

2012-10-01

56

Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

57

Removal of hydrogen chloride from high temperature coal gases  

SciTech Connect

Currently available processes for removing HCl vapor operate at relatively low temperatures (T < 300 C) and thus they are not suitable for use with hot coal gases (T > 500C). This paper presents the results of a laboratory-scale evaluation conducted at SRI International to determine the effectiveness of naturally occurring minerals and commercially available sorbents to remove HCl vapor from simulated coal gas streams at temperatures from 550 to 650 C. The thermodynamic stability and the volatility of the solid chloride products were the major criteria in selecting the nature of the sorbent. Alkaline earth chlorides, generally, are less volatile than alkali metal chlorides and transition metal chlorides. However, the calculated equilibrium partial pressure of HCl over alkali metal chlorides were calculated to be lower than those over alkaline earth compounds. In considering these two factors, along with availability in a natural form, sodium carbonate based sorbents were judged to be superior to other compounds.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Tong, G.T. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1988-01-01

58

Effect of sodium nitrite, sodium chloride , and sodium nitrate on germination and outgrowth of anaerobic spores.  

PubMed

The effects of meat-curing agents on germination and outgrowth of putrefactive anaerobe 3679h (PA 3679h) spores were studied in microcultures. Nitrite concentrations up to 0.06% at pH 6.0 or between 0.8 and 1% at pH 7.0 allowed emergence and elongation of vegetative cells but blocked cell division. The newly emerged cells then lysed. With more than 0.06% nitrite at pH 6.0 or more than 0.8 to 1% at pH 7.0, the spores lost refractility and swelled, but vegetative cells did not emerge. Even as much as 4% nitrite failed to prevent germination (complete loss of refractility) and swelling of the spores. Sodium chloride concentrations above 6% prevented complete germination (i.e., the spores retained a refractile core). In the presence of 3 to 6% sodium chloride, most of the spores germinated and produced vegetative cells, but cell division was often blocked. Sodium nitrate had no apparent effect on germination and outgrowth at concentrations up to 2%. PMID:5645423

Duncan, C L; Foster, E M

1968-02-01

59

Effect of sodium benzoate on zinc electrodeposition in chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium benzoate on the electrodeposition of zinc on carbon steel electrode from acidic chloride solution was\\u000a studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential capacitance (DC), chronoamperometry (CA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM),\\u000a and X-ray diffraction (XRD). A dimensionless graph model was used to analyze the nucleation process of zinc. It is found that\\u000a the sodium benzoate has a blocking

Yeqiang Mo; Qiming Huang; Weishan Li; Shejun Hu; Meiling Huang; Youju Huang

2011-01-01

60

Human keratinocyte stem cells survive for months in sodium chloride and can be successfully transplanted.  

PubMed

Human skin fragments can be preserved in anhydric sodium chloride at room temperature for periods of weeks or months and successfully transplanted, retaining normal morphological structure. Skin fragments of 10 x 10 x 6 mm were harvested during elective vascular and orthopedic surgery of lower limbs, dried of blood, and placed in anhydric sodium chloride powder in tightly sealed containers. Prior to transplantation to scid mice, the specimens were desalinated and rehydrated. Specimens preserved for 1-6 months and harvested 3-4 weeks after transplantation revealed intensive incorporation of bromdeoxyuridine (BdUR) into basal keratinocytes (stem cells). They expressed p63 and CD29 (stem cells and transient cells antigens), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and cytokeratin 16 specific for proliferating keratinocytes. We conclude that human epidermal stem cells can survive in a dehydrated state in sodium chloride for months and after transplantation give rise to keratinocyte progenies. Skin fibroblasts and some resident immune cells can also survive. PMID:15808698

Olszewski, W L; Moscicka, M; Zolich, D; Machowski, Z

2005-01-01

61

Mechanism of chemical activation of sodium chloride in the presence of amino acids.  

PubMed

Sodium chloride has been shown to promote chlorination of glycerol during thermal processing. However, the detailed mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Preliminary experiments have indicated that the reaction mixture should contain an amino acid and it should be dissolved thoroughly in water in order to induce chlorination. These observations are consistent with the process of dissociation of sodium chloride and its re-association with amino acid and eventual formation of the chlorinating agent in the form of the hydrochloride salt. Release of HCl from this salt can be manifested in chlorination and hydrolytic reactions occurring during thermal processing. The generation of HCl at room temperature from a mixture of sodium chloride and glycine was confirmed through spectrophotometric monitoring of the pH. Hydrolytic and chlorination reactions were demonstrated through monitoring of formation of HMF and chlorinated products under pyrolytic conditions using glucose or sucrose and amino acid mixtures. PMID:25053060

Rahn, Anja K K; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

2015-01-01

62

Measurement of Cherenkov light from a solution of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured Cherenkov light from a solution of sodium chloride with a concentration from 0 to 25% in weight. The light decreases from 100 to 92% linearly between the concentrations. The number of Cherenkov photons generated in the electrolyte is not determined by its refractive index only, which is in contrast to the situation in a dielectric medium.

Nishijima, Hisashi; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Shirakura, Hatsuo; Chiba, Masami

1987-02-01

63

Hygroscopicity of sub-6 nm sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured the hygroscopic growth of Sodium Chloride particles in a size range from 2.5 nm to 6 nm in a relative humidities ranging from 10% to 95% with a nano hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer The aim of this study was to investigate how accurately the Khler theory describes the hygroscopic growth of particles with a diameter of few nanometers.

Hakala, Jani; Kangasluoma, Juha; Petj, Tuukka

2013-05-01

64

Studies of Life Span Dietary Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the research was to determine whether consistent, significant differences in response to life span dietary sodium chloride levels occur in dogs, and, if so, the influence of sex and genetics and exploration of the significance in the occu...

J. B. Youmans

1967-01-01

65

Diffusion of Sodium Chloride in Cellulose and Amylose Acetates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for measuring the resistance change of a film with time was used to determine the diffusion and apparent permeability coefficients of sodium chloride in the two polymeric films. The results with cellulose diacetate (CDA, 39.8% acetyl) were compar...

M. Barnes C. Skaar P. Luner

1972-01-01

66

Postingestional control of sodium chloride solution drinking in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the relative roles of oropharyngeal and postingestional factors in the control of sodium chloride solution drinking in 5 male albino Sprague-Dawley rats by independently manipulating the concentrations of the solutions reaching the mouth and the stomach. The usual preference-aversion function was obtained in the absence of changes in taste stimulation but not in the absence of changes in postingestional

Edward F. Rabe; John D. Corbit

1973-01-01

67

Recondition and Reuse of Organically Contaminated Waste Sodium Chloride Brines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A plant of 100 gal/min capacity was constructed and operated for one year to demonstrate the feasibility to remove and recover phenol and acetic acid from an 18% sodium chloride brine by adsorption on fixed beds of activated carbon. The purified brine was...

R. D. Fox R. T. Keller C. J. Pinamont

1973-01-01

68

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

2010-07-01

69

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of...to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

2009-07-01

70

Activity coefficients of aqueous sodium chloride from 15?? to 50??C measured with a glass electrode  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Values of the mean activity coefficient of sodium chloride at 15??, 25??, 38?? and 50??C were determined for aqueous NaCl solutions of 0.01 to 1.0 molal from electromotive force measurements on the cell: (sodium-sensitive glass electrode, aqueous sodium chloride, silver chloride-silver).

Truesdell, A. H.

1968-01-01

71

The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

1979-01-01

72

Sodium chloride on Si(100) grown by molecular beam epitaxy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium chloride (NaCl) films were grown on an Si(100)-(2 1) surface at near room temperature by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The atomic structure and growth mode of the prototypical ionic materials on the covalent bonded semiconductor surface is examined by synchrotron core-level x-ray photoemission spectrum (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and first-principles calculations. The Si 2p, Na 2p, and Cl 2p core-level spectra together indicate that adsorbed NaCl molecules at submonolayer coverage [i.e., below 0.4 monolayer (ML)] partially dissociate and form Si-Cl species, and that a significant portion of the dangling-bond characteristics of the clean surface remains after NaCl deposition of 1.8 MLs. The deposition of 0.65-ML NaCl forms a partially ordered adlayer, which includes NaCl networks, Si-Cl species, adsorbed Na species, and isolated dangling bonds. The STM results revealed that the first adlayer consists of bright protrusions which form small c(2 4) and (2 2) patches. Above 0.65 ML, the two-dimensional NaCl double-layer growth proceeds on top of the first adlayer.

Chung, Jen-Yang; Li, Hong-Dao; Chang, Wan-Heng; Leung, T. C.; Lin, Deng-Sung

2011-02-01

73

Sodium chloride treatment of amphotericin B nephrotoxicity. Standard of care?  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B is an effective therapeutic agent for most systemic or invasive mycoses, but its usefulness is limited by the frequent occurrence of nephrotoxicity. Given the high and increasing frequency of serious fungal infections, especially in immunocompromised patients, the importance of the morbidity caused by this toxicity is substantial. Salt loading may prevent and even reverse amphotericin B-induced azotemia by an unknown mechanism. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in a relevant patient group would strengthen the support for this simple, safe therapy, but will not likely be carried out because of practical and ethical considerations. Thus, a few prospective and limited controlled human studies may be the only supportive evidence for using this therapy. Supplementing dietary sodium chloride intake with 150 mEq of sodium chloride daily intravenously or orally beginning when or before amphotericin B therapy is initiated will likely prevent much of the observed nephrotoxicity and should be carried out routinely.

Anderson, C M

1995-01-01

74

Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

75

depth measurement temperature measurement pressure measurement conductivity measurement (Salinity measurement TDS measurement) Oxygen Concentration measurement (Oxygen saturation measurement) pH-value measurement Red-ox-potential ORP measurement turbidity measurement (TSS measurement) measurement ion selective electrode (nitrate chloride ammonium potassium calcium sodium fluoride gas ammonia) fluorescence measurements (chlorophyll a cyanobacteria rhodamine ) optical oxygen measurements.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: depth measurement temperature measurement pressure measurement conductivity measurement (Salinity measurement TDS measurement) Oxygen Concentration measurement (Oxygen saturation measurement) pH-value measurement Red-ox-potential ORP measurement turbidity measurement (TSS measurement) measurement ion selective electrode (nitrate chloride ammonium potassium calcium sodium fluoride gas ammonia) fluorescence measurements (chlorophyll a cyanobacteria rhodamine ) optical oxygen measurements. ?

76

Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of sodium reduction by partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on the manufacture of Minas fresh cheese during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Four treatments of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese were manufactured, with partial replacement of NaCl by KCl at 0, 25, 50, and 75% (wt/wt), respectively. The cheeses showed differences in the content of moisture, ash, protein, salt, and lipid contents, as well as on the extent of proteolysis and hardness throughout the storage period. However, no difference was observed among treatments within each storage day tested. The partial substitution of NaCl by KCl decreased up to 51.8% the sodium concentration of the cheeses produced. The consumer test indicated that it is possible to manufacture a low-sodium Minas fresh cheese that is acceptable to consumers by partial substitution of NaCl by KCl at 25% (wt/wt) in the salting step. PMID:21605739

Gomes, A P; Cruz, A G; Cadena, R S; Celeghini, R M S; Faria, J A F; Bolini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Granato, D

2011-06-01

77

Effect of concentration on the thermodynamics of sodium chloride aqueous solutions in the supercooled regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular dynamics simulations are performed on two sodium chloride solutions in TIP4P water with concentrations c=1.36 mol/kg and c=2.10 mol/kg upon supercooling. The isotherms and isochores planes are calculated. The temperature of maximum density line and the limit of mechanical stability line are obtained from the analysis of the thermodynamic planes. The comparison of the results shows that for densities well above the limit of mechanical stability, the isotherms and isochores of the sodium chloride aqueous solution shift to lower pressures upon increasing concentration while the limit of mechanical stability is very similar to that of bulk water for both concentrations. We also find that the temperature of maximum density line shifts to lower pressures and temperatures upon increasing concentration. Indications of the presence of a liquid-liquid coexistence are found for both concentrations.

Corradini, D.; Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

2009-04-01

78

Sodium?metal chloride battery research at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium?metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium?sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e. Na/FeCl 2 and Na/NiCl 2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate-limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation a rate limiting process under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl 2, NiCl 2 and CuCl 2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

79

Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B. A.; Davis, K. B.

1980-01-01

80

Thermodynamic and NMR study of aggregation of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous sodium salicylate solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex aggregation processes of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) have been studied in dilute solutions of sodium\\u000a salicylate (NaSal) by isothermal titration calorimetry and electrical conductivity at temperatures between 278.15K and 318.15K.\\u000a A structural transformation that was dependent on the concentrations of DTAC and NaSal was observed. The micellization process\\u000a in dilute solutions of DTAC has been subjected to a detailed

Bojan arac; Janez Cerkovnik; Bernard Ancian; Guillaume Mriguet; Galle M. Roger; Serge Durand-Vidal; Marija Beter-Roga?

81

Sodium chloride affects propidium monoazide action to distinguish viable cells.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a DNA-intercalating agent used to selectively detect DNA from viable cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we report that high concentrations (>5%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) prevents PMA from inhibiting DNA amplification from dead cells. Moreover, Halobacterium salinarum was unable to maintain cell integrity in solutions containing less than 15% NaCl, indicating that extreme halophilic microorganisms may not resist the concentration range in which PMA fully acts. We conclude that NaCl, but not pH, directly affects the efficiency of PMA treatment, limiting its use for cell viability assessment of halophiles and in hypersaline samples. PMID:22728959

Barth, Valdir C; Cattani, Fernanda; Ferreira, Carlos A S; de Oliveira, Slvia D

2012-09-15

82

Poly-silicon nanowire sensor for sodium chloride concentration measurement.  

PubMed

In this paper, the poly-Si nanowire sensor was fabricated by top-down technique for sodium chloride concentration measurement. The results showed that the smallest threshold voltage and the best resolution were 1.65 V and 0.41 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, the sensor can be reused more than 50 times which maintained acceptable performance and showed good linearity of the calibration within wide range of the concentration. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the proposed sensor has great potential to be used for measuring complicated sample with suitable modification on the surface of nanowires. PMID:24211887

Kan, Yao-Chiang; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Ho, Wen-Kai; Wu, Tsai-Chen; Ho, Yao-Yaun; Yang, Chia Yu

2014-01-01

83

Hydrogen embrittlement of type 410 stainless steel in sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, and sodium hydroxide environments at 90 C  

SciTech Connect

Susceptibility of martensitic type 410 (UNS S41000) stainless steel (SS) to environmental cracking was evaluated at 90 C in concentrated sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, all of which are environments related to steam turbine conditions, using the slow strain rate testing (SSRT) technique. In NaCl, the effects of solution pH, concentration, and anodic and cathodic polarization were investigated. Tests were supplemented by detailed electron fractography and hydrogen permeation measurements. A clear correlation was found between the degree of embrittlement and the amount of hydrogen permeating the steel, suggesting a hydrogen-induced cracking mechanism.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G.; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [Inst. de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico). Dept. Fisico Quimica Aplicada; Martinez-Villafane, A. [Centro de Investigaciones en Materiales Avanzados Leon Tolstoi, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1997-06-01

84

Deep ultraviolet and visible crystalloluminescence of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A protocol has been developed for production of intense crystalloluminescence (XTL) from sodium chloride in aqueous solution by selective doping with transition metal salts (Ag+, Cu2+, and Dy3+). The method was used to record complete, fully dispersed deep UV-visible (200-650 nm) XTL spectra of sodium chloride for the first time. The results show conclusively that the emissions are due to dopant cations in the NaCl lattice, with no evidence for emission directly from NaCl, e.g., by triboluminescence resulting from crystalline fracture. The UV components of the XTL spectrum are attributed to single cation substituents (Ag+ and Cu+), and a strong visible component (~415 nm) of the XTL is attributed to emission from silver-pair centers, (Ag+)2. The nature of the electronic transitions of the dopant cations is discussed. The results suggest that the timescale for transformation of a cluster to the crystalline phase is rapid, with efficient relaxation to the lowest excited electronic states of the dopant cation. This transformation is followed by photoemission of the cation in the nascent crystal.

Alexander, Andrew J.

2012-02-01

85

The influence of the chloride gradient across red cell membranes on sodium and potassium movements  

PubMed Central

1. A study has been made to see whether active and passive movements of sodium and potassium in human red blood cells are influenced by changing the chloride gradient and hence the potential difference across the cell membrane. 2. Chloride distribution was measured between red cells and isotonic solutions with a range of concentrations of chloride and non-penetrating anions (EDTA, citrate, gluconate). The cell chloride concentration was greater than that outside with low external chloride, suggesting that the sign of the membrane potential was reversed. The chloride ratio (internal/external) was approximately equal to the inverse of the hydrogen ion ratio at normal and low external chloride, and inversely proportional to external pH. These results show that chloride is passively distributed, making it valid to calculate the membrane potential from the chloride ratio. 3. Ouabain-sensitive (pump) potassium influx and sodium efflux were decreased by not more than 20 and 40% respectively on reversing the chloride gradient, corresponding to a change in membrane potential from -9 to +30 mV. In contrast, passive (ouabain-insensitive) movements were reversibly altered potassium influx was decreased about 60% and potassium efflux was increased some tenfold. Sodium influx was unaffected by the nature of the anion and depended only on the external sodium concentration, whereas ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux was increased about threefold. When external sodium was replaced by potassium there was a decrease in ouabain-insensitive sodium efflux with normal chloride, but an increase in low-chloride medium. 4. Net movements of sodium and potassium were roughly in accord with the unidirectional fluxes. 5. The results suggest that reversing the chloride gradient and, therefore, the sign of the membrane potential, had little effect on the sodium pump, but caused a marked increase in passive outward movements of both sodium and potassium ions.

Cotterrell, D.; Whittam, R.

1971-01-01

86

Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

2007-08-11

87

Inhibitory effect of combinations of heat treatment, pH, and sodium chloride on a growth from spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum at refrigeration temperature.  

PubMed Central

Nonproteolytic strains of Clostridium botulinum will grow at refrigeration temperatures and thus pose a potential hazard in minimally processed foods. Spores of types B, E, and F strains were used to inoculate an anaerobic meat medium. The effects of various combinations of pH, NaCl concentration, addition of lysozyme, heat treatment (85 to 95 degrees C), and incubation temperature (5 to 16 degrees C) on time until growth were determined. No growth occurred after spores were heated at 95 degrees C, but lysozyme improved recovery from spores heated at 85 and 90 degrees C.

Graham, A F; Mason, D R; Peck, M W

1996-01-01

88

Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely. PMID:24857817

Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

2014-08-01

89

Model for the combined effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride concentration on survival of Shigella flexneri strain 5348 under aerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shigella is recognized as a major foodborne pathogen; however, relatively few studies have been reported on its growth and survival characteristics, particularly under conditions relevant to food. A fractional factorial design was used to measure the effects and interactions of temperature (437 C), pH (26) and NaCl (0.59%) on survival kinetics of Shigella flexneri strain 5348 in BHI broth. Stationary-phase

Laura L. Zaika; John G. Phillips

2005-01-01

90

Alternative Approach To Modeling Bacterial Lag Time, Using Logistic Regression as a Function of Time, Temperature, pH, and Sodium Chloride Concentration  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model to predict the end of lag time (?) during the growth of Bacillus cereus vegetative cells as a function of temperature, pH, and salt concentration using logistic regression. The developed ? model was subsequently combined with a logistic differential equation to simulate bacterial numbers over time. To develop a novel model for ?, we determined whether bacterial growth had begun, i.e., whether ? had ended, at each time point during the growth kinetics. The growth of B. cereus was evaluated by optical density (OD) measurements in culture media for various pHs (5.5 ? 7.0) and salt concentrations (0.5 ? 2.0%) at static temperatures (10 ? 20C). The probability of the end of ? was modeled using dichotomous judgments obtained at each OD measurement point concerning whether a significant increase had been observed. The probability of the end of ? was described as a function of time, temperature, pH, and salt concentration and showed a high goodness of fit. The ? model was validated with independent data sets of B. cereus growth in culture media and foods, indicating acceptable performance. Furthermore, the ? model, in combination with a logistic differential equation, enabled a simulation of the population of B. cereus in various foods over time at static and/or fluctuating temperatures with high accuracy. Thus, this newly developed modeling procedure enables the description of ? using observable environmental parameters without any conceptual assumptions and the simulation of bacterial numbers over time with the use of a logistic differential equation.

Nonaka, Junko

2012-01-01

91

DSC determination of partial ternary phase diagrams of methanol\\/sodium chloride\\/water and propylene glycol\\/sodium chloride\\/water and their applications for synthesized diagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study presents partial ternary phase diagrams of methanol\\/sodium chloride\\/water and propylene glycol\\/sodium chloride\\/water systems with compositions of cryobiological interests (R<20 and x<30) by means of differential scanning calorimeter. To synthesize the ternary phase diagram through its relevant binary ones, the partial binary phase diagrams of methanol and propylene glycol aqueous solutions are experimentally determined as well. Ultimately, the

Lindong Weng; Weizhong Li; Jianguo Zuo

2011-01-01

92

A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

93

The structure of gold films grown in ultra-high vacuum on sodium chloride substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium chloride crystals were cleaved in ultra-high vacuum while the evaporation of gold was in progress. The films that grew on the freshly exposed (001) surfaces were examined in a transmission electron microscope, and in a reflection electron diffraction camera. A film grown at a deposition rate of about 2000 . per second on sodium chloride at 360C was a

J. W. Matthews; E. Grnbauma

1965-01-01

94

Physiological And Spectral Analysis Of The Effects Of Sodium Chloride On Syringa Vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the affect of soil introduced sodium chloride on the common lilac (Syringa vulgaris, L.). Eight, evenly spaced, treatment solution concentrations from 0-2100ppm sodium chloride were applied to plants growing in a greenhouse environment. Each treatment consisted of 16 plants of the same clone. Subjective data were recorded for damage assessment on all plants and one

Gary N. Lauten; Barrett N. Rock

1992-01-01

95

Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Sodium-dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl?) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl? efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl? substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 79 weeks were used and intracellular Cl? was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl?-free buffer (Cl? substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl?-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl? efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl? efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl? efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl? efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl? efflux via Cl?/HCO3? exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger.

Stakisaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juska, Alfonsas; Matusevicius, Paulius; Didziapetriene, Janina

2014-01-01

96

Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, commensurate with the atomic rows of the NaCl surface. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface and the modulations appear to reflect a surface structural reconstruction facilitated by surface charges.

Clark, Kendal; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Wendelken, John; Li, An-Ping

2012-02-01

97

Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

1991-05-01

98

Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

1991-01-01

99

Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

2011-10-01

100

Molecular dynamics studies on the thermodynamics of supercooled sodium chloride aqueous solution at different concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we compare recent results obtained by means of molecular dynamics computer simulations on the thermodynamics of TIP4P bulk water and on solutions of sodium chloride in TIP4P water. The concentrations studied are c = 0.67, 1.36 and 2.10 mol kg - 1. The results are checked against change of water-salt potential and size effects. The systems are studied in a wide range of temperatures, going from ambient temperature to the supercooled region. Analysis of simulated state points, performed on the isochores and on the isotherm plane, allowed the determination of the limit of mechanical stability and of the temperature of maximum density lines. While the presence of ions in the system does not affect the limit of mechanical stability with respect to the bulk, it causes the temperature of the maximum density line to shift to lower pressure and temperature upon increasing concentration. The occurrence of minima in the trend of potential energy as a function of density and the inflections in the low temperature isotherms suggest the presence of liquid-liquid coexistence for bulk water and for the sodium chloride solutions at all concentrations studied.

Corradini, D.; Gallo, P.; Rovere, M.

2010-07-01

101

DETERMINATION OF LITHIUM AND SODIUM CHLORIDES BY POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATION FOLLOWING 2ETHYL1HEXANOL SEPARATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium and lithium chlorides are titrated potentiometrically with silver ; nitrate following two extractions of the lithium chloride with 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. ; Using glass and silver- silver chloride electrodes, the detection of the end ; point is enhanced in the organic medium. For 17 determinations, an average of ; 99.99% was obtained for lithium, with a standard deviation of 0.16%, and

G. R. Waterbury; E. H. Van Kooten; Bruno Morosin

1958-01-01

102

Surface Energy of Low-Index Faces of Single-Crystal Gold in Molten Sodium, Potassium, and Cesium Chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free energies of formation of gold faces (111) and (100) in molten sodium, potassium, and cesium chlorides are measured by the meniscus weighing method. The effect of the cation size, temperature, and electric potential on the electrocapillary curve and PZC is considered. A mechanism for the anion adsorption at a charged metal surface, based on the participation of valence

V. N. Batalova; V. P. Stepanov; V. S. Belyaev

2002-01-01

103

Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities

Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

2011-01-01

104

Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results\\u000a showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding)\\u000a maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In\\u000a contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

1979-01-01

105

Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

1979-01-01

106

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

107

Kinematic Viscosity and Density of Binary and Ternary Mixtures Containing Hydrocolloids, Sodium Chloride, and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The kinematic viscosity and density of binary aqueous solutions containing xanthan gum and ternary aqueous solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium chloride have been measured from 303 K to 318 K at different values of pH. The viscosity and density for binary and ternary systems showed increases with a higher concentration of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum or carboxymethyl cellulose) and reductions with increasing temperature. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The models used to predict the viscosity, density, and apparent specific volume demonstrated satisfactory results in comparisons with experimental data.

Assis, Tassia F.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Guimares, Guilherme C.; Coelho, Marcos C.; Ramos, Andresa V.; Costa, Bernardo S.; Coimbra, Jane S. R.

2010-03-01

108

Electrical and spectroscopic characterization of polyaniline polyvinyl chloride (PANI PVC) blends doped with sodium thiosulphate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyaniline is doped with sodium thiosulphate in aqueous tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the blended films have been prepared by changing the amount of doped polyaniline (PANI) in the fixed amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The electrical conductivity of various samples of polyaniline-polyvinyl chloride (PANI-PVC) blends has been studied to see the effect of dopant in the temperature range 300-400 K. Mott's parameters are used to explain the conduction mechanism. Different parameters such as pre-exponential factor ( ?0), activation energy (? E) and T0 have also been calculated to see the effect of chemical doping. The crystallinity of the blends is explained on the basis of T0. The calculated values of T0 show that crystallinity increases with an increase of doped PANI in PANI-PVC blends. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is done to explore the nature and interaction of dopant into the polymeric chain.

Ameen, Sadia; Ali, Vazid; Zulfequar, M.; Mazharul Haq, M.; Husain, M.

2008-08-01

109

Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in higher levels of brothy flavor in cheese made with smaller curd knives and a higher target salting titratable acidity. This effect resulted in lower consumer liking scores. PMID:23332837

Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

2013-03-01

110

Effect of Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Chloride, and Sodium Nitrate on Germination and Outgrowth of Anaerobic Spores1  

PubMed Central

The effects of meat-curing agents on germination and outgrowth of putrefactive anaerobe 3679h (PA 3679h) spores were studied in microcultures. Nitrite concentrations up to 0.06% at pH 6.0 or between 0.8 and 1% at pH 7.0 allowed emergence and elongation of vegetative cells but blocked cell division. The newly emerged cells then lysed. With more than 0.06% nitrite at pH 6.0 or more than 0.8 to 1% at pH 7.0, the spores lost refractility and swelled, but vegetative cells did not emerge. Even as much as 4% nitrite failed to prevent germination (complete loss of refractility) and swelling of the spores. Sodium chloride concentrations above 6% prevented complete germination (i.e., the spores retained a refractile core). In the presence of 3 to 6% sodium chloride, most of the spores germinated and produced vegetative cells, but cell division was often blocked. Sodium nitrate had no apparent effect on germination and outgrowth at concentrations up to 2%. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Duncan, Charles L.; Foster, E. M.

1968-01-01

111

Sodium Chloride Battery Development Program for Load Leveling. Interim Report, January 1, 1975-December 31, 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work performed between January 1 - December 31, 1975 toward the development of a molten sodium chloride battery for load leveling is reported. A cell has been developed which offers considerable promise for lightweight, long life, and low cost batteries. ...

1975-01-01

112

The coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of frog skin epithelium.  

PubMed Central

1. When frog skin epithelium was exposed to a chloride-free solution bathing the basolateral side of the frog skin preparation the short-circuit current fell and there was a simultaneous loss of chloride and water from its cells. This effect was partially blocked by furosemide when this drug was added to the basolateral bathing solution. 2. Under control conditions and when added to the solution bathing the basolateral side of the preparation furosemide had no effect on the ion and water contents of the frog skin epithelium. 3. Furosemide but not SITS (4-acetamide-4'-isothiocyanate-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or amiloride blocked the recovery of short-circuit current and the reuptake of chloride and water by preparations pre-incubated with chloride-free solution on the basolateral side. The recovery of the short-circuit current was also blocked by the replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium. 4. The effect on the short-circuit current of graded replacements by impermeant ions of sodium or chloride did not show saturation for concentrations of these ions up to their control values. 5. Replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium inhibited the short-circuit current and the recovery observed when potassium was reintroduced in the basolateral bathing solution was blocked by furosemide. 6. The replacement of basolateral sodium or chloride by impermeant ions induced an immediate fall in the intracellular concentrations of both sodium and chloride suggesting that the transport system coupling the movements of the two ions across the basolateral membrane is operative under control conditions. 7. It is proposed that the coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium are mediated by a sodium-potassium-2 chloride co-transport system which under control conditions is very near equilibrium.

