Sample records for temperature sodium chloride

  1. Influence of Room-Temperature Atmospheric Reaction Products on the Ductility of Sodium Chloride Single Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dumas A. Otterson

    1963-01-01

    Bend tests were made using sodium chloride single crystals which had previously been exposed to one of several atmospheres at room temperature. Crystals exposed to moist carbon dioxide showed the most consistent brittle behavior while those aged in moist air containing hydrogen chloride showed more ductile behavior. Evidence is given which indicates that hydroxide ion is needed for carbon dioxide

  2. The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-10-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically fabricated with a thick tubular ?"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at relatively high temperatures (? 300C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present work, a planar-type sodium-nickel chloride battery possessing a thin BASE (~600 ?m thick) was tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of the battery operation at low temperatures (?200C). Electrochemical test results revealed that the battery was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175C despite the higher cell polarization at the reduced temperature. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the performance degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride in the cathode. The cells tested at lower temperatures (e.g., 175 and 200C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in cell voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of NaAlCl4 melt or the poor wettability of sodium on the BASE. Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of a secondary electrolyte and sodium wetting are desirable to further enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE AND TEMPERATURE ON THE ENDOGENOUS RESPIRATION OF B. CEREUS

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, M.

    1940-01-01

    Measurements were made of the rate of consumption of oxygen by suspensions of B. cereus, in sodium chloride solutions of concentration up to 1.8 M and over a range of pH from 6.0 to 7.5. It was found: 1. That the temperature coefficient was independent of the presence of sodium chloride in concentrations between 0.2 and 1.8 M, although the rate of respiration was lowered considerably under these conditions. 2. That in the presence of concentrations of sodium chloride less than 0.2 M, the rate of respiration was increased, and so was the temperature coefficient. 3. That small changes in the temperature coefficient occurred when the pH was changed. The temperature coefficient was higher the higher the rate of respiration. These data may be more readily interpreted by the hypothesis that the temperature coefficient is controlled by some master reaction, than by that which supposes that the temperature coefficient is determined by protoplasmic viscosity. PMID:19873194

  4. Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

  5. Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ?-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

  6. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined. PMID:18614284

  7. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    PubMed

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and raw vegetables were examined. Vinegar solution (1-2% acidity, 3-7% NaCl) produced more than 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers of E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of cutting board, and cabbage and cucumber at 20-50 degrees C. These results suggested that the treatment with vinegar solution containing sodium chloride may be one of the useful methods to prevent food poisoning. PMID:9209127

  8. Low temperature fatigue behavior of Alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, J.T.; Yu, G.P. [National Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCl solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R = Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R = 0.1, f = 1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCl (0.6M, 0.1M, and 0.001M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCl solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz--3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1M NaCl solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1M NaCl solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens.

  9. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  10. Viscosities of the ternary solution dimethyl sulfoxide/water/sodium chloride at subzero temperatures and their application in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Vitrification is considered as the most promising method for long-term storage of tissues and organs. An effective way to reduce the accompanied cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, during CPA addition/removal, is to operate at low temperatures. The permeation process of CPA into/out of biomaterials is affected by the viscosity of CPA solution, especially at low temperatures. The objective of the present study is to measure the viscosity of the ternary solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)/water/sodium chloride (NaCl), at low temperatures and in a wide range of concentrations. A rotary viscometer coupled with a low temperature thermostat bath was used. The measurement was carried out at temperatures from -10 to -50C. The highest mass fraction of Me2SO was 75% (w/w) and the lowest mass fraction of Me2SO was the value that kept the solution unfrozen at the measurement temperature. The concentration of NaCl was kept as a constant [0.85% (w/w), the normal salt content of extracellular fluids]. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model was employed to fit the obtained viscosity data. As an example, the effect of solution viscosity on modeling the permeation of Me2SO into articular cartilage was qualitatively analyzed. PMID:23376371

  11. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE, 0-3%) on heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags submerged in ...

  12. Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-15

    Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

  13. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  14. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: Influence of temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Guerrero; S. Goi; V. R. Allegro

    2009-01-01

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of

  15. Fractal analysis of pit morphology of Inconel alloy 600 in sulphate, nitrate and bicarbonate ion-containing sodium chloride solution at temperatures of 25100C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Il Pyun; Jin-Ju Park

    2004-01-01

    Pit morphology of Inconel alloy 600 in sulphate (SO 4 2-), nitrate (NO 3 -) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 -) ion-containing 0.5M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was analysed in terms of fractal geometry as functions of solution temperature and anion concentration using the potentiostatic current transient technique, scanning electron microscopy, image analysis and ac-impedance spectroscopy. Potentiostatic current transients revealed that

  16. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  17. The vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium bromide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, potassium iodate, and rubidium chloride at temperatures from 227 K to 323 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

    1998-01-01

    The vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of NaCl, NaBr, NaNO3, NaNO2, KIO3, and RbCl were determined in the temperature rangeT=(278 to 323) K using an electronic hygrometer with an electrolyte sensor and compared with the literature data, which are available only for the first four salts. These vapour pressures serve to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients, and molar

  18. Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnakumar, B.V.; Attia, A.I.; Halpert, G.H. (Jet Propulsion Lab., California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (US))

    1991-03-01

    Sodium batteries utilizing transition metal dichlorides in a NaAlCl{sub 4} melt as cathodes have distinct advantages over Na-S batteries, such as lower operating temperatures, increased safety, overcharge tolerance etc. These systems have been configured such that the positive electrode in insoluble, both in the charged and discharged state, in the electrolyte melt. Among various metal chlorides mentioned, only ferrous and nickel chlorides were developed extensively to a stage of commercialization. In this paper, an attempt is made to screen various other metal chlorides as cathode materials using a simple electrochemical technique.

  19. Electrocrystallization of chromium from fused sodium and chromium chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Suchkov; V. B. Akimenko; T. N. Ermakova

    1968-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of initial cathodic current density, Cr concentration in the electrolyte, temperature, and electrolysis time on the particle-size distribution and shape of chromium powder particles obtained by electrorefining of chromium in a fused mixture of sodium and chromium chlorides.

  20. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.) [comps.

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  1. Dietary Chloride as a Determinant of ``Sodium-Dependent'' Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theodore W. Kurtz; R. Curtis Morris

    1983-01-01

    The uninephrectomized rat given desoxycorticosterone (DOC) provides a classic model of ``sodium-dependent'' hypertension. In such rats, the extent to which a given dietary intake of sodium induced an increase in blood pressure depended on whether or not the anionic component of the sdoium salt was chloride. With normal and high dietary intakes of sodium, sodium chloride induced increases in blood

  2. Detection of sodium chloride in Io's atmosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Lellouch; G. Paubert; J. I. Moses; N. M. Schneider; D. F. Strobel

    2002-01-01

    On January 14-18, 2002, we observed Io with the IRAM 30-m telescope and detected two rotational lines of NaCl at 143.237 and 234.252 GHz, obtaining the first detection of gaseous sodium chloride in Io's neutral atmosphere. The emission from SO2 was monitored by simultaneously observing SO2 lines at 143.057 and 234.187 GHz. Although intrinsically stronger by a factor ~ 300,

  3. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  4. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride, and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Garcia-Dvila, Jimena; Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; Pena-Ramos, Etna Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product. PMID:25285486

  5. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    PubMed

    Snejdrov, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation. PMID:12407924

  6. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation

    PubMed Central

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role. PMID:26197394

  7. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  8. Effect of Sodium Chloride on a Lipid Bilayer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer A. Bckmann; Agnieszka Hac; Thomas Heimburg; Helmut Grubmller

    2003-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions govern structural and dynamical properties of membranes and can vary considerably with the composition of the aqueous buffer. We studied the influence of sodium chloride on a pure POPC lipid bilayer by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments and molecular dynamics simulations. Increasing sodium chloride concentration was found to decrease the self-diffusion of POPC lipids within the bilayer. Self-diffusion coefficients

  9. Effect of Varying Dietary Ratio of Sodium and Chloride on the Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Coppock; P. A. Grant; S. J. Portzer; Adrian Escobosa; T. E. Wehrly

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating Holstein and Jersey cows were fed concentrate mixtures formulated to supplement total diets with 1) no added sodium chloride, 2) 1.0% sodium chloride, 3) 1.14% calcium chloride, and 4) 1.45% sodium bicarbonate during a 9-wk continuous trial, Experi- ment 1. Responses measured were body temperature, respiration rate, milk yield, milk composition, and 15 blood variables to evaluate acid-base

  10. Physiochemical Properties of Sodium Chloride Particles on Laboratory Ice Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, E. P.; Simpson, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Aqueous halides (e.g. Cl- and Br-) on environmental ice surfaces are converted to reactive gases through heterogeneous chemistry that has broad consequences for springtime Arctic tropospheric oxidation chemistry. Recent studies indicate that atmospherically contaminated snow (e.g. more acidic snow) is more effective at activating halogens than frozen seawater. This study investigates the microstructure created by the addition of salts onto ice surfaces as a function of temperature. Microscopic sodium chloride salt crystals were labeled with a fluorescent dye (fluorescein) and placed onto laboratory ice surface below the hydrohalite (NaCl 2H2O)-water eutectic temperature. As temperature was increased above the eutectic, a discrete brine area formed around the crystal. Size and morphology of the brine area was determined using an Axioscope II epifluorescence microscope. Initially, the salt crystal did not entirely dissolve and three distinct phases (solid salt, brine, ice) were present for some time. Timescales for crystal dissolving, brine formation, and wetting across the ice surfaces where thus constrained. Similar experiments using a fluorescently labeled, laboratory-generated sea salt aerosol particles were also carried out and compared to the larger microscopic sodium chloride crystals. This work gives insight into how atmospheric particles deliver contaminants to ice surfaces, how those contaminants interact with ice surfaces and thus how they may impact halogen activation.

  11. Partial molar volumes of uni-univalent electrolytes in methanol + water; 1: Lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Nobuo; Takemura, Takeshi; Sakurai, Masao (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Research Inst. for Electronic Science)

    1994-04-01

    Densities of methanol + water + lithium chloride, + sodium chloride, and + potassium chloride were measured at 15, 25, 35, and 45 C. The apparent molar volumes of the electrolytes in these mixtures were calculated, and the apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution, the partial molar volumes, and partial molar thermal expansivities were evaluated.

  12. Effect of temperature, sodium chloride, and pH on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cabbage juice.

    PubMed

    Conner, D E; Brackett, R E; Beuchat, L R

    1986-07-01

    Human illness and death have resulted from the consumption of milk, cheese, and cole slaw contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Since the effects of temperature, NaCl, and pH on the growth of the organism in cabbage were unknown, a series of experiments was designed to investigate these factors. Two strains (LCDC 81-861 and Scott A, both serotype 4b) were examined. At 30 degrees C, the viable population of the LCDC 81-861 strain increased in sterile unclarified cabbage juice (CJ) containing 0 to 1.5% NaCl; a decrease in the population of both strains occurred in juice containing greater than or equal to 2% NaCl. At 5 degrees C, the population of the Scott A strain in CJ containing up to 5% NaCl was reduced by about 90% over a 70-day period; the LCDC 81-861 strain was more sensitive to refrigeration but remained viable in CJ containing less than or equal to 3.5% NaCl for 70 days. Growth in CJ at 30 degrees C resulted in a decrease in pH from 5.6 to 4.1 within 8 days. Death of L. monocytogenes occurred at 30 degrees C when the organism was inoculated into sterile CJ adjusted to pH less than or equal to 4.6 with lactic acid. No viable cells were detected after 3 days at pH less than or equal to 4.2. At 5 degrees C, the rate of death at pH less than or equal to 4.8 was slower than at 30 degrees C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3089158

  13. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water - surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vanhanen; A.-P. Hyvrinen; T. Anttila; T. Raatikainen; H. Lihavainen

    2008-01-01

    Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at

  14. Research paper Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    in the strength of the sodium chloride matrix. Fur- ther measurements on the pore size distribution ledResearch paper Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition of starch made of sodium chloride only and tablets made of a mixture of sodium chloride (97.5% v/v) and starch (2

  15. Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary E. Gray; P. A. Kohl; J. Winnick

    1995-01-01

    Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlCl) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium\\/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using

  16. Effects of Low Chloride Intake on Performance, Clinical Characteristics, and Chloride, Sodium, Potassium, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Dairy Calves1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Burkhalter; M. W. Neathery; W. J. Miller; R. H. Whitlock; J. C. Allen

    1979-01-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were

  17. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  18. Effects of low chloride intake on performance, clinical characteristics, and chloride, sodium, potassium, and nitrogen metabolism in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, D L; Neathery, M W; Miller, W J; Whitlock, R H; Allen, J C

    1979-12-01

    Young male Holstein calves were fed either a control (.5% chloride) or a low-chloride (.038% chloride) practical diet for 7 wk. Both groups received low-chloride (.00038% chloride) well water. Feeding the low-chloride diet did not produce definite clinical symptoms of chloride deficiency. Neither body weight gains, feed intake, feed digestibility, nor body retention of chloride, sodium, potassium, or nitrogen were effected adversely. Although the chloride intake of the low-chloride calves was only one-sixteenth that of controls, body chloride retention was similar for the two groups. The similar retention of body chloride was due to effective homeostatic mechanisms in which urinary chloride excretion was reduced by 95% in the low-chloride calves. Low-chloride calves consumed more water and excreted more urine than control calves. Although the exact minimum chloride requirement for growth in calves was not established, .038% chloride was adequate for normal growth for the 7 wk. PMID:541461

  19. Heterogeneous freezing of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride solutions by long chain alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Will Cantrell; Carly Robinson

    2006-01-01

    High molecular weight organic compounds emitted during biomass burning can be transported to high altitudes where they may affect ice processes through heterogeneous nucleation. We show that freezing of solutions of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride catalyzed by long chain alcohols is roughly consistent with the hypothesis that the water activity at the mean freezing temperature is a constant offset

  20. X-Ray-Induced Dislocation Generation in Sodium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Wolfe; Charles L. Bauer

    1964-01-01

    The strain distribution, induced by subjecting one-half of a sodium chloride single crystal to x rays while shielding the other half, has been investigated with a dislocation etch pit technique. Due to the expansion of the irradiated half, a strain gradient arises antisymmetrically about the plane of the interface that is sufficient in magnitude to cause plastic deformation in the

  1. Effect of orthoaminothiophenol on nickel in 3% sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Srhiri, A. [Electrochemistry Lab., Kenitra City (Morocco); Derbali, Y. [National High School of Sciences and Technics, Tunis City (Tunisia). Applied Chemistry Lab.; Picaud, T. [National High School of Chemistry, Toulouse (France). Metallurgy Lab.

    1995-10-01

    The use of thiol compounds as inhibitors against corrosion of nickel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Stationary and transient measurements were made. Results implied the formation of a thick and compact inhibitor film. A correlation between the inhibiting film and the structure of orthoaminothiophenol (OATP) was shown.

  2. Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

  3. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...sodium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar evaporation...

  4. Heterogeneous ice nucleation ability of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert; MHler, Ottmar

    2013-05-01

    The aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA (Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics in the Atmosphere) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology has been used to quantify the deposition mode ice nucleation ability of airborne crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate (NaCl 2H2O) particles with median diameters between 0.06 and 1.1 m. For this purpose, expansion cooling experiments with starting temperatures from 235 to 216 K were conducted. Recently, supermicron-sized NaCl 2H2O particles deposited onto a surface have been observed to be ice-active in the deposition mode at temperatures below 238 K, requiring a median threshold ice saturation ratio of only 1.02 in the range from 238 to 221 K. In AIDA, heterogeneous ice nucleation by NaCl 2H2O was first detected at a temperature of 227.1 K with a concomitant threshold ice saturation ratio of 1.25. Above that temperature, the crystallized salt particles underwent a deliquescence transition to form aqueous NaCl solution droplets upon increasing relative humidity. At nucleation temperatures below 225 K, the inferred threshold ice saturation ratios varied between 1.15 and 1.20. The number concentration of the nucleated ice crystals was related to the surface area of the seed aerosol particles to deduce the ice nucleation active surface site (INAS) density of the aerosol population as a function of the ice supersaturation. Maximum INAS densities of about 6 ? 1010 m-2 at an ice saturation ratio of 1.20 were found for temperatures below 225 K. These INAS densities are similar to those recently derived for deposition mode ice nucleation on mineral dust particles.

  5. A new generation of sodium chloride porogen for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Tran, Richard T; Naseri, Elhum; Kolasnikov, Aleksey; Bai, Xiaochun; Yang, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Porogen leaching is a widely used and simple technique for the creation of porous scaffolds in tissue engineering. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is the most commonly used porogen, but the current grinding and sieving methods generate salt particles with huge size variations and cannot generate porogens in the submicron size range. We have developed a facile method based on the principles of crystallization to precisely control salt crystal sizes down to a few microns within a narrow size distribution. The resulting NaCl crystal size could be controlled through the solution concentration, crystallization temperature, and crystallization time. A reduction in solution temperature, longer crystallization times, and an increase in salt concentration resulted in an increase in NaCl crystal sizes due to the lowered solubility of the salt solution. The nucleation and crystallization technique provides superior control over the resulting NaCl size distribution (13.78 1.18 ?m), whereas the traditional grinding and sieving methods produced NaCl porogens 13.89 12.49 ?m in size. The resulting NaCl porogens were used to fabricate scaffolds with increased interconnectivity, porous microchanneled scaffolds, and multiphasic vascular grafts. This new generation of salt porogen provides great freedom in designing versatile scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications. PMID:21995536

  6. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  7. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120C for 7min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix. PMID:25872427

  9. Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

  10. Initial Stage of Epitaxial Growth of Evaporated Gold Films on Sodium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiro Mihama; Yukio Yasuda

    1966-01-01

    The initial stage of the formation of evaporated gold films from 0.5 to 100 in mean thickness on cleavage surfaces of sodium chloride was studied by means of a transmission electron microscope. Above the epitaxial temperature, 330C, gold particles have the so-called parallel orientation. Twin orientations are introduced by coalescence of particles initially formed, with the increase in

  11. Efflorescence relative humidity of airborne sodium chloride particles: A theoretical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yonggang Gao; Shing Bor Chen; Liya E. Yu

    2007-01-01

    The previously developed theoretical model [Gao, Y., Chen, S.B., Yu, L.E., 2006. Efflorescence relative humidity for ammonium sulfate particles. Journal of Physical Chemistry A, 110, 76027608], which has successfully predicted the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) particles at room temperature, is employed to estimate the ERH of sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in sizes ranging from 6nm to

  12. Effect of Ferrite on Corrosion of Fe-Mn-Al Alloys in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ruscak; T.-P. Perng

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of five Fe-Mn-Al (Femnal) alloys with ferrite contents varying from 0.5% to 98% were studied in 3.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) at room temperature. Potentiodynamic polarization tests and immersion tests were performed. In deaerated solution, the corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) of these alloys were very close. The passive current (i{sub p}) increased and the width of the passive

  13. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  14. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  15. Radial transport of sodium and chloride into tomato root xylem.

    PubMed

    Maas, E V; Ogata, G

    1972-07-01

    Transport of Na and Cl across exuding tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) roots was determined as a function of ambient NaCl concentrations in the ranges of both systems 1 and 2. Kinetics of radial transport under steady-state conditions and the effect of dinitrophenol indicate that Na and Cl were transported by two different mechanisms. Sodium was neither accumulated against a concentration gradient nor directly inhibited by dinitrophenol from diffusing into the xylem. Chloride was accumulated in the xylem and its transport was nearly completely blocked by dinitrophenol. A comparison of the radial transport isotherms for Na and Cl for intact and decapitated plants indicates that the separate mechanisms were not unique to excised roots. It is concluded that radial Na transport in tomatoes was facilitated by a passive convective type process with the rate-limiting barrier located at the outer cortical plasmalemma. Chloride transport in both concentration ranges involved, either directly or indirectly, a metabolic mechanism. Absorption and retention of Na in the root tissue was negligible. Chloride was accumulated by the tissue but was unaffected by dinitrophenol. PMID:16658134