Fernandes, P L; Ferreira, H G; Ferreira, K T

1989-01-01

113

Energy absorption of nanoporous silica particles in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study is carried out on the effect of chemical admixtures, particularly sodium chloride, on the energy absorption behaviour of a hydrophobic nanoporous silica. As the pressure increases, once the capillary effect is overcome, the liquid is forced into the nanopores; and when the pressure is reduced, outflow is difficult, resulting in a pronounced hysteresis. The inflow pressure and the specific absorbed energy are strongly dependent on the sodium chloride concentration, providing a promising way to adjust the system performance.

Kong, Xinguo; Surani, Falgun B.; Qiao, Yu

2006-11-01

114

Enthalpic interactions of anti-tumor drug matrine in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enthalpies of dilution of matrine (MAT) in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions were determined by isothermal\\u000a titration microcalorimetry at 298.15K, and the corresponding homogeneous enthalpic interaction coefficients were calculated\\u000a according to the modified McMillanMayer model. The values of enthalpic pair-wise interaction coefficients, h\\u000a 2, are all positive and become more positive with increasing concentration of sodium chloride.

Xiang Jun Sun; Xiang Yu Xu; Min Liu; Lin Wei Li; De Zhi Sun

2010-01-01

115

Electrical impedance and HV plasma images of high dilutions of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This paper reports impedance data and high voltage plasma photographic plates of high dilutions of sodium chloride in water submitted to the homeopathic dilution and succession up to 30cH. Extremely low concentrations of the original salt, even beyond Avogadro number, clearly differ from 'pure' water and; the action of sodium chloride on the electrical properties of water is inverted at high dilution. PMID:18657771

Assumpo, R

2008-07-01

116

Accelerated ripening of Dhakki dates by artificial means: ripening by acetic acid and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of sodium chloride and acetic acid for initiation\\/acceleration of the ripening of Dhakki dates has been investigated. Each treatment was applied individually and\\/or in combined form at different proportions varying from 0.25% to 3.5% and 0.25% to 2.5% for sodium chloride and acetic acid respectively. Dhakki dates at the Doka stage were immersed in treatment solutions for 5min

Shahzada A. Saleem; Ahmad K. Baloch; Musa Kaleem Baloch; Waqar A. Baloch; Abdul Ghaffoor

2005-01-01

117

Stability of Diclofenac Sodium Oral Suspensions Packaged in Amber Polyvinyl Chloride Bottles  

PubMed Central

Background: Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. Objectives: To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. Methods: A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23C) or under refrigeration (5C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. Results: The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Conclusions: Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to 93 days is suggested.

Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Regis

2010-01-01

118

Equilibrium diagrams at 27 [degree]C of the water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride system  

SciTech Connect

Amines are usually used in extracting tungsten from scheelite. Dodecylamine chloride in kerosene and octanol was used as an extracting agent in order to establish the phase diagram at 27C for water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride. Acetone was used to prevent emulsion formation. This procedure made it possible to achieve better partition coefficients; however, there appears to be a saturation region.

Dantas Neto, A.A.; Castro Dantas, T.N. de; Duarte, M.M.L.; Avelino, S. (Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica)

1993-01-01

119

Gustatory responsiveness to monosodium glutamate and sodium chloride in four species of nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

The taste responsiveness of six squirrel monkeys, five pigtail macaques, four olive baboons and four spider monkeys to monsodium glutamate (MSG) and to sodium chloride was assessed in two-bottle preference tests of brief duration (2 min). When given the choice between tap water and defined concentrations of the two tastants dissolved in tap water, the animals were found to significantly discriminate concentrations of MSG as low as 2 mM (spider monkeys and olive baboons), 50 mM (pigtail macaques) and 300 mM (squirrel monkeys) from the solvent. With sodium chloride, taste preference thresholds were found to be 1 mM (spider monkeys), 20 mM (pigtail macaques), 50 mM (olive baboons), and 200 mM (squirrel monkeys), respectively. Across-species comparisons of the degree of preference for MSG and sodium chloride displayed by the four primate species showed the same order of spider monkeys>olive baboons>pigtail macaques>squirrel monkeys. When presented with equimolar concentrations of different tastants, all four species preferred sucrose as well as a mixture of sucrose and sodium chloride over MSG, and--at least at one concentration--they preferred MSG over sodium chloride. The results support the assertion that the taste responsiveness of the four primate species to MSG and sodium chloride might reflect an evolutionary adaptation to their respective dietary habits. PMID:15673111

Laska, Matthias; Hernandez Salazar, Laura Teresa

2004-11-01

120

Calcium effect on the solubility of sodium dodecyl sulfate in sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

Interactions between calcium ions and anionic surfactants have recently attracted increased interest, particularly because of the development of enhanced oil recovery through the use of micellar solutions. The brine in crude oil reservoirs always contains a certain amount of polyvalent ions, especially calcium ions, which have pronounced effects on the properties of micellar solutions, varying with electrolyte concentration and surfactant type. To date, the surfactants most often used are anionic. Precipitation of anionic surfactants with calcium ions was investigated. It was found that surfactant precipitation is governed by a given mechanism when the supernatant liquid is a micellar solution, and by another when it is not. This work discusses the results of a series of experiments which indicate that this difference is a function of sodium chloride concentration. 10 references.

Baviere, M.; Bazin, B.; Aude, R.

1983-04-01

121

Electrode Potentials of a Silver-Silver Chloride Electrode vs. Temperature for Biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to make clear the effect of temperature on the potentials of silver-silver chloride(Ag-AgCl) electrodes in potassium chloride(KCl) and sodium chloride(NaCl) solutions for micro biosensor applications. Non-isothermal coefficients, or thermal coefficient of Ag-AgCl electrodes in the concentrations of 0.1 to 1.0[mol\\/kg] were experimentally measured in the range of 15 to 45[C]. The electrode was prepared

Isao Dendo; Kana Seki

2007-01-01

122

Features of radiation gas discharge with liquid electrolyte cathode by using aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimentally investigated the spectral characteristics of the gas discharge between the liquid electrolyte cathode (aqueous solution of sodium chloride) and a metal anode at high currents (up to 20 A). Found splitting yellow doublet of sodium and the factors affecting the splitting.

Tazmeev, Kh K.; Arslanov, I. M.; Tazmeev, G. Kh

2013-12-01

123

Palladium-catalyzed desulfitative cross-coupling reaction of sodium sulfinates with benzyl chlorides.  

PubMed

A palladium-catalyzed approach for the synthesis of diarylmethanes from sodium sulfinates and benzyl chlorides is described. Various aromatic sodium sulfinates were used as aryl sources via extrusion of SO2 and gave the diarylmethanes in moderate to good yields. PMID:23556515

Zhao, Feng; Tan, Qi; Xiao, Fuhong; Zhang, Shufeng; Deng, Guo-Jun

2013-04-01

124

Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products. PMID:24099538

Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

2014-02-01

125

Development of an animal model of nephrocalcinosis via selective dietary sodium and chloride depletion  

PubMed Central

Background Nephrocalcinosis (NC) is an important clinical problem seen in critically ill pre-term neonates treated with loop diuretics. No reliable animal models are available to study the pathogenesis of NC in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to develop a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model of NC for these patients, and to explore the impact of extracellular fluid (ECF) volume contraction induced by sodium and chloride depletion in this process. Methods Three-week old weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets deficient in either chloride or sodium and chloride. A sub-group of rats from each dietary group was injected daily with furosemide (40 mg/kg; i.p.). Results Rats fed a control diet, with or without furosemide, or a chloride depleted diet alone, did not develop NC. In contrast, 50% of the rats injected with furosemide and fed the chloride depleted diet developed NC. Moreover, 94% of the rats fed the combined sodium/chloride depleted diet developed NC, independently of furosemide use. NC was associated with the development of severe ECF volume contraction, hypochloremic, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, increased phosphaturia, and growth retardation. Conclusion Severe ECF volume contraction induced by chronic sodium and chloride depletion appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of NC.

Tuchman, Shamir; Asico, Laureano D.; Escano, Crisanto; Bobb, Daniel A.; Ray, Patricio E.

2013-01-01

126

Successful Peritoneal Dialysis Using 0.9% Sodium Chloride with Modified M\\/6 Sodium Lactate Solution and Recycled Catheters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) was carried out in 8 patients with renal failure (5 acute, 3 chronic) using 2.076-litre cycles of 0.9% sodium chloride (1,250 ml) plus M\\/6 sodium lactate (600 ml) to which 5% dextrose (170 ml), 50% dextrose (40 ml) and 10% calcium gluconate (16 ml) were added. Two acute catheters were recycled amongst all the patients after

James K. Onwubalili

1989-01-01

127

Mouse chromosomal location of three epithelial sodium channel subunit genes and an apical sodium chloride cotransporter gene  

SciTech Connect

The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunit genes, Scnn1a, Scnn1b, and Scnn1g, and the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter gene, Slc12a1, have been mapped in the mouse using an interspecific backcross panel. These loci map to previously defined homologous regions between human and mouse chromosomes and provide additional information regarding human/mouse comparative mapping. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Pathak, B.G.; Shaughnessy, J.D. Jr.; Jenkins, N.A. [NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD (United States)] [NCI-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD (United States)

1996-04-01

128

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered from the filtrate on...

2009-04-01

129

21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered from the filtrate on...

2010-01-01

130

Synthesis of single-walled carbon nanotubes by chemical vapor deposition using sodium chloride support  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) together with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were directly grown on a water-soluble support catalyst that was prepared via sublimation of ferrocene on sodium chloride. The synthesis of nanotubes was carried out at a growth temperature of 700 C in a combined methane and nitrogen environment of 1:1 volumetric ratio at a total flowrate of 80 ml/min for 1 h in a vertical reactor. Characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, thermogravimetric analysis, and Raman spectroscopy were employed to study the carbon deposits. Transmission electron microscope shows the presence of SWCNTs with an average diameter of ca. 1.18 nm on the catalyst. The radial breathing mode (RBM) of Raman for shifts below 350 cm -1 further confirmed the presence of SWCNTs and the diameters were calculated to be 0.93, 1.36, 1.5 and 1.85 nm.

Teong Ooi, Jeremy Hor; Liu, Wei-Wen; Thota, Venugopal; Rahman Mohamed, Abdul; Chai, Siang-Piao

2011-02-01

131

Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset from the water activity at the melting point of the solution, though films of the longer chain alcohols may undergo structural changes at higher salt concentrations which cause a deviation from the constant offset. The heterogeneous nucleation rate coefficient, averaged over all solutions, alcohols, and droplet sizes is 6.0 104 +/- 4.0 104 cm-2 s-1, with no dependence on any of those parameters.

Cantrell, Will; Robinson, Carly

2006-04-01

132

Influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants.  

PubMed

The effect of a commercial Lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. The results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. Fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched under identical conditions. Temperature in the fermenters was 32+/-2 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that addition of a suitable starter shortened the fermentation process, provided the salt concentration in the brine did not exceed 6%. In the conditions tested, the eggplants obtained after fermentation were found to be of good quality though somewhat bitter which may explained by the starter employed. PMID:10598110

Ballesteros, C; Palop, L; Snchez, I

1999-12-01

133

Modification of ceramic components for the sodium nickel chloride battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ZEBRA battery based on Na\\/NiCl2 chemistry shows promise for powering electric vehicles and load leveling systems. The ZEBRA cell consists of a liquid sodium negative electrode separated from the positive electrode by a ?\\

Amin Mali

2011-01-01

134

Electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical, galvanic, and mechanical responses of grade 2 titanium in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution at different temperatures were investigated. The initial corrosion potential and cathodic reaction rate increased with decreasing pH and increasing temperature. The initial corrosion potential changed when titanium was coupled with other metals. Naval brass and alloy 600 (UNS N06600) anodically polarized titanium, while zinc and aluminum caused titanium to become a cathode. HY80 steel (UNS K31820), type 316 stainless steel ([SS] UNS S31600), and Monel K500 (UNS N05500, a copper-nickel alloy), polarized titanium anodically or cathodically depending upon temperature and pH. Hydrides formed on the titanium surface at potentials < {approximately} {minus}600 mV{sub SCE} to {minus}700 mV{sub SCE}. Zinc at all temperatures and HY80 at high temperatures caused hydride formation in titanium when coupled galvanically with titanium. Mechanical tests showed an {approx} 10% decrease in ductility under prior and dynamic hydrogen charging conditions.

Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1999-02-01

135

THE SALTING OUT OF GELATIN INTO TWO LIQUID LAYERS WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE AND OTHER SALTS  

PubMed Central

1. Conditions under which gelatin may be salted out into two liquid layers at 35 were studied. 2. The equilibria governing the amounts and composition of the layers salted out with sodium chloride are found to accord with the requirements of the phase rule for the quaternary system gelatin-sodium chloride-hydrogen ion-water. 3. So far, soaps and gelatin are found to be surprisingly similar in their behaviour and definite indications are given as to where further similarities may be sought. 4. It is evident from this work that the term "coagulation" as ordinarily applied to the salting out of proteins is definitely a misnomer.

McBain, James W.; Kellogg, Frederick

1928-01-01

136

Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions  

SciTech Connect

Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2003-06-24

137

Diffusion mechanism of chloride ions in sodium montmorillonite  

Microsoft Academic Search

For safety assessment of geological disposal of HLW, it is necessary to understand the diffusion mechanism of radionuclides in compacted bentonite. In this study, the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in compacted montmorillonite was studied from the viewpoints of the activation energy for apparent diffusion and the basal spacing of the compacted montmorillonite. A unique change in the activation energy

Tamotsu Kozaki; Koichi Inada; Seichi Sato; Hiroshi Ohashi

2001-01-01

138

Equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas components such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane form gas hydrates of structure I under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. Information on such conditions is vital to the oil and gas industry in order to design and operate processing equipment and pipelines so that hydrate formation is avoided. Incipient equilibrium hydrate formation conditions for hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and ethane in aqueous solutions of ethylene glycol and sodium chloride were experimentally obtained in the temperature range 264--290 K and the pressure range 0.23--3.18 MPa. A variable-volume sapphire cell was used for the measurements.

Majumdar, A.; Mahmoodaghdam, E.; Bishnoi, P.R.

2000-02-01

139

Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride on fungal-infected rainbow trout eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the USA, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture. However, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and their use is

Theresa M. Schreier; Jeff J. Rach; George E. Howe

1996-01-01

140

Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Containing Calcium Chloride and Sodium Phosphate: Mineral Intake and Aluminum Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The authors objectives were to determine mineral as well as Al intakes for ?1000 g birth weight (ELBW) infants supported with parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing calcium chloride (CaCl) and sodium phosphate (NaPhos). Study design. This study was a prospective cohort study of 32 ELBW infants. Nutrient and Al intakes were recorded based on actual fluid intakes and concentrations

Robert K. Huston; Elizabeth A. McCulley; Andrea M. Markell; Carl F. Heisel; Patrick K. Lewallen

2012-01-01

141

[Status of microcirculation in elderly hypertensive patients during treatment with sodium chloride baths].  

PubMed

Microcirculation was studied with biomicroscopy of the eye bulbar conjunctiva's vessels in 50 patients with essential hypertension stage II aged 60-80 years. They took half baths with sodium chloride mineral water at Irkutsk health resort "Angara". The treatment resulted in improvement of perivascular and intravascular end blood flow. PMID:11898373

Abramovich, S G

2002-01-01

142

Energy absorption of nanoporous silica particles in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is carried out on the effect of chemical admixtures, particularly sodium chloride, on the energy absorption behaviour of a hydrophobic nanoporous silica. As the pressure increases, once the capillary effect is overcome, the liquid is forced into the nanopores; and when the pressure is reduced, outflow is difficult, resulting in a pronounced hysteresis. The inflow pressure and

Xinguo Kong; Falgun B. Surani; Yu Qiao

2006-01-01

143

Sodium valproate stimulates potassium and chloride urinary excretion in rats: gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The diuretic effect of valproates and its relation to urinary potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl-) excretion have not yet been investigated, so the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a single dose of sodium valproate (NaVPA) on 24-h urinary K+ and Cl- excretion in young adult Wistar rats of both genders. For measurement of K+

Eitaut? Jakutiene; Jurgita Grikiniene; Arunas Vaitkevicius; Marina Tschaika; Janina Didziapetriene; Donatas Stakisaitis

2007-01-01

144

Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution?  

PubMed Central

Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty five children (58%) were hypokalaemic (potassium less than 3.5 mmol/l) on admission. All but two in the citrate group were successfully treated. There were no significant differences in rehydration solution intake, stool output, gain in body weight, and fall in plasma specific gravity and haematocrit between the two treatment groups after 48 hours' treatment. Significant improvement in the serum potassium concentration was observed in the hypokalaemic children receiving potassium citrate solution compared with children receiving WHO solution after 24 and 48 hours' treatment. None developed hyperkalaemia. Although children receiving potassium citrate solution corrected their acidosis at a slower rate than the WHO solution group during the first 24 hours, by 48 hours satisfactory correction was observed in all. Tripotassium citrate can safely replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride and may be the most useful and beneficial treatment for diarrhoea and associated hypokalaemia.

Islam, M R

1985-01-01

145

Diffusion of carbon dioxide (1); water (2); magnesium chloride (3); sodium sulphate (4)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Brnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) carbon dioxide; (2) water; (3) magnesium chloride; (4) sodium sulphate

Winkelmann, J.

146

Interrelationships of chloride, bicarbonate, sodium, and hydrogen transport in the human ileum  

PubMed Central

Using a triple-lumen constant perfusion system, the following observations were made in normal subjects. First, chloride, bicarbonate, and sodium were found to exhibit net movement across ileal mucosa against electrochemical gradients. Second, during perfusion with a balanced electrolyte solution simulating plasma, the ileum generally absorbed, but sometimes secreted fluid. A reciprocal net movement of chloride and bicarbonate was noted when sodium movement was zero. Increasing rates of sodium absorption were associated with decreasing bicarbonate secretion rates and finally bicarbonate absorption. Even when bicarbonate was absorbed ileal contents were alkalinized (by contraction of luminal volume). Third, net chloride movement was found to be sensitive to bicarbonate concentration in ileal fluid. For instance, chloride was absorbed from solutions containing 14 or 44 mEq/liter of bicarbonate, but was secreted when ileal fluid contained 87 mEq/liter of bicarbonate. Fourth, when chloridefree (sulfate) solutions were infused, the ileum absorbed sodium bicarbonate and the ileal contents were acidified. Fifth, when plasma-like solutions were infused, the potential difference (PD) between skin and ileal lumen was near zero and did not change when chloride was replaced by sulfate in the perfusion solution. These results suggest that ileal electrolyte transport occurs via a simultaneous double exchange, Cl/HCO2 and Na/H. In this model neither the anion nor the cation exchange causes net ion movement; net movement results from the chemical reaction between hydrogen and bicarbonate. No other unitary model explains all of the following observations: (a) human ileal transport in vivo is essentially nonelectrogenic even though Na, Cl, and HCO3 are transported against electrochemical gradients, (b) the ileum can secrete as well as absorb, (c) ileal contents are alkalinized during absorption of or during secretion into a plasma-like solution, and (d) the ileum acidifies its contents when sulfate replaces chloride. Data obtained with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor support the proposed model.

Turnberg, Leslie A.; Bieberdorf, Frederick A.; Morawski, Stephen G.; Fordtran, John S.

1970-01-01

147

Evidence for electroneutral sodium chloride cotransport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that chloride reabsorption in the isolated perfused cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit (cTAL) is dependent on the presence of sodium and potassium. The present study was performed to elucidate the dependence on chloride in quantitative terms. Ninety-four cTAL segments were perfused at high rates with solutions of varying chloride concentration. Chloride was

Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Florian Lang

1983-01-01

148

Relations for the determination of the polymorphic composition of calcium carbonate precipitated in saturated sodium chloride solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purification of concentrated sodium chloride solutions from calcium and magnesium ions is realized by precipitating them in the form of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide using a reagent solution composed of sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The functioning of the industrial process depends on the polymorphic composition of the precipitated calcium carbonate. The classical experimental design method is used

C. Berger; A. Dandeu; C. Carteret; B. Humbert; H. Muhr; E. Plasari; J. M. Bossoutrot

149

Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride Concentrations in the Schwann Cell and Axon of the Squid Nerve Fiber  

PubMed Central

Sodium, potassium, and chloride concentrations were determined in the sheath cells and axoplasm of the nerve fiber of the squid Sepioteuthis sepioidea. The sheaths were obtained by slitting the nerve fiber, the extracellular electrolytes were washed out in isotonic sucrose solution, and the concentrations in the cells were determined after different soaking times in the sucrose solution. Values for the Schwann cell were calculated by extrapolation to zero time from the plots of the logarithms of the concentrations in the cells as a function of soaking time in sucrose solution. The Schwann cells made up 84 per cent of the sheath's total cellular volume. The Schwann cell concentrations in millimols per liter, are: 312 (404-241) for sodium, 220 (308-157) for potassium, and 167 (208-138) for chloride. The concentrations in the axoplasm (mean SE), in millimols per liter are: 52 10 for sodium, 335 25 for potassium, and 135 14 for chloride. The possibility that some fraction of the Schwann cell electrolytes, especially of sodium, is bound, cannot be discarded.

Villegas, Jorge; Villegas, Leopoldo; Villegas, Raimundo

1965-01-01

150

Energetics of Coupled Active Transport of Sodium and Chloride  

PubMed Central

A Clark electrode was used to measure oxygen consumption by the gall bladder, in which there is a direct and one-to-one linkage between active Na and active Cl transport. O2 uptake was reversibly depressed when Cl in the mucosal bathing solution was replaced by a poorly transported anion, such as sulfate. This effect of Cl was abolished by ouabain or in Na-free solutions. When the anion was chloride, treatment with ouabain or replacement of Na by a poorly transported cation depressed Qoo2, more than did replacement of Cl. However, ouabain or removal of Na also depressed Qoo2, in Na2SO4 solutions, in which salt transport is minimal. It is concluded that oxygen uptake in the gall bladder consists of three fractions: 9% requires both Na and Cl, is inhibited by ouabain, and is linked to the NaCl pump; 36% requires Na but not Cl, is inhibited by ouabain, and possibly is linked to the cellular K uptake mechanism; and 55% represents basal uptake. If the extra oxygen uptake observed during transport supplies all the energy for transport, then 25 Na + 25 Cl ions are transported actively per O2 consumed; i.e., twice as many ions as in epithelia which transport only Na actively. This extra uptake is more than sufficient to supply the energy for overcoming internal membrane resistance under the experimental conditions used.

Martin, Duncan W.; Diamond, Jared M.

1966-01-01

151

A hot topic: temperature sensitive sodium channelopathies.  

PubMed

Perturbations to body temperature affect almost all cellular processes and, within certain limits, results in minimal effects on overall physiology. Genetic mutations to ion channels, or channelopathies, can shift the fine homeostatic balance resulting in a decreased threshold to temperature induced disturbances. This review summarizes the functional consequences of currently identified voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channelopathies that lead to disorders with a temperature sensitive phenotype. A comprehensive knowledge of the relationships between genotype and environment is not only important for understanding the etiology of disease, but also for developing safe and effective treatment paradigms. PMID:22643347

Egri, Csilla; Ruben, Peter C

2012-01-01

152

Absence of sodium chloride preference in Fischer-344 rats.  

PubMed

Preference for NaCl solutions as a function of concentration was examined in three inbred strains of rats (Munich-Wistar, Buffalo, and Fischer-344) and outbred Wistar rats. Fischer-344 rats were found to differ markedly from the other strains in that they failed to prefer any concentration of NaCl solution to water. This difference did not appear to be due to an insensitivity to the taste of NaCl since they significantly avoided solutions at concentrations (greater than 0.7%) that were strongly preferred by other rat strains. Differences between Fischer-344 and other rat strains also did not appear to be due to a generally anomalous taste system since their intake and preference for prototypes of other basic tastes (sweet, sour, and bitter) were generally similar to those of other strains. Although Fischer-344 rats were somewhat slower than Wistar to excrete a sodium load, it is unlikely that this difference can provide a direct explanation of the aversion of Fischer-344 rats for NaCl. PMID:4051028

Midkiff, E E; Fitts, D A; Simpson, J B; Bernstein, I L

1985-10-01

153

The crystallization of sodium chloride from aqueous solution in the presence of polysaccharides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of two naturally occuring polysaccharidic polyelectrolytes, carragheenan and sodium alginate, on the crystallisation of sodium chloride from aqueous solution is reported. Simple nucleation experiments together with observations of the morphology of the crystals that these bipolymers are adsorbed on the crystal surfaces and on the motes present in solution which govern the process of heterogeneous nucleation. As a consequence, both heterogeneous and secondary nucleation processes are strongly affected. The crystal morphology observed suggests that the additives inhibit edge nucleation and thus allow dislocation growth to become the dominant growth mechanism.

Birchall, J. D.; Davey, R. J.

1981-08-01

154

Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

1974-01-01

155

Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer. PMID:23948494

Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

2014-01-01

156

Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry - optimization by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm. PMID:24956779

Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2014-08-01

157

The Mechanism of Sodium and Chloride Uptake by the Gills of a Fresh-Water Fish, Carassius auratus  

PubMed Central

Carassius auratus placed in a dilute sodium chloride solution (400 M) is able to absorb sodium and chloride ions at very different rates, or to absorb one ion and to lose the other. This is the case not only for fish which have been previously kept in choline chloride or sodium sulfate solutions or deionized water, in order to stimulate their absorption processes, but also in control fish which have not been deprived of sodium or chloride. The absorption of sodium or chloride appears to be unaffected by the presence of a nonpermeant co-ion such as choline or sulfate. Conductivity measurements of the external medium show that during ion uptake the conductivity is constant or increases slowly. This suggests the existence of exchange processes between the ions absorbed and endogenous ions excreted. It is unlikely that potassium or calcium is exchanged for sodium, because of the low permeability of the gills to these ions. Finally, the flux ratios observed for both sodium and chloride ions in the present investigation can only be explained, in relation to their electrochemical gradients across the gills, in terms of active transport.

Garcia Romeu, F.; Maetz, J.

1964-01-01

158

Nanofiltration for the possible reuse of water and recovery of sodium chloride salt from textile effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the reactive dyeing of cotton, salts such as sodium chloride (NaCl) are placed in a dyebath to aid the exhaustion of various dyes onto the fabric while bases are added to raise the pH from around neutral to pH 11 to achieve fixation. Afterwards, the used dyebath solution, called dyebath spent liquor, is discharged with almost all the salts

L. Shu; T. D. Waite; P. J. Bliss; A. Fane; V. Jegatheesan

2005-01-01

159

Sodium chloride responses in pasture on a potassium-deficient soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a period of four years, sodium and potassium chloride at 1 and 2 cwt\\/ac\\/annum, and mixtures in various proportions, were compared on a grass-clover pasture in a field trial on Horotiu sandy loam, using the technique of mowing with return of clippings.Responses to NaC1 were much smaller than those from the same rates of KC1. Yield increases of mixed

K. J. McNaught; J. Karlovsky

1964-01-01

160

Density and Viscosity of Ternary Mixtures of kappa -Carrageenan, Sodium Chloride, and Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viscosity and density of ternary mixtures containing kappa -carrageenan, sodium chloride, and water have been measured from (303 to 318) K at different values of pH. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The polynomial models used to correlate the viscosity and density gave good fits to the experimental data.

Ramos, Andresa V.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Giraldo-Zuniga, Abraham D.

2013-02-01

161

Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry.\\u000a This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students\\u000a explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students\\u000a dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually

Resa M. Kelly; Loretta L. Jones

2007-01-01

162

CHLORIDE AND SODIUM UPTAKE POTENTIAL OVER AN ENTIRE ROTATION OF POPULUS IRRIGATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our

Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr

2009-01-01

163

The Helicobacter pylori Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur) is Essential for Growth Under Sodium Chloride Stress  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological data and animal models indicate that Helicobacter pylori and dietary NaCl have a synergistic ill effect on gastric maladies. Here we show that the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur), which is a crucial regulatory factor required for H. pylori colonization, is essential for growth in the presence of high NaCl concentrations. Moreover, we demonstrate that the transcriptional response induced by sodium chloride stress exhibits similarities to that seen under iron depletion.

Gancz, Hanan; Merrell, D. Scott

2011-01-01

164

Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

1973-01-01

165

Thermal inactivation of lysozyme as influenced by pH, sucrose and sodium chloride and inactivation and preservative effect in beer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal stability of lysozyme in aqueous buffer solutions was studied at selected temperatures (73100 C), pH values (4.29.0) and levels of sucrose (0%, 5%, 15%) and sodium chloride (0, 0.1 M, 1 M). The results, fitted to a first-order model and expressed in terms of decimal reduction time (D), inactivation rate constant (k), decimal reduction temperature (z) and Arrhenius activation

F. Makki; T. D. Durance

1996-01-01

166

Morphology analysis of sodium chloride crystallization on the mica substrate using atomic force microscope.  

PubMed

The morphology of the specific face growth of sodium chloride (NaCI) crystal on the mica surface was analyzed using atomic force microscope (AFM). The supersaturation of the NaCI was induced to lead to the crystal nucleation and growth by the addition of methylalcohol. The effects of methylalcohol concentration and mica surface functionality on the NaCI crystal growth morphology were investigated. The crystalline nucleus was formed scaterringly on the mica surface at 10% methylalcohol. It was grown laterally at 20% methylalcohol and agglomerated at 30% methylalcohol before lateral growth. The difference in the crystallization efficiency originated from the surface conditions is discussed by comparison of the crystallizations on surfaces of the bare mica and mica treated with Mg2+, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, and ethyltriethoxysilane. The lateral growth of sodium chloride crystal was restricted by the different treatment of the mica surface. From these results, it was known that sodium chloride crystal growth morphology could be controlled by using additional solvent and substrate surface treatment. These results imply that the morphology analysis as well as reaction kinetics should be conducted in the crystallization analysis. PMID:24757978

Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Haeng-Ja; Kang, Seong-Mo; Kim, Woo-Sik; Chang, Sang-Mok

2014-07-01

167

Nutrient agar with sodium chloride supplementation for presumptive detection of Moraxella catarrhalis in clinical specimens.  