  16. Radial Transport of Sodium and Chloride into Tomato Root Xylem

    PubMed Central

    Maas, E. V.; Ogata, Gen

    1972-01-01

    Transport of Na and Cl across exuding tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) roots was determined as a function of ambient NaCl concentrations in the ranges of both systems 1 and 2. Kinetics of radial transport under steady-state conditions and the effect of dinitrophenol indicate that Na and Cl were transported by two different mechanisms. Sodium was neither accumulated against a concentration gradient nor directly inhibited by dinitrophenol from diffusing into the xylem. Chloride was accumulated in the xylem and its transport was nearly completely blocked by dinitrophenol. A comparison of the radial transport isotherms for Na and Cl for intact and decapitated plants indicates that the separate mechanisms were not unique to excised roots. It is concluded that radial Na transport in tomatoes was facilitated by a passive convective type process with the rate-limiting barrier located at the outer cortical plasmalemma. Chloride transport in both concentration ranges involved, either directly or indirectly, a metabolic mechanism. Absorption and retention of Na in the root tissue was negligible. Chloride was accumulated by the tissue but was unaffected by dinitrophenol. PMID:16658134

  17. Predictive modelling of growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7: the effects of temperature, pH and sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Sutherland; A. J. Bayliss; D. S. Braxton

    1995-01-01

    The growth responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as affected by NaCl concentration, pH value and storage temperature were studied in laboratory medium. Growth curves at concentrations of NaCl in the range 0.56.5% (wv), pH values in the range 4.07.0 and storage temperatures in the range 1030 C were fitted using the Gompertz routine and the derived parameters modelled. Growth curves

  18. Microcalorimetry of Adsorption of Water Vapor on Sodium Chloride which has been Treated in Electric Discharges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry M. Papeel

    1959-01-01

    By use of a microcalorimeter of the Calvet type, measurements of the heats of adsorption of water vapor on sodium chloride of large specific surface have been made, after submitting the salt to an electrodeless high-frequency discharge. The results are compared with those previously obtained when working with normal sodium chloride. It is established that the adsorption process is much

  19. AGGLUTINATION OF SUBMICRONIC DUST PARTICLES WITH A SODIUM CHLORIDE AEROSOL A TECHNICAL STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Dautrebande; K. E. Lauterbach; A. D. Hayes; P. E. Morrow

    1957-01-01

    This is a preliminary report of a technical study of dust agglutination. ; Methods and equipment are described which were used in the production of ; submicronic aerosols of sodium chloride and of several insoluble materials, e.g., ; aluminum, carbon black and uranium dioxide. Utilizing uranium dioxide as a test ; aerosol, an agglutinating aerosol of sodium chloride was generated

  20. An apparatus for preparing sodium chloride crystals having large specific surface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D M Young; J A Morrison

    1954-01-01

    An apparatus is described for preparing crystals of sodium chloride of mean particle size in the range 0.01 ? to 1 ? at rates as large as 0.8 g\\/h. Vapour is swept from the surface of molten sodium chloride in a turbulent stream of nitrogen and carried into an electrostatic precipitator where the small particles are collected. Although electron micrographs

  1. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities

  2. Benzalkonium chloride neutralizes the irritant effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Holloway, D B; Whittle, E G; Basketter, D A

    2000-11-01

    When benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a cationic surfactant, is added to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and used in patch testing, on the basis of their known physicochemical interaction, it is possible to predict that there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the expected irritant response when compared to SDS alone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BKC could reduce the irritant response to SDS when applied after the SDS exposure. 54 non-atopic adult volunteers were recruited for the study. 20% SDS was applied for 2 h under occlusion. 1% BKC was then applied to the same site. Various controls, including SDS application followed by water for 2 h, were included. The irritant reaction was assessed at 24 h and 48 h. 40 of the 54 subjects had some reaction when SDS was applied for 2 h followed by either benzalkonium chloride or water control under occlusion. In comparison to water control, where BKC was applied after SDS, 20 of the 40 responders had a weaker reaction but only 4 had a stronger response. This study shows that BKC applied to skin exposed to SDS attenuates the resulting irritant reaction. PMID:11016666

  3. Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results\\u000a showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding)\\u000a maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In\\u000a contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

  4. Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. S. Wu; B. R. Grundy; R. L. Miller

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82C and with chloride content up to 500 ppm. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304

  5. Crystal structures of superconducting sodium intercalates of hafnium nitride chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Oro-Sole, J. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Frontera, C. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Beltran-Porter, D. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de la Universitat de Valencia, PO Box 2085, Poligono 'La Coma' s/n, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Lebedev, O.I. [EMAT, RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp 2020 (Belgium); Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, RUCA, Groenenborgerlaan 171, Antwerp 2020 (Belgium); Fuertes, A. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)]. E-mail: amparo.fuertes@icmab.es

    2006-05-25

    Sodium intercalation compounds of HfNCl have been prepared at room temperature in naphtyl sodium solutions in tetrahydrofuran and their crystal structure has been investigated by Rietveld refinement using X-ray powder diffraction data and high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of two intercalates with space group R3-bar m and lattice parameters a=3.58131(6)A, c=57.752(6)A, and a=3.58791(8)A, c=29.6785(17)A is reported, corresponding to the stages 2 and 1, respectively, of Na{sub x}HfNCl. For the stage 2 phase an ordered model is presented, showing two crystallographically independent [HfNCl] units with an alternation of the Hf-Hf interlayer distance along the c-axis, according with the occupation by sodium atoms of one out of two van der Waals gaps. Both stages 1 and 2 phases are superconducting with critical temperatures between 20 and 24K, they coexist in different samples with proportions depending on the synthesis conditions, and show a variation in c spacing that can be correlated with the sodium stoichiometry. High-resolution electron microscopy images of the host and intercalated samples show bending of the HfNCl bilayers as well as stacking faults in some regions, which coexist in the same crystal with ordered domains.

  6. Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

  7. Kinematic Viscosity and Density of Binary and Ternary Mixtures Containing Hydrocolloids, Sodium Chloride, and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assis, Tassia F.; Rojas, Edwin E. Garcia; Guimares, Guilherme C.; Coelho, Marcos C.; Ramos, Andresa V.; Costa, Bernardo S.; Coimbra, Jane S. R.

    2010-03-01

    The kinematic viscosity and density of binary aqueous solutions containing xanthan gum and ternary aqueous solutions containing carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium chloride have been measured from 303 K to 318 K at different values of pH. The viscosity and density for binary and ternary systems showed increases with a higher concentration of hydrocolloids (xanthan gum or carboxymethyl cellulose) and reductions with increasing temperature. The presence of NaCl in the ternary systems produced an electro-viscous effect that influenced the viscosity and density of the system. The models used to predict the viscosity, density, and apparent specific volume demonstrated satisfactory results in comparisons with experimental data.

  8. Electrolysis of sodium chloride using composite poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) cation exchange membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharath Savari; Sonny Sachdeva; Anil Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Composite cation exchange membranes are prepared from cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers for the electrolysis of sodium chloride to produce sodium hydroxide and chlorine by selective removal of sodium ions. It is prepared from a syrup of the polymer using dual initiating system and is modified with chloroacetic acid to introduce acid functional groups (COO?) on its surface. The effect of the

  9. High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.

    2010-07-01

    Widespread penetration of renewable energy and increasing demands on reliability/security of the electrical grid require extensive advances in energy storage technologies. One most promising technology is the sodium-beta batteries (NBBs) based on a sodium-ion conducting ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at elevated temperatures (300-350oC). Current NBBs, constructed on a 1-3 mm thick tubular electrolyte, have high capital cost, performance/safety issues and relatively high operating temperature that limit market penetration of the technology. In this work we report a new generation NBB that utilizes a planar design, incorporating a thinner BASE that reduces the area of specific resistance and may be operated at reduced temperatures. The lower operating temperatures allows for use of more cost-effective cell materials and decreases adverse temperature effects that impact cycle life and overall cost. We here present recent progress generated from planar NBB button cells, including initial cell performance, cathode design and chemistry.

  10. Reverse Osmotic Separation of Sodium Chloride and Cobalt (II) Chloride through Membranes Prepared from Schiff Bases of Polyallylamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eizo Oikawa; Kazunori Katoh; Ken Yahata

    1990-01-01

    Crosslinked membranes from Schiff base derivatives of polyallylamine were prepared with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde (P) and with P followed by salicyl-aldehyde, and used for the reverse osmotic separation between sodium chloride (NaC1) and cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2). The membranes whose rejection (R) was high against CoCl2 and low against NaCl at each single feed supply showed a reduced difference in R in

  11. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hyvrinen, A.-P.; Anttila, T.; Raatikainen, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2008-08-01

    Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

  12. Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water - surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hyvrinen, A.-P.; Anttila, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

    2008-04-01

    Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid as a surface active compound tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data. As a result, a surface tension parameterization of ternary solution was obtained over the whole concentration range. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

  13. Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate Solutions

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Sodium-Copper Exchange on Wyoming Montmorillonite in Chloride, Perchlorate, Nitrate, and Sulfate. The copper exchange capacity (CuEC) and Na-Cu exchange reactions on Wyoming montmo- rillonite were studied

  14. Mineral nutrition of jojoba explants in vitro under sodium chloride salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Roussos; Dionisios Gasparatos; Eleni Tsantili; Constantine A. Pontikis

    2007-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider) explants were cultured in vitro on a basal medium supplemented with sodium chloride up to 169mM during the proliferation stage. At the second and third month of salinity stress, the mineral nutrition (macro- and micro-elements) of the explants was assessed. Explants accumulated significant amounts of sodium and chloride (jojoba is an includer) while potassium, manganese,

  15. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fractional factorial design was used to assess the combined effects of four internal temperatures (55.0, 57.5, 60.0 and 62.5C) and five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt/wt%) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) (0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 wt/wt%) on the heat resis...

  16. Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.E.; Kohl, P.A.; Winnick, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

    1995-11-01

    Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using both cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Melts were protonated using a closed electrochemical cell to allow quantification of the effect of dissolved HCl on the efficiency of the sodium couple. A threshold of approximately 6 Torr HCl partial pressure was observed for sodium plating-stripping. Below this threshold, the sodium couple was not observed. The results, show that the sodium plating-stripping efficiency increases with increasing current density; however, the efficiency reaches a maximum and is adversely affected by high over potentials and extended exposure of the sodium to the melt. It appears that some passivation occurs as even a very thin layer of plated sodium exhibits a steady open-circuit voltage over long periods in the melt.