PubMed

We previously reported that Nissui nutrient agar (N medium) promoted the growth of Moraxella catarrhalis but not commensal Neisseria spp. In the present study, we examined which constituent of N medium was responsible for the selective growth of M. catarrhalis using 209 M.catarrhalis and 100 commensal Neisseria spp. clinical strains. We found that peptone, but not meat extract or agar of N medium, had growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting ability with respect to M. catarrhalis and commensal Neisseria spp. Thus, we investigated the amino acid content of N peptone and found it had higher concentrations of amino acids than other commercial peptone products. On varying the sodium chloride concentration of reconstituted N medium, we noted that the concentration was an important factor in bacterial growth differences. Varying the sodium chloride concentration of other commercial nutrient agars achieved similar results to those for N medium. This is, to our knowledge, the first study observing that sodium chloride concentration is responsible for difference in growth between the two organisms. We also successfully isolated colonies of M. catarrhalis from respiratory specimens on N medium, whereas the growth of commensal Neisseria spp. was inhibited, and by adding bovine hematin and ?-NAD we were able to isolate Haemophilus influenzae colonies as efficiently as with a chocolate agar. In conclusion, nutrient agar can be used as a medium for the preferential isolation of M. catarrhalis from upper respiratory tract specimens. PMID:22350402

Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Saito, Ryoichi; Chida, Toshio; Sano, Kazumitsu; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Okamura, Noboru

2012-04-01

168

Effect of sodium chloride on sulfur speciation of chalcopyrite bioleached by the extreme thermophile Acidianus manzaensis.  

PubMed

The influence of sodium chloride on dissolution of chalcopyrite and surface sulfur speciation during bioleaching of chalcopyrite with the extreme thermophile Acidianus manzaensis YN-25 was studied. The addition of sodium chloride accelerated the dissolution of chalcopyrite by reducing the accumulation of elemental sulfur layers on the mineral surface, resulting in an increase in the concentration of copper ions from 2.37g/L to 2.67g/L. Jarosite and elemental sulfur were found in the bioleached residues, while the amount of elemental sulfur accumulating on the mineral surface decreased drastically from 25.4% to 3.0% when 0.66g/L of sodium chloride was present during bioleaching. Therefore, the accumulation of elemental sulfur on the mineral surface is likely mainly responsible for the slowdown in the dissolution rate. The results indicated that bioleaching chalcopyrite with extreme thermophiles possessing high sulfur oxidation activity likely enhances dissolution of chalcopyrite by effectively removing elemental sulfur accumulating on the mineral surface. PMID:22336739

Chang-Li, Liang; Jin-Lan, Xia; Zhen-Yuan, Nie; Yi, Yang; Chen-Yan, Ma

2012-04-01

169

Interaction of chloride and bicarbonate transport across the basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule. Evidence for sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange.  

PubMed Central

The existence of chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the basolateral membrane and its physiologic significance were examined in rabbit proximal tubules. S2 segments of the proximal straight tubule were perfused in vitro and changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride activity (aCli) were monitored by double-barreled microelectrodes. Total peritubular chloride replacement with gluconate increased pHi by 0.8, and this change was inhibited by a pretreatment with an anion transport inhibitor, SITS. Peritubular bicarbonate reduction increased aCli, and most of this increase was lost when ambient sodium was totally removed. The reduction rates of pHi induced by a peritubular bicarbonate reduction or sodium removal were attenuated by 20% by withdrawal of ambient chloride. SITS application to the bath in the control condition quickly increased pHi, but did not change aCli. However, the aCli slightly decreased in response to SITS when the basolateral bicarbonate efflux was increased by reducing peritubular bicarbonate concentration. It is concluded that sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange is present in parallel with sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the basolateral membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule, and it contributes to the basolateral bicarbonate and chloride transport.

Sasaki, S; Yoshiyama, N

1988-01-01

170

Ferro/Ferricyanide Couple in an Aluminum Chloride-1-Methyl-3-ethylimidazolium Chloride Ambient-Temperature Molten Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ambient-temperature molten salts consisting of AlCl3 and an organic chloride are of considerable interest as solvents for a variety of electrochemical and spectroscopic studies. One such solvent, aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (AlC...

B. Das R. Carlin R. A. Osteryoung

1989-01-01

171

Sodium Chloride and Water Transport in the Medullary Thick Ascending Limb of Henle. EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE CHLORIDE TRANSPORT  

PubMed Central

Transport of NaCl and water was examined in the rabbit medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (ALH) by perfusing isolated segments of these nephrons in vitro. Osmotic water permeability was evaluated by perfusing tubules against imposed osmotic gradients. In these experiments the net transport of fluid remained at zero when segments of thick ALH were perfused with isotonic ultrafiltrate in a bath of rabbit serum in which the serum osmolality was increased by the addition of either 2398 mosmol/liter of raffinose or 23217 mosmol of NaCl indicating that the thick ascending limb of Henle is impermeant to osmotic flow of water. When these tubules were perfused at slow rates with isosmolal ultrafiltrate of same rabbit serum as used for the bath, the effluent osmolality was consistently lowered to concentrations less than the perfusate and the bath. That this decrease in collected fluid osmolality represented salt transport was demonstrated in a separate set of experiments in which it was shown that the sodium and chloride concentrations decreased to 0.790.02 and 0.770.02 respectively when compared with the perfusion fluid concentrations. In each instance the simultaneously determined transtubular potential difference (PD) revealed the lumen to be positive with the magnitude dependent on the perfusion rate. At flow rates above 2 nlmin-1, the mean transtubular PD was stable and equal to 6.700.34 mv. At stop-flow conditions this PD became more positive. Ouabain and cooling reversibly decreased the magnitude of this PD. The transtubular PD remained positive, 3.30.2 mV, when complete substitution of Na by choline was carried out in both the perfusion fluid and the bathing media. These results are interpreted to indicate that the active transport process is primarily an electrogenic chloride mechanism. The isotopic permeability coefficient for Na was 6.270.38 10-5 cms-1 indicating that the thick ALH is approximately as permeable to Na as the proximal convoluted tubule. The chloride permeability coefficient for the thick ALH was 1.060.12 10-5 cms-1 which is significantly less than the chloride permeability of the proximal tubule. These data demonstrate that the medullary thick ascending limb of Henle is water impermeable while having the capacity for active outward solute transport as a consequence of an electrogenic chloride pump. The combination of these characteristics allows this segment to generate a dilute tubular fluid and participate as the principal energy source for the overall operation of the countercurrent multiplication system. Images

Rocha, Antonino S.; Kokko, Juha P.

1973-01-01

172

The solubility of iron hydroxide in sodium chloride solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of iron(III) hydroxide as a function of pH was investigated in NaCl solutions at different temperatures (5-50C) and ionic strengths (0-5 M). Our results at 25C and 0.7 M in the acidic range are similar to the solubility in seawater. The results between 7.5 to 9 are constant (close to 10-11 M) and are lower than those found in seawater (>10-10) in this pH range. The solubility subsequently increases as the pH increases from 9 to 12. The solubility between 6 and 7.5 has a change of slope that cannot be accounted for by changes in the speciation of Fe(III). This effect has been attributed to a solid-state transformation of Fe(OH)3 to FeOOH. The effect of ionic strength from 0.1 to 5 M at a pH near 8 was quite small. The solubility at 5C is considerably higher than at 25C at neutral pH range. The effects of temperature and ionic strength on the solubility at low and high pH have been attributed to the effects on the solubility product and the formation of FeOH2+ and Fe(OH)4-. The results have been used to determine the solubility products of Fe(OH)3, K?Fe(OH)3 and hydrolysis constants, ??1, ??2, ??3, and ??4 as a function of temperature (T, K) and ionic strength (I): log K?Fe(OH)3 = -13.486 - 0.1856 I0.5 + 0.3073 I + 5254/T (? = 0.08) log ??1 = 2.517 - 0.8885 I0.5 + 0.2139 I - 1320/T (? = 0.03) log ??2 = 0.4511 - 0.3305 I0.5 - 1996/T (? = 0.1) log ??3 = -0.2965 - 0.7881 I0.5 - 4086/T (? = 0.6) log ??4 = 4.4466 - 0.8505 I0.5 - 7980/T. (? = 0.2) Both strong ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and weak (HA) organic ligands greatly affect iron solubility. The additions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and humic material were shown to increase the solubility near pH 8. The higher solubility of Fe(III) in seawater compared to 0.7 M NaCl may be caused by natural organic ligands.

Liu, Xuewu; Millero, Frank J.

1999-10-01

173

Dissociation constants of hydrogen sulfide in concentrated sodium chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The first- and second-stage dissociation constants of hydrogen sulfide in various forms were determined experimentally at ionic strength in the range from 0.1 to 5 M at 298, 323, and 348 K. Empirical equations for the dependence of these constants in this region of ionic strengths and temperature on the ionic strength of the solution were obtained; these equations can be used for calculation of equilibria in sulfide solutions of high ionic strength. A gas-liquid constant of hydrogen sulfide, expressed in terms of the solution pH, the equilibrium hydrogen sulfide pressure, and the concentration of sulfide sulfur in solution, i.e., the usual characteristics of industrial sulfide solutions, is proposed.

Yakovlev, V.A.; Poltoratskii, G.M.; Grigor'eva, N.V.

1987-10-20

174

Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

Hammel, C.J.

1992-09-01

175

Evolution of hydrogen chloride during temperature-programmed pyrolysis of Illinois coals  

SciTech Connect

Evolution of volatile chlorine species during coal pyrolysis has been studied using a new temperature-programmed heating and gas-combustion technique. The pyrolysis apparatus consists of a pyrolysis chamber and an adjoining combustion chamber. Samples of coal are heated from ambient temperature to 800 C at a rate of 20 C/min in the pyrolysis chamber under a nitrogen atmosphere. The volatile products are carried with the nitrogen flow to the combustion chamber which is maintained at 850 C under a constant flow of oxygen. The gases flowing into the second chamber from the pyrolysis chamber are combusted. The combustion gases emitted are sampled through a capillary tube and analyzed with a quadrupole gas analyzer (QGA). Samples of Illinois high- and medium-chlorine coal were tested in the apparatus. For all these coals, HCl was the only chlorine species identified by the QGA. The combustion gases evolved from the coals were collected in a sodium carbonate solution and the chloride content was monitored by a potentiometric technique using a chloride ion-selective electrode. The chloride collected in the solution accounted for the total chlorine in the starting materials within the margins of analytical error. The HCl release profiles for the coals showed a broad peak between 250 C and 600 C with a maximum at 445 C. Neutron activation analysis for Na and Cl in the pyrolysis residues showed that 98% of chlorine in coal is volatilized as HCl during pyrolysis to 800 C and all the sodium is retained in the chars. Thus, it may be inferred that the chlorine in Illinois coals is released rapidly as HCl during combustion in a utility/industrial boiler, not as sodium chloride.

Chou, C.L.; Hackley, K.C.; Donnals, G.L.; Cao, J.; Ruch, R.R. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States))

1992-01-01

176

Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

2012-12-01

177

Removal of hydrogen chloride from high temperature coal gases  

SciTech Connect

The chlorine content of U.S. coals ranges from 0.01 to 0.5%, and some coals in U.K. contain as high as 1.0% chlorine. This element is present in the coal mainly as alkali chlorides, but it also occurs as oxychlorides of calcium and magnesium. The presence of HCl in the coal gas can lead to corrosion of metallic and ceramic components of the gasifier, attack gas turbine components and to poisoning of molten carbonate fuel cell electrodes. Morgantown Energy Technology Center, as the U.S. Department of Energy's lead center for coal gasification and gas stream cleanup technology, has been concerned for some years with the purification of coal-derived gases for a range of applications including gas turbine, fuel-cell, and combined-cycle power generation. This paper presents the results of a laboratory-scale evaluation conducted at SRI International to determine the effectiveness of naturally occurring minerals and commercially available sorbents to remove HCl vapor from simulated coal gas streams at temperatures from 550/sup 0/ to 650/sup 0/C. The thermodynamic stability and the volatility of the solid chloride products were the major criteria in selecting the nature of the sorbent. Alkaline earth chlorides, generally, are less volatile than alkali metal chlorides and transition metal. Bench-scale experiments were also conducted with these sorbents at the Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL. The rate of chloride uptake was calculated from the analysis of the chloride content of the spent sorbent as a function of the bed depth. The results of bench-scale experiments were in general agreement with the laboratory-scale experiments although the HCl removal rate and the chloride capacities were somewhat lower than found in the laboratory-scale experiments.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Tong, G.T. (SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Avenue, Menlo Park, CA (US)); Kothari, V.P. (U.S. Dept. of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 3600 Collins Ferry Road, Morgantown, WV (US))

1988-06-01

178

Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, without sodium chloride. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles enhanced with

R. T. Baublits; F. W. Pohlman; A BROWNJR; Z. B. Johnson

2006-01-01

179

A New Approach to Determining Gas-Particle Reaction Probabilities and Application to the Heterogeneous Reaction of Deliquesced Sodium Chloride Particles with Gas-Phase Hydroxyl Radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaClaq) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM\\/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric

Alexander Laskin; Hai Wang; William H. Robertson; James P. Cowin; Michael J. Ezell; Barbara J. Finlayson-Pitts

2006-01-01

180

Evaluation of the pH and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for

Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Hlio Tallon Jeng; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Olivia Cholewa

2007-01-01

181

Evaluation of the pH and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations,\\u000a pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted\\u000a from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column,\\u000a was diluted in water for

Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Hlio Tallon Jeng; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Olivia Cholewa

182

Evaluation of the pH and thermal stability of the recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations,\\u000a pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted\\u000a from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column,\\u000a was diluted in water for

Marina Ishii; Juliana Sayuri Kunimura; Hlio Tallon Jeng; Thereza Christina Vessoni Penna; Olivia Cholewa

2007-01-01

183

Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved with a very low concentration of G ions in weak alkaline media. Pitting corrosion increases with increasing sodium gluconate (SG) concentrations due to a formation of soluble Fe-G complex. The critical pitting potential depends on the chloride and G ion concentrations, pH, scan rate and the composition of the steel. An increase of Mn% in the composition of the steel leads to the increase of the pitting corrosion potential towards the positive direction, i.e., increases the resistance to pitting corrosion. The presence of vanadium in the steel also increases its resistance to pitting corrosion.

Refaey, S. A. M.

2000-04-01

184

Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

185

Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

1988-01-01

186

The Sodium-Driven Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger in Presynaptic Terminals  

PubMed Central

The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, was recently found to modulate excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampus. By using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate here that NDCBE is expressed throughout the adult rat brain, and selectively concentrates in presynaptic terminals, where it is closely associated with synaptic vesicles. NDCBE is in most glutamatergic axon terminals, and is also present in the terminals of parvalbumin-positive ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells. These findings suggest that NDCBE can regulate glutamatergic transmission throughout the brain, and point to a role for NDCBE as a possible regulator of GABAergic neurotransmission.

Burette, Alain C.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Sassani, Patrick; Abuladze, Natalia; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

2013-01-01

187

Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

1982-01-01

188

Structural properties of iron phases formed on low alloy steels immersed in sodium chloride-rich solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Products of corrosion were obtained from low alloy steels submitted to total immersion tests in solutions containing sodium chloride at different concentrations, during seven days. In order to properly characterize the adherent (AR) and the non-adherent rusts (NAR), a methodology including room temperature Mssbauer spectrometry, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction was addressed. The techniques showed that the AR samples were composed of non-stoichiometric magnetite, goethite, akaganeite and lepidocrocite. The composition of the NAR samples was the same, but with very small amounts of magnetite. Different cell parameters and mean crystallite sizes were found for all phases presented in AR and the NAR samples. The corrosion rates were higher than 580 ?m/y. The ratio of the abundances of goethite to the sum of lepidocrocite, akaganeite and magnetite were less than one.

Prez, F. R.; Barrero, C. A.; Arnache, O.; Snchez, L. C.; Garca, K. E.; Hight Walker, A. R.

2009-05-01

189

Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

1992-01-01

190

Changes in the wet precipitation of sodium and chloride over the continental United States, 1984-2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on wet-only precipitation from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network were analysed for trends in the sodium and chloride fluxes over the United States between 1 January 1984 and 31 December 2006. The data were first checked for consistency and for ionic balance. It was necessary to correct for changes in bicarbonate due to changes in atmospheric CO 2 levels over the study period, in order to obtain a balance. The fluxes were calculated and the trends determined by linear regression in the log domain. The significance of the trends was checked using both F- and t-tests. At 154 sites having reasonably continuous records over the assessment period, the sodium flux fell significantly at 139 and increased significantly at only one. The chloride flux similarly fell significantly at 140 and increased significantly at the same one as the sodium flux increased. At coastal sites the chloride to sodium ratio was the same as that in sea water, within experimental limits. Further from the coast the ratio changed apparently due to changes in the entire aerosol chemistry. The findings are discussed in terms of the simplicity and robustness of the methodology employed to determine the trends; the oceanic origin of most observable sodium even in the interior of the continent, probably because it occurs as a fine (<1 micron) aerosol which is poorly scavenged by precipitation; and the possibility that the drop in sodium and chloride fluxes might be driven by climate change.

Lloyd, Philip J.

2010-08-01

191

Deliquescence and crystallization of ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the following, we report the deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) of mixed inorganic-organic particles, specifically ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles. Knowledge of the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic particles is crucial for predicting the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Our DRH results are in good agreement with previous measurements, but our CRH results are significantly lower than some of the previous measurements reported in the literature. Our studies show that the DRH and CRH of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride only decreased slightly when the mole fraction of the acid was less than 0.4. If other organics in the atmosphere behave in a similar manner, then the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic atmospheric particles will only be slightly less than the DRH and CRH of pure inorganic particles when the organic mole fraction is less than 0.4. Our results also show that if the particles contain a significant amount of organics (mole fraction > 0.5) the crystallization relative humidity decreases significantly and the particles are more likely to remain in the liquid state. Further work is needed to determine if other organics species of atmospheric importance have a similar effect.

Pant, Atul; Fok, Abel; Parsons, Matthew T.; Mak, Jackson; Bertram, Allan K.

2004-06-01

192

Interfacial tensions and phase behavior of alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-sodium chloride systems  

SciTech Connect

The phase behavior and interfacial tensions of mixtures of alcohol, alkane, water, and sodium chloride that split into two or three liquid phases at 25/sup 0/C are reported as a function of type of alcohol and alkane and sodium chloride concentration. The patterns of phase and tension behavior are similar to those observed with surfactant-based microemulsion systems but in a higher tension regime. The qualitative patterns of phase and tension behavior in the alcohol systems appear to be characteristic of all amphiphile-oil-brine systems, although the magnitudes of the interfacial tensions of microemulsion against oil-rich or water-rich phases can be some hundredfold smaller than the corresponding tensions of the alcohol-rich phase against oil-rich or water-rich phases. This difference appears to be a distinguishing feature of microemulsions and presumably arises from the relatively large scale of microemulsion microstructure. Microemulsions in multiphase equilibria incorporate tenfold or more water or oil than do corresponding alcohol solutions, and this argues for the topology and persistence of that microstructure.

Puig, J.E.; Hemker, D.L.; Gupta, A.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

1987-02-26

193

Thermal Inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila As Affected by Sodium Chloride and Ascorbic Acid  

PubMed Central

The combined effects of sodium chloride (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0%) and ascorbic acid (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/liter) with mild heat (46C) on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. Because of the nonlinear nature of the survivor curves obtained, several equations yielding an R2 (coefficient of multiple determination) of ? 1 were tested. The equation that most closely fit the curvature of the observed data set was a hyperbolic function. Equation coefficients were combined to obtain a so-called death value. This value (46.67% explained variance) was calculated by extracting the larger eigenvalue and the relative eigenvector from the correlation matrix of the coefficients. the effects of the experimental factors on the death value were described by a quadratic response surface model. Results revealed that the death value was not influenced by the presence of ascorbic acid. However, increased mortality resulted from the interaction between sodium chloride and ascorbic acid.

Stecchini, Mara Lucia; Sarais, Ileana; Giomo, Andrea

1993-01-01

194

Effect of sodium chloride and pH on enterotoxin B production.  

PubMed

Genigeorgis, Constantin (University of California, Davis), and Walter W. Sadler. Effect of sodium chloride and pH on enterotoxin B production. J. Bacteriol. 92:1383-1387. 1966.-The growth and production of enterotoxin B by Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 in Brain Heart Infusion broth with 2 to 16% sodium chloride and an initial pH of 5.1 to 6.9 was studied during a 10-day incubation period at 37 C. Growth was good at pH 6.9 and with a 16% concentration of salt, but no cells survived after 10 days of incubation at pH 5.1 and with a 16% concentration of salt. With geldiffusion technique, enterotoxin B was detected in broth with pH 6.9 and up to 10% salt or pH 5.1 and up to 4% salt. Growth and enterotoxin production were better when pH was increased and salt concentration was decreased. The dependence of toxin production on the interaction of these two factors was demonstrated. PMID:5924269

Genigeorgis, C; Sadler, W W

1966-11-01

195

Effect of heating temperature and sodium chloride concentration on ultrastructure and texture of gels made from giant squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) with addition of starch, l -carrageenan and egg white  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to compare the ultrastructure of gels made from frozen muscle of giant squid (Dosidicus gigas) at various temperatures with a number of different rheological parameters, with reference to a variety of added ingredients (non-muscle proteins and hydrocolloids) and to NaCl concentration. Interesting data on gel rheological properties were found where formulae containedl-carrageenan, starch and egg white, with

Carmen Gmez-Guillen; Teresa Solas; Javier Borderas; Pilar Montero

1996-01-01

196

Nanoscale periodic modulations on sodium chloride surface revealed by tuning fork atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along <110> crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300?C) however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

Clark, Kendal W.; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, X.-G.; Li, An-Ping

2012-05-01

197

Transferability of results obtained for sodium, potassium and chloride ions with different analysers.  

PubMed

In this study we have assessed transferability in seven different analysers commonly used in clinical chemistry laboratories to measure sodium, potassium and chloride ions. The inaccuracy and linearity of the techniques were satisfactory in most cases, and therefore all the equipment may be used in both pathological and normal ranges of the electrolytes evaluated. In most cases it was possible to correct the inaccuracy. The equipment which gave the best performance when analysing the three ions assessed after considering the Process Capability Index (CPI) and Performance Index (PI) was Nova-5. According to Hyltoft-Petersen's criteria, the results obtained for the three ions with the different analysers cannot be used indiscriminately, apart from potassium. However, after comparison of the results obtained by indirect potentiometry with those obtained by other techniques, we can conclude that the transferability of results is possible in almost every case, as standard deviation from regression (Sy,x) was lower than the permissible analytical error. PMID:9721073

Rodriguez-Garcia, J; Sogo, T; Otero, S; Paz, J M

1998-07-28

198

Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

1986-01-01

199

Solution processed sodium chloride interlayers for efficient electron extraction from polymer solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a solution-processable, non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) interlayer for aluminum cathodes in organic solar cells. The electron extraction at the cathode interface is strongly improved upon the insertion of NaCl leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.9% as compared to 1.8% efficient devices without interlayer. Scanning electron and kelvin probe force microscopy studies reveal that the formation of NaCl crystals causes a decrease of the aluminum work function by more than 300 mV. By impedance spectroscopy, we found evidence that the NaCl crystals improve the energetic alignment at the polymer/metal interface.

Nickel, Felix; Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang, Zhenhao; Ptz, Andreas; Kettlitz, Siegfried; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

2012-07-01

200

A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

1985-01-01

201

Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AP65 in 3.5% Sodium Chloride Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnesium alloy AP65 was prepared by melting and casting. The corrosion behavior of the as-cast and solid solution (T4)-treated AP65 alloys in 3.5% sodium chloride solution was investigated by corrosion morphology observation, immersion test, and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the second phase Mg17Al12 surrounded by a lead-enriched area distributes discontinuously along the grain boundaries in the as-cast AP65 alloy. The lead-enriched areas with high activity are susceptible to be attacked during immersion test and can act as places for preferential anodic dissolution. The corrosion resistance of the as-cast AP65 alloy can be improved after T4 treatment and the T4-treated alloy suffers general corrosion.

Wang, Nai-guang; Wang, Ri-chu; Peng, Chao-qun; Feng, Yan

2012-07-01

202

Hydrogen embrittlement of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium in 6% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of grade 2 and grade 3 titanium was investigated in 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 1 under potential control at 70 C. Grade 2 titanium was, at most, slightly susceptible to HE under the test conditions, whereas grade 3 titanium was very susceptible at an electrochemical potential below {minus}800 mV{sub SCE}. This phase could be observed in the interior of grade 3 titanium at lower potentials (e.g., {minus}1,400 mV{sub SCE}) after extended cathodic charging. Hydrides were never observed in the interior of grade 2 titanium. Formation of these hydrides in the interior of grade 3 titanium and not in grade 2 was attributed to the higher oxygen content of grade 3.

Wang, Z.F.; Briant, C.L.; Kumar, K.S. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States). Div. of Engineering

1998-07-01

203

Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium  

PubMed Central

The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon.Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice.Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons.The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes.The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current.It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response.

Cuthbert, A W; Hickman, M E; MacVinish, L J

1999-01-01

204

Aluminium phthalocyanine chloride thin films for temperature sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the fabrication and temperature sensing properties of sensors based on aluminium phthalocyanine chloride (AlPcCl) thin films. To fabricate the sensors, 50-nm-thick electrodes with 50-?m gaps between them are deposited on glass substrates. AlPcCl thin films with thickness of 50-100 nm are deposited in the gap between electrodes by thermal evaporation. The resistance of the sensors decreases with increasing thickness and the annealing at 100 C results in an increase in the initial resistance of sensors up to 24%. The sensing mechanism is based on the change in resistance with temperature. For temperature varying from 25 C to 80 C, the change in resistance is up to 60%. Simulation is carried out and results obtained coincide with experimental data with an error of 1%.

Muhammad Tariq Saeed, Chani; Abdullah, M. Asiri; Kh., S. Karimov; Atif, Khan Niaz; Sher Bhadar, Khan; Khalid., A. Alamry

2013-11-01

205

Regulation of OSR1 and the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter by convergent signals  

PubMed Central

The Ste20 family protein kinases oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) and the STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase directly regulate the solute carrier 12 family of cation-chloride cotransporters and thereby modulate a range of processes including cell volume homeostasis, blood pressure, hearing, and kidney function. OSR1 and STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase are activated by with no lysine [K] protein kinases that phosphorylate the essential activation loop regulatory site on these kinases. We found that inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reduced OSR1 activation by osmotic stress. Inhibition of the PI3K target pathway, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), by depletion of Sin1, one of its components, decreased activation of OSR1 by sorbitol and reduced activity of the OSR1 substrate, the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter, in HeLa cells. OSR1 activity was also reduced with a pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR. mTORC2 phosphorylated OSR1 on S339 in vitro, and mutation of this residue eliminated OSR1 phosphorylation by mTORC2. Thus, we identify a previously unrecognized connection of the PI3K pathway through mTORC2 to a Ste20 protein kinase and ion homeostasis.

Sengupta, Samarpita; Lorente-Rodriguez, Andres; Earnest, Svetlana; Stippec, Steve; Guo, Xiaofeng; Trudgian, David C.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Cobb, Melanie H.

2013-01-01

206

Accumulation of dissolved gases at hydrophobic surfaces in water and sodium chloride solutions: Implications for coal flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved gases can preferentially accumulate at the hydrophobic solidwater interface as revealed by neutron reflectivity measurements. In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to examine accumulation of dissolved gases at a hydrophobic surface in water and sodium chloride solutions. The solvent-exchange method was used to artificially form gaseous domains accumulated at the interface suitable for AFM imaging. Smooth

Marc A. Hampton; Anh V. Nguyen

2009-01-01

207

Practical Experiments with a Mixture of Sodium Chloride and Cement as a Reagent for Seeding Large Cumulus Clouds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper reviews the results of artificial rain-making by seeding convective clouds with a mixture of sodium chloride and cement. Light to moderate artificial rain, lasting from 15-30 minutes to an hour, was produced in 57% of the cloud-seeding cases inv...

E. P. Budilova E. E. Kornienko V. T. Lenshin D. D. Stalevich

1969-01-01

208

Dissolution kinetics of quartz in sodium chloride solutions: Analysis of existing data and a rate model for 25C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A surface reaction model for the kinetics of quartz dissolution is derived from an analysis of low-temperature dissolution rate data published by seven experimenters. The model correlates seventynine quartz dissolution rate measurements with calculated surface species distributions to predict reaction kinetics. Using the triple layer electrostatic surface model, we compute the distributions of predominant acid-base surface species for the solution composition associated with each reported rate measurement. Reactivities of the modeled species are then obtained by fitting the calculated site distributions and the experimental rate data to a simple rate equation. This results in an expression valid for 25C, pH 2-13 and 0-0.5 molal sodium chloride given by rate = 10 -13.0(? ?SiOH? + 10 -10.8(? ?SiOsum) 1 + 10 -9.2(? ?SiOsum) 2, where rate has units of mol m -2s -1,? ?4;SiOH is the fraction of ?SiOH surface complexes and ? indicates that the reaction order dependence on this species is ill-determined. The ??SiOsum term gives the sum of ?SiO-Na + and ?SiO - fractions. This correlation removes much of the apparent scatter that is observed between experimenters and demonstrates that most measurements follow a consistent trend when a sodium complex, ?SiO-Na +, is included in the model. The model predicts that reaction rates are increased by a factor of 12 at pH 8 with the addition of 0.2 molal sodium to the reacting solutions. While this approach is an indirect measure of the reactivity of bonds at mineral surfaces, when compared to previous models, it offers a better understanding of rate-controlling processes because it specifically includes the calculated distributions of surface reactants. This analysis, in conjunction with evidence from the literature for cation-specific influences on silicon dioxide reactivity, supports a dissolution model incorporating cation interactions.