  17. Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products. PMID:24099538

  18. Gas-phase synthesis of l-leucine-coated micrometer-sized salbutamol sulphate and sodium chloride particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janne Raula; Annukka Kuivanen; Anna Lhde; Esko I. Kauppinen

    2008-01-01

    Coating of micrometer-sized particles of salbutamol sulphate or sodium chloride with the amino acid l-leucine in the gas phase is described. A novel method to synthesize core particles and coat them with l-leucine simultaneously was carried out in an aerosol flow reactor. The coating was prepared via temperature-induced heterogeneous nucleation of l-leucine vapor on the 0.61.0m core particles, and subsequent

  19. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  3. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    PubMed

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts. PMID:21621814

  4. An electron spin resonance investigation of irradiated potassium chloride crystals doped with sodium nitroprusside

    E-print Network

    Mayers, Richard Ralph

    1968-01-01

    were run on crystals ground to powder to determine whicn lines were isotropic. In Figure 10 the crystal was heated to 100~C after irradiation and. in Figure 11 the crystal was heated to 200~0. When potassium chloride crystals doped. with sodium... as to style and content by: O-Chairman of' Co ittee) (Co-Chairman oi mmittee) (Head. of De ment) ( i&ieger ) August 196S ABSTRACT An Electron Spin Resonance InvestiEation of Irradiated Potassium Chloride Crystals Doped with Sodium Nitroprusside. (Au...

  5. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  6. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-10-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow.

  7. Effect of lead(II) impurity on the growth of sodium chloride crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Kubota; H. Otosaka; N. Doki; M. Yokota; A. Sato

    2000-01-01

    The growth kinetics of the (100) face of sodium chloride crystals were measured in aqueous solution in the presence of a trace of lead(II) as a function of supersaturation and impurity concentration. The growth kinetic data are analyzed successfully using the kinetic model proposed by Kubota and Mullin [J. Crystal Growth 152 (1995) 203]. The value of the Langmuir constant

  8. Briquetting of fine coal using a sodium chloride binder. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Y. Jr. Crossmore; R. J. Kimball; S. M. Kimball

    1981-01-01

    A pilot scale test study has demonstrated the economic and technological feasibility of producing dense, weather-resistant briquettes from fine particulate bituminous coal. The binder, in the amount of 34\\/100 of 1% of the end product by weight, consisted of a sodium chloride dendritic crystalline matrix. The proclivity for liberation of pyritic sulfur and ash from fine coal particles, minus 10

  9. Haemolysis of various mammalian erythrocytes in sodium chloride, glucose and phosphate-buffer solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiaki Matsuzawa; Yasushi Ikarashi

    1979-01-01

    Summary Mouse, rat, rabbit, hamster, cow, pig, sheep, guinea- pig, dog and human erythrocytes were studied. A 09% or stronger solution of sodium chloride com- pletely prevented haemolysis; sheep and pig erythro- cytes appeared the more fragile, while human and dog erythrocytes were not haemolized in concentrations of 04% or more. Haemolysis of human, rabbit, cow, hamster, guineapig, pig and

  10. Investigation of H-center diffusion in sodium chloride by molecular dynamics simulation

    E-print Network

    Vellekoop, Michel

    Investigation of H-center diffusion in sodium chloride by molecular dynamics simulation by KarunCl crystal on a 200ps timescale using a molecular dynamics simulation. The clustering is measured and mostly of experimental work the project was switched to the theoretical simulations. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations

  11. Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Devices

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Modeling Zinc and Sodium Chloride Migration in Vadose Zone Soils Beneath Stormwater Infiltration in stormwater runoff and a decrease in groundwater recharge. Stormwater runoff contains pollutants (nutrients to the degradation of surface waters below stormwater pipe outfalls. Infiltrating stormwater has been shown

  12. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride on fungal-infected rainbow trout eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theresa M. Schreier; Jeff J. Rach; George E. Howe

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the USA, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture. However, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and their use is

  13. Nucleation and scattering properties of ice cloud due to seeding of sodium chloride as aqueous solution and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sahana; Biswas, L. N.; De, U. K.; Goswami, K.

    Sodium chloride in three forms, as aqueous solution and as dust of two size ranges are seeded in a cold room for heterogeneous ice nucleation in the temperature range between -24 C and 0 C. Maximum nucleation for all the three seeding agents occurs at -21.2 C, which is the eutectic temperature of sodium chloride and water mixture. However, the number density of ice nucleation at the eutectic temperature is highest for the finer variety of dust and lowest for the solution. On the other hand, largest size crystals are produced by the solution and smallest size crystals are produced by the finer variety of dust, at the same temperature. It is observed that the optical properties of ice cloud depends more on the crystal size. The variation of scattering co-efficient, extinction co-efficient and optical depth with temperature are noted for the scattering angles of 30, 36, 144 and 150. The duration of growth of crystals and the same for the subsequent falling down of crystals can be estimated from the time variation of scattering intensity. It is observed that ice crystals due to the solution take maximum time to grow and minimum time to fall down.

  14. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Bar, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry. PMID:22410229

  15. Evidence for electroneutral sodium chloride cotransport in the cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Greger; Eberhard Schlatter; Florian Lang

    1983-01-01

    Previously we have shown that chloride reabsorption in the isolated perfused cortical thick ascending limb of Henle's loop of rabbit (cTAL) is dependent on the presence of sodium and potassium. The present study was performed to elucidate the dependence on chloride in quantitative terms. Ninety-four cTAL segments were perfused at high rates with solutions of varying chloride concentration. Chloride was

  16. Interactive effects of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, calcium sulfate, and calcium chloride on snapbean growth, photosynthesis, and ion uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Awada; W. F. Campbell; L. M. Dudley; J. J. Jurinak; M. A. Khan

    1995-01-01

    Excessive sodium (Na) accumulation in soil, which can be a problem for production agriculture in arid and semiarid regions, may be ameliorated by calcium (Ca). The mechanisms of Ca amelioration of Na stress in plants have received much more attention than has the effect of the anion of the Ca salt. Our objective was to determine the relative effects of

  17. Effects of Temperature and Thiosulfate on Chloride Pitting of Austenitic Stainless Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Laycock

    1999-01-01

    Potentiodynamic polarization curves were measured for types 304 (UNS S30400), 316L (UNS S31603), and 904L (UNS N08904) stainless steels (SS) in 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions with various thiosulfate additions at temperatures from 20 C to 90 C. A minimum concentration of thiosulfate was required for activation of pitting corrosion in each alloy, and this critical value was shown

  18. Spectroscopy and Photochemistry of Adsorbed Molecules: Three Examples on Sodium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Otto Taneli

    The adsorption of small molecules to sodium chloride crystals was investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Results are presented for two forms of substrate: fresh cleavage planes of macroscopic single crystals; and microcrystalline, porous films deposited under vacuum. Carbon dioxide forms an ordered monolayer on the single crystal. The intensity, multiplicity, and polarization dependence of its infrared resonances yield a structural model. Each molecule occupies an identical site, tilted 64 +/- 5 ^circ from the surface normal. The layer consists of two such molecules per unit cell of a herringbone pattern. The spectral features are sensitive to temperature. It is argued that temperature influences the mean molecular tilt, which in turn modulates intermolecular coupling. Analytical models are used to extract an empirical anharmonic potential for the tilting libration. Microcrystalline films were used to document the influence of adsorption on molecular photochemistry. The behavior of ketene (CH_2CO) and sulfur dioxide are compared; both photodissociate in the gas phase. Vibrational resonances are relatively unaffected by adsorption, but the frequency and intensity of electronic transitions are distorted. Following 185 nm excitation, ketene dissociates with near unit efficiency in both the gaseous and adsorbed phases. The dissociation efficiency of SO_2, however, is significantly reduced in the adsorbed phase. Quenching mechanisms are discussed in light of the known dynamical properties of these molecules and NaCl crystals. The relationship between films and single crystals as experimental substrates is also addressed.

  19. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Sang

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in/ex situ study of some of particle synthesis, i.e., growth, attrition, and aggregation, possible with simple systems. Even with these advancements in measurement technology, to grasp fully the crystallization phenomena requires further theoretical and technical advances in understanding such particle synthesis mechanisms. Therefore, it is the motive of this work to establish the general processing parameters and to produce rigorous experimental data with reliable performance and characterization that rigorously account for the crystallization phenomena of nucleation, growth, aggregation, and breakage including their variations with time and space in a controlled continuous mixed-suspension mixed-product removal (CMSMPR) crystallizer. This dissertation reports the results and achievements in the following areas: (1) experimental programs to support the development and validation of the phenomenological models and generation of laboratory data for the purpose of testing, refining, and validating the crystallization process, (2) development of laboratory well-mixed crystallizer system and experimental protocols to generate crystal size distribution (CSD) data, (3) the effects of feed solution concentration, crystallization temperature, feed flow rate, and mixing speed, as well as different types of mixers resulting in the evolution of CSDs with time from a concentrated brine solution, (4) with statistically designed experiments the effects of processing variables on the resultant particle structure and CSD at steady state were quantified and related to each of those operating conditions by studying the detailed crystallization processes, such as nucleation, growth, and breakage, as well as agglomeration. The purification of CaCl2 solution involving the crystallization of NaCl from the solution mixture of CaCl2, KCl, and NaCl as shipped from Dow Chemical, Ludington, in a CMSMPR crystallizer was studied as our model system because of its nucleation and crystal growth tendencies with less agglomeration. This project also generated a significant body of experimental data that are available at URL that is http://www.che.utah.edu/ring/CrystallizationWeb.

  20. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log?? cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log?? cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log?? cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also reduced during storage, but by less than 1.5 log10 cfu/g after 50 d. However, cheese with a 50% reduction in sodium without KCl had higher counts than full-sodium cheese at the end of 50 d of incubation at 4 C when inoculated at 3 mo. When inoculated at 8 mo postmanufacture, this trend was only observed in 50% reduced sodium with KCl, for cheese manufactured with both cultures. This enhanced survival for 50% reduced-sodium cheese was not seen when a higher incubation temperature (12 C) was used when cheese was inoculated at 3 mo of age and monitored for 27 d (no difference in treatments was observed at this incubation temperature). In the event of postprocessing contamination during later stages of ripening, L. monocytogenes was capable of survival in Cheddar cheese regardless of which culture was used, whether or not sodium had been reduced by as much as 50% from standard concentrations, or if KCl had been added to maintain the effective S/M of full-sodium Cheddar cheese. PMID:23910550

  1. [Properties of benzethonium chloride in micellar solutions and the effect of added sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    Kopeck, F; Kopeck, B; Kaclk, P

    2006-07-01

    Aqueous solutions of the antimicrobially effective quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride (hyamine 1622) were studied using UV spectrophotometry and partially conductometry. The spectra of micellar solutions of benzethonium chloride revealed a concentration-dependent bathochromic and hyperchromic shift of a weak UV absorption band in the region 250-300 nm. This served to elaborate the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of benzethonium chloride and the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions without an addition of NaCl and with a constant addition of NaCl 0.003, 0.1 and 0.15 mol/l. Premicellar associations were not observed and in NaCl-free solutions CMC 0.0028 mol/l was spectrophotometrically determined. An addition of NaCl resulted in an increased hyperchromic effect and strengthening of micellization, manifested by a more than ten-times decrease in the CMC as well as the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions. The courses of the determined concentrations of free benzethonium cations in the solutions both without and with the presence of NaCl were quite similar; their maximal values were always just a little higher than the corresponding CMC and with a further growth of the total concentration of benzethonium chloride there was, on the other hand, a marked decrease in the concentration of its free cations in micellar solution. Possible effects of a decreased concentration of free benzethonium cations due to an added electrolyte on antimicrobial activity and formation of ionic pairs are discussed. PMID:16921736

  2. Thermodynamics of aqueous borate solutions I. Mixture of boric acid with sodium or potassium borate and chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Roy, R.N.; Roy, L.N.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Potentials for the cell without liquid junction H/sub 2/, Ptlt. slashB(OH)/sub 3/(m/sub 1/),MB(OH)/sub 4/(m/sub 2/),MCl(m/sub 3/)lt. slashAgCl,Ag where M is sodium or potassium are reported over a range of ionic strength to I = 3 mol-kg/sup -1/ at 5 to 55/sup 0/C. Total boron concentration in the solutions was restricted to low levels to minimize formation of polynuclear boron species. Cell potentials are treated with the Pitzer ion interaction treatment for mixed electrolytes, with linear ionic strength dependence assumed for the activity coefficient of undissociated boric acid. Trace activity coefficients of sodium and potassium borates in chloride media are calculated at various temperatures.

  3. Effects of temperature and thiosulfate on chloride pitting of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Laycock, N.J. (Materials Performance Technologies, Ltd., Lower Hutt (New Zealand))

    1999-06-01

    Potentiodynamic polarization curves were measured for types 304 (UNS S30400), 316L (UNS S31603), and 904L (UNS N08904) stainless steels (SS) in 1 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions with various thiosulfate additions at temperatures from 20 C to 90 C. A minimum concentration of thiosulfate was required for activation of pitting corrosion in each alloy, and this critical value was shown to increase with increasing molybdenum content and to decrease with increasing temperature. Above the critical thiosulfate concentration for type 904L SS, stable pitting occurred at temperatures up to 30 C below the chloride-only critical pitting temperature. In addition, polarization data at high thiosulfate levels exhibited an anodic peak thought to represent the oxidation of elemental sulfur, produced by prior reduction of thiosulfate at potentials < [minus]450 mV[sub Ag-AgCl].

  4. Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2014-08-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm. PMID:24956779

  5. Influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose on the aggregation behavior of aqueous 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Das, Bijan; Ray, Dhiman; De, Ranjit

    2014-11-26

    The influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) on the aggregation phenomena of a surface active ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements. The counterion condensation behavior of NaCMC (aq) and the premicellar ion-association behavior of C16MeImCl (aq) were also investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C16MeImCl micelles appear in C16MeImCl-NaCMC solutions have been identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the charge density parameter of NaCMC on the self-aggregation of the C16MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C16MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. The thermodynamic parameters for micellization of C16MeImCl were estimated both in absence and in the presence of NaCMC. The observed enthalpy-entropy compensation effect in C16MeImCl and C16MeImCl-NaCMC systems provided important insight as to how micellization processes are governed by the bulk structural property of the solution with respect to that of the water. PMID:25256477

  6. Determination of amantadine sulfate in sodium chloride injection by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weifeng; Luo, Xuefang; Hu, Yuzhu

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a new method to determine amantadine sulfate in sodium chloride injection by capillary gas chromatography. The chromatographic conditions of the methods employed a SGE BP-1 capillary column (30 m x 0.53 mm i.d., 1.0-microm film thickness); isothermal elution with N2 at a pressure of 100 KPa; injector, oven, and detector temperatures at 220 degrees C, 110 degrees C, and 220 degrees C, respectively; a split-less mode; and a 1-microL injection volume. Naphthalene was used as the internal standard. Peak purity testing with a Varian Saturn 2200 capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry system (Varian, Inc.) equipped with a DB-5 capillary column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25-microm film thickness) was performed for the investigation of specificity. There was a linear relationship between peak area ratios of analyte to the internal standard and concentration of analyte over the concentration range 0.1-2.0 mg/mL. The recovery was 97.8 approximately 100.7%. The relative standard deviation (%) of intermediate precision was less than 0.8. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.2 microg/mL with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, and 0.7 microg/mL with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, respectively. The results of determination were similar to the titration method. PMID:17089682

  7. Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer. PMID:23948494

  8. Low temperature sodium-beta battery

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C

    2013-11-19

    A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

  9. Swelling of sodium chloride filled polybutadiene networks in water, water\\/ acetone and water\\/THF mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seda Erdal; Ivet Bahar; Burak Erman

    1998-01-01

    The swelling of polybutadiene (PB) networks of different cross-link densities filled with finely divided sodium chloride (NaCI) particles are studied in water, water\\/acetone and water\\/THF mixtures. Swelling over periods of 2 months are recorded. The degree of swelling was observed to increase continuously in water during this period, whereas in water\\/acetone mixtures it reached a peak followed by deswelling and

  10. Active Sodium and Chloride Transport by Anal Papillae of a Salt Water Mosquito Larva (Aedes campestris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Phillips; J. Meredith

    1969-01-01

    ALTHOUGH anal papillae of freshwater mosquito larvae have been extensively investigated and shown to absorb actively sodium, potassium and chloride ions from the external medium1-7, this organ has been assumed to have no function and an impermeable structure in salt water species8,9. Considering insects in general, ``in dilute external solutions the salt water larvae become hyperosmotic to the medium. Salt

  11. CHLORIDE AND SODIUM UPTAKE POTENTIAL OVER AN ENTIRE ROTATION OF POPULUS IRRIGATED WITH LANDFILL LEACHATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl) and sodium (Na) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our

  12. Rapid analysis of liquid formulations containing sodium chloride using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis St-Onge; Elizabeth Kwong; Mohamad Sabsabi; Elizabeth B. Vadas

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities offered by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the direct and rapid analysis of pharmaceutical liquid formulations. Sodium chloride in solution was chosen as a model compound. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser (1064nm) was used to produce a gaseous plasma from the liquid sample. The ensuing plasma emission was spectrally analysed, and

  13. Air drying and colour characteristics of chestnuts pre-submitted to osmotic dehydration with sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Moreira; F. Chenlo; L. Chaguri; G. Vzquez

    2011-01-01

    Air drying kinetics of chestnuts (Castanea sativa Mill.) submitted previously to osmotic dehydration with sodium chloride solutions (22%, w\\/w, 25C, 8h) were experimentally determined. Drying experiments were carried out at 45, 55 and 65C during 32h. Before osmotic dehydration operation, shell and tegument tissue were carefully removed in all samples. Rough external surface was maintained (peeled samples) or also removed

  14. Corrosion and corrosion inhibition of Cu20%Fe alloy in sodium chloride solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. El-Egamy

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and Cu20%Fe alloy was investigated in 1.0M sodium chloride solution of pH 2. The effect of thiourea (TU) addition on the corrosion rate of the Cu20%Fe electrode was also studied. Open-circuit potential measurements (OCP), polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used. The results showed that the corrosion rates of the three

  15. Salinity-resistant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ameliorates sodium chloride stress on tomato plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelam Tank; Meenu Saraf

    2010-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major anthropogenic as well as environmental stresses that reduce plant growth. Results show that even after being adapted up to 6% sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration, all selected isolates were able to solubilize phosphate, and produce phytohormones, siderophores and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme. NT1 was found to exhibit the highest phosphate solubilization zones (25 mm),

  16. The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Hornbk; Tim F. Brocklehurst; Birgitte Bjrn Budde

    2004-01-01

    To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes

  17. Pore shape in the sodium chloride matrix of tablets after the addition of starch as a second component

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu San Wu; Henderik W. Frijlink; Lucas J. van Vliet; Kees van der Voort Maarschalk

    2008-01-01

    The present research aims to test the hypothesis that the addition of a minor component causes a change in pore shape in the matrix of the primary component, causing a decrease in mechanical strength. Tablets made of sodium chloride only and tablets made of a mixture of sodium chloride (97.5% v\\/v) and starch (2.5% v\\/v) were compared. Tablets were subjected

  18. PHYTOTOXICITY OF SALTS IN COMPOSTED SEWAGE SLUDGE AND CORRELATION WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE, CALCIUM NITRATE, AND MAGNESIUM NITRATE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Cai; Ding Gao

    2011-01-01

    The phytotoxicity of salts in composted sewage sludge (CSS) was evaluated. Concentrations of sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) were present at levels that would induce salt stress in plants. Nutrient imbalances were also found that would adversely affect the use of CSS as a growth medium. To further understand the phytotoxic nature of these salts, sodium

  19. Effect of sodium chloride on growth, ion content, and hydrogen ion extrusion activity of sunflower and jojoba roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Burgos; M. Roldan; I. Agui; J. P. Donaire

    1993-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on growth, internal ion content, and proton release of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Enano) and jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneid.] roots was studied in order to understand the relationship between the above parameters and salt tolerance. The increase in sodium (Na) ions concentration and the decrease in calcium (Ca) ion concentration in sunflower

  20. Enhancement with varying phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride on beef biceps femoris quality and sensory characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. T. Baublits; F. W. Pohlman; A BROWNJR; Z. B. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) were used to evaluate the effect of enhancement with solutions containing sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, without sodium chloride. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles enhanced with

  1. CATIONIC HEATS OF TRANSPORT AND VACANCY LIFETIMES IN SINGLE CRYSTALS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE AND POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. RAHMAN; D. A. BLACKBURN

    1976-01-01

    A technique for measuring heats of transport in alkali halides by comparing thermal and electric driving forces and their effects on a. c. ionic conductance has been evolved. Heats of transport in pure NaCl and KC1 single crystals have been found to be temperature depen dent and slightly larger than their respective migration energies.