Dove, Patricia M.; Elston, Stephen F.

1992-12-01

209

Volcanically emitted sodium chloride as a source for Io's neutral clouds and plasma torus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere of Jupiter's satellite Io is extremely tenuous, time variable and spatially heterogeneous. Only a few molecules-SO2, SO and S2-have previously been identified as constituents of this atmosphere, and possible sources include frost sublimation, surface sputtering and active volcanism. Io has been known for almost 30 years to be surrounded by a cloud of Na, which requires an as yet unidentified atmospheric source of sodium. Sodium chloride has been recently proposed as an important atmospheric constituent, based on the detection of chlorine in Io's plasma torus and models of Io's volcanic gases . Here we report the detection of NaCl in Io's atmosphere; it constitutes only ~0.3% when averaged over the entire disk, but is probably restricted to smaller regions than SO2 because of its rapid photolysis and surface condensation. Although the inferred abundance of NaCl in volcanic gases is lower than predicted, those volcanic emissions provide an important source of Na and Cl in Io's neutral clouds and plasma torus.

Lellouch, E.; Paubert, G.; Moses, J. I.; Schneider, N. M.; Strobel, D. F.

2003-01-01

210

Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9%. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt+NaCl+DMSO and Cispt+DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p<0.01) of Cispt in Cispt+NaCl+DMSO formulation was equal to 78 and 7%. These values were estimated 79 and 18% for Cispt+DMSO formulation and 79 and 24% for free drug. IC50 values demonstrated reduction of 45% in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt+DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt. PMID:24757310

Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

2014-04-01

211

[Room temperature phosphorimetric determination of practolol with dansyl chloride labeling].  

PubMed

Dansyl Chloride (DNS-Cl) was used as a phosphorescent labeling agent for the determination of practolol. The derivative was formed by refluxing practolol-ethyl acetate solution with the solid DNS-Cl in the presence of potassium carbonate anhydride. Room-temperature phosphorescent (RTP) properties of the derivative were studied by a micelle-stabilized room-temperature phosphorescence (MS-RTP) method. Phosphorescence lifetimes of practolol-DNS and the DNS-Cl were found to be 0.791 and 0.408ms, respectively. By applying the derivative MS-RTP technique, practolol could be quantitatively determined without previous separation process. Detection limit of practolol with the proposed method was 0.19 microg/mL. PMID:15810329

Tong, A; Wu, Y; Li, L

1998-02-01

212

Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs. PMID:23456787

Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

2013-10-01

213

The electrodeposition of metals and alloys from the room-temperature aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemistry of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc was investigated in the room-temperature Lewis acidic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Concentrated solutions of Co(II), Cu(I), Ni(II), and Zn(II) were produced by anodization of the respective metal, and each of these metals could be electrodeposited from these solutions. Bulk deposits were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and

William Robert Pitner

1997-01-01

214

The physical and chemical stability of cisplatin (Teva) in concentrate and diluted in sodium chloride 0.9%  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study The subject of study was the stability of cisplatin in concentrate in glass vials and diluted in polyethylene (PE) bags stored at 1525C for up to 30 days. Material and methods Original vials of cisplatin injection (1 mg/ml, Teva) were stored at room temperature and subjected to re-piercing after 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 30 days following the initial piercing. Cisplatin infusions at nominal concentrations of 0.1 mg/ml were prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride (1000 ml) in PE bags. Chemical stability was measured by means of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Physical stability was assessed by visual inspection in normal light. Results The concentration of cisplatin at each sampling time in the analysed solutions remained within 92.0100.7% of initial concentration, regardless of the container. No changes in colour or turbidity were observed in any of the vials or prepared solutions. Conclusions Cisplatin, both undiluted in glass containers and diluted with NaCl 0.9% in PE bags, remains stable (< 10% degradation) for at least 30 days at room temperature when protected from light.

Szalek, Edyta; Urjasz, Hanna; Gleboka, Aleksandra; Mierzwa, Emilia; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

2012-01-01

215

Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

2012-06-01

216

A Comparative Study on the Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Iron and X-65 Steel in 4.0 wt % Sodium Chloride Solution after Different Exposure Intervals.  

PubMed

In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. PMID:25010468

Sherif, El-Sayed M

2014-01-01

217

High sodium chloride intake exacerbates immobilization-induced bone resorption and protein losses.  

PubMed

We examined, in immobilization, the effect of a diet high in sodium chloride (NaCl) on bone markers, nitrogen balance, and acid-base status. Eight healthy male test subjects participated in a 14-day head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) study. During the bed rest period they received, in a randomized crossover design, a high (7.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) and a low (0.7 meq Na(+)/kg body wt per day) NaCl diet. As expected, 24-h excretion of urinary calcium was significantly greater in the high-NaCl-intake HDBR phase than in the low-NaCl-intake HDBR phase (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake caused a 43-50% greater excretion of the bone resorption markers COOH- (CTX) and NH(2)- (NTX) terminal telopeptide of type I collagen in HDBR than low NaCl in HDBR (CTX/NTX: P < 0.001). Serum concentrations of the bone formation markers bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (bAP) and NH(2)-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP) were identical in both NaCl intake phases. High NaCl intake led to a more negative nitrogen balance in HDBR (P < 0.001). Changes were accompanied by increased serum chloride concentration (P = 0.008), reduced blood bicarbonate (P = 0.017), and base excess (P = 0.009) whereas net acid excretion was lower during high than during low NaCl intake in immobilization (P < 0.001). High NaCl intake during immobilization exacerbates disuse-induced bone and muscle loss by causing further protein wasting and an increase in bone resorption. Changes in the acid-base status, mainly caused by disturbances in electrolyte metabolism, seem to determine NaCl-induced degradation processes. PMID:21596917

Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Buehlmeier, Judith; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Fimmers, Rolf; May, Francisca; Kluge, Goetz; Heer, Martina

2011-08-01

218

Effects of de-icing chemicals sodium chloride and potassium formate on cadmium solubility in a coarse mineral soil.  

PubMed

Excessive use of sodium chloride (NaCl) as de-icing chemical causes environmental problems, such as elevated chloride concentrations in groundwater. On vulnerable sites, this can be avoided by using alternative organic de-icing chemicals, such as potassium formate (KHCOO). The environmental impacts of KCHOO are, however, not well known. This study reports the potential effects of NaCl and KCHOO on mechanisms controlling the mobility of cadmium (Cd) in roadside soils as a result of vehicular traffic. Changes in the solubility of Cd in a coarse mineral soil treated with these two de-icing chemicals were studied in a 50-day incubation experiment under four different moisture and temperature combinations and an initial soil Cd concentration of 3 mg kg(-1). After incubation, the distribution of soil Cd into different fractions was analyzed using a sequential extraction method. Soil pH and soil redox potential were recorded and the occurrence of Cd-Cl complexes in the soil was estimated using published stability constants. During incubation, KCHOO lowered the soil redox potential, but this was not accompanied by a decrease in the sorption capacity of oxides and the release of oxide-bound Cd into soil solution. On the other hand, elevated pH (from 4.3 to 6.7-8.5) in the formate treatments increased the sorption of Cd onto the oxide surfaces (up to 80% of total sorbed Cd). In the NaCl treatments, cation competition and formation of Cd-Cl complexes increased the water-soluble Cd fraction. Consequently, the amount of bioavailable Cd was 3.5 times smaller in the KCHOO than in the NaCl treatments. PMID:16165192

Rasa, Kimmo; Peltovuori, Tommi; Hartikainen, Helin

2006-08-01

219

Briquetting of fine coal using a sodium chloride binder. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A pilot scale test study has demonstrated the economic and technological feasibility of producing dense, weather-resistant briquettes from fine particulate bituminous coal. The binder, in the amount of 34/100 of 1% of the end product by weight, consisted of a sodium chloride dendritic crystalline matrix. The proclivity for liberation of pyritic sulfur and ash from fine coal particles, minus 10 Mesh x 0, has rekindled interest among producers and consumers of coal as to pre-combustion Deep Cleaning, in efforts to comply with clean air standards. Process technology as to coal beneficiation presently is producing fine sized particles. A major hurdle is handling the material after treatment. Besides being a definite safety hazard, it is extremely difficult to transport and impossible to stockpile resulting fines. Present general practice includes dewatering, if size permits, then thermal drying to some moisture level, say 10%. The dried fines are then blended with one or more produced fractions and shipped. This in itself is counter-productive as the difference in moisture content between these fines and that marketed can be as high as 8% or some 1000 Btus per pound. Reconstitution of this fine particulate seemed a reasonable solution to this situation and accordingly this study has been made. Briquettes have been produced which are equivalent to lump natural coal as to physical attributes. Generally, their heat value is greater as they contain less moisture and subjective burn tests for the product show a fouling index increase range from 10.5% for the low volatile seam to a high of 15.4% for the high volatile seam due to the sodium content of the additive. The scale-up cost for a 10 ton/hour operation including labor and capital servicing-payback is calculated to be $16.68 per ton.

Crossmore, E.Y. Jr.; Kimball, R.J.; Kimball, S.M.

1981-10-01

220

Current Concepts of Sodium Chloride and Water Transport by the Mammalian Nephron  

PubMed Central

The decision of the editors to solicit a review for the Medical Progress series of this journal devoted to current concepts of the renal handling of salt and water is sound in that this important topic in kidney physiology has recently been the object of a number of new, exciting and, in some instances, quite unexpected insights into the mechanisms governing sodium excretion. These developments have come about largely as a consequence of the fact that segments of nephrons previously inaccessible to direct study are now readily accessible. Many of the findings to be discussed argue for extensive revision of a number of our current widely held views concerning the renal handling of sodium chloride and water. In the opinion of the authors, the strength of this argument rests in the fact that many of these new findings were obtained under circumstances that enabled workers to gain more direct access to the nephron than has been possible heretofore. This is not to say that areas of controversy and disagreement no longer exist. Wherever possible, these have been identified. In attempting to provide a comprehensive review of this topic, it has been necessary at times to overgeneralize and to disregard minor deficiencies in some of the studies cited. Finally, we wish to emphasize that a considerable portion of the information contained herein derives from work still under active investigation. Much of this contemporary work will undoubtedly withstand the rigors of future experimental scrutiny. It is inevitable, however, as William James so aptly noted in the quotation cited below, that some of our present ideas will need to be abandoned or revised in favor of newer, more convincing evidence. Seen in this light, the present effort is intended as nothing more than a timely survey of this active and fertile topic in renal physiology.

Mercer, Paul F.; Maddox, David A.; Brenner, Barry M.

1974-01-01

221

Lack of the Sodium-Driven Chloride Bicarbonate Exchanger NCBE Impairs Visual Function in the Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABAA receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pHi regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function.

Hilgen, Gerrit; Huebner, Antje K.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seide, Christina; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Lowel, Siegrid; Weiler, Reto

2012-01-01

222

Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack, again limited to the crevice region. However, the 24 hr E{sub corr} value was higher for the Ca based solution; this is probably due to the higher acidity of this solution (Ca{sup 2+} is slightly hydrolyzing). Intermediate-term corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) measurements indicate that moderately acidic conditions are required to achieve elevated E{sub corr} values.

Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

2006-01-17

223

Overexpression of the sodium chloride cotransporter is not sufficient to cause familial hyperkalemic hypertension.  

PubMed

The sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the primary target of thiazides diuretics, drugs used commonly for long-term hypertension therapy. Thiazides also completely reverse the signs of familial hyperkalemic hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the primary defect in FHHt is increased NCC activity. To test whether increased NCC abundance alone is sufficient to generate the FHHt phenotype, we generated NCC transgenic mice; surprisingly, these mice did not display an FHHt-like phenotype. Systolic blood pressures of NCC transgenic mice did not differ from those of wild-type mice, even after dietary salt loading. NCC transgenic mice also did not display hyperkalemia or hypercalciuria, even when challenged with dietary electrolyte manipulation. Administration of fludrocortisone to NCC transgenic mice, to stimulate NCC, resulted in an increase in systolic blood pressure equivalent to that of wild-type mice (approximately 20 mm Hg). Although total NCC abundance was increased in the transgenic animals, phosphorylated (activated) NCC was not, suggesting that the defect in FHHt involves either activation of ion transport pathways other than NCC, or else direct activation of NCC, in addition to an increase in NCC abundance. PMID:21896937

McCormick, James A; Nelson, Joshua H; Yang, Chao-Ling; Curry, Joshua N; Ellison, David H

2011-11-01

224

Oxidative aging of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride aerosol particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

2012-10-01

225

Glucose & sodium chloride induced biofilm production & ica operon in clinical isolates of staphylococci  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: All colonizing and invasive staphylococcal isolates may not produce biofilm but may turn biofilm producers in certain situations due to change in environmental factors. This study was done to test the hypothesis that non biofilm producing clinical staphylococci isolates turn biofilm producers in presence of sodium chloride (isotonic) and high concentration of glucose, irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon. Methods: Clinical isolates of 100 invasive, 50 colonizing and 50 commensal staphylococci were tested for biofilm production by microtiter plate method in different culture media (trypticase soy broth alone or supplemented with 0.9% NaCl/ 5 or 10% glucose). All isolates were tested for the presence of ica ADBC genes by PCR. Results: Biofilm production significantly increased in the presence of glucose and saline, most, when both glucose and saline were used together. All the ica positive staphylococcal isolates and some ica negative isolates turned biofilm producer in at least one of the tested culture conditions. Those remained biofilm negative in different culture conditions were all ica negative. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that the use of glucose or NaCl or combination of both enhanced biofilm producing capacity of staphylococcal isolates irrespective of presence or absence of ica operon.

Agarwal, Astha; Jain, Amita

2013-01-01

226

Reliability of Threshold and Suprathreshold Methods for Taste Phenotyping: Characterization with PROP and Sodium Chloride.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to compare the accuracy and reliability of four standard methods used for classification of people as taster or non-tasters based on their sensitivity to PROP (6-n-propylthiouracil). A panel consisting of 21 subjects was tested for threshold and suprathreshold sensitivity of sodium chloride, PROP, and genotyped for TAS2R38. Two threshold methods, staircase and modified Harris-Kalmus, were used to obtain detection and recognition thresholds and compared for accuracy and repeatability. Similarly, two suprathreshold techniques, the just noticeable differences (JND) and the general labeled magnitude scale (gLMS), were used to determine Weber fractions and individual psychophysical functions and compared for accuracy and repeatability. Results show both threshold methods have been able to correctly separate people into two groups of tasters and non-tasters, with the staircase method having a lower variability among subjects. On the suprathreshold front, we found differences in sensitivity between tasters and non-tasters when comparing Weber fractions and psychophysical functions; however, our data suggest that clustering people without previous knowledge of their taster status is less accurate when using Weber fractions. Intensity ratings are more reliable to classify people into tasters and non-tasters. Results show that the staircase for threshold measurement and the gLMS methods are more reliable methods than Harris-Kalmus and JND for phenotyping people and can be used in large-scale studies in the quest to discover new genotype-phenotype associations. PMID:19966917

Galindo-Cuspinera, Veronica; Waeber, Thierry; Antille, Nicolas; Hartmann, Christoph; Stead, Nicola; Martin, Nathalie

2009-12-01

227

Study of the corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits in a sodium chloride medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-P deposits with phosphorous contents from 12% to 14% in sodium chloride solutions was studied. The deposits were immersed in 3.5% NaCl solutions for 29 d to obtain the electrochemical parameters and were examined in a standard salt spray test for 15 d respectively. The corrosion resistance of the deposits was studied by potentio-dynamic scan, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cold-field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The patterns of XRD and the results of FE-SEM showed that the prepared deposits were amorphous. But after a 15 d standard salt spray test, a few pinholes appeared on the surface of the deposit and the weight content of phosphorus on the surface of the deposit was higher (which was beneficial to the formation of the passivation films) than that before the standard salt spray test when the nickel content was lower because the dissolved weight of nickel was greater than that of phosphorus. The results from potentio-dynamic scan and EIS showed that passivation films formed on the Ni-P deposit after immersion in the NaCl solutions, which decreased the corrosion rate of Ni-P samples. The results of this work show their potential applications in marine corrosion.

Gao, Rongjie; Du, Min; Sun, Xiaoxia; Pu, Yanli

2007-10-01

228

Study on kinetics of cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen in 3.5% sodium chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical reduction of dissolved oxygen in seawater on metals is of great importance for corrosion studies. The present paper studied cathodic reduction of dissolved oxygen on Q235 carbon steel in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE). The cyclic voltammetric results demonstrated the cathodic process on Q235 carbon steel in O2-saturated 3.5% NaCl solution contains three reactions: dissolved oxygen reduction, iron oxides reduction and hydrogen evolution. The peak potential of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is -0.85 V vs Ag/AgCl, 3 molL-1 KCl. The EIS results indicated that the ORR occurring on Q235 carbon steel is a 4-electron process and that no finite diffusion is caused by the intermediate of H2O2 produced by ORR. The RDE and RRDE voltammograms confirmed the EIS results and it was found that the number of transferred electrons for ORR was nearly 4, i.e., dissolved oxygen reduced to water.

Li, Yongjuan; Zhang, Dun; Wu, Jiajia

2010-09-01

229

Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.  

PubMed

The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C. PMID:19056176

Guerrero, A; Goi, S; Allegro, V R

2009-06-15

230

Solvent separated sodium chloride ion pairs in a water-DMSO mixture : friction kernels and transmission coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a mixed solvent of water and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) (with a mole fraction of DMSO = 0.21), the solute sodium chloride forms two distinct solvent separated ion pair (SSIP) species at interionic separations of 5.4 and 7.1 respectively. These SSIPs are separated by a free energy barrier at 6.6 . Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are performed on

Ashok K. Das; B. L. Tembe

1998-01-01

231

Responses in egg shell quality to sodium chloride supplementation of the diet and\\/or drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Supplementing the drinking water of 50?week?old laying hens with sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations between 0.5 and 2 g\\/l for 7 weeks significantly increased the incidence of egg shell defects and significantly decreased egg shell quality. Dietary NaCl concentrations between 0 and 2 g\\/kg had little effect on this response.2. At similar total NaCl intakes egg shell defects were much

I. Yoselewitz; D. Balnave

1989-01-01

232

Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl?) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6N, 89.4W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na+ and

Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; Adam H. Wiese; Bart Sexton; Richard B. Hall

2008-01-01

233

Fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for structural steels in 3 Pct sodium chloride aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatigue threshold and low-rate crack propagation properties for a carbon steel, two high-strength steels, and two stainless\\u000a steels were investigated in a 3 pct sodium chloride aqueous solution at frequencies between 0.03 and 30 Hz. Tests were conducted\\u000a in a manner designed to avoid crack closure. Under freely corroding conditions, the effective values of the threshold stress\\u000a intensity factor

Saburo Matsuoka; Hiroyuki Masuda; Masuo Shimodaira

1990-01-01

234

Plasma Parathyroid Hormone and Insulin Concentrations in Cows Administered Potassium Chloride and Sodium Citrate1*2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two age groups of nonpregnant cows were used to study plasma changes in parathyroid hormone, insulin, and glucose, and renal clearance rates of magnesium, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus after intraruminal administra tion of 1.5 g potassium chloride (KCl)\\/kg body weight (BW) or 1.5 g sodium citrate\\/kg BW. Magnesium (2.4 mg\\/kg BW) was simultaneously infused intra venously for 120 minutes to

LAWRENCE E. DEETZ; RAY E. TUCKER; GEORGE E. MITCHELL

235

Sodium Chloride-Induced Changes in Mineral Nutrients and Proline Accumulation in Indica Rice Cultivars Differing in Salt Tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of increasing sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 300 mM) stress was investigated on plant growth, mineral nutrients, and proline accumulation in two indica rice cultivars differing in salt tolerance. The shoots and roots of Karjat-3 (salt sensitive cv.) showed greater reduction in fresh weight, dry weight, and water content under increasing salinity stress when compared to Panvel-3 (salt

Vinay Kumar; Varsha Shriram; T. D. Nikam; Narendra Jawali; M. G. Shitole

2008-01-01

236

Primary structure and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the thiazide-sensitive, electroneutral sodium-chloride cotransporter.  

PubMed Central

Electroneutral Na+:Cl- cotransport systems are involved in a number of important physiological processes including salt absorption and secretion by epithelia and cell volume regulation. One group of Na+:Cl- cotransporters is specifically inhibited by the benzothiadiazine (thiazide) class of diuretic agents and can be distinguished from Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporters based on a lack of K+ requirement and insensitivity to sulfamoylbenzoic acid diruetics like bumetanide. We report here the isolation of a cDNA encoding a thiazide-sensitive, electroneutral sodium-chloride cotransporter from the winter flounder urinary bladder using an expression cloning strategy. The pharmacological and kinetic characteristics of the cloned cotransporter are consistent with the properties of native thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporters in teleost urinary bladder and mammalian renal distal tubule epithelia. The nucleotide sequence predicts a protein of 1023 amino acids (112 kDa) with 12 putative membrane-spanning regions, which is not related to other previously cloned sodium or chloride transporters. Northern hybridization shows two different gene products: a 3.7-kb mRNA localized only to the urinary bladder and a 3.0-kb mRNA present in several non-bladder/kidney tissues. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Gamba, G; Saltzberg, S N; Lombardi, M; Miyanoshita, A; Lytton, J; Hediger, M A; Brenner, B M; Hebert, S C

1993-01-01

237

Low-Temperature Stress Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 601 in Thiosulfate and Chloride Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of unsensitized and sensitized alloy 601 (UNS N06601) was studied in sodium thiosulfate (NaSO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions using slow strain rate testing (SSRT). Specimens were tested in the as-received condition (mill-annealed) after solution annealing at 1,050 C for 30 min and after solution annealing and sensitizing for 2, 5, 24, or 772

J. G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; V. M. Salinas-Bravo; A. G. Martinez-Villafae

1999-01-01

238

High temperature sodium testing of the CRBR prototype primary pump  

SciTech Connect

Qualification testing in sodium of the CRBR primary pump was conducted through 1982. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a description of the Sodium Pump Test Facility (largest of its kind in the world), a brief description of the test article and summary overview of results. Of special interest were the high temperature gas convection tests and the extensive flow/speed control (dynamic) tests. Special innovative test methods were employed to investigate these phenomena.

Tessier, M.J.; Grimaldi, J.L.

1983-01-01

239

HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE INDUCE A 'POSITIVE' RESPONSE AT THE TK LOCUS OF L5178Y/TK(+)/(-)MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The experiment with sodium chloride demonstrates the importance of carefully evaluating weak mutagenic responses observed with high concentrations of test compounds. The positive mutagenicity is likely not due to a direct interaction with DNA but from some indirect mechanism resu...

240

EVALUATION OF SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE MICROTOX R ASSAY: COMPARISON TO FISH AND CLADOCERAN TESTS WITH FRESHWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). he latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose for osmotic protection of the...

241

Evaluation of Sucrose as an Alternative to Sodium Chloride in the Microtox (Trade Name) Assay: Comparison to Fish and Cladoceran Tests with Freshwater Effluents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The toxicity of 44 freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). The latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose ...

G. T. Ankley G. S. Peterson J. R. Amato J. J. Jenson

1990-01-01

242

Representation of the Kinetics of Leaching of Galena by Ferric Chloride in Concentrated Sodium Chloride Solutions by a Modified Mixed Kinetics Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galena (PbS) is leached by a solution concentrated in NaCl and containing ferrous and ferric chloride. The ferric ion concentration is kept constant by adding KMnO4 or the potential is kept constant by adding a concentrated ferric chloride solution. The ferrous concentration of the solution has no effect upon the kinetics, the temperature and the chloride concentration have only a weak effect, whereas the radius of solid particles and the concentration of the ferric ion have the major influences. The kinetics are represented by a shrinking core model for up to 99 pet of ore dissolved. Both the aqueous diffusion of ferric ion in the pores of the sulfur layer and the chemical reaction at the surface are involved in the kinetic model. Taking into account the self blockage improves the representation of the end of reaction and yields a more consistent set of parameters.

Morin, D.; Gaunand, A.; Renon, H.

1985-12-01

243

Suppression by iron chelator phenanthroline of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl- N?-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prolonged administration of iron chelator phenanthroline on sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labeling and apoptotic indices in the gastric cancers was investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, the rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and intraperitoneal injections of phenanthroline at doses of 15 or 30 mg\\/kg

Masaharu Tatsuta; Hiroyasu Iishi; Miyako Baba; Tomiko Mikuni; Hiroyuki Narahara; Noriya Uedo; Hiroyuki Yano

2003-01-01

244

Attenuation by all-trans-retinoic acid of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prolonged administration of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) on sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labelling and apoptotic indices and immunoreactivity of transforming growth factor (TGF) ? in the gastric cancers was investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, the rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and subcutaneous injections of

M Tatsuta; H Iishi; M Baba; R Hirasawa; H Yano; N Sakai; A Nakaizumi

1999-01-01

245

Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC.  

PubMed

The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho-specific antibodies targeting pS124-NCC demonstrated a band of 160 kDa in the kidney cortex, but not medulla, which was preabsorbed by a corresponding phosphorylated peptide. Confocal microscopy with kidney tubule segment-specific markers localized pS124-NCC to all distal convoluted tubule cells. Double immunogold electron microscopy demonstrated that pS124-NCC co-localized with total NCC in the apical plasma membrane of distal convoluted tubule cells and intracellular vesicles. Acute treatment of Munich-Wistar rats or vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro rats with the vasopressin type 2 receptor-specific agonist dDAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidative stress-response kinases (SPAK and OSR1) were not able to phosphorylate NCC at S124. Protein kinase arrays identified multiple kinases that were able to bind to the region surrounding S124. Four of these kinases (IRAK2, CDK6/Cyclin D1, NLK and mTOR/FRAP) showed weak but significant phosphorylation activity at S124. In oocytes, (36)Cl uptake studies combined with biochemical analysis showed decreased activity of plasma membrane-associated NCC when replacing S124 with alanine (A) or aspartic acid (D). In novel tetracycline-inducible MDCKII-NCC cell lines, S124A and S124D mutants were able to traffic to the plasma membrane similarly to wildtype NCC. PMID:22966159

Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B; MacAulay, N; Fenton, R A

2012-12-01

246

Temperature field measurements for a growing ammonium chloride mushy layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments study the solidification from below of aqueous ammonium chloride. Thermochromic liquid crystal paints enable visualization of the temperature field in both the liquid and mushy regions. Spacetime plots of isotherm positions show the development of mushy-layer (plume) and boundary-layer (salt-finger) convection(M.G. Worster, J. Fluid Mech. 237), 649 (1992).. Boundary-layer convection is present in the fluid above the mushy layer at early times; whereas the larger-wavelength mushy-layer mode dominates over longer time scales. In a thin (Hele-Shaw) cell, plume evolution is compared to the development of chimneys in the mush. A coarsening mechanism is identified whereby a plume spontaneously decays, after which dendrites grow into the previously-empty channels, resulting in the demise of a chimney. In rare cases, two nearby plumes (and their channels) oscillate out of phase for several periods, evidence, perhaps, of an oscillatory instability predicted recently.(F. Chen, J.W. Wu and T. L. Yang, J. Fluid Mech. 276), 163 (1994). We also present studies of the effects of varying mush permeability on chimney formation. It is found experimentally that increases in mush permeability enhance chimney formation substantially.

Solomon, T. H.; Hartley, R. R.; Lee, A. T.

1996-11-01

247

Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

1959-01-01

248

Impact of sodium chloride on wheat flour dough for yeast-leavened products. I. Rheological attributes.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The rheological properties of wheat dough for yeast-leavened products were tested at different levels of sodium chloride (NaCl) addition ranging from 0 to 40 g NaCl kg(-1) wheat flour. Rheological tests carried out to make this evaluation included (1) empirical rheological methods of the Farinograph, load extension and a dough stickiness test and (2) fundamental rheological methods of creep recovery and dynamic rheometry. Modifications to the gluten matrix microstructure by NaCl were examined by confocal laser-scanning microscopy. RESULTS: Highly significant (P?0.001) differences due to NaCl addition could be determined in particular by the stickiness test as well as by examination of the creep test with the Burger model. Rheological changes measured in the creep test probably depend on protein charge shielding due to NaCl interaction, resulting in an improvement in gluten network formation. An increase in dough stickiness was measured when using NaCl. CONCLUSION: The present result for stickiness is contrary to the common subjective results. Therefore the theory proposed here for increased stickiness suggests that it is based on more non-protein-bound water in the dough system due to NaCl interaction and thus more viscous dough behaviour, which leads to higher stickiness as measured with the stickiness test. This may also suggest that the objectively measured 'stickiness' in this case does not properly indicate the subjectively measured stickiness it was designed to represent. Copyright 2011 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:21953245

Beck, Margit; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

2011-09-23

249

Compatibility and Stability of Morphine Sulphate and Naloxone Hydrochloride in 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection  

PubMed Central

Background Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. Objective: To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. Methods: The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 ?g/mL and naloxone 4 ?g/mL, 12.5 ?g/mL, and 25 ?g/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. Results: No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22C for up to 72 h or at 4C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Conclusion: Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration.

Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

2013-01-01

250

Sporicidal Activity of Sodium Hypochlorite at Subzero Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Sodium hypochlorite was an excellent disinfectant at low temperatures. With the addition of ethylene glycol to prevent freezing, hypochlorite solutions at low free available chlorine concentrations, were effective against Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores from 0 to -40 C. The effectiveness of this decontaminant was influenced by temperature, pH, and concentration, with pH 7.2 the optimum for decontamination at all temperatures and concentrations.

Jones, Lynwood A.; Hoffman, Robert K.; Phillips, Charles R.

1968-01-01

251

Sodium Doppler temperature lidar observations of the mesopause region temperature and wind structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurements of the mesopause region temperature structure are being routinely conducted at Urbana, Illinois with the University of Illinois (UIUC) Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar. The first measurements were taken with this system in Jan. 1991 and are now being made, and will soon be done routinely in conjunction with the temperature measurements. The results obtained with the UIUC Sodium Doppler Temperature Lidar (SDTL) are presented. A description of the system is given in accompanying articles.

Senft, Daniel C.; Scherrer, Daniel R.; Gardner, Chester S.

1992-01-01

252

Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

1982-01-01

253

Partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in dry fermented sausages: Influence on carbohydrate fermentation and the nitrosation process.  

PubMed

Two types of dry fermented sausages were manufactured: type A with traditional formulation and type B with reduced sodium content. pH and a(w) values and the counts of aerobic mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae and lactobacilli micro-organisms during the ripening of both fermented sausages were similar. Final lactic acid contents were also similar, but carbohydrate content was significantly lower in type B sausage. Content of acetic, propionic and butyric acids were significantly higher in type B, suggesting a higher heterofermentative activity. Also type B sausage showed lower nitrate level and higher chemical conversion percentage, suggesting a higher nitrosation intensity. PMID:22059918

Ibaez, C; Quintanilla, L; Irigoyen, A; Garcia-Jaln, I; Cid, C; Astiasarn, I; Bello, J

1995-01-01

254

The Magnetic Properties of the Iron Group Anhydrous Chlorides at Low Temperatures. I. Experimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnetic susceptibility of the anhydrous chlorides of the iron group have been studied as a function of field strength up to 32,000 gauss and as a function of temperature down to 13.9K. Those compounds whose room temperature susceptibility characteristic indicates a positive Curie temperature, also show a field strength dependence of the susceptibility at 13.9K and 20.4K. Chromic chloride

C. Starr; F. Bitter; A. R. Kaufmann

1940-01-01

255

Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.  

PubMed

The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials. PMID:23750871

Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

2013-07-01

256

The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples. PMID:22365197

Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

2012-03-01

257

A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures. ?? 1983.

Fournier, R. O.

1983-01-01

258

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al) ions, cadmium (Cd) ions, copper (Cu) ions and sodium (NaCl) chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter) in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein) in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization. Our analyses revealed that both general and specific genes were induced in Arabidopsis roots exposed to various rhizotoxic ions. Several defense systems, such as the production of reactive oxygen species and disturbance of Ca homeostasis, were triggered by all stressors, while specific defense genes were also induced by individual stressors. Similar studies in different plant species could help to clarify the resistance mechanisms at the molecular level to provide information that can be utilized for marker-assisted selection.

Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Ikka, Takashi; Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yuji; Hibino, Takashi; Sato, Shigeru; Sakurai, Nozomu; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

259

Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate: A practical synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas  

PubMed Central

An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N'-di- and N,N,N'-trisubstituted ureas in one pot, and is tolerant of a wide range of functional groups. Insight into the mechanism of aryl isocyanate formation is gleaned through studies of the transmetallation and reductive elimination steps of the reaction, including the first demonstration of reductive elimination from an arylpalladium isocyanate complex to produce an aryl isocyanate.

Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

260

A molecular dynamics study of structure and thermal properties of carbon dioxide in sodium chloride aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure and thermal conductivity of the sodium chloride (NaCl) aqueous solution in similar concentration to the seawater with saturated carbon dioxide (CO2) have been investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The effects of pressure have been investigated under various pressures corresponding to the depth of the sea from 40m to 10000m. The negative pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity has been detected in the depth of more than 8000m, whereas that of NaCl aqueous solution without CO2 shows the positive pressure dependence.

Matsunaga, Shigeki

2014-03-01

261

Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

2009-04-01

262

Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.  

PubMed

Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with control (treatment I). The sensory analysis indicated that it was possible to reduce NaCl by 40% without adverse effects on sensory properties, but 70% replacement of NaCl with KCl resulted in bacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness. PMID:24342182

Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

2014-03-01

263

Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal. PMID:22373571

Arroyo-Lpez, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodrguez-Gmez, F; Garrido-Fernndez, A

2012-04-16

264

Time-course analysis of the Shewanella amazonensis SB2B proteome in response to sodium chloride shock  

PubMed Central

Shewanellae are microbial models for environmental stress response; however, the sequential expression of mechanisms in response to stress is poorly understood. Here we experimentally determine the response mechanisms of Shewanella amazonensis SB2B during sodium chloride stress using a novel liquid chromatography and accurate mass-time tag mass spectrometry time-course proteomics approach. The response of SB2B involves an orchestrated sequence of events comprising increased signal transduction associated with motility and restricted growth. Following a metabolic shift to branched chain amino acid degradation, motility and cellular replication proteins return to pre-perturbed levels. Although sodium chloride stress is associated with a change in the membrane fatty acid composition in other organisms, this is not the case for SB2B as fatty acid degradation pathways are not expressed and no change in the fatty acid profile is observed. These findings suggest that shifts in membrane composition may be an indirect physiological response to high NaCl stress.

Parnell, J. Jacob; Callister, Stephen J.; Rompato, Giovanni; Nicora, Carrie D.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Williamson, Ashley; Pfrender, Michael E.

2011-01-01

265

Fixation of lead chloride on kaolinite and bentonite at temperatures between 550 and 950 C  

SciTech Connect

Vaporization of lead chloride (PbCl{sub 2}) on sorbents was carried out at linearly rising temperatures in flowing nitrogen with the use of a thermogravimetric apparatus. A modeling method has been proposed to depict the vaporization rate of lead chloride and to calculate the fraction of lead chloride fixed on sorbents during heat-up. The results revealed that dehydrated kaolinite (metakaolinite) had a moderate ability to fix lead chloride while fresh kaolinite showed a significantly increased fixation ability. The lead component formed by reaction with kaolinite or dehydrated kaolinite could hardly volatilize, even at a temperature up to 1,200 C. Bentonite also showed the moderate effectiveness for capturing lead chloride. However, at least part of the components or reaction products adsorbed on bentonite appeared to be thermally unstable and could volatilize gradually with a prolonged heating time at elevated temperatures. It was seen that during dehydroxylation of kaolinite, part of the chloride was released in the form of hydrochloric acid. Chemically bound water in kaolinite appeared to dramatically promote its reaction with lead chloride.

Wang, J.; Takarada, Takayuki

2000-02-01

266

High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (G). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6 HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in immobilization with low NaCl diet ( 0.34 1.2 g/d). However, high NaCl intake in HDBR exacerbated the negative nitrogen balance to 1.34 1.0 g/d (p0.001) compared to low NaCl. We conclude that high dietary NaCl intake induces low grade metabolic acidosis during HDBR. Low grade metabolic acidosis may be a reason for an increased protein turnover reflected by an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance in HDBR. Accordingly, a high dietary NaCl intake may exacerbate loss of body protein in G via low grade metabolic acidosis.

Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

267

Sodium incorporation strategies for CIGS growth at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of sodium into Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers and low-temperature absorber growth processes are important issues for the processing of flexible CIGS solar cells, particularly when polymer substrates are used. Na present during growth of CIGS is known to influence the growth kinetics and to lead to structurally and electronically modified absorber material. With post-deposition Na incorporation, predominantly electronic properties

D. Rudmann; D. Bremaud; A. F. da Cunha; G. Bilger; A. Strohm; M. Kaelin; H. Zogg; A. N. Tiwari

2005-01-01

268

High pressure high temperature elasticity study of sodium disilicate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many deep earth geophysical phenomena observed are related to physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions. Understanding the structures and physical properties of silicate melts at a fundamental level is essential to help us understand the dynamics of mineral crystallization and fractionation, thermal transport, etc. inside the Earth. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good analog for studying amorphous phase basalt since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Besides, sodium disilicate is not only simple in chemistry but also has a low melting point, thus permitting detailed experimental studies using currently available techniques. Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was ground into powder and loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell. The PE high pressure apparatus was installed inside the 16-BM-B hutch at the Advanced Photon Source. In our experiment, the glass sample was pressed up to 2GPa and heated up to 1000oC. At various pressure and temperature conditions, ultrasonic elastic wave velocities of the amorphous sample were collected using the pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer mounted on one end of the PE anvil. White beam x-ray radiographs that covered the entire length of the sample were also collected to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Experimental results show that before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure), the transverse wave velocity remains nearly constant with increasing temperature, while the longitudinal wave velocity decreases monotonically. A sudden drop in transverse wave velocity is observed above the glass transition temperature at 800oC. Within the 2GPa pressure range, we did not observe clear pressure dependence of the elastic wave velocities in sodium disilicate glass.

Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

2011-12-01

269

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25

270

Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7?days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5?years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. PMID:24762210

de Oliveira, Fabrcio Singaretti

2014-07-01

271

Reactions of chloride complexes of ruthenium (IV) with formic acid and sodium formate in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Study of the reactions of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/RuCl/sub 6/ with formic acid and sodium formate showed that, depending on the conditions, chlorocarbonyl, chloroformatocarbonyl, or chloroformato complexes of ruthenium(III) are formed.

Simanova, S.A.; Krylova, G.S.; Maslov, E.I.

1982-04-20

272

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport.  

PubMed

To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO(3) transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO(3) transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved substitution of the aspartate at position 555 with a glutamate) produced decreasing HCO(3)(-) currents at more positive membrane voltages. Immunohistochemistry showed D555E protein expression in oocyte membranes. D555E induced Na/HCO(3)-dependent pH recovery from a CO(2)-induced acidification. Current-voltage relationships revealed that D555E produced an outwardly rectifying current in the nominally CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free solution that was abolished by Cl(-) removal from the bath. In the presence of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-), however, the outward current produced by D555E decreased only slightly after Cl(-) removal. Starting from a Cl(-)-free condition, D555E produced dose-dependent outward currents in response to a series of chloride additions. The D555E-mediated chloride current decreased by 70% in the presence of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-). The substitution of Asp(555) with an asparagine also produced a Cl(-) current. Anion selectivity experiments revealed that D555E was broadly permissive to other anions including NO(3)(-). Fluorescence measurements of chloride transport were done with human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells expressing NBCe1 and D555E. A marked increase in chloride transport was detected in cells expressing D555E. We conclude that Asp(555) plays a role in HCO(3)(-) selectivity. PMID:19336397

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

2009-06-01

273

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*  

PubMed Central

To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO3 transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved substitution of the aspartate at position 555 with a glutamate) produced decreasing HCO3? currents at more positive membrane voltages. Immunohistochemistry showed D555E protein expression in oocyte membranes. D555E induced Na/HCO3-dependent pH recovery from a CO2-induced acidification. Current-voltage relationships revealed that D555E produced an outwardly rectifying current in the nominally CO2/HCO3?-free solution that was abolished by Cl? removal from the bath. In the presence of CO2/HCO3?, however, the outward current produced by D555E decreased only slightly after Cl? removal. Starting from a Cl?-free condition, D555E produced dose-dependent outward currents in response to a series of chloride additions. The D555E-mediated chloride current decreased by 70% in the presence of CO2/HCO3?. The substitution of Asp555 with an asparagine also produced a Cl? current. Anion selectivity experiments revealed that D555E was broadly permissive to other anions including NO3?. Fluorescence measurements of chloride transport were done with human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells expressing NBCe1 and D555E. A marked increase in chloride transport was detected in cells expressing D555E. We conclude that Asp555 plays a role in HCO3? selectivity.

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

274

A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early events governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (?c) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to ~10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly.

Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

2009-01-01

275

Electrodeposition of Cobalt, Iron, and Antimony and their Aluminum Alloys from Room-Temperature Aluminum Chloride 1-Methyl-3-Ethylimidazolium Chloride Molten Salt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony, and their aluminum alloys was investigated in the room-temperature molten salt, aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (A1Cl3-MeEtimCl). Solutions of Co(II), Fe(II), and Sb(III) were prepare...

J. A. Mitchell

1997-01-01

276

A new approach to determining gas-particle reaction probabilities and application to the heterogeneous reaction of deliquesced sodium chloride particles with gas-phase hydroxyl radicals.  

PubMed

The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaCl(aq)) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with deliquesced NaCl particles in the micron size range at 70-80% RH and with OH concentrations in the range of 1 to 7 x 10(9) cm(-3). The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from measurements of changes in the chloride concentration of individual particles upon reaction with OH as a function of the particle loading on the substrate. Quantitative treatment of the data using a model that incorporates both diffusion and reaction kinetics yields a lower limit to the net reaction probability of gamma(net) > or = 0.1, with an overall uncertainty of a factor of 2. PMID:16956244

Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Hai; Robertson, William H; Cowin, James P; Ezell, Michael J; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

2006-09-14

277

A New Approach to Determining Gas-Particle Reaction Probabilities and Application to the Heterogeneous Reaction of Deliquesced Sodium Chloride Particles with Gas-Phase Hydroxyl Radicals  

SciTech Connect

The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaClaq) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with deliquesced NaCl particles in the micron size range at 70-80% RH and with OH concentrations in the range of 1 to 7?109 cm-3. The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from measurements of changes in the chloride concentration of individual particles upon reaction with OH as a function of the particle loading on the substrate. Quantitative treatment of the data using a model that incorporates both diffusion and reaction kinetics yields a lower-limit to the net reaction probability of ?net > 0.1, with an overall uncertainty of a factor of two.

Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Hai; Robertson, William H.; Cowin, James P.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2006-09-14

278

Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved

S. A. M Refaey

2000-01-01

279

EXTENDING SODIUM FAST REACTOR DRIVER FUEL USE TO HIGHER TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

Calculations of potential sodium-cooled fast reactor fuel temperatures were performed to estimate the effects of increasing the outlet temperature of a given fast reactor design by increasing pin power, decreasing assembly flow, or increasing inlet temperature. Based upon experience in the U.S., both metal and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel types are discussed in terms of potential performance effects created by the increased operating temperatures. Assembly outlet temperatures of 600, 650 and 700 C were used as goal temperatures. Fuel/cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) and fuel melting, as well as challenges to the mechanical integrity of the cladding material, were identified as the limiting phenomena. For example, starting with a recent 1000 MWth fast reactor design, raising the outlet temperature to 650 C through pin power increase increased the MOX centerline temperature to more than 3300 C and the metal fuel peak cladding temperature to more than 700 C. These exceeded limitations to fuel performance; fuel melting was limiting for MOX and FCCI for metal fuel. Both could be alleviated by design fixes, such as using a barrier inside the cladding to minimize FCCI in the metal fuel, or using annular fuel in the case of MOX. Both would also require an advanced cladding material with improved stress rupture properties. While some of these are costly, the benefits of having a high-temperature reactor which can support hydrogen production, or other missions requiring high process heat may make the extra costs justified.

Douglas L. Porter

2011-02-01

280

Aluminum speciation and equilibria in aqueous solution: II. The solubility of gibbsite in acidic sodium chloride solutions from 30 to 70C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solubility of gibbsite in aqueous solutions was measured at ten ionic strengths made up of NaCl, HCl, and AlCl 3 at 30, 50, and 70C with the initial acidity controlled by addition of HCl. The aluminum concentration was determined by ion chromatography, while the final equilibrium pH was measured at temperature. The equilibrium quotients for the reaction Al(OH) 3 + 3H + ai Al 3+ + 3H 2O were modeled using both an empirical equation including the Debye-Hckel term and the Pitzer ion interaction treatment which incorporated the relevant single electrolyte and mixing interaction parameters currently available in the literature. In the latter treatment only four independent variables, including ?A a, ?A acl, and two terms describing the equilibrium constant at infinite dilution, were needed to fit the data well within the projected experimental error. In general, these new equilibrium quotients differ markedly from results of all but the most recently published solubility studies. The thermodynamic parameters at infinite dilution are compared with those calculated from the individual components of the reaction available in the literature. These calculations lead to recommended thermodynamic values for the Gibbs energy of reaction at 25C of -44.2 0.3 kJ mol-1, a ?G f0(Al 3+, aq) of -487.7 1.5 kJ mol-1, and a ?H f0(Al 3+, aq) of -540.9 kJ mol-1. No evidence for aluminum chloride complexation was found by comparing solubility experiments in the presence of varying concentrations of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate and sodium chloride at 50C and ca. 5 molal ionic strength.

Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.

1992-03-01

281

Temperature dependence of chloride, bromide, iodide, thiocyanate and salicylate transport in human red cells  

PubMed Central

1. The temperature dependence of the steady-state self-exchange of chloride between human red cells and a plasma-like electrolyte medium has been studied by measuring the rate of 36Cl- efflux from radioactively labelled cells. Between 0 and 10 C the rate increased by a factor of eight corresponding to an Arrhenius activation energy of 33 kcal/mole. 2. The rate of chloride exchange decreased significantly in experiments where 95% of the chloride ions in cells and medium were replaced by other monovalent anions of a lyotropic series. The rate of chloride self-exchange was increasingly reduced by bromide, bicarbonate, nitrate, iodide, thiocyanate, and salicylate. The latter aromatic anion was by far the most potent inhibitor, reducing the rate of chloride self-exchange to 02% of the value found in a chloride medium. 3. The temperature sensitivity of the chloride self-exchange was not affected significantly by the anionic inhibitors. The Arrhenius activation energies of chloride exchange were between 30 and 40 kcal/mole in the presence of the six inhibitory anions mentioned above. 4. The rate of self-exchange of bromide, thiocyanate, and iodide between human red cells and media was determined after washing and labelling cells in media containing 120 mM bromide, thiocyanate, or iodide respectively. The rate of self-exchange of the three anions were 12, 3, and 04% of the rate of chloride self-exchange found in the chloride medium. 5. The Arrhenius activation energies of the self-exchange of bromide, iodide, and thiocyanate were all between 29 and 37 kcal/mole, the same magnitude as found for the self-exchange of chloride. 6. Although approximately 40% of the intracellular iodide and salicylate ions appeared to be adsorbed to intracellular proteins, the rate of tracer anion efflux followed first order kinetics until at least 98% of the intracellular anions had been exchanged. 7. The self-exchange of salicylate across the human red cell membrane occurred by a different mechanism than the one utilized by the inorganic monovalent anions. The activation energy of salicylate exchange (132 kcal/mole) was significantly lower than that of inorganic anion exchange. Salicylate exchange increased with decreasing pH in contrast to the exchange of chloride, which decreases when pH is lowered.

Dalmark, Mads; Wieth, Jens Otto

1972-01-01

282

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Formal name: Chloride Related tests: Sodium , Potassium , Bicarbonate , Electrolytes , Comprehensive Metabolic Panel , Basic Metabolic Panel , Blood Gases ... if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base balance and to monitor ...

283

Effect of Heat Stable and Heat Labile Escherichia coli Enterotoxins, Cholera Toxin and Theophylline on Unidirectional Sodium and Chloride Fluxes in the Proximal and Distal Jejunum of Weanling Swine  

PubMed Central

Acute, isolated loops of proximal and distal jejunum of weanling swine were exposed to either heat stable porcine Escherichia coli enterotoxin, heat labile porcine Escherichia coli enterotoxin, cholera toxin or theophylline. Unidirectional sodium fluxes in response to heat stable in the proximal jejunum were dependent on the length of time that the intestinal mucosae was exposed to the enterotoxin. Net water, sodium and chloride and unidirectional sodium and chloride flux measurements in the proximal jejunum in response to each agent uniformly indicated that net secretion of fluid and electrolytes was the result of increased unidirectional sodium secretion or blood-to-lumen flux and decreased unidirectional chloride absorption or lumen-to-blood flux. In addition heat stable cholera toxin and theophylline but not heat labile decreased unidirectional chloride secretion a small but significant amount in the proximal jejunum. Sodium and chloride flux measurements in the distal jejunum demonstrated that all four secretory agents could stimulate net secretion of water, sodium and chloride in that region. The response to these secretory agents as measured by sodium and chloride unidirectional flux rates was not similar to changes observed in the proximal jejunum. In the distal small intestine, whereas heat labile cholera toxin and theophylline induced similar qualitative changes in unidirectional sodium and chloride fluxes, that induced by heat stable differed.

Hamilton, D. L.; Roe, W. E.; Nielsen, N. O.

1977-01-01

284

Influence of the different sodium chloride concentrations on microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of mozzarella cheese.  

PubMed

In this work the effects of addition of different amounts of sodium chloride, during cheese making, on shelf life of mozzarella cheese were evaluated. The mozzarella cheese quality decay was assessed during storage at 9C by monitoring microbiological, sensory and physico-chemical changes in the product. Results showed that Pseudomonas spp. growth was responsible for cheese unacceptability, whereas the sensory quality did not limit cheese shelf life. In particular, the highest shelf life values were obtained for mozzarella without salt and with the lowest salt concentration (023 g NaCl), and amounted to about 5 and 4 d, respectively. On the contrary, high salt concentrations affected product shelf life, probably as a consequence of progressive solubilisation of cheese casein, due to the phenomenon of 'salting in'. PMID:22874075

Faccia, Michele; Mastromatteo, Marianna; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

2012-11-01

285

Molecular dynamics study of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/decanol/water systems.  

PubMed

We have performed a 50 ns of molecular dynamics study of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/decanol/water systems. The influence of the cationic polyelectrolyte on the anionic SDS-based lamellar liquid crystalline system was investigated. The main structural parameters have been calculated and compared with experimental data. We obtain two types of PDADMAC conformation, a more folded structure A and a structure B where the PDADMAC molecule is adsorbed at the anionic head groups of the surfactant molecules. The polyelectrolyte-induced coexistence of two lamellar phases at a concentration of 2-3% of PDADMAC is observed, which is in agreement with experimental findings. PMID:19175342

Poghosyan, Armen H; Arsenyan, Levon H; Gharabekyan, Hrant H; Koetz, Joachim; Shahinyan, Aram A

2009-02-01

286

Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

2010-03-01

287

Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.  

PubMed

The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling. PMID:23417770

Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

2013-06-01

288

The thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, and potassium chlorides at the aqueous solution-gas interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic models of the adsorption of ions at the interphase boundary between a solution of a 1,1-electrolyte and a gas are suggested. The experimental surface tension isotherms and the isotherms of excess adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, and potassium chlorides from aqueous solutions were used to show that the formation of the surface layer followed both the mechanism of coadsorption of the anion and cation and the mechanism of predominant adsorption of one of the ions. The calculated total adsorption isotherms were used to obtain the dependences of the heats and entropies of adsorption on the amount of the ion adsorbed. The results are discussed in terms of the solvation and desolvation of electrolyte ions in bulk solution and at liquid-vapor interfaces.

Fedorova, A. A.; Ulitin, M. V.

2009-01-01

289

High Temperature Coal Gas Chloride Cleanup for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Applications: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use was investigated of natural minerals and commercial sorbents to remove HCl vapor contaminant from high temperature coal gas mixtures used for molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents can reduce the level of H...

G. N. Krishnan G. T. Tong B. J. Wood N. Korens

1986-01-01

290

Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

2014-06-01

291

Effects of sodium chloride on the properties of chlorophyll a submonolayer adsorbed onto hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces using broadband spectroscopy with single-mode integrated optical waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we experimentally investigated the effects of sodium chloride on the molar absorptivity and surface density of a submonolayer of chlorophyll a adsorbed onto hydrophilic and hydrophobic solid/liquid interfaces. Those investigations were made possible by a broadband spectroscopic platform based on single-mode, integrated optical waveguides, which allows for extremely sensitive spectroscopic detection of analytes immobilized at submonolayer levels. Chlorophyll a with a constant bulk concentration (1.4 ?M) was dissolved in phosphate buffer solutions (7 mM) of neutral pH, but with different sodium chloride concentrations. For a buffer solution of 1 mM of sodium chloride, the measured surface density of chlorophyll a was 0.209 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophilic and 0.125 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophobic surface. For a phosphate buffer solution of 10 mM of sodium chloride, the measured surface density of chlorophyll a was 0.528 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophilic and 0.337 pmol/cm2 for a hydrophobic surface. Additionally, a hypsochromic shift of the Soret band was observed for the adsorbed pigment in correlation with an increase in buffer ionic strength. The adsorption of chlorophyll a onto different surfaces can play an important role to elucidate several processes found in nature and provide a rationale for bio-inspired new material technologies.

Wiederkehr, Rodrigo S.; Hoops, Geoffrey C.; Mendes, Sergio B.

2011-07-01

292

A Facile and Efficient Trimethylsilylation of Hydroxyl Groups Using Silica-Supported Zinc Chloride and Alumina-Supported Sodium Hydrogensulfate as Recyclable Heterogeneous Catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica-supported zinc chloride (SiO2-ZnCl2) and novel alumina-supported sodium hydrogensulfate (NaHSO4-Al2O3) as recyclable heterogeneous catalysts have been used for the mild trimethylsilylation of hydroxyl groups under ambient conditions. This procedure also allows for the selective protection of primary and secondary alcohols in the presence of tertiary alcohols.

Hamid Reza Shaterian; Fahimeh Khorami; Razieh Doostmohammadi; Azita Amirzadeh; Majid Ghashang

2009-01-01

293

The Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel and on the pH of Calcium Hydroxide Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrical half-cell potential measurement is a valid technique for detecting the existence of corrosion in the steel reinforcement of chloride-containing concrete. The voltage which it measures is not directly affected by the presence of sodium chlor...

H. A. Berman

1974-01-01

294

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

295

[Renal prostaglandins in DOCA-sodium chloride-induced hypertension in rats].  

PubMed

The changes in arterial pressure, sodium excretion, diuresis, and content of renal prostaglandins were studied in rats with COD-salt hypertension. The administration of DOC to rats with unilateral nephrectomy resulted in more distinct hypertension than in those with both kidneys preserved. Arterial pressure elevation was accompanied by a gradual reduction of renal prostaglandins concentration, the removal of one kidney causing an earlier and more distinct reduction of their content. Unilateral nephrectomy (without DOC administration) resulted in a reduction of prostaglandins concentration in the remaining kidney, but their total content in the medullar layer of this kidney practically did not change. PMID:950759

Markov, Kh M; Ivanova, I A; Mikhalkina, V G

1976-05-01

296

Task 20 - Prevention of Chloride Corrosion in High-Temperature Waste Treatment Systems (Corrosives Removals from Vitrification Slurries)  

SciTech Connect

GTS Duratek is working with BNFL Incorporated on a US Department of Energy (DOE) contract to develop a facility to treat and immobilize radioactive waste at the Hanford site in southeast Washington. Development of the 10-ton/day Hanford facility will be based on findings from work at Duratek's 3.3-ton/day pilot plant in Columbia, Maryland, which is in the final stage of construction and scheduled for shakedown testing in early 1999. In prior work with the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory, Duratek has found that slurrying is the most efficient way to introduce low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes into vitrification melters. However, many of the Hanford tank wastes to be vitrified contain species (primarily chloride and sulfate) that are corrosive to the vitrifier or the downstream air pollution control equipment, especially under the elevated temperature conditions existent in these components. Removal of these corrosives presents a significant challenge because most tank wastes contain high (up to 10-molar) concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) along with significant levels of nitrate, nitrite, and other anions, which render standard ion-exchange, membrane filtration, and other separation technologies relatively ineffective. In Task 20, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) will work with Duratek to develop and optimize a vitrification pretreatment process for consistent, quantitative removal of chloride and sulfate prior to vitrifier injection.

Timpe, R.C.; Aulich, T.R.

1998-11-01

297

Electrochemistry of Molybdenum Chloride Dimers in a Basic Ambient-Temperature Molten Salt,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The molybdenum (III) dimers Mo2C19(3-) and Mo2C18H(3-) and the molybdenum(II) dimer Mo2C18(4-) have been studied in the basic ambient-temperature molten salt A1C13-1-methyl-3-ethylmidazolium chloride (ImCl) by employing electrochemistry and visible spectr...

R. T. Carlin, R. A. Osteryoung

1988-01-01

298

Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of europium(III) chloride in aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salts  

SciTech Connect

Absorption spectroscopy and titration experiments suggest that the addition of EuCl{sub 3} to basic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt produces [EuCl{sub 6}]{sup 3{minus}}, and this species can be reduced at a glassy carbon electrode via a one-electron, quasi-reversible electrode reaction to produce Eu(II) species. The standard heterogeneous rate constant and the cathodic transfer coefficient in the 44.4/55.6 mole percent melt are 2.85 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} cm/s and 0.7, respectively. The formal redox potential, E{sup 0}, obtained from Nernst plots is dependent upon the pCl of the melt, indicating the loss of chloride ion from the coordination sphere of the complex anion during reduction to form a species of the type [EuCl{sub 6{minus}x}]{sup (4{minus}x){minus}} for which x may be 2. It is possible to electrochemically generate stable solutions of this reduced species in the absence of oxygen. In acidic melt, the Eu(III)/(II) redox reaction appears to be a one-electron reversible redox reaction. The average stokes-Einstein products for Eu(III) and Eu(II) species in both basic and acidic melts are measured.The values indicate that Eu(III) and Eu(II) species in both basic and acidic melts are measured. The values indicate that Eu(III) and Eu(II) species are less solvated in acidic melt than in basic melt. UV-vis spectroscopic data are recorded for Eu(III) and Eu(II) species in both types of melts. These room temperature ionic liquids possess a number of attractive features including a wide adjustable electrochemical window, a high intrinsic ionic conductivity relative to that of molecular solvents, a high thermal stability, and very negligible vapor pressure. These features make these melts useful solvents for investigating the electrochemistry of inorganic and organic materials as well as for technological applications for rechargeable batteries and electroplating.