  2. Solubilities and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of sodium tetraborate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulfate and freezing-temperature lowerings of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Emanuel Manzurola

    2003-01-01

    Solubilities and vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium tetraborate, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulfate and freezing-temperature lowerings of sodium tetraborate and sodium carbonate solutions were determined and compared with the literature data. These results permitted the evaluation of osmotic and activity coefficients and molar enthalpies of vaporization.

  3. Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaey, S. A. M.

    2000-04-01

    The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved with a very low concentration of G ions in weak alkaline media. Pitting corrosion increases with increasing sodium gluconate (SG) concentrations due to a formation of soluble Fe-G complex. The critical pitting potential depends on the chloride and G ion concentrations, pH, scan rate and the composition of the steel. An increase of Mn% in the composition of the steel leads to the increase of the pitting corrosion potential towards the positive direction, i.e., increases the resistance to pitting corrosion. The presence of vanadium in the steel also increases its resistance to pitting corrosion.

  4. The effects of dietary sodium chloride on red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) in fresh and brackish waters

    E-print Network

    Holsapple, Delayne Rhea

    1990-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF DIETARY SODIUM CHLORIDE UN RRD DRUM (~R' o ll t IN FRESH AND BRACKISH WATERS A Thesis DELAYNE RHEA HOLSAPPLE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Stud. ies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... and Brackish Waters. (August 1990) Delayne Rhea Holsapple, B. S. , University of Illinois Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Delbert M. Gatlin III This study was undertaken to determine if dietary salt ld ' fl dothof dd (~d' o lit fresh and brackish waters...

  5. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  6. Inhibition of copper corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution by various forms of the piperidine moiety

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.M.; Rastogi, R.B.; Upadhyay, B.N. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Applied Chemistry)

    1994-08-01

    The inhibition of copper (Cu) corrosion in 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied in the presence of different concentrations of piperidine, piperidine dithiocarbamate, and its Cu(II) complex at 25 C. All three additives were found to be excellent inhibitors of Cu corrosion. The difference in inhibition efficiencies (IE) of the three inhibitors was not large, but the optimum concentration for maximum efficiency was very dependent on the nature of the inhibitor. These molecules may be classified as mixed inhibitors, although this classification was less certain in the case of piperidine, which conferred a large IE without markedly influencing the anodic or cathodic polarization curves.

  7. Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain.

    PubMed

    He, Yanbing; Xu, Shiyuan; Huang, Junjie; Gong, Qingjuan

    2014-05-15

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the specific sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression increased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These findings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1. PMID:25206759

  8. Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain

    PubMed Central

    He, Yanbing; Xu, Shiyuan; Huang, Junjie; Gong, Qingjuan

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the specific sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression increased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These findings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1. PMID:25206759

  9. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground beef treated with sodium lactate and sodium chloride during refrigerated storage

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Kh. I.; Samejima, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium chloride (NaCl), either alone (30 g/kg) or in combination (20+20 g/kg), on the microbiological and chemical quality of raw ground beef during vacuum-packaged storage at 2C were investigated. The results showed that addition of NaL alone or in combination with NaCl significantly delayed the proliferation of aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and extended the shelf life of the product up to 15 and 21 days, respectively, versus 8 days only for control. Over the storage time (21 days), NaL maintained the ground beef at almost constant pH, while the pH of control or NaCl-treated samples significantly decreased. Lipid oxidation (TBA value) was not affected by addition of NaL. At storage day 21 however, TBA values of both NaL-treated (0.309) and control (0.318) samples were significantly lower than those of samples treated with NaCl (0.463). The combination of NaCl with NaL significantly reduced the oxidative changes caused by NaCl (0.384 versus 0.463). Therefore, NaL alone or in combination with NaCl could be utilized successfully to reduce the microbial growth, maintain the chemical quality, and extend the shelf life of ground beef during refrigerated storage. PMID:17330155

  10. Interfacial tensions and phase behavior of alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-sodium chloride systems

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, J.E.; Hemker, D.L.; Gupta, A.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

    1987-02-26

    The phase behavior and interfacial tensions of mixtures of alcohol, alkane, water, and sodium chloride that split into two or three liquid phases at 25/sup 0/C are reported as a function of type of alcohol and alkane and sodium chloride concentration. The patterns of phase and tension behavior are similar to those observed with surfactant-based microemulsion systems but in a higher tension regime. The qualitative patterns of phase and tension behavior in the alcohol systems appear to be characteristic of all amphiphile-oil-brine systems, although the magnitudes of the interfacial tensions of microemulsion against oil-rich or water-rich phases can be some hundredfold smaller than the corresponding tensions of the alcohol-rich phase against oil-rich or water-rich phases. This difference appears to be a distinguishing feature of microemulsions and presumably arises from the relatively large scale of microemulsion microstructure. Microemulsions in multiphase equilibria incorporate tenfold or more water or oil than do corresponding alcohol solutions, and this argues for the topology and persistence of that microstructure.

  11. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  12. Low temperature safety of lithium-thionyl chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Shen, D. H.; Dawson, S.; Halpert, G.

    The use of lithium thionyl chloride cells for low-temperature applications is presently restricted because of their unsafe behavior. An attempt is made in the present investigation to identify the safe/unsafe low temperature operating conditions and to understand the low temperature cell chemistry responsible for the unsafe behavior. Cells subjected to extended reversal at low rate and -40 C were found to explode upon warm-up. Lithium was found to deposit on the carbon cathodes during reversal. Warming up to room temperature may be accelerating the lithium corrosion in the electrolyte. This may be one of the reasons for the cell thermal runaway.

  13. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

  14. The interrelations of mineral colloids and sodium chloride as measured by pH, conductivity, and water-soluble cations

    E-print Network

    Crozier, Baalis B

    1952-01-01

    study of ths effects of soil colloids on determinations of BE, conductivity~ and vster-soluble catioos as influenced by different levels of sodium chloride, it sems imperative that a bnwrledgm of the colloids used in the study be obtained. Because...ng with dilute acids~ by electrodialysis or by precipiatioa in an insoluble fora (5) ~ Sodium oxalate has been observed by Olmstead, Alexander and Middle- ton (42) to be more effective than the carbonate in causing maximum dis- persion; however...

  15. Integral equation theory for the electrode-electrolyte interface with the central force water model. Results for an aqueous solution of sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Vossen; F. Forstmann

    1995-01-01

    The structure of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride at a planar surface is investigated by integral equation techniques. With the central force water model the aqueous electrolyte is modelled as a mixture of sodium and chloride ions, and partially charged hydrogen and oxygen atoms interacting via effective spherically symmetric pair potentials. The correlation functions obtained from the Ornstein-Zernike equation

  16. Dilution method study on the interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural parameters of W\\/O microemulsions stabilized by 1-pentanol and surfactants in absence and presence of sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bidyut K. Paul; Debdurlav Nandy

    2007-01-01

    The phase behaviors, interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural characteristics of water-in-oil microemulsions under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant (?) at 303 K and also by varying temperatures at a fixed ?(=40) by mixing with 1-pentanol and decane or dodecane in absence and presence of sodium chloride have been studied by the method of dilution. The surfactants used

  17. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  18. Container-grown tree seedling responses to sodium chloride applications in different substrates.

    PubMed

    Fostad, O; Pedersen, P A

    2000-08-01

    Seedlings of Norway maple (Acer platanoides), silver birch (Betula pendula), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were grown in selected sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations, soil types and under different watering regimes. Plants were raised from seeds, except for Scots pine plants which were obtained from a commercial source. Among the plant species tested, Scots pine was the most tolerant to soil salinity, while Norway spruce was the most susceptible. For both Norway maple and Norway spruce some half-sib families were more tolerant than others. No significant correlation was found between the tolerance of different half-sib families and the tolerance of mother trees observed in the field. The extent of leaf necrosis correlated significantly with the leaf concentrations of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Among half-sib families within the species no such correlation was found. On the other hand, the least injured progeny of Norway maples had the highest concentrations of NaCl. The extent of salt-induced leaf necrosis varied with soil type, and a significant interaction between species and soil type was observed. Seedlings of Norway spruce grown in sand showed more severe necrosis and significantly higher concentrations of Na and Cl than seedlings grown in loam, silt loam, and peat. The severity of salt-induced leaf injury varied with the watering regime. Silver birch was the most affected species by drought and autumn watering treatments. Plants of silver birch subjected to drought showed increased leaf necrosis compared to the non-treated plants, and autumn watering treatment reduced the severity of leaf necrosis. PMID:15092891

  19. Impacts of venturi turbulent mixing on the size distributions of sodium chloride and dioctyl-phthalate aerosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Dawn Cheng; John M. Storey; Thomas Wainman; Thang Dam

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if turbulent mixing created by the ejector causes change in the size distribution of particles passing through it. The results using dry solid sodium chloride (NaCl) particles show no discernible difference in the geometric mean diameter and the geometric standard deviation of particles passing through the ejector. Similar results were found for

  20. Sodium chloride stimulus-response experiments in spiral wound reverse osmosis membranes: a new method to detect fouling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roth; M. Kessler; B. Fabre; A. Accary

    1999-01-01

    Fouling is generally described in terms of salt rejection and permeation flow, but these data seem to evolve very slowly, and when they reach a dramatic level, fouling is irreversible. We propose a method to determine the state of the wear of membranes by analyzing sodium chloride stimulus-response experiments. Indeed, it turns out that the shape of the distribution (RTD)

  1. The Application of the Gas-Solid Virial Expansion to Argon Absorbed on the (100) Face of Sodium Chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. House; M. J. Jaycock

    1976-01-01

    The gas-solid virial expansion is developed for argon adsorbed on the (100) sodium chloride surface. Limiting parameters for the attractive components of the gas-ion interaction are suggested and the corresponding repulsive parameters for the Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, F-, Cl-, Br- and I- ions are determined from an analysis of alkali halide bulk crystal data. The second two dimensional

  2. In situ activation of ?-galactosidase of Kluyveromyces bulgaricus resting cells by sodium and potassium phosphates and chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. van Huynh; M. Decleire

    1985-01-01

    Incubation of Kluyveromyces bulgaricus in sodium and potassium salts led to in vivo activation of -galactosidase. The activation reaction was relatively slow since, at 37C, it took 30 min to come to completion. The reaction was irreversible and was favoured by high salt concentrations with chlorides proving to be more efficient than phosphates. After incubation in KCl, the final activity

  3. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  4. Irrigation with mercury chloride and sodium hypochlorite to prevent local recurrence after excision of conjunctival melanoma. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    van Delft, J L; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D; Oosterhuis, J A