Gau, W.J.; Sun, I.W. [National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemistry

1996-03-01

299

Physicochemistry of interaction between the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate in water and isopropyl alcohol-water media.  

PubMed

The physicochemistry of interaction of the cationic polymer poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, and sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate was studied in detail using tensiometry, turbidimetry, calorimetry, viscometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fair interaction initially formed induced small micelles of the surfactants and later on produced free normal micelles in solution. The interaction process yielded coacervates that initially grew by aggregation in the aqueous medium and disintegrated into smaller species at higher surfactant concentration. The phenomena observed were affected by the presence of isopropyl alcohol (IP) in the medium. The hydrodynamic sizes of the dispersed polymer and its surfactant-interacted species were determined by DLS measurements. The surface morphologies of the solvent-removed PDADMAC and its surfactant-interacted complexes from water and IP-water media were examined by the SEM technique. The morphologies witnessed different patterns depending on the composition and the solvent environment. The head groups of the dodecyl chain containing surfactants made differences in the interaction process. PMID:21466231

Mukherjee, Suvasree; Dan, Abhijit; Bhattacharya, Subhash C; Panda, Amiya K; Moulik, Satya P

2011-05-01

300

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

301

Effect of temperature gradient on the optical quality of mercurous chloride crystals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown at temperature gradients of 8, 11 and 17 K/cm by the physical vapor transport method. The optical quality of these crystals was evaluated by measuring bulk scattering and inhomogeneity of refractive index by birefringence interferometry. It was observed that a high temperature gradient at the solid-vapor interface induced thermal stresses and crystals showed higher scattering and irregular fringes.

Singh, N. B.; Davies, D. K.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Mazelsky, R.

1989-01-01

302

Effect of sodium chloride intake on urine volume, urinary urea excretion, and milk urea concentration in lactating dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) has been shown to be related to excretion of urinary urea N (UUN; g of N/d) and total excretion of urinary N (UN; g of N/d) in dairy cows. In the present experiment, it was hypothesized that MUN and the relationship between MUN and UUN or UN is affected by urine volume as a result of dietary sodium chloride intake. Twelve lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean SD: milk production 28.13.23 kg/d and 19041 d in milk), of which 4 were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein, were randomly assigned to 4 dietary levels of sodium chloride (3, 9, 14, and 19 g of Na/kg of DM) according to a triple 44 Latin square design. Cows were fed at 95% of ad libitum intake, excluding salt addition. Milk was analyzed for MUN and protein content; urine was analyzed for total N, urea, and creatinine content; feces were analyzed for total N and DM content; and blood plasma was analyzed for urea and creatinine content. Creatinine clearance rate (CCR; L/min) and renal urea reabsorption ratio were estimated based on plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and total excretion of urea and creatinine in urine. Intake of DM and N, milk production, and milk protein content were (mean SD), on average, 21.41.24 kg/d, 52232.0 g/d, 25.42.53 kg/d, and 3.640.186%, respectively. A linear relationship was found between Na intake and urine production [urine (kg/d; mean SE)=7.54.33+0.1360.0143 Na intake (g/d)] and between Na intake and MUN [MUN (mg/dL; mean SE)=13.50.35-0.00680.00104 Na intake (g/d)]. Despite the decrease in MUN with increased Na intake, UN excretion increased linearly with Na intake. Excretion of UUN was not affected by dietary Na content. A linear plateau relationship was observed between CCR and renal urea reabsorption. An increase in CCR coincided with an increase in calculated renal urea reabsorption until a CCR breakpoint value (mean SD) of 1.560.063 L/min was reached. We conclude that Na intake is negatively related to MUN, whereas UUN is not affected. Variation in mineral intake levels that affect urine volume should, therefore, be taken into account when using MUN as an indicator of UUN in dairy cattle. PMID:23063155

Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

2012-12-01

303

Formation of palladium(II) hydroxychloride complexes and precipitates in sodium chloride solutions and seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectrophotometric measurements of Pd(II) in 0.5 M NaCl indicate that the PdCl 3OH 2- formation constant at 25C is ClK?1 = [PdCl 3OH 2-][H +][Cl -][PdCl 42-] -1 = 10 -8.98. This constant is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than previous results derived through solubility analysis. Kinetic experiments indicate that equilibration between PdCl 42- and PdCl 3OH 2- is complete in less than one second. The discrepancy between depictions of Pd(II) speciation obtained by using spectrophotometric and solubility analysis is apparently caused by the formation of mixed hydroxychloride solid phases (PdCl aOH 2-a), rather than pure Pd(OH) 2(s), when Pd(OH) 2(s) is equilibrated in concentrated chloride solutions at high pH. In Pd(II) solubility analysis, and solubility analyses of other strongly hydrolyzed metals in seawater, the composition of the solid phase must be carefully examined for appropriate deconvolution of data.

Byrne, Robert H.; Yao, Wensheng

2000-12-01

304

An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of growth and toxicity. No significant toxicity was noted until concentrations of 1-10 ppm for Ag+ and 10-100 ppm for AgNPs. In all NaCl concentrations, Ag+ is more toxic than for AgNPs. In addition, we noted that AgNPs in the .5 M of NaCl had the largest toxicity compared to the other salt concentrations and can be explained by the high Cl/Ag ratio. The concentrations for which toxicity has been observed are fewer orders of magnitude higher than the predicted Ag-NPs concentration released in natural waters in the next years.

Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

2011-12-01

305

Chloride and membrane potential dependence of sodium ion-proline symport.  

PubMed

Proline accumulation by renal proximal tubule brush border membrane vesicles is Na+ dependent, but little is known about the role of anions or membrane potential on proline uptake. Recent studies in a variety of transport systems, including rat renal brush border membrane vesicles, indicate that halide anions chloride (Cl-) and bromide (Br-) are essential for glycine, beta-alanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and taurine uptake, so the possibility that Na(+)-proline symport is Cl- dependent was explored. Also, the role of membrane potential on transport was assessed by determining the effect of external anions with different membrane permeabilities. The ratio of initial rate Cl- stimulated to thiocyanate (SCN)(-)-stimulated uptake values serves to measure Cl- dependence. The initial rate of proline uptake to equilibrium value was 3.11 +/- 0.5 (SE) in the presence of Cl- versus SCN-. The ratio for D-glucose, whose uptake is governed only by electrogenic status of the membrane, was 0.61 +/- 0.47 (P less than 0.001 versus proline). In another series of experiments, uptake values for various anions as a percent of equilibrium (I/E x 100) were: SCN-, 84.9 +/- 10.9; NO3, 49.9 +/- 11.0; SO4(2-), 27.3 +/- 4.4; F-, 68.5 +/- 18.3; Cl-, 164.1 +/- 44.6; Br-, 150.6 +/- 30.2; I-, 56.7 +/- 13.5. The stoichiometry of uptake by Hill plot analysis of proline uptake in the presence of varying concentrations of Na+ (0 to 100 mM) and Cl- (0 to 100 mM) was 2Na+:1Cl-:1 proline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1751792

Chesney, R W; Zelikovic, I; Budreau, A; Randle, D

1991-10-01

306

Individual Differences in Sour and Salt Sensitivity: Detection and Quality Recognition Thresholds for Citric Acid and Sodium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified HarrisKalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another.

2013-01-01

307

Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: an alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals.  

PubMed

A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand. The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10 mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The eluting solution was analyzed for metals content (cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead and zinc) by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors such as pH, amount of ligand and PVC, amount and type of surfactant, and condition of eluting solutions on the sorption recovery of metal ions have been investigated in detail. The relative standard deviation was found in the range of 1.0-3.2% for 0.2 microg mL(-1)of metals ions. After optimization of the extraction condition and the instrumental parameters, a detection limit was found to be in the range of 1.2-3.1 microg L(-1), with enrichment factor of 50 was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of these metals contents in real samples with satisfactory results. PMID:19027140

Marahel, Farzaneh; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Montazerozohori, Morteza; Davoodi, Shahnaz

2009-01-01

308

Long-Term Stability of 5-Fluorouracil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride after Freezing, Microwave Thawing, and Refrigeration  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the stability of 5-fluorouracil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after freezing, microwave thawing, and storage for 28 days at 5C 3C. Methods: Polyvinylchloride (PVC) infusion bags (n = 5) containing 5-fluorouracil 800 mg/100 mL were frozen for 79 days at ?20C. The bags were then thawed in a microwave oven and stored at 5C 3C for 28 days. The concentration of 5-fluorouracil was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Visual and microscopic inspections were performed and pH was measured periodically during storage. Solutions were considered stable if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval of the concentration versus time profile remained greater than 90% of the initial concentration. Results: No colour change or precipitation was observed in any of the solutions. Slight changes in pH were observed during refrigeration. 5-Fluorouracil solutions were stable during storage at 5C 3C for 28 days, as indicated by the results of high-performance liquid chromatography. Conclusion: 5-Fluorouracil 8 mg/mL in NS may be prepared in advance, frozen and stored in PVC bags, and thawed before use. The solutions remained stable after freezing at ?20C for 79 days followed by storage at 5C 3C for up to 28 days.

Galanti, Laurence; Lebitasy, Massin P; Hecq, Jean-Daniel; Cadrobbi, Julie; Vanbeckbergen, Danielle; Jamart, Jacques

2009-01-01

309

Aluminum speciation and equilibria in aqueous solution: III. Potentiometric determination of the first hydrolysis constant of aluminum(III) in sodium chloride solutions to 125C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first molal hydrolysis quotient of aluminum(III) was measured potentiometrically from 25 to 125C at 25 intervals at ionic strengths of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 5 mol kg -1 with sodium chloride as the supporting electrolyte. The experimental method involved using a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell modified to compensate for any intrinsic potential offset between the two electrodes. The initial concentration of Al 3+ was varied to test for the presence of multinuclear aluminum species while being kept to a maximum of 10 -3 mol kg -1 to minimize their occurrence. Similarly, the maximum degree of hydrolysis of Al 3+ reached in each titration was ca. 30%, after which polymerization and/or precipitation became apparent. The equilibrium quotients obtained in this study and selected values from the literature were fitted by an empirical equation incorporating a linear dependence of log K1,1 on the reciprocal temperature (Kelvins) over the range 10-200C and three ionic-strength-dependent parameters. Comparisons are made between the results of this study and the literature values.

Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.

1993-07-01

310

Effects of butyrate on active sodium and chloride transport in rat and rabbit distal colon  

PubMed Central

Short chain fatty acids, particularly butyrate, stimulate electroneutral NaCl absorption from the colon. Their effect in colonic epithelia lacking basal electroneutral NaCl absorption is unknown. Butyrate is also reported to inhibit active Cl? secretion in the colon. The present studies were undertaken to investigate the inter-relationships between the effects of butyrate on active Na+ and Cl? transport in the colon. Studies were carried out in rabbit distal colon (known to have predominant electrogenic Na+ absorption), rat distal colon (characterised by electroneutral Na+ absorption), and hyperaldosteronaemic rat distal colon (characterised by electrogenic Na+ absorption). The effect of cholera toxin (CT) was also noted. Potential difference, short-circuit current (ISC) and fluxes of Na+ and Cl? were measured in stripped mucosa under voltage-clamp conditions. Butyrate stimulated electroneutral Na+ and Cl? absorption in distal colon of normal and salt-depleted rats, and stimulated Na+ absorption in rabbit distal colon. Amiloride (10?4m) or CT did not inhibit this process. In rabbit distal colon, stimulation of Na+ absorption by butyrate was not dependent on the presence of Cl? in the medium. Butyrate significantly decreased conductance, decreased flux of sodium from serosa to mucosa (particularly in rabbit distal colon), and decreased ISC. Net Cl? secretion, induced by CT, was completely inhibited by butyrate. Stimulation of Na+ absorption was independent of exposure to CT. Bumetanide reversed net Cl? secretion to net absorption, but did not alter Na+ or Cl? fluxes in tissues exposed to butyrate. Thus butyrate stimulates active Na+ absorption in colonic epithelia, with or without expression of basal Na+-H+ exchange. Independently, butyrate inhibits active Cl? secretion induced by cAMP in these epithelia.

Vidyasagar, S; Ramakrishna, B S

2002-01-01

311

Effects of polar aprotic solvents on the rate of the topochemical reaction of benzoyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the topochemical reaction of benozyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene have been examined in the presence of varying amounts of acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. The specific rates and activation energies for the reaction have been found. These parameters have been found to increase with the amounts of polar aprotic solvent added. The observed dependence is explained by a change in the mechanism of the reaction.

Zlobin, V.A.

1985-10-01

312

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of the Oxide Film on an Aluminum-Tin Alloy in 3.5% Sodium Chloride Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxide films on Al and an Al-Sn alloy were analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after immersion in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. Results showed Sn exhibited both Sn{sup 2+} and Sn{sup 4+} oxidation stats in the oxide film. It was proposed that incorporation of these cations in the film would result in generation of more anionic and cationic vacancies

A. Venugopal; V. S. Raja; H. Minoura; P. Veluchamy; P. Selvam

1997-01-01

313

Effect of nisin and its combination with sodium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes added to raw buffalo meat mince  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antilisterial activity of nisin (Nisaplin), alone at concentrations of 400 and 800 IU\\/g and in combination with 2% sodium chloride was incorporated in raw buffalo meat mince. Samples of the raw meat mince were inoculated with 103 colony forming units (cfu)\\/g of L. monocytogenes and stored at 4C for 16 days and at 37C for 36 h. Initial estimates of

D. D. Pawar; S. V. S. Malik; K. N. Bhilegaonkar; S. B. Barbuddhe

2000-01-01

314

Response of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., E. globulus Labill. ssp. globulus and E. grandis W.Hill to excess boron and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a sand culture experiment we investigated the effects of boron (0.01, 0.19, 0.46 and 0.93 mol m?3 B, as H3BO3), sodium chloride (0, 100 and 200 mol m?3 NaCl) and combined B and NaCl, over 36 days, on growth, water use and foliar ion concentrations of nine week-old seedlings\\u000a of three fast-growing, commercial eucalypts ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. ,

Nico E. Marcar; Jianmin Guo; Debbie F. Crawford

1999-01-01

315

Fourier transfOrm iNfrared measurement of the formation of nitrogen compounds on sOdium chloride particdes exposed to the ambient air in the Artic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of heterogeneous reactions on sea salts in the formation of particle nitrogen compounds in the Arctic during polar sunrise was studied. A diffuse reflection type Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to measure surface products on sodium chloride (NaCl) particles exposed to the ambient air at Alert, Northwest Territories, Canada (82.5N, 62.3W). The accumulation of nitrogen compounds on

Shuzo Kutsuna; Takashi Ibusuki

1994-01-01

316

Influence of sodium chloride and modified atmosphere packaging on microbiological, chemical and sensorial properties in ice storage of slices of hake ( Merluccius merluccius)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of an optimum gas mixture (50% CO2:45% N2:5% O2) on hake slices (Merluccius merluccius) was studied when combined with a sodium chloride dip (5min in 5% NaCl solution). Exudation, water binding capacity (WBC), microbial growth, as well as undesirable chemical (pH, total volatile bases, lipid oxidation), and sensory alterations (raw fish odour) cooked fish flavour), were monitored. Values

Laura Pastoriza; Gabriel Sampedro; Juan J Herrera; Marta L Cabo

1998-01-01

317

Effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol on root-hair infection and nodulation of Vicia faba L. plants by Rhizobium leguminosarum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sodium chloride and polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the interaction between Rhizobium leguminosarum strain 29d and root hairs of field bean (Vicia faba L. cv. Maris Bead) plants were investigated. Two levels each of NaCl (50 and 100 molm-3) and PEG (100 and 200 molm-3) were given at the time of root-hair formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed rhizobial

H. H. Zahran; J. I. Sprent

1986-01-01

318

Chemoattraction and chemorepulsion of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae on a sodium chloride gradient is mediated by amphidial neuron pairs ASE and ASH, respectively  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depending on its concentration, sodium chloride acts as either an attractant or a repellant to the infective larvae (L3i) of Strongyloides stercoralis. On a concentration gradient, L3i are attracted to 0.05M NaCl, but repelled by 2.8M. To test the hypothesis that amphidial neurons ASE and ASH might mediate attraction and repulsion, respectively, these neurons, and control neurons as well, were

W. M Forbes; F. T Ashton; R Boston; X Zhu; G. A Schad

2004-01-01

319

Low-protein diet promotes sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl- N?-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sodium chloride (NaCl) initiates and promotes experimental carcinogenesis in rats. We recently found that a high-protein diet attenuates NaCl-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. To investigate the effect of a purified low-protein diet on NaCl-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in Wistar rats, rats were fed a purified diet with an equalized caloric content containing 1% or 2% NaCl

Hiroyasu Iishi; Masaharu Tatsuta; Miyako Baba; Ryuto Hirasawa; Noriko Sakai; Hiroyuki Yano; Hiroyuki Uehara; Akihiko Nakaizumi

1999-01-01

320

Swift heavy ion damage to sodium chloride: synergy between excitation and thermal spikes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Systematic data on the effect of irradiation with swift ions (Zn at 735 MeV and Xe at 929 MeV) on NaCl single crystals have been analysed in terms of a synergetic two-spike approach (thermal and excitation spikes). The coupling of the two spikes, simultaneously generated by the irradiation, contributes to the operation of a non-radiative exciton decay model as proposed for purely ionization damage. Using this scheme, we have accounted for the ?-emission yield of self-trapped excitons and its temperature dependence under ion-beam irradiation. Moreover, the initial production rates of F-centre growth have also been reasonably simulated for irradiation at low temperatures ( < 100 K), where colour centre annealing and aggregation can be neglected.

Rivera, A.; Olivares, J.; Garcia, G.; Agull-Lpez, F.

2012-02-01

321

Creep substructure formation in sodium chloride single crystals in the power law and exponential creep regimes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Creep tests conducted on NaCl single crystals in the temperature range from 373 to 1023 K show that true steady state creep is obtained only above 873 K when the ratio of the applied stress to the shear modulus is less than or equal to 0.0001. Under other stress and temperature conditions, corresponding to both power law and exponential creep, the creep rate decreases monotonically with increasing strain. The transition from power law to exponential creep is shown to be associated with increases in the dislocation density, the cell boundary width, and the aspect ratio of the subgrains along the primary slip planes. The relation between dislocation structure and creep behavior is also assessed.

Raj, S. V.; Pharr, G. M.

1989-01-01

322

Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.940.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.080.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.650.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hlio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

323

The thermodynamic properties of solutions of sodium chloride, water, and 1-propanol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature-concentration dependences of the activity coefficient of NaCl in aqueous solutions of 1-propanol at 298 and 318 K, solution ionic strength up to 3 m, and alcohol contents of 10-40 wt % were determined by the method of electromotive forces with ion-selective electrodes. The results were used to estimate interaction parameters in the Pitzer model. The Darken method was used to calculate the integral Gibbs energy of solutions.

Mamontov, M. N.; Konstantinova, N. M.; Veryaeva, E. S.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2010-07-01

324

Sol-gel Transition of Methylcellulose Solution in the Coexistence of Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Sodium Chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sol-gel transition of methylcellulose (MC) solution in the presence of NaCl and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB), together with MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB and MC/HATB solution in the presence of NaCl, was investigated by the rheological measurements. It has been found that the sol-gel transition temperature of MC solution decreases linearly with the concentration of NaCl in solution but increases linearly with the concentration of HTAB in solution, respectively. However, the sol-gel transition temperature of MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB keeps the same value, independent of the concentration of HTAB in solution. On the other hand, the sol-gel transition temperature of MC/HTAB solution decreases linearly with the concentration of NaCl in solution. The experimental results suggest that, for MC/NaCl solution in the presence of HTAB, the salt-induced spherical micelles of HTAB should have formed in bulk solution. For MC solution in the absence of NaCl, no spherical micelles have been formed in bulk solution, though the concentration of HTAB in our experiment is almost one order of magnitude higher than the critical micelle concentration of HTAB in polymer-free solution. In fact, due to adsorption of HTAB on MC chains, the realconcentration of HTAB in bulk solution, is much less than the apparent concentration of HTAB dissolved in MC solution.

Zhou, Shan; Yang, Hai-yang; Xie, Yong-jun; Li, Hua-zhen; Liu, Guang-ming

2011-08-01

325

Reactions occurring during the sulfation of sodium chloride deposited on alumina substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction between solid NaCl and air containing 1 pct SO2 has been studied between 500 and 700 C. The reaction product, Na2SO4, forms not only on the surface of the NaCl but also on surrounding areas of the substrate due to the volatility of the NaCl at these temperatures. At the higher temperatures, the vapor pressure of NaCl is so high that the majority of the reaction product is distributed on the substrate. Above 625 C, the reaction product is a liquid solution of NaCl and Na2SO4 that exists only so long as NaCl is supplied from the original crystal source. Eventually, the liquid solidifies by constitutional solidification as the NaCl is converted to Na2SO4. While it exists, the liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 solution is shown to be highly corrosive to Al2O3 and, on a scale of Al2O3 growing on alloy HOS 875, particularly attacks the grain boundaries of the scale at preferred sites where chromium and iron oxides and sulfides rapidly develop. This is proposed as one mechanism by which NaCl deposition contributes to the initiation of low temperature hot corrosion.

Wu, C. S.; Birks, N.

1986-01-01

326

Compatibility and stability of ondansetron hydrochloride with morphine sulfate and with hydromorphone hydrochloride in 0.9% sodium chloride injection at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C.  

PubMed

The physical compatibility and chemical stability of ondansetron hydrochloride 0.1 and 1 mg/mL with morphine sulfate 1 mg/mL and with hydromorphone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were studied. Test solutions of the drugs in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were prepared in triplicate and stored at 4, 22, and 32 degrees C. Samples were removed immediately and at various time points over 31 days and stored at -70 degrees C until analyzed. Physical compatibility was assessed visually and by measuring turbidity with a color-correcting turbidimeter and particle content with a light-obscuration particle sizer and counter. Chemical stability was determined by measuring the concentration of each drug in duplicate with stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. There were no visual or subvisual changes in turbidity or particle content in any of the test solutions at any of the time points. There was little or no loss of any of the drugs. When admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, ondansetron hydrochloride 0.1 and 1 mg/mL plus morphine sulfate 1 mg/mL or hydromorphone hydrochloride 0.5 mg/mL were compatible and stable for at least 7 days at 32 degrees C and for at least 31 days at 4 and 22 degrees C. PMID:7527184

Trissel, L A; Xu, Q; Martinez, J F; Fox, J L

1994-09-01

327

Temperature Dependent Absorption Processes in F-Center Ion Defect Pairs in Cesium Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents both experimental and theoretical studies of the temperature dependent electronic absorption and quasi-steady state anti-Stokes resonant Raman scattering processes in F-center\\/cyanide ion ( rm F_{H}(CN^{-} )) defect pairs in cesium chloride (CsCl). This defect system displays a highly efficient electronic to vibrational energy transfer process from the F-electron into the CN^{-} partner defect molecule, as well as

Joseph Robert West

1995-01-01

328

The CFTR Chloride Channel: Nucleotide Interactions and Temperature-dependent Gating  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The gating cycle of CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator) chloride channels requires ATP hydrolysis\\u000a and can be interrupted by exposure to the nonhydrolyzable nucleotide AMP-PNP. To further characterize nucleotide interactions\\u000a and channel gating, we have studied the effects of AMP-PNP, protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation, and temperature on gating\\u000a kinetics. The rate of channel locking increased from 1.05

C. J. Mathews; J. A. Tabcharani; J. W. Hanrahan

1998-01-01

329

[Luminescence properties of sodium chloride activated with Ce under vacuum ultraviolet excitation].  

PubMed

A series of NaCl : Ce3+ phospors were prepared by hydrothermal approach. The crystal structure was checked by X-ray diffraction, and the result showed that all the samples are of single phase. The VUV excitation and emission spectra were measured at room temperature. Two emission peaks at about 309 and 324 nm were obsereved and they were ascribed to 5d --> 4f (2F5/2, ZF7/2) transitions of. The excitation spectra contain two broad bands at 148 and 247 nm respectively. The peak at 148 nm can be attributed to the host related absorption and that at 190, 205, 216, 232 and 247 nm is due to the 4f --> 5d transitions of Ce3+. PMID:22582619

Azeretiaili, Ablekem; Guzalay, Juma; Aierken, Sidike

2012-03-01

330

Seasonal variations of gravity wave activity and spectra derived from sodium temperature lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity wave measurements were carried out by a newly developed sodium temperature lidar at So Jos dos Campos (23 S, 46 W). The temperature lidar was first put into operation in a March, 2007, and 51 nights observation data were obtained, until April 2008. The seasonal variations of gravity wave activity and spectra derived from temperature data are investigated. The total temperature perturbation, and temperature vertical power spectra, Ft(m) at 2/(8km), 2/(4km), and 2/(2km) all show that the semiannual maxima occur near the equinoxes, which agrees with our earlier study [Yang et al., 2006] using only sodium concentration data. Large nightly variability of the temperature perturbation spectral slope was also found, in common with other sodium concentration lidar studies. The comparison between temperature and den-sity perturbations induced by quasi-random waves was investigated, and the agreement was found to be good on most nights. The comparisons between their vertical power spectra are also approached. Good agreement between monochromatic wave-induced temperature pertur-bations and sodium concentration perturbations has also been found, and the wave parameters derived from temperature data and sodium concentration data are comparable. The good com-parison obtained in this paper not only validates the fundamental assumptions of gravity wave measurements from sodium concentration data, but also indicates our previous method and steps for gravity wave measurements from sodium concentration data are effective.

Yang, Guotao; Clemesha, Barclay; Batista, Paulo; Simonich, Dale

331

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organic species and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) ≥ 0.8 and was always observed for O : C < 0.5. For 0.5 ≤ O : C < 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organic species investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ≥ NH4HSO4 ≥ NaCl ≥ NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O : C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-12-01

332

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organics and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O:C) was ? 0.8 and was always observed for O:C<0.5. For 0.5 ? O:C< 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organics investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ? NH4HSO4 ? NaCl ? NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting-out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O:C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-07-01

333

Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

2014-06-01

334

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 ?s, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions. PMID:24480277

Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

2014-02-01

335

Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and sodium chloride injection as adjunctive therapy in patients with cerebral hypoperfusion  

PubMed Central

Background Both severe stenosis and completed occlusion in internal carotid artery or its distal branches have been considered the main reasons of cerebral hypoperfusion, which contributes to the washout disturbances of embolism in low perfusion territories distal to stenosis. An aggravated hypoperfusion state in certain brain region may induce ischemic stroke and further cognitive decline. However, the effective medication for cerebral hypoperfusion is largely unsettled. Methods/design By using computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging, the trial will evaluate the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 for patients with extra-/intra-cranial artery stenosis and cerebral hypoperfusion. From 5 neurological inpatient wards, 300 patients will be randomly recruited for administered routine medications plus intravascular volume therapies using the equal volume of HES 130/0.4 or 0.9% sodium chloride solution. Cerebral hypoperfusion state after 7-day intervention is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome measures includes, impaired renal function, abnormal heart function, hematological changes, neurological dysfunctions and cerebrovascular events in peri-intervention period and/or 3-month follow-up. The sample size will allow the detection of a two-sided 5% significance level between groups in the endpoint with a power of 80%. Discussion The trial would provide important efficacy and safety data on the intravascular administration of HES 130/0.4 in patients with unilateral cerebral hypoperfusion. The effects on kidney function, heart function, coagulation, neurological function and cerebralvascular events will be assessed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT01192581)

2012-01-01

336

Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

2014-05-01

337

Aqueous Electrolyte Ionization over Extreme Ranges as Simple Fundamental Relation with Density and Believed Universal; Sodium Chloride Ionization for 0o to 1000oC and to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm.).  

SciTech Connect

The chemical nature of aqueous electrolyte ionization is illustrated by a simple relationship with water as a reactant believed to correlate ionization of aqueous sodium chloride approaching infinite dilution over the entire range of temperature and pressure [0 to 1000oC; 0.1 to 1000 MPa (10000 Atm)]. The derived equation accurately and smoothly describes the ionization constant of sodium chloride [K(NaCl)] in both water and water strongly diluted by inert solvent. Effects of water density on ionization are quantitatively and simply described that oppose conventional theory that ionization is a function only of dielectric constant, and theorists should apply this simplicity with density in understanding aqueous electrolyte ionization. There appears to be no substantive evidence for Pitzer's earlier proposal (1983) that K(NaCl) with decreasing very low densities (if known) would diverge sharply downward by several orders of magnitude. Classical ionization theories are limited in universal application, and it seems that theory must adjust to this observed simple fundamental relationship.

Marshall, William {Bill} L [ORNL

2008-01-01

338

In situ spectroscopy and spectroelectrochemistry of uranium in high-temperature alkali chloride molten salts.  

PubMed

Soluble uranium chloride species, in the oxidation states of III+, IV+, V+, and VI+, have been chemically generated in high-temperature alkali chloride melts. These reactions were monitored by in situ electronic absorption spectroscopy. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium(VI) in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was used to determine the immediate coordination environment about the uranium. The dominant species in the melt was [UO 2Cl 4] (2-). Further analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure data and Raman spectroscopy of the melts quenched back to room temperature indicated the possibility of ordering beyond the first coordination sphere of [UO 2Cl 4] (2-). The electrolytic generation of uranium(III) in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was also investigated. Anodic dissolution of uranium metal was found to be more efficient at producing uranium(III) in high-temperature melts than the cathodic reduction of uranium(IV). These high-temperature electrolytic processes were studied by in situ electronic absorption spectroelectrochemistry, and we have also developed in situ X-ray absorption spectroelectrochemistry techniques to probe both the uranium oxidation state and the uranium coordination environment in these melts. PMID:18665589

Polovov, Ilya B; Volkovich, Vladimir A; Charnock, John M; Kralj, Brett; Lewin, Robert G; Kinoshita, Hajime; May, Iain; Sharrad, Clint A

2008-09-01

339

Parathyroid hormone-related protein stimulates plasma renin activity via its anorexic effects on sodium chloride intake  

PubMed Central

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) increases renin release from isolated perfused kidneys and may act as an autacoid regulator of renin secretion, but its effects on renin in vivo are unknown. In vivo, PTHrP causes hypercalcemia and anorexia, which may affect renin. We hypothesized that chronically elevated PTHrP would increase plasma renin activity (PRA) indirectly via its anorexic effects, reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) intake and causing NaCl restriction. We infused male Sprague-Dawley rats with the vehicle (control) or 125 ?g PTHrP/day (PTHrP) via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps for 5 days. To replenish NaCl consumption, a third group of PTHrP-infused rats received 0.3% NaCl (PTHrP + NaCl) in their drinking water. PTHrP increased PRA from a median control value of 3.68 to 18.4 ng Ang Iml?1h?1 (P < 0.05), whereas the median PTHrP + NaCl PRA value was normal (7.82 ng Ang Iml?1h?1, P < 0.05 vs. PTHrP). Plasma Ca2+ (median control: 10.2 mg/dl; PTHrP: 13.7 mg/dl; PTHrP + NaCl: 14.1 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and PTHrP (median control: 0.03 ng/ml; PTHrP: 0.12 ng/ml; PTHrP + NaCl: 0.15 ng/ml; P < 0.05) were elevated in PTHrP- and PTHrP + NaCl-treated rats. Body weights and caloric consumption were lower in PTHrP- and PTHrP + NaCl-treated rats. NaCl consumption was lower in PTHrP-treated rats (mean Na+: 28.5 4.1 mg/day; mean Cl?: 47.8 mg/day) compared with controls (Na+: 67.3 2.7 mg/day; Cl?: 112.8 4.6 mg/day; P < 0.05). NaCl consumption was comparable with control in the PTHrP + NaCl group; 0.3% NaCl in the drinking water had no effect on PRA in normal rats. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that PTHrP increases PRA via its anorexic effects, reducing NaCl intake and causing NaCl restriction.

Atchison, Douglas K.; Westrick, Elizabeth; Szandzik, David L.; Gordish, Kevin L.

2012-01-01

340

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23

341

The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1  

SciTech Connect

The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism.

Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Simecek, Nicole [Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, Welwyn, AL6 9AR (United Kingdom); Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Toms, Nick [Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, EX1 2LU (United Kingdom); Gibson, G. Gordon [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lyon, Jon [Safety Assessment, GlaxoSmithKline, Welwyn, AL6 9AR (United Kingdom); Plant, Nick [Centre for Toxicology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

2009-02-15

342

Electrical Conditions for Controlling Color Temperatures of High Pressure Sodium Lamps with High Color Rendering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to find the electrical conditions for controlling the color temperature of high pressure sodium lamps with high color rendering, a set of experiments was conducted. Under various electrical conditions, 150W lamps were operated to determine the re...

M. Ozawa K. Koyama

1987-01-01

343

Water-soluble copolymers. XLV. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-soluble, low charge density polyampholytes have been synthesized by free-radical terpolymerization of acrylamide (AM) with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC). Terpolymer compositions obtained by [sup 13]C0NMR reflect monomer feed concentrations. Molecular weights and second virial coefficients range from 3.43 to 19.4 [times] 10[sup 6] g\\/mol and from 1.63 to 3.61 mL mol\\/g[sup [minus]2], respectively, as determined by low-angle

Charles L. McCormick; Luis C. Salazar

1993-01-01

344

NiXantphos: A Deprotonatable Ligand for Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Aryl Chlorides.  

PubMed

Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic Pd-NiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-?-, and C(sp(2))-H arylations. The advantages and importance of the Pd-NiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

Zhang, Jiadi; Bellomo, Ana; Trongsiriwat, Nisalak; Jia, Tiezheng; Carroll, Patrick J; Dreher, Spencer D; Tudge, Matthew T; Yin, Haolin; Robinson, Jerome R; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J

2014-04-30

345

Evaluation of the pH- and thermal stability of the recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the presence of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95 degrees C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84+/-0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.94+/-0.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.08+/-0.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80 degrees C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.65+/-0.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80 degrees C. GFP pH- and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained. PMID:18478416

Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hlio Tallon; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Cholewa, Olivia

2007-04-01

346

Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.  

SciTech Connect

Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

2003-01-01

347

In situ measurement of dissolved chloride in high temperature hydrothermal fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to continuously monitor chemical properties of hydrothermal vent effluents for extended periods of time is essential to understanding dynamic processes responsible for the temporally variable nature of mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. Although instruments do exist for some parameters, there has been no sensor capable of measuring the chloride concentration, an indicator of possible phase separation, on a real-time and long-term basis. In this article, we discuss the construction of a novel instrument which measures solution resistance as a proxy for chloride concentration. The sensor consists of four gold electrodes embedded in a cylindrical ZrO 2 ceramic housing. It has been successfully deployed in several high temperature vents at the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) on the Juan de Fuca ridge in the NE Pacific, and calibrated under simulated hydrothermal conditions ranging up to 380 C and 300 bar. The in situ data clearly demonstrate a tidal influence on the effluent from some high temperature vents possibly relating to a subsurface mixing process involving non-seawater end-members. Non-tidal changes are used to constrain the sequence and type of controls operating on fluids circulating within the subsurface.

Larson, B. I.; Olson, E. J.; Lilley, M. D.

2007-05-01

348

Effect of chloride impurities on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of chloride as an air impurity and as a catalyst contaminant on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) was studied. The ion chromatographic analysis reveals the existence of chloride contaminations in the Pt\\/C catalysts. Linear sweep voltammetry was employed to study the redox behavior of platinum in 85% phosphoric

Syed Talat Ali; Qingfeng Li; Chao Pan; Jens Oluf Jensen; Lars Pleth Nielsen; Per Mller

2011-01-01

349

Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels. Focus is on Type 316SS and mod.9Cr-1Mo. The sodium effects were evaluated by comparing the mechanical properties data in air and sodium. Carburization and decarburization were found to be the key factors that determine the tensile and creep properties of the steels. A beneficial effect of sodium exposure on fatigue life was observed under fully reversed cyclic loading in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. However, when hold time was applied during cyclic loading, the fatigue life was significantly reduced. Based on the mechanical performance of the steels in sodium, consideration of sodium effects in high temperature structural design of advanced fast reactors is discussed.

Natesan, K.; Li, Meimei; Chopra, O. K.; Majumdar, S.

2009-07-01

350

Molecular and ionic phases of solid nitrosyl chloride at low temperature  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of two solid phases of nitrosyl chloride is reported. ONCl-II is stable in the range 85-203 K and is composed of dimers of the ONCl molecule. The absence of the NO stretch in this phase from 136 to 203 K is caused by dephasing due to thermal occupation of a torsional mode of the dimer, which appears at 117 cm{sup {minus}1} and is not observed over the same temperature range. Within the molecular phase, dramatic softening of both the N-Cl stretch and ONCl bend occurs as temperature is reduced. ONCl-I is stable over the range 13-85 K and represents an ionic phase of ONCl with at least 2 NO{sup +}Cl{sup {minus}}/primitive unit. The transition from ONCl-II to ONCl-I is first order with substantial hysteresis and is accompanied by the coalescence of intra- and intermolecular N-Cl modes.

Killough, P.M.; Swanson, B.I.; Agnew, S.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-11-16

351

Catalytic liquefaction by zinc chloride melts at pre-pyrolysis temperature  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-phase catalysts have proved effective for opening chemical linkages in subbituminous coal and capping the reactive segments with hydrogen atoms or other low-molecular-weight groups. The preferred temperature range is 275 to 325/sup 0/C (530 to 620/sup 0/F), so that the linkages are opened by controlled catalytic action rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably higher temperatures. The best catalyst melt compositions used to date are zinc chloride with 10% water together with tetralin, and zinc chloride with 15% methanol and 3% of zinc metal. Useful residence times range from 30 minutes, or less, to as high as 90 minutes. The products of the treatment have predominately low (300) to medium (3000) molecular weights, analogous to syncrudes and solvent-refined coal. Conversions to pyridine-soluble products of 95% or better are achieved with Wyodak Roland Seam coal, and to date as much as 70% of that coal has been recovered as toluene-solubles (oils and asphaltenes). A major benefit of these conversion conditions is the almost complete absence of by-product char or gas. At these lower temperatures the hydrogen pressures used can be less than in conventional liquefaction; for example, 40 atm rather than 100 atm or more. Hydrogen consumption is significantly lower than in conventional liquefaction; the product yield is higher; and simpler procedures are foreseen for product recovery. The research performed so far clearly shows the industrial potential of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in penetrating and interacting with the mild temperature and pressure of these studies.

Vermeulen, T.; Onu, C.; Joyce, P.J.; Hershkowitz, F.; Grens, E.A.

1980-02-01

352

Glass transition temperature and topological constraints of sodium borophosphate glass-forming liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium borophosphate glasses exhibit intriguing mixed network former effect, with the nonlinear compositional dependence of their glass transition temperature as one of the most typical examples. In this paper, we establish the widely applicable topological constraint model of sodium borophosphate mixed network former glasses to explain the relationship between the internal structure and nonlinear changes of glass transition temperature. The application of glass topology network was discussed in detail in terms of the unified methodology for the quantitative distribution of each coordinated boron and phosphorus units and glass transition temperature dependence of atomic constraints. An accurate prediction of composition scaling of the glass transition temperature was obtained based on topological constraint model.

Jiang, Qi; Zeng, Huidan; Liu, Zhao; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Wang, Zhaofeng; Sun, Luyi; Zhao, Donghui

2013-09-01

353

Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0.80, while at Q = 1400 l/s aRWT:aNaCl is 0.98 (Figure 1). We expect to expand the scope of our results by analyzing a larger set of experiments and exploring different modeling techniques of BTC tails. These results have implications for experimental design of conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

2012-12-01

354

Effect of sand culture and sodium chloride on growth physical structure and organic acid metabolism in Bryophyllum pinnatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bryophyllum pinnatum, a classical example of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism, was grown in sand and soils as well as in increasing concentrations of chloride and sulphate ions to test the effect of rooting medium and salts on growth, physical structure of leaves and on organic acids. Plants grown in sand medium show fewer and smaller stomata, a shorter and profusely

S. M. Karmarkar; G. V. Joshi

1969-01-01

355

Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: implications for salinization of surface waters.  

PubMed

Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L? (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO? L?). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO? L?) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L?) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L?). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L?). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk. PMID:21429642

Gillis, Patricia L

2011-06-01

356

Equilibrium analysis of the affect of temperature, moisture and sodium content on heavy metal emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equilibrium analysis was performed to determine the impact of the variations in the moisture and sodium contents in the solid waste feed on heavy metal speciation in municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. This analysis was based on the speciation of heavy metals among chlorides, oxides and other species under various incinerator conditions. The Gibbs free energy of the reaction

Susan K. Durlak; Pratim Biswas; Jichun Shi

1997-01-01

357

Improving Eggshell Quality at High Temperatures with Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted that confirmed the hypothesis that a dietary bicarbonate supplement will improve eggshell quality in hens at high temperatures as long as feed is consumed during the period of eggshell formation. End-of-lay hens were maintained on continuous light at temperatures of 30 and 35 C. Individual egg weights and shell quality measures for each hen were calculated

D. BALNAVE; S. K. MUHEEREZA

358

Low-temperature stress corrosion cracking of alloy 601 in thiosulfate and chloride solutions  

SciTech Connect

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of unsensitized and sensitized alloy 601 (UNS N06601) was studied in sodium thiosulfate (Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions using slow strain rate testing (SSRT). Specimens were tested in the as-received condition (mill-annealed) after solution annealing at 1,050 C for 30 min and after solution annealing and sensitizing for 2, 5, 24, or 772 h at 700 for 30 min. Environments included Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NaCl at different concentrations ranging from 0.01 M to 1.0 M at 25 C and 95 C. Double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests in 0.01 M sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) + 0.001 M potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) and immersion tests in boiling 25% nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the degree of sensitization (DOS) and on intergranular corrosion (IGC) of alloy 601. In all environments tested, the unsensitized alloy was immune to SCC and showed only ductile failure. The alloy sensitized for 24 h showed the highest degree of susceptibility to SCC in 0.1 M Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, followed by the alloys sensitized for 72, 5, and 2 h, followed by the as-received and solution-annealed alloys. Except for the other times of sensitization, ductility for the specimen sensitized for 24 h was always lower at 25 C than at 95 C. The modified Huey and the DL-EPR tests also revealed the highest susceptibility to IGC for specimens sensitized for 24 h. This susceptibility did not change as Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration decreased from 0.5 M to 0.01 M, but ductility decreased as solution pH was increased from 3 to 7. Addition of NaCl to Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} did not have a clear effect on susceptibility to SCC of the sensitized alloy since ductility sometimes increased but at other times decreased.

Gonzalez-Rodriguez, J.G. [U.A.E.M., Cuernavaca (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas e Ingenieria; Salinas-Bravo, V.M. [I.I.E., Cuernavaca (Mexico); Martinez-Villafane, A. [CIMAV, Chihuahua (Mexico)

1999-01-01

359

?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? FIRING TEMPERATURE REDUCTION FOR RATCHABURI POTTERY BY SODIUM CARBONATE ADDITION ????? ??????????????, ???? ???????, ????????? ???????, ????? ??????????????? ??????? ????????  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ratchaburi plastic clay has been widely used extensively for the production of dragon jar and other potteries. These wares were normally fired between 1200-1250oC to get a serviceable strong vitreous body. Research for lower firing temperature bodies will be more economical benefit since firing time and fuel consumption are lessened. This study was focused on decreasing the firing temperature of

Thanakorn Wasanapiarnpong; Thossaporn Assavachai; Adisak Thueploy; Karn Serivalsatit; Danai Arayaphong

360

The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

2014-05-01

361

Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing  

SciTech Connect

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260 deg. C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260 deg. C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2012-05-17

362

Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing  

SciTech Connect

Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased array 2 MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Harris, Robert V.; Baldwin, David L.

2012-06-12

363

Room-temperature persistent spectral hole burning of Eu(3+) in sodium aluminosilicate glasses.  

PubMed

Persistent spectral hole burning has been observed at 77 K, 180 K, and room temperature for Eu(3+) in sodium aluminosilicate glass melted under a reducing atmosphere. In particular, room-temperature persistent spectral hole burning is reported for the first time to our knowledge in Eu(3+) -doped materials. The persistent hole is accompanied by no antiholes and lasts for 1 h at least. The thermal stability of the hole is greater than that of a persistent hole burned for Eu(3+) in sodium aluminosilicate glass melted in air. PMID:18084571

Fujita, K; Tanaka, K; Hirao, K; Soga, N

1998-04-01

364

Mixed micelles of sodium cholate and sodium dodecylsulphate 1:1 binary mixture at different temperatures - experimental and theoretical investigations.  

PubMed

Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1?1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 0-50C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 0-25C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (?1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 s long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed. PMID:25004142

Jjrt, Balzs; Poa, Mihalj; Fiser, Bla; Sz?ri, Miln; Farka, Zita; Viskolcz, Bla

2014-01-01

365

Mixed Micelles of Sodium Cholate and Sodium Dodecylsulphate 1:1 Binary Mixture at Different Temperatures - Experimental and Theoretical Investigations  

PubMed Central

Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1?1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 050C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 025C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (?1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 s long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed.

Jojart, Balazs; Posa, Mihalj; Fiser, Bela; Szori, Milan; Farkas, Zita; Viskolcz, Bela

2014-01-01

366

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15C) and high temperature (HT; 28C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

367

Molecular dynamics simulations of inverse sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in a mixed toluene/pentanol solvent in the absence and presence of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC).  

PubMed

We have performed a 15 ns molecular dynamics simulation of inverse sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in a mixed toluene/pentanol solvent in the absence and presence of a cationic polyelectrolyte, i.e. poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The NAMD code and CHARMM force field were used. During the simulation time, the radii of SDS inverse micelles changed and the radii of the water droplets have been calculated. The behavior of SDS hydrocarbon chains has been characterized by calculating the orientation order parameter and the chain average length. The water droplet properties (water flow, water molecules displacement) have been examined. In summary the MD simulations indicate a more rigid and ordered surfactant film due to the formation of a polyelectrolyte palisade layer in full agreement with the experimental findings, e.g. the viscosity increase and shift of the percolation boundary. PMID:21334633

Poghosyan, Armen H; Arsenyan, Levon H; Gharabekyan, Hrant H; Falkenhagen, Sandra; Koetz, Joachim; Shahinyan, Aram A

2011-06-01

368

Effect of grain-boundary corrosion on impedance characteristics of an aluminum-zinc-indium alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

Applications of Al alloy sacrificial anodes for cathodic protection (CP) of steel structures in marine environments are well known. Small changes in composition and heat treatment can affect the corrosion behavior of the alloy substantially. However, characterization of the alloy anodes in relation to such changes is lacking in the literature. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to understand the dissolution behavior of an Al-Zn-In alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution as a function of time after the alloy was subjected to galvanostatic dissolution. Compared to optical microscopy, the changing trend in impedance spectra reflected the preferential dissolution of the alloy along the grain boundaries. The usefulness of EIS as a tool to indicate the current efficiency loss from grain-boundary attack was illustrated.

Venugopal, A.; Angal, R.D.; Raja, V.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India). Corrosion Science and Engineering Program

1996-02-01

369

A fluorescent sensor to detect sodium dodecyl sulfate based on the glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters/poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride system.  

PubMed

A simple method for the detection of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was developed based on glutathione-stabilized gold nanoclusters (GSH-AuNCs) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium)chloride (PDDA) enhanced fluorescent system. Fluorescent Au NCs were synthesized by a one-step approach employing GSH as reducing/protecting reagent. The electrostatic group repulsions between GSH-Au NCs and PDDA resulted in strong fluorescence enhancement from the GSH-Au NCs. Moreover, the addition of SDS was able to cause a significant fluorescence recovery due to the strong affinity of PDDA and SDS. Thus the SDS can be detected. Under optimized conditions, the linear response to detect SDS ranges from 0.2 to 12 g mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.02 g mL(-1). PMID:24862984

Zheng, Chun-Lan; Ji, Zhong-Xiang; Zhang, Jian; Ding, Shou-Nian

2014-07-01

370

Sodium chloride induces an NhaA/NhaR-independent acid sensitivity at neutral external pH in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli previously grown in low-salt broth, pH 7.0, produced organisms which were markedly more acid sensitive when subsequently cultured in the same broth with 200 mM or more salt (NaCl) added. Induction of acid sensitivity occurred rapidly at both 37 and 30 degrees C, with a substantial effect within 15 min. Sensitization was partially inhibited by chloramphenicol and tetracycline and may depend on both protein synthesis-dependent and -independent physiological changes in the NaCl-induced organisms; sensitization did not result from osmotic shocking on transfer to challenge medium. Induction of acid sensitivity was affected by neither the sodium ion pore inhibitor amiloride nor the DNA synthesis inhibitor nalidixic acid; rifampin had a small effect, similar to that of chloramphenicol. Chlorides of other monovalent cations, especially Li+ and NH4+, also produced sensitization to acid, although CsCl was ineffective but did not interfere with sensitization by NaCl. Other sodium salts were also active as sensitizers, as were chlorides of divalent cations, but although sucrose (but not glycerol) was a good inducer, the results were not fully in accord with triggering of induction solely by the NaCl-associated increase in osmotic pressure. Sensitization was not prevented by deletion of the nhaA, nhaR, or nhaB gene. Acid sensitivity of NaCl-induced cells was slightly reduced after 90 min of growth at 37 degrees C in low-salt broth but was completely lost after 240 min. For NaCl-induced cells, acid killing in challenge media was not inhibited by amiloride. The NaCl-induced sensitization is distinct from the phenomenon of acid sensitivity induction in E. coli at alkaline external pH.

Rowbury, R J; Goodson, M; Humphrey, T J

1994-01-01

371

Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind.  

PubMed

We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China (31.5 N, 117 E). Patterned after the Colorado State University (CSU) narrowband sodium lidar with a dye laser-based transmitter, the USTC sodium temperature/wind lidar was deployed with a number of technical improvements that facilitate automation and ease of operation; these include a home constructed pulsed dye amplifier (PDA), a beam-steering system, a star-tracking program, and an electronic timing control. With the averaged power of ?1.2 W output from PDA and the receiving telescope diameter of 0.76 m, our lidar system has a power aperture product of ?0.55 Wm(2) and is comparable to the CSU and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) sodium lidar systems. The uncertainties of typical measurements induced by photon noise and laser locking fluctuation for the temperature and wind with a 2 km vertical and 15 min temporal resolutions under the nighttime clear sky condition are estimated to be ?1.0 K and ?1.5 m/s, respectively, at the sodium peak (e.g., 91 km), and 8 K and 10 m/s, respectively, at both sodium layer edges (e.g., 81 km and 105 km). The USTC narrowband sodium lidar has been operated regularly during the night since November 2011. Using the initial data collected, we demonstrate the reliability and suitability of these high resolution and precision datasets for studying the wave perturbations in the mesopause region. PMID:22859028

Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

2012-08-01

372

Microscale chemistry-based design of eco-friendly, reagent-saving and efficient pharmaceutical analysis: a miniaturized Volhard's titration for the assay of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This work demonstrates the extended application of microscale chemistry which has been used in the educational discipline to the real analytical purposes. Using Volhard's titration for the determination of sodium chloride as a paradigm, the reaction was downscaled to less than 2 mL conducted in commercially available microcentrifuge tubes and using micropipettes for the measurement and transfer of reagents. The equivalence point was determined spectrophotometrically on the microplates which quickened the multi-sample measurements. After the validation and evaluation with bulk and dosage forms, the downsized method showed good accuracy comparable to the British Pharmacopeial macroscale method and gave satisfactory precision (intra-day, inter-day, inter-analyst and inter-equipment) with the relative standard deviation of less than 0.5%. Interestingly, the amount of nitric acid, silver nitrate, ferric alum and ammonium thiocyanate consumed in the miniaturized titration was reduced by the factors of 25, 50, 50 and 215 times, respectively. The use of environmentally dangerous dibutyl phthalate was absolutely eliminated in the proposed method. Furthermore, the release of solid waste silver chloride was drastically reduced by about 25 folds. Therefore, microscale chemistry is an attractive, facile and powerful green strategy for the development of eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective analytical methods suitable for a sustainable environment. PMID:21807190

Rojanarata, Theerasak; Sumran, Krissadecha; Nateetaweewat, Paksupang; Winotapun, Weerapath; Sukpisit, Sirarat; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait

2011-09-15

373

Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganites-A potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300 K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5 Jkg-1K-1 was observed near 300 K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300 K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300 K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62 K at 280 K.

Sethulakshmi, N.; Al-Omari, I. A.; Suresh, K. G.; Anantharaman, M. R.

2014-03-01

374

Effects of thiosulfate on susceptibility of type 316 stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking in 3.5% aqueous sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Effects of thiosulfate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility (S) of type 316 stainless steel were studied. Addition of sodium thiosulfate to 3.5% sodium chloride increased S of type 316 SS to SCC. A quantitative expression for S was given by: S = ((1{minus}(s(sol)/s(air))))(1{minus}(t(sol)/t(air))){sup 1/2} where s and t are the maximum stress and time to failure, respectively. Metallographic observations revealed the fracture mode changed from ductile to brittle for S > {approximately} 0.2. An increase in potential in the noble direction increased S significantly. An increase in Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration increased S at higher potentials but had no tangible effect around the free-corrosion potential ({approximately} 100 mV{sub NHE}). Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} also shifted the pitting potential of type 316 SS to more active values and led to formation of wider and more open pits.

Ashour, E.A.; Abd El Meguid, E.A. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Electrochemistry and Corrosion; Ateya, B.G. [Cairo Univ. (Egypt). Chemistry Dept.

1997-08-01

375

Dynamic surface properties of polyelectrolyte/surfactant adsorption films at the air/water interface: poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and sodium dodecylsulfate.  

PubMed

The dynamic surface elasticity, dynamic surface tension, and ellipsometric angles of mixed aqueous poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecylsulfate solutions (PDAC/SDS) have been measured as a function of time and surfactant concentration. This system represents a typical example of polyelectrolyte/surfactant complex formation and subsequent aggregation on the nanoscale. The oscillating barrier and oscillating drop methods sometimes led to different results. The surface viscoelasticity of mixed PDAC/SDS solutions are very close to those of mixed solutions of sodium polystyrenesulfonate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide but different from the results for some other polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures. The abrupt drop in surface elasticity when the surfactant molar concentration approaches the concentration of charged polyelectrolyte monomers is caused by the formation of microparticles in the adsorption layer. Aggregate formation in the solution bulk does not influence the surface properties significantly, except for a narrow concentration range where the aggregates form macroscopic flocks. The mechanism of the observed relaxation process is controlled by the mass exchange between the surface layer and the flocks attached to the liquid surface. PMID:17696366

Noskov, B A; Grigoriev, D O; Lin, S-Y; Loglio, G; Miller, R

2007-09-11

376

Sodium Line Reversal Plasma Temperature Measurement System. Topical report No. 8  

SciTech Connect

The Sodium Line Reversal System is one of the advanced optical diagnostic instruments developed at DIAL to measure temperatures in the coal combustion environments of large scale facilities. The principles of operation, a description of the system and its capabilities, and the operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

Philip, T.; Bauman, L.; Benton, R.

1993-09-01

377

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with te...

S. E. Ziemniak M. E. Jones K. E. S. Combs

1990-01-01

378

Moderate temperature sodium cells. I - Transition metal disulfide cathodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiS2, VS2, and Nb(1.1)S2 transition metal disulfides were evaluated as cathode materials for a moderate temperature rechargeable Na cell operating at 130 C. The 1st discharge of TiS2 results in a capacity of 0.85 eq/mole; approximately half of the Na in the 1st phase spanning the Na range from zero to 0.30 and almost all the Na in the 2nd phase spanning the 0.37 to 0.80 range are rechargeable. VS2 intercalates up to one mole of Na/mole of VS2 in the 1st discharge; the resulting Na(x)VS2 ternary consists of 3 phases in the 3 ranges of Na from zero to 1. Niobium disulfide undergoes a phase change in the 1st discharge; the average rechargeable capacity in extended cycling of this cathode is 0.50 eq/mole.

Abraham, K. M.; Pitts, L.; Schiff, R.

1980-12-01

379

Moderate temperature sodium cells. I - Transition metal disulfide cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TiS2, VS2, and Nb(1.1)S2 transition metal disulfides were evaluated as cathode materials for a moderate temperature rechargeable Na cell operating at 130 C. The 1st discharge of TiS2 results in a capacity of 0.85 eq/mole; approximately half of the Na in the 1st phase spanning the Na range from zero to 0.30 and almost all the Na in the 2nd phase spanning the 0.37 to 0.80 range are rechargeable. VS2 intercalates up to one mole of Na/mole of VS2 in the 1st discharge; the resulting Na(x)VS2 ternary consists of 3 phases in the 3 ranges of Na from zero to 1. Niobium disulfide undergoes a phase change in the 1st discharge; the average rechargeable capacity in extended cycling of this cathode is 0.50 eq/mole.

Abraham, K. M.; Pitts, L.; Schiff, R.

1980-01-01

380

Effects of temperature on micellar-assisted bimolecular reaction of methylnaphtalene-2-sulphonate with bromide and chloride ions.  

PubMed

Reactivity of methyl naphthalene-2-sulphonate, MeONs, with H2O, Br(-) and Cl(-) in water and in cationic micelles of cetyltrialkylammonium surfactants, n-C16H33N(+)R3X(-), R=Me (CTA(+)), n-Pr (CTPA(+)), X=Br, Cl, CH3SO3, has been investigated in the temperature range 25-45C. Micellar rate effects were analysed by using the pseudophase treatment, and the second-order rate constants in the micellar pseudophase were evaluated at the various temperatures. Values of these rate constants increase with temperature, and the effect is less important in micelles than in water and more important for chloride than for bromide ions. Micelles lead to an ion behaviour discrimination, whose extent depends on surfactant type and on temperature, with maximum effect in CTPA(+) at 25C and with bromide being always more reactive than chloride. Quantitative analysis of the temperature effect by the Eyring equation showed that micelles speed up reaction of MeONs with halide ions by decreasing the activation enthalpies, which is partially offset by decreases in the activation entropies. The rate acceleration by increase in surfactant head group size has only enthalpic origin for bromide and only entropic origin for chloride: this different behaviour was rationalised taking into account both solvation of anions and the hydrophobic effect. PMID:23660022

Di Michele, A; Germani, R; Pastori, G; Spreti, N; Brinchi, L

2013-07-15

381

Corrosion-electrochemical properties of the anodic oxide films formed on aluminum in a chloride-nitrate melt in a 0.5 M Aqueous NaCl solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The corrosion-electrochemical behavior of aluminum is studied in a chloride-nitrate melt containing 50 wt % eutectic mixture of cesium and sodium chlorides and 50 wt % sodium nitrate in the temperature range 790-900 K in an argon atmosphere.