    1983-12-15

    Two chemical agents, sodium hypochlorite 0.5% (Dakin's solution) and mercury chloride 0.1%, capable of killing seeded tumour cells, were used for washing the cornea and conjunctiva of rabbits. Both agents produced considerable superficial lesions in the cornea and conjunctiva after irrigation for 3 and 5 min, but these were restored to normal after 2 weeks. PMID:6229399

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (?) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  6. Regulation of OSR1 and the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter by convergent signals

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Samarpita; Lorente-Rodrguez, Andrs; Earnest, Svetlana; Stippec, Steve; Guo, Xiaofeng; Trudgian, David C.; Mirzaei, Hamid; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2013-01-01

    The Ste20 family protein kinases oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) and the STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase directly regulate the solute carrier 12 family of cation-chloride cotransporters and thereby modulate a range of processes including cell volume homeostasis, blood pressure, hearing, and kidney function. OSR1 and STE20/SPS1-related proline-, alanine-rich kinase are activated by with no lysine [K] protein kinases that phosphorylate the essential activation loop regulatory site on these kinases. We found that inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) reduced OSR1 activation by osmotic stress. Inhibition of the PI3K target pathway, the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), by depletion of Sin1, one of its components, decreased activation of OSR1 by sorbitol and reduced activity of the OSR1 substrate, the sodium, potassium, two chloride cotransporter, in HeLa cells. OSR1 activity was also reduced with a pharmacological inhibitor of mTOR. mTORC2 phosphorylated OSR1 on S339 in vitro, and mutation of this residue eliminated OSR1 phosphorylation by mTORC2. Thus, we identify a previously unrecognized connection of the PI3K pathway through mTORC2 to a Ste20 protein kinase and ion homeostasis. PMID:24191005

  7. Experimental evaluation of sodium silicate-based nanosilica against chloride effects in offshore concrete.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (-) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  8. Ether-based nonflammable electrolyte for room temperature sodium battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Lifei; Yang, Jian; Xiong, Shenglin; Qian, Yitai

    2015-06-01

    Safety problem is one of the key points that hinder the development of room temperature sodium batteries. In this paper, four well-known nonflammable organic compounds, Trimethyl Phosphate (TMP), Tri(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite (TFEP), Dimethyl Methylphosphonate (DMMP), Methyl nonafluorobuyl Ether (MFE), are investigated as nonflammable solvents in sodium batteries for the first time. Among them, MFE is stable towards sodium metal at room temperature. The electrochemical properties and electrode compatibility of MFE based electrolyte are investigated. Both Prussian blue cathode and carbon nanotube anode show good electrochemical performance retention in this electrolyte. The results suggest that MFE is a promising option as nonflammable electrolyte additive for sodium batteries.

  9. [Chemical diagnosis of sodium chloride poisoning in thoroughbred fur-bearing animals (foxes, coypu) and in turkeys and pheasants].

    PubMed

    Kacmr, P; Samo, A; Knezik, J

    1980-12-01

    For laboratory diagnosis of sodium chloride poisoning, the concentration of chlorides was polarographically determined in the liver of minks (seven-month-old and older), polar and silver foxes (eight-month-old and older), coypus (nine to ten month old), turkeys (three-month-old), and pheasants. The physiological concentration of sodium chloride in the liver of mink (n = 32) is 2.47 to 3.64 g kg-1, polar foxes (n = 30) 2.46 to 4.23 g kg-1, silver foxes (n =3) 3.27 to 3.44 g kg-1, coypu (n = 23) 1.79 to 3.05 g kg-1, turkeys (n = 30) 1.0 to 2.1 g kg-1, and pheasants (n = 28) 0.95 to 2.37 g kg-1. The exposure of the organism of a pheasant to single lethal doses of common salt (3.4 and 5 g NaCl per kg 1. w.) resulted in a 2.5- to 6-fold increase of salt concentration in liver, as compared with physiological concentration. A decreased concentration of sodium chloride (lower than the physiological standard) was found in the liver of deceased lactating minks. PMID:6781123

  10. The electrodeposition of metals and alloys from the room-temperature aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Robert Pitner

    1997-01-01

    The electrochemistry of cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc was investigated in the room-temperature Lewis acidic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Concentrated solutions of Co(II), Cu(I), Ni(II), and Zn(II) were produced by anodization of the respective metal, and each of these metals could be electrodeposited from these solutions. Bulk deposits were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and

  11. Current Concepts of Sodium Chloride and Water Transport by the Mammalian Nephron

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Paul F.; Maddox, David A.; Brenner, Barry M.

    1974-01-01

    The decision of the editors to solicit a review for the Medical Progress series of this journal devoted to current concepts of the renal handling of salt and water is sound in that this important topic in kidney physiology has recently been the object of a number of new, exciting and, in some instances, quite unexpected insights into the mechanisms governing sodium excretion. These developments have come about largely as a consequence of the fact that segments of nephrons previously inaccessible to direct study are now readily accessible. Many of the findings to be discussed argue for extensive revision of a number of our current widely held views concerning the renal handling of sodium chloride and water. In the opinion of the authors, the strength of this argument rests in the fact that many of these new findings were obtained under circumstances that enabled workers to gain more direct access to the nephron than has been possible heretofore. This is not to say that areas of controversy and disagreement no longer exist. Wherever possible, these have been identified. In attempting to provide a comprehensive review of this topic, it has been necessary at times to overgeneralize and to disregard minor deficiencies in some of the studies cited. Finally, we wish to emphasize that a considerable portion of the information contained herein derives from work still under active investigation. Much of this contemporary work will undoubtedly withstand the rigors of future experimental scrutiny. It is inevitable, however, as William James so aptly noted in the quotation cited below, that some of our present ideas will need to be abandoned or revised in favor of newer, more convincing evidence. Seen in this light, the present effort is intended as nothing more than a timely survey of this active and fertile topic in renal physiology. PMID:4590888

  12. Briquetting of fine coal using a sodium chloride binder. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crossmore, E.Y. Jr.; Kimball, R.J.; Kimball, S.M.

    1981-10-01

    A pilot scale test study has demonstrated the economic and technological feasibility of producing dense, weather-resistant briquettes from fine particulate bituminous coal. The binder, in the amount of 34/100 of 1% of the end product by weight, consisted of a sodium chloride dendritic crystalline matrix. The proclivity for liberation of pyritic sulfur and ash from fine coal particles, minus 10 Mesh x 0, has rekindled interest among producers and consumers of coal as to pre-combustion Deep Cleaning, in efforts to comply with clean air standards. Process technology as to coal beneficiation presently is producing fine sized particles. A major hurdle is handling the material after treatment. Besides being a definite safety hazard, it is extremely difficult to transport and impossible to stockpile resulting fines. Present general practice includes dewatering, if size permits, then thermal drying to some moisture level, say 10%. The dried fines are then blended with one or more produced fractions and shipped. This in itself is counter-productive as the difference in moisture content between these fines and that marketed can be as high as 8% or some 1000 Btus per pound. Reconstitution of this fine particulate seemed a reasonable solution to this situation and accordingly this study has been made. Briquettes have been produced which are equivalent to lump natural coal as to physical attributes. Generally, their heat value is greater as they contain less moisture and subjective burn tests for the product show a fouling index increase range from 10.5% for the low volatile seam to a high of 15.4% for the high volatile seam due to the sodium content of the additive. The scale-up cost for a 10 ton/hour operation including labor and capital servicing-payback is calculated to be $16.68 per ton.

  13. Investigation of Longitudinal Variation by Using Sodium Temperature Lidar Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. Ejiri; T. Nakamura; T. D. Kawahara; G. G. Shepherd; J. D. Oberheide; K. Shiokawa

    2009-01-01

    Recent observation and model studies show not only latitudinal variation but also large longitudinal variations of density, temperature, and dynamics in the middle atmosphere and ionosphere. Long-term observations by sodium temperature lidar at the mid-latitude were mainly in the US longitude [e.g., She et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2005]. In the Western Pacific longitude, occurrence rate of sporadic sodium

  14. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  15. Effects of organics on efflorescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yonggang; Yu, Liya E.; Chen, Shing Bor

    The effect of a water-soluble organics on efflorescence relative humidity (ERH) of ammonium sulfate or sodium chloride particles is theoretically investigated on the basis of a previously developed model for ERH of single-component particles [Gao et al., 2006. Efflorescence relative humidity for ammonium sulfate particles Journal of Physical Chemistry A 110, 7602-7608]. The central assumption made is that one species nucleates much faster than the other, and the critical nuclei formation of the former controls the rate of efflorescence. The water-soluble organics (WSOs) appeared to suppress the ERH of salt particles; the decrease in ERH can be more than 30% RH when the mole fraction of WSO is larger than 0.5. The developed model satisfactorily makes quantitative prediction only for the ERH of mixed particles containing WSO with low-surface active nature (glycerol, levoglucosan, and malonic acid). For mixed particles having more surface-active WSO (glutaric and maleic acid), the inaccurate prediction is attributable to the negligence of interactions between solutes and the estimation of interfacial tension between nuclei and the mixed solution.

  16. Sodium Chloride Increases A? Levels by Suppressing A? Clearance in Cultured Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimers disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the amyloid cascade hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase A? levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear A? and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing A? when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating A? levels. PMID:26075716

  17. Saturated Sodium Chloride Solution under an External Static Electric Field: a Molecular Dynamics Study

    E-print Network

    Gan Ren; Yanting Wang

    2015-05-02

    The behavior of saturated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under a constant external electric field (E) was studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Our dynamic MD simulations have indicated that the irreversible nucleation process towards crystallization is accelerated by a moderate E, but retarded or even prohibited under a stronger E, which can be understood by the competition between self-diffusion and drift motion. The former increases with E resulting in the acceleration of the nucleation process, and the latter tears oppositely charged ions more apart under a stronger E leading to the deceleration of nucleation. Moreover, our steady-state MD simulations have indicated that a first-order phase transition happens in saturated solutions only when the applied E is below a certain threshold Ec, and the ratio of crystallized ions does not change with the electric field. The magnitude of Ec increases with concentration, because larger clusters are easy to form in a more concentrated solution and require a stronger E to dissociate them.

  18. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill A. Zalesny; Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; Adam H. Wiese; Bart Sexton; Richard B. Hall

    2008-01-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl?) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6N, 89.4W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na+ and

  19. Dipsogenic potentiation by sodium chloride but not by sucrose or polyethylene glycol in tuberomammillary-mediated polydipsia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Maha; A. Bernal; A. Puerto

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dipsogenic mechanisms involved in the recently discovered tuberomammillary (TM)-mediated\\u000a polydipsia. Rats with bilateral electrolytic lesions of each TM subnucleus underwent several dipsogenic treatments, both osmotic\\u000a and volemic. Animals with ventral (E2) or medial TM lesions (E3 or E4) showed a potentiated hyperdipsic response to hypertonic\\u000a sodium chloride administration but not to

  20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate coated poly (vinyl) chloride: An alternative support for solid phase extraction of some transition and heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farzaneh Marahel; Mehrorang Ghaedi; Ardeshir Shokrollahi; Morteza Montazerozohori; Shahnaz Davoodi

    2009-01-01

    A simple and relatively fast approach for developing a solid phase extraction has been described and used for determination of trace quantities of some heavy and transition metal ions with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-coated poly vinyl chloride (PVC) modified with bis(2-hydroxyacetophenone)-1,4-butanediimine (BHABDI) ligand.The adsorbed ions were stripped from the solid phase by 10mL of 3M nitric acid as eluent. The

  1. Time courses of equilibration for ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate in the Z/3 crystallization plate.

    PubMed

    Arakali, S V; Easley, S; Luft, J R; DeTitta, G T

    1994-07-01

    Time courses of equilibration for three salts, sodium chloride, ammonium sulfate and magnesium sulfate heptahydrate have been measured in the Z/3 crystallization plate. It is shown that by varying both the diffusant and the reservoir depth the time taken to equilibrate can be as short as 200 or as long as 1400 h. Thus, the present design of the plate should accommodate a wide variety of desired crystallization kinetics. PMID:15299405

  2. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Type 403 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride at 95?C Under Different Heat Treatment Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Gonzalez-Rodriguez; V. M. Salinas-Bravo; A. G. Martinez-Villafae

    1999-01-01

    Slow strain rate tests were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the stress corrosion cracking (SC) susceptibility of type AISI 34 (UNS S40300) martensitic stainless steel in 20% sodium chloride (NaCl) at 95 C. Heat treatments included water-quenched, quenched, and tempered at 200 C, 400 C, and 600 C and annealed at 850 C. When tested in

  3. Production of sodium-chloride-tolerant Brassica juncea plants by in vitro selection at the somatic embryo level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Kirti; S. Hadi; P. A. Kumar; V. L. Chopra

    1991-01-01

    Somatic embryos, developed from hypocotyl segments of light-grown seedlings of Brassica juncea cv RLM198, were subjected to selection at varying concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl). Plants were developed from proliferated somatic embryos selected on NaCl-containing medium. The selections were characterized for salt tolerance, esterase isozyme pattern, and proline accumulation. It has been found that: (i) selected tolerant lines showed better

  4. Effect of temperature on the durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated radioactive liquid waste: synergy of chloride and sulphate ions.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-06-15

    The durability of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) rich in a mixed sodium chloride and sulphate solution is presented here. The effect of the temperature and potential synergic effect of chloride and sulfate ions are discussed. This study has been carried out according to the Koch-Steinegger test, at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C during a period of 180 days. The durability has been evaluated by the changes of the flexural strength of mortar, fabricated with this cement, immersed in a simulated radioactive liquid waste rich in sulfate (0.5M), chloride (0.5M) and sodium (1.5M) ions--catalogued like severely aggressive for the traditional Portland cement--and demineralised water, which was used as reference. The reaction mechanism of sulphate, chloride and sodium ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the chloride binding and formation of Friedel's salt was inhibited by the presence of sulphate. Sulphate ion reacts preferentially with the calcium aluminate hydrates forming non-expansive ettringite which precipitated inside the pores; the microstructure was refined and the mechanical properties enhanced. This process was faster and more marked at 40 degrees C. PMID:19056176

  5. EVALUATION OF SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE MICROTOX R ASSAY: COMPARISON TO FISH AND CLADOCERAN TESTS WITH FRESHWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). he latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose for osmotic protection of the...

  6. Suppression by iron chelator phenanthroline of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl- N?-nitro- N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masaharu Tatsuta; Hiroyasu Iishi; Miyako Baba; Tomiko Mikuni; Hiroyuki Narahara; Noriya Uedo; Hiroyuki Yano

    2003-01-01

    The effect of prolonged administration of iron chelator phenanthroline on sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N?-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labeling and apoptotic indices in the gastric cancers was investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, the rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and intraperitoneal injections of phenanthroline at doses of 15 or 30 mg\\/kg

  7. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P < 0.05) because of a reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants. PMID:15270822

  8. Investigation of Longitudinal Variation by Using Sodium Temperature Lidar Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejiri, M. K.; Nakamura, T.; Kawahara, T. D.; Shepherd, G. G.; Oberheide, J. D.; Shiokawa, K.

    2009-05-01

    Recent observation and model studies show not only latitudinal variation but also large longitudinal variations of density, temperature, and dynamics in the middle atmosphere and ionosphere. Long-term observations by sodium temperature lidar at the mid-latitude were mainly in the US longitude [e.g., She et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2005]. In the Western Pacific longitude, occurrence rate of sporadic sodium (Nas) layer were reported by statistical analysis of sodium density profiles [Nagasawa and Abo, 1995; Gong et al., 2002]. However, vertical distributions of temperature in the mesosphere and lower-thermosphere (MLT) region were not measured well. We have observed the temperature and sodium density profiles since August, 2007 at Uji (34.9oN, 135.8oE) located 25 km west from Shigaraki Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) observatory by a sodium temperature lidar, which was developed by Shinshu University and National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) and was operated at Syowa in Antarctica, in order to reveal these variations in the Western Pacific longitude. These profiles for 147 nights (more than 1300 hours) have been obtained. Comparisons of seasonal variations of these profiles between Japan and the US longitudes showed some similarities and differences. Sodium density in Japan showed similar seasonal variation to that in the US, except for an enhancement (90-100 km) in June-July caused by Nas in Japan. Temperatures below 98 km showed semi-annual variation in both longitudes, but months of temperature maximum were slightly different. Because the long-term observation periods are different between Japan and the US, the differences between two longitudes include longitudinal variation and also year-to-year variation. An estimate for the vertical motion associated with long-period waves such as the tides can be determined from the temperature perturbations assuming long-period wave motions are adiabatic. A remarkable increase of sodium column density of 70-120 km and OI (557.7 nm) emission were observed on December 9, 2007, simultaneously. The sodium lidar temperature profiles showed long-period wave with a downward phase propagation, and vertical displacement of atomic oxygen, oxygen, and nitrogen estimated from the temperature profiles could explain the OI enhancement. The long-period wave was probably a part of tides, which had unusual large amplitude shown by TIMED/SABER temperature measurements. Further studies of detailed comparison with the Na lidar results in the US, as well as investigation of atmospheric stability characteristics and its longitudinal dependencies are being carried out under collaboration between Japan, the US and China.

  9. The Impact of Organic Coatings on Light Scattering by Sodium Chloride Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezell, M. J.; Li, Y.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.; Airuci

    2010-12-01

    Aerosol particles adversely effect human health, degrade visibility, and affect climate directly due to light scattering and/or absorption and indirectly by influencing cloud properties. Sea salt is a major contributor to the burden of atmospheric particles over oceans and coastal areas, and salt particles are emitted from dry lakes as well. Laboratory nephelometer measurements of light scattering from monodisperse and polydisperse salt particles alone or with an organic coating were made simultaneously along with their size distributions determined by a scanning mobility particle sizer. Presented here are comparisons of the measured light scattering coefficients at 450, 550, and 700 nm with calculations (based on known composition and measured particle size distributions) using a Mie theory algorithm. Validation of the algorithm and measurement methods was achieved by comparing measurements and calculations for standard monodisperse polystyrene latex spheres and dioctylphthalate particles with a narrow size distribution. Tandem DMA methods were then used to produce monodisperse sodium chloride particles and scattering from these seed particles both alone as well as with an organic coating generated from the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene were compared with theory. The results indicate 1) significant sensitivity of the predicted light scattering to the assumption of a Boltzman equilibrium charge distribution on the particles; 2) a weak dependence due to the change in refractive index of an organic coating ; 3) a much stronger dependence on the increase in size resulting from particle growth regardless of composition; and 4) only a minor dependence on assumptions of internal or external mixing for NaCl/organic composite particles. The atmospheric implications will be discussed.

  10. Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

    2013-12-15

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 g/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis. PMID:24209304

  11. Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

    2013-07-01

    The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials. PMID:23750871

  12. From lithium to sodium: cell chemistry of room temperature sodium-air and sodium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Adelhelm, Philipp; Hartmann, Pascal; Bender, Conrad L; Busche, Martin; Eufinger, Christine; Janek, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Research devoted to room temperature lithium-sulfur (Li/S8) and lithium-oxygen (Li/O2) batteries has significantly increased over the past ten years. The race to develop such cell systems is mainly motivated by the very high theoretical energy density and the abundance of sulfur and oxygen. The cell chemistry, however, is complex, and progress toward practical device development remains hampered by some fundamental key issues, which are currently being tackled by numerous approaches. Quite surprisingly, not much is known about the analogous sodium-based battery systems, although the already commercialized, high-temperature Na/S8 and Na/NiCl2 batteries suggest that a rechargeable battery based on sodium is feasible on a large scale. Moreover, the natural abundance of sodium is an attractive benefit for the development of batteries based on low cost components. This review provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries and a direct comparison with the analogous sodium systems. The general properties, major benefits and challenges, recent strategies for performance improvements and general guidelines for further development are summarized and critically discussed. In general, the substitution of lithium for sodium has a strong impact on the overall properties of the cell reaction and differences in ion transport, phase stability, electrode potential, energy density, etc. can be thus expected. Whether these differences will benefit a more reversible cell chemistry is still an open question, but some of the first reports on room temperature Na/S8 and Na/O2 cells already show some exciting differences as compared to the established Li/S8 and Li/O2 systems. PMID:25977873

  13. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples. PMID:22365197

  14. Anodic mineralization of organic substrates in chloride-containing aqueous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bonfatti; A. De Battisti; S. Ferro; G. Lodi; S. Osti

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemical incineration of glucose in alkaline media, in the presence of sodium chloride, has been investigated. The process has been followed through the dependence