Elshina, L. A.; Malkov, V. B.; Kudyakov, V. Ya.; Gnedenkov, S. V.; Sinebryukhov, S. L.; Egorkin, V. S.; Mashtalyar, D. V.

2014-02-01

382

The kinetics of cellulose dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution at low temperatures.  

PubMed

The dissolution kinetics of cellulose in sodium hydroxide in the presence and absence of urea at low temperature was studied. High molecular weight cotton linter with degree of polymerization of 850 was used for dissolution study. The cotton linter was separated from the dissolution slurry at different dissolution times, and the change of the crystal structure of cotton linter was characterized by Powder X-Ray Diffraction. The rate of decrystallization of cellulose was obtained and the activation energy for cellulose decrystallization in sodium hydroxide solution was derived using Eyring equation. The effect of urea additive was discussed. PMID:18979541

Wang, Ying; Deng, Yulin

2009-04-01

383

Rheology and Gelation Temperature of Aqueous Gelatin and Sodium Alginate Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rheology and gelation of biodegradable polymers, such as gelatin and sodium alginate, are of particular interest in the processing of films in pharmaceutical industry. Constant-stress temperature-ramps were used to determine the gelation temperature (Tgel). The effect of operating parameters, such as stress and cooling rate, and formulation parameters, concentration and pH among other were studied. The steady-state rheology above Tgel was experimentally determined over a wide range of concentrations and temperatures. Time-Temperature superposition and concentration shifting were used to obtain master-curves for the steady-state viscosity. Simple phenomenological models were fitted to the master curves.

Florin-Algarn, Vivian; Acevedo-Rulln, Aldo

2008-07-01

384

Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage.  

PubMed

Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350?C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150?C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95?C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation. PMID:25081362

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun

2014-01-01

385

Pressure and temperature dependence of the chlorine NQR in caesium and sodium chlorates.  

PubMed

The (35)Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequencies (nu(Q)) in caesium and sodium chlorates were measured as a function of temperature, from 77 to 300 K at different pressures up to 5.1 kbar, and the data were analysed to estimate the volume dependence of the electric field gradient (EFG), torsional frequency and also the contributions to the NQR frequency from static and dynamic effects. The variation of spin-lattice relaxation time with pressure at different temperatures was studied in the case of sodium chlorate and at room temperature in case of caesium chlorate. The pressure dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation time (T(1)) suggests that the relaxation is mainly due to the torsional motions. PMID:18324738

Ramesh, K P; Suresh, K S; Raghavendra Rao, C; Ramakrishna, J

2008-06-01

386

Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, acidified sodium chlorite, and potassium sorbate on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on fresh beef.  

PubMed

The effects of selected food-grade antimicrobial agents at decreasing the number of pathogenic bacteria on fresh beef were determined. Beef cubes inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, or Staphylococcus aureus were sprayed with 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 0.1% potassium sorbate (PS), or an equal mix of any two solutions. The beef samples were placed on absorbent tray pads sprayed with each single or mixed solution, wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, heat sealed, and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks. Surface sanitization using CPC, ASC, or an equal mix of these two agents effectively reduced microbial numbers on the beef during storage. At day 0, ASC and the CPC-ASC mix reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 by 2.50 and 1.58 log CFU/cm2, respectively. CPC demonstrated a 3.25-log reduction of L. monocytogenes and a 4.70-log reduction of S. aureus at 14 days. The CPC-PS mix reduced E. coli O157:H7 numbers by 1.46, L. monocytogenes by 2.95, and S. aureus by 4.41 log CFU/cm2 at 14 days. PS alone and the mixed solutions, CPC-ASC, CPC-PS, or ASC-PS, were not as effective as ASC or CPC alone. To effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, or S. aureus numbers, higher (> 0.1%) concentrations of PS were necessary. Loss of redness and light color of beef surfaces consistently coincided with decreases in pH for ASC-treated beef samples. PMID:14968963

Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

2004-02-01

387

Corrosion of high-temperature alloys in chloride-containing supercritical water oxidation systems  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a promising and effective method for the oxidation of organic wastes. Its high solubility for organic compounds and its special physical properties (i.e., density and viscosity) result in a key advantage over standard processes such as incineration. During oxidation of chlorine organics, severe corrosion attack of most of the materials have been observed as a result of the formation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). An investigation was conducted of corrosion of high-temperature alloys such as alloy 214 (UNS N07214), alloy 602CA (UNS N06602), alloy G-30 (UNS N06030), alloy 625 (UNS N06625), and alloy 686 (UNS N06686), exposed at 400 bar (40 MPa) and 420 C for 24 h in a dichloromethane (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) mixture with {approximately}2,000 wppm chloride (Cl{sub 2}). Weight losses of all the samples varied between 1.3 mm/y for alloy G-30 and {approximately}31.6 mm/y for alloy 686. Alloy 214 showed increased corrosion for the preoxidized material, whereas the corrosion rate of alloy 602CA was reduced by a factor of three as a result of preoxidation at 900 C prior to SCWO exposure. Analysis revealed that alloy 686 lost most of its nickel down to a depth of {approximately}150 {micro}m. Alloy G-30 showed good corrosion behavior as a result of formation of a protective oxide layer during the exposure. The layer was homogeneous, with a thickness of {approximately}12 {micro}m, but slight nickel leaching was observed.

Konys, J.; Fodi, S.; Hausselt, J.; Schmidt, H.; Casal, V. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

1999-01-01

388

[The ammonium chloride modification of the effect of sodium nitroprusside on the contractile activity of guinea pig papillary muscles].  

PubMed

The rise of intracellular pH (pH) caused by the replacement of 20 mM NaCl by NH4Cl was shown to enhance guinea-pig papillary muscle contractility while the pH decrease under the NH4Cl abolition from perfusion solution was obtained to reduce the contractile activity. Sodium nitroprusside (SN, 10 microM) does not influence the cardiac muscle contractility in controls but significantly decreases its levels under intracellular alkalinization. SN washout does not restore contractility, hence, the subsequent NH4Cl removal results in contractility increase. In most cases simultaneous action of SN and NH4Cl was accompanied by the development of cardiac mechanical instability. Thus, pHi change can provoke unexpected effects of nitrates. PMID:8117980

Bardamova, S A; Bogomaz, S A; Muzafarova, N V

1993-10-01

389

Formation of metallic particles during temperature-programmed reduction of silica-supported platinum and nickel chlorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of (bi-) metallic particles during temperature-programmed reduction of silica-supported mixtures of Pt and Ni chlorides was followed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The concentration and composition of the metal particles in the final catalysts were derived from the results of the EXAFS analysis. The reduction kinetics followed by XANES were related to the formation of ordered metallic phases. During

Andreas Jentys; J. A. Lercher; G. L. Haller

1993-01-01

390

The peculiar temperature response of dynamic rheological behaviors of poly (vinyl chloride)\\/trioctyl trimellitate (100\\/70) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

he dynamic rheological behavior, application of time-temperature superposition (TTS) and the failure mechanism of TTS are studied for the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)\\/trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) (100\\/70) system. The Arrhenius equation, WLF equation, mathematical non-linear fitting and manual shift are applied to TTS fitting. For the PVC\\/TOTM (100\\/70) system, none of those methods can give well-superimposed master curves with either single horizontal

Jiajia Zou; Feng You; Lin Su; Zhuo Yang; Guangshun Chen; Shaoyun Guo

2012-01-01

391

Ionic and excited species in irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) doped with aromatic admixtures: low temperature studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature (77290 K) on the fate of dopant radical ions and respective excited states in irradiated poly(vinyl\\u000a chloride) (PVC) matrix, doped with pyrene, (Py) and tris(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TOTM) is described. At 77 K dopant radical\\u000a ions start to recombinevia tunneling charge transfer, leading to weak isothermal luminescence (ITL). The wavelength-selected radiothermoluminescence\\u000a (WS RTL) broad maxima observed for

J. Mayer; M. Szadkowska-Nicze

2008-01-01

392

Evaluation of an optimal temperature for brain storage in delayed 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the determination of an optimal temperature for delayed 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Twenty-one rats were subjected to right middle cerebral artery embolic stroke and sacrificed 96 h following ischemia. The brains were harvested and stained immediately after sacrifice or stored for 8 h at 2123C or 4C, respectively. The stained sections were scanned and infarct volume calculated.

Shah-Naz H. Khan; Azaad Baziany; Ali Banigesh; Susan J. Hemmings; Ashfaq Shuaib

2000-01-01

393

Elasticity and structure of sodium disilicate glass at high pressures and high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the structures and physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions is essential for understanding the dynamics of the earth's interior. A complete understanding of physical and thermodynamic properties of melts at high pressures requires systematic studies from low temperature (super-cooled state - glass) to high temperature (liquid state - melt). In this study, we focus on the super-cooled liquid. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good model material for studying basalt magma since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell and pressed up to 4.5GPa and heated up to 1000oC at the HPCAT beamline 16-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source. Elastic wave travel times of the amorphous sample were collected using the ultrasonic pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer. X-ray radiographs were used to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Room temperature velocity results show minimum velocity values between 2-3 GPa for both the longitudinal wave velocity (Vp) and the transverse wave velocity (Vs), similar pressure dependence of elastic wave velocities at ambient temperature have also been observed in pure SiO2 from previous studies. Under high pressure (3 GPa), both Vp and Vs for sodium disilicate glass remain nearly constant with increasing temperature before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure). An 8.7% drop in Vp and a 11.9% drop in Vs were observed above the glass transition temperature. Structure information of the glass sample has recently been collected and the results will be presented in the context of observed velocity drops. We acknowledge the supports of COMPRES on facility development, of GSECARS for the Paris-Edinburgh press system, and of HPCAT for elastic wave velocity measurement developments.

Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

2012-12-01

394

Temperature dependence of non-electrolyte and sodium permeability in giant axon of squid  

PubMed Central

1. The efflux of [14C]urea was measured in micro-injected axons at 18 C. A permeability constant for urea of (055 018) 10-6 cm/sec was calculated from these experiments. 2. The influxes of urea, thiourea, ethylene glycol, urethane and toluene were measured in perfused axons at 18 1 C. The permeability constants obtained from these determinations increased in the order listed, from (076 019) 10-6 cm/sec for urea to 080 10-4 cm/sec for toluene. 3. The influxes of tritiated water and sodium ions at 18 C were measured in perfused axons. An average permeability of (078 022) 10-4 cm/sec for titriated water and an average influx of 23 6 p-mole/cm2 sec for sodium were obtained. 4. Lowering the temperature of the external sea-water bathing the axon from 18 to 5 C produced a decrease of 12% in the permeability of toluene, 30% for tritiated water and urethane, 55% for ethylene glycol and urea and 60% for thiourea. There was a 50% reduction in the influx of sodium for this same temperature change. 5. The results obtained with the effect of temperature on permeabilities suggest that the axonal membrane has a non-homogeneous composition. A model based on the assumption of structured aqueous channels in the membrane is postulated.

Hidalgo, Cecilia; Latorre, Ramon

1970-01-01

395

Water-soluble copolymers. XLV. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble, low charge density polyampholytes have been synthesized by free-radical terpolymerization of acrylamide (AM) with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC). Terpolymer compositions obtained by [sup 13]C0NMR reflect monomer feed concentrations. Molecular weights and second virial coefficients range from 3.43 to 19.4 [times] 10[sup 6] g/mol and from 1.63 to 3.61 mL mol/g[sup [minus]2], respectively, as determined by low-angle laser light scattering. Ionic associations were explored by investigating the dilute solution properties as a function of terpolymer concentration, terpolymer charge density, and added electrolytes. Terpolymers with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mol% of both of the cationic (AMTAC) and anionic (NaAMB) monomers were soluble in deionized water, whereas those with 10 and 15 mol% of each monomer required electrolyte addition. The higher-density terpolymers undergo a 700% increase in intrinsic viscosity upon changing NaCl concentration from 0.05 to 1M. Polyelectrolyte behavior could be induced by decreasing solution pH below the pK[sub a] of the NaAMB mer. Intermolecular ionic associations resulting in gel networks were studied utilizing dynamic mechanical analysis.

McCormick, C.L.; Salazar, L.C. (Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg (United States))

1993-05-10

396

The dye or humic acid water treatment and membrane fouling by polyaluminum chloride composited with sodium alginate in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.  

PubMed

Composite flocculants have been extensively studied and applied in recent years in order to improve the water treatment efficiency. In this study, a new composite flocculant prepared by polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and sodium alginate (SA) was used to treat dye and humic acid water in the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. The subsequent effects of PAC/SA on ultrafiltration membrane fouling were investigated by calculating the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). The results showed that the application of PAC/SA could not only restrict the membrane fouling but also improve the removal efficiency of the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. MFI of PAC/SA was the lowest, followed by PAC and the raw water for coagulated effluents filtered by ultrafiltration membrane. For example, MFI of PAC/SA was 0.40 s mL(-2) for reactive blue KGL (denoted as RB-KGL) treatment, while that of PAC was 2.26 s mL(-2). The removal efficiencies were improved as coagulation was used as pretreatment of ultrafiltration membrane. And PAC/SA could form the higher removal efficiency than PAC, especially for RB-KGL. The color removal efficiency of PAC/SA was 96.36% for RB-KGL treated by coagulation-ultrafiltration process, which was higher than that of PAC (85.62%). PMID:23676389

Wang, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

2013-01-01

397

Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.  

PubMed

The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions. PMID:20669145

Gerlach, Jrg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

2010-06-01

398

Influence of pH, benzoic acid, glutathione, EDTA, 4-hexylresorcinol, and sodium chloride on the pressure inactivation kinetics of mushroom polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

Pressure inactivation of mushroom PPO was studied for pH values ranging from 4 to 8, and the effect of some antibrowning agents on the pressure stability of mushroom PPO at pH 6.5 was evaluated. pH reduction below 6.5 resulted in a lowered inactivation threshold pressure and an increase of the absolute value of the activation volume (or a decrease of the z(p) value), the latter two parameters reflecting the pressure dependency of the inactivation rate constant. An increase in pH from 6.5 to 8, on the other hand, did only marginally affect the pressure stability of the enzyme. Mushroom PPO at pH 6.5 was markedly sensitized toward pressure by the presence of 2.5 mM 4-hexylresorcinol and slightly stabilized by the presence of 5 mM EDTA. The presence of 5 mM glutathione, sodium chloride, or benzoic acid caused no significant alteration of the enzyme pressure stability. Only in the presence of 4-hexylresorcinol, significant changes of the activation volume and z(p) value were noticed. PMID:10552679

Weemaes, C A; Ludikhuyze, L R; Van den Broeck, I; Hendrickx, M E

1999-09-01

399

Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet  

SciTech Connect

Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

2010-04-15

400

A metal mixture lowers the reaction temperature of copper chloride as shown using in situ quick XAFS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace chlorinated organic compounds are generated via thermal processes. Their formation is promoted by copper chloride in solid phase such as fly ash, especially in the post-combustion zone in municipal solid waste incineration. Previously, we reported the chemical state and change of copper chloride in a single model using the in situ quick scan x-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS). However, a real solid phase, which is a complex system involving many elements, was not simulated. In this paper, we measured the Cu-K XAFS of a metal-mixture model upon heating to discuss the effect of mixing. The in situ QXAFS technique revealed that the reaction temperature of copper was lower, compared with the single model, when a mixture was measured. The result shows that the formation mechanism of chlorinated organic compounds derived from anthropogenic thermal sources can be described more correctly.

Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanino, Yuta; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

2009-11-01

401

Sympathetic stimulation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport in the generation of salt-sensitive hypertension.  

PubMed

Excessive renal efferent sympathetic nerve activity contributes to hypertension in many circumstances. Although both hemodynamic and tubular effects likely participate, most evidence supports a major role for ?-adrenergic receptors in mediating the direct epithelial stimulation of sodium retention. Recently, it was reported, however, that norepinephrine activates the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) by stimulating ?-adrenergic receptors. Here, we confirmed this effect and developed an acute adrenergic stimulation model to study the signaling cascade. The results show that norepinephrine increases the abundance of phosphorylated NCC rapidly (161% increase), an effect largely dependent on ?-adrenergic receptors. This effect is not mediated by the activation of angiotensin II receptors. We used immunodissected mouse distal convoluted tubule to show that distal convoluted tubule cells are especially enriched for ?1-adrenergic receptors, and that the effects of adrenergic stimulation can occur ex vivo (79% increase), suggesting they are direct. Because the 2 protein kinases, STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (encoded by STK39) and oxidative stress-response kinase 1, phosphorylate and activate NCC, we examined their roles in norepinephrine effects. Surprisingly, norepinephrine did not affect STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase abundance or its localization in the distal convoluted tubule; instead, we observed a striking activation of oxidative stress-response kinase 1. We confirmed that STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase is not required for NCC activation, using STK39 knockout mice. Together, the data provide strong support for a signaling system involving ?1-receptors in the distal convoluted tubule that activates NCC, at least in part via oxidative stress-response kinase 1. The results have implications about device- and drug-based treatment of hypertension. PMID:24799612

Terker, Andrew S; Yang, Chao-Ling; McCormick, James A; Meermeier, Nicholas P; Rogers, Shaunessy L; Grossmann, Solveig; Trompf, Katja; Delpire, Eric; Loffing, Johannes; Ellison, David H

2014-07-01

402

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

Vestergaard, B.

1992-09-01

403

Temperature dependent structural and spectroscopic studies of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite  

SciTech Connect

We report on temperature dependent crystal structures of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite Na{sub 8}[GaSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} between 293 and 973 K. The crystal structures were refined from X-ray powder data Rietveld refinements in the space group P4-bar 3n. The gallium and silicon atoms on the tetrahedral framework positions are totally ordered. The nitrite anion was found slightly away from the center of the sodalite cage, which is tetrahedrally surrounded by four sodium atoms. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was calculated from the lattice expansion data. The change of the geometries of the framework has been observed on heating the polycrystalline sample, that is, T-O bond lengths slightly decreased, T-O-T angle non-linearly increased, tilt of the TO{sub 4} tetrahedra decreased (framework untwist) and their tetragonal tetrahedral distortion decreased with some scatterings. Of particular note, the tetragonal tetrahedra distortion of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra approached close to zero at higher temperatures, which points to a distortion direction to a relaxed state of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra on heating. The mobility of sodium atoms above 600 K leads to different sodium content in some sodalite cages and results in the appearance of different domains. The consequence of this domain formation to the strain of the crystalline system and to the average crystals size have been explained. Both Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra showed typical absorption bands of nitrite sodalite. The change of the frequency shift and full-width at half-maximum of some selected bands has been studied as function of temperature.

Gesing, Thorsten M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard C. [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)] [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Murshed, M. Mangir, E-mail: mmurshe@gwgd.de [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2010-11-15

404

Temperature effects on the aggregation of decylpyridinium chloride in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface tension and conductivity measurements were used to study micelle formation in an aqueous solution of decylpyridinium chloride at 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40C. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) was minimum at about 30 35C. After CMC1, aggregation with CMC2 and CMC3 occurred as the concentration increased.

Korotkikh, O. P.; Kochurova, N. N.

2007-07-01

405

Characterization of condensed phase species produced during the thermal treatment of metal chlorides on a graphite platform using surface analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 C was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent.

Castro, M. A.; Faulds, K.; Smith, W. E.; Aller, A. J.; Littlejohn, D.

2004-12-01

406

Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pschl

2008-01-01

407

An improved LCAO interpolation scheme for energy band structures. Application to four compounds (ScN, ScP, TiN, ZrN) crystallizing in the sodium chloride structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved version of the LCAO interpolation scheme using metal s-, p-, d-, and non metal s-, and p-basis functions is presented for transition metal compounds with sodium chloride structure. This method enables us to interpolate with reasonable accuracy occupied bands as well as unoccupied energy bands up to 0.9 Rydberg above the Fermi level for the compounds ScN, ScP,

Michael Dorrer; Renate Eibler; Adolf Neckel

1981-01-01

408

Influence of the alkyl chain length, temperature, and added salt on the thermodynamics of micellization: Alkyltrimethylammonium chlorides in NaCl aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamics of micelle formation of the cationic surfactants decyltrimethylammonium chloride (DeTAC) and tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride (TTAC) in water and aqueous NaCl solutions have been investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to study the effect of added salt on the critical micelle concentration, cmc, and enthalpy of micellization, ?micH?, between the temperatures (278.15 and 328.15)K. From the temperature dependence of

Ana Krofli?; Bojan arac; Marija Beter-Roga?

2011-01-01

409

Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas  

SciTech Connect

Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

1980-01-01

410

21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...50 percent by weight sodium hydroxide solution are added to prevent loss of chloride from ammonium chloride, if present, and the solution is evaporated to approximately...5 grams of granular sodium peroxide,...

2009-04-01

411

21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...50 percent by weight sodium hydroxide solution are added to prevent loss of chloride from ammonium chloride, if present, and the solution is evaporated to approximately...5 grams of granular sodium peroxide,...

2010-01-01

412

Effects of Temperature on the Toxicity of Oil Refinery Waste, Sodium Chlorate, and Treated Sewage to Fathead Minnows.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature review and experiments were conducted to determine the effects of temperature on the toxicity of three materials to fish (fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, Rafinesque). These three toxicants (oil refinery waste, sodium chlorate, and treat...

C. C. Shifrer E. J. Middlebrooks D. B. Porcella W. F. Sigler

1974-01-01

413

Layer-by-layer growth of sodium chloride overlayers on an Fe(001)-p(1 1)O surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultra-thin NaCl films epitaxially grown on an Fe(001)-p(1 1)O surface have been investigated in ultra-high vacuum by non-contact atomic force microscopy and low energy electron diffraction. It has been found that at temperatures below 145?C NaCl initially grows as monoatomic thick islands on substrate terraces, while at temperatures above 175?C biatomic thick islands are also formed at substrate step edges. Both types of islands have the same Fe(001)-O[100] ? NaCl(001)[110] orientation, leading to a (4 4) superstructure, where the NaCl unit cell is oriented at 45 with respect to the substrate. Interestingly, no c(2 2) superstructure with the NaCl unit cell oriented at 0 has been observed. The oxygen on the iron surface promotes layer-by-layer growth, resulting in atomically flat films with 40-60 nm wide terraces at coverages ranging from 0.75 to 12 ML. Such NaCl films are of much higher quality than MgO films grown on Fe(001) and Fe(001)-p(1 1)O surfaces and represent a unique epitaxial system of an alkali halide on a pure metallic substrate. The reduced number of defects and the layer-by-layer mode of growth make this system very attractive for applications where an atomically defined tunnel barrier is required to control the properties of a device.

Tekiel, Antoni; Topple, Jessica; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grtter, Peter

2012-12-01

414

Protection of gastric mucosa against hypertonic sodium chloride by 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 or sodium thiosulfate in the rat: Evidence for decreased mucosal penetration of damaging agent  

SciTech Connect

Protection of the gastric mucosa may be the result of either increased cellular resistance to injury (cytoprotection) or, alternatively, decreased exposure of mucosal cells to the damaging agent. To determine whether decreased exposure of mucosal cells to damaging agents plays a role in mucosal protection by 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate, we estimated the intramucosal concentration of 22NaCl and measured its absorption from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after intragastric administration of hypertonic (25% w/v) 22NaCl. In an attempt to explain the differences observed, we also measured the net transmucosal water flux in control animals and rats pretreated with the protective agents. Administration of hypertonic NaCl rapidly (within 1 min) induced extensive hemorrhagic mucosal lesions that were significantly reduced by pretreatment with 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate. Ultra-low temperature autoradiography indicated that luminal hypertonic 22NaCl penetrates the upper layers of the mucosa in relatively high concentrations (12.5% w/v) within 1 min but its concentration decreases rapidly and reached low levels (3.12% w/v) by 5 min. Absorption of NaCl from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after hypertonic NaCl was lower in both pretreatment groups than in the control. Net gastric transmucosal water flux (from serosa to mucosa) increased (P less than 0.05) from 100 +/- 2 in controls, to 1470 +/- 8 and 715 +/- 9 microliters in rats pretreated with 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate, respectively. We conclude that 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate protect the gastric mucosa against hypertonic NaCl, diminish mucosal penetration of NaCl, decrease mucosal absorption of NaCl, and significantly increase serosal to mucosal transmucosal water flux.

Pihan, G.; Szabo, S. (Brigham Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

1989-12-01

415

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M. A.; Potter, II, R. W.

1979-01-01

416

Temperature and salt-induced micellization of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride in aqueous solution: A thermodynamic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamics of micelle formation of the cationic surfactant dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DTAC) in water and aqueous NaCl solutions were investigated. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) has been used to study the effect of the added NaCl on the critical micelle concentration, cmc, and enthalpy of micellization, ?micHo, between 278.15 and 318.15K. Gibbs free energy, ?micGo, and entropy, ?micSo, were deduced by taking

Bojan arac; Marija Beter-Roga?

2009-01-01

417

Surface Phonon Dispersion Curves of Rubidium Chloride, Potassium Bromide, Rubidium Bromide and Sodium Iodide Studied by Inelastic Helium Atom Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alkali halide surfaces were the first for which full surface phonon dispersion curves were measured. Most of the early work was mainly concerned with the low-energy modes for the lighter alkali halides, such as LiF and NaF, and a full survey of a more representative sampling of these crystals was never made. A recent theoretical calculation has also suggested that relaxation effects might provide interesting features on the surface phonon modes especially for the optical modes of the heavier compounds. The work of this dissertation is an effort to measure the surface dynamics of other, usually heavier, alkali halide crystals. This work describes measurements on the surfaces of RbCl(001), RbBr(001), KBr(001), and NaI(001) with the inelastic He atom scattering technique. The energy gain or loss and the momentum change is measured by the time of flight method. For the four crystals, the surface phonon dispersion curves are obtained along both high symmetry directions. The general agreement between the theory and the experimental results is very good. Some new features of the surface vibration have been found. First, the optical mode, crossing resonance and acoustic modes were clearly seen from the KBr surface over the entire zone. The strong interaction coupling between the He and the optical mode is rather unique. Secondly, crossing resonances (S_8 mode) were observed for the KBr, RbBr and NaI surfaces. This observation suggests that this mode is a general feature of all the alkali halide surfaces. The origin of this mode might be due to the perpendicular polarized bulk acoustic motion. Thirdly, NaI results show that bound-state resonance effects could strongly enhance the bulk mode especially when there is a high density of phonon states. Finally, there is no experimental evidence supporting any surface relaxation effects. In fact, the experimental results seem to agree better with the unrelaxed calculations. In addition to the inelastic scattering measurements, we also did angular distribution, low pressure He beam scattering and a temperature-dependent dynamical study. Information such as the surface corrugation, He-surface potential, bound state energies, the surface Debye-Waller temperature and a measure of multi-phonon contributions can be obtained from these experimental results.

Chern, Gung

418

The kinetics of barite dissolution and precipitation in water and sodium chloride brines at 44-85C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution rate of natural barite cleavage fragments was measured in deionized water and NaCl brines over the temperature range 44-85C. Dissolution followed first-order kinetics, with an activation energy of 24.9 10.1 kJ/mol. The observed insensitivity to stirring rate and low absolute value of the rate constant (extrapolated k at 25 C = 3.30 1.31 10 -3L/ m2s) indicated desorption rather than volume diffusion as the rate-determining step. The NaCl concentration had no effect on k up to 0.1 M. Barite growth from supersaturated aqueous solutions was also studied. Precipitation followed a second order rate law, k25 C = 162 65 L2/ sm2mol, Ea = 22.0 14.3 kJ/mol, and was not sensitive to pH variation. A different rate law is likely to apply at high supersaturations, where a change in secondary growth morphology was observed.

Christy, Andrew G.; Putnis, Andrew

1993-05-01

419

Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.  

PubMed

We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <10(3); Medium, 10(3)-10(4); and High, >10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.]. PMID:23473056

Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

2013-01-01

420

Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.  

PubMed

Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis. PMID:20738803

David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

2010-12-01

421

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as affected by pH or sodium chloride and in fermented, dry sausage.  

PubMed Central

The influence of pH adjusted with lactic acid or HCl or sodium chloride concentration on survival or growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) was determined. Studies also determined the fate of E. coli O157:H7 during the production and storage of fermented, dry sausage. The organism grew in TSB containing less than or equal to 6.5% NaCl or at a pH of 4.5 to 9.0, adjusted with HCl. When TSB was acidified with lactic acid, the organism grew at pH 4.6 but not at pH 4.5. A commercial sausage batter inoculated with 4.8 x 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 per g was fermented to pH 4.8 and dried until the moisture/protein ratio was less than or equal to 1.9:1. The sausage chubs were then vacuum packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 months. The organism survived but did not grow during fermentation, drying, or subsequent storage at 4 degrees C and decreased by about 2 log10 CFU/g by the end of storage. These studies reveal the importance of using beef containing low populations or no E. coli O157:H7 in sausage batter, because when initially present at 10(4) CFU/g, this organism can survive fermentation, drying, and storage of fermented sausage regardless of whether an added starter culture was used.

Glass, K A; Loeffelholz, J M; Ford, J P; Doyle, M P

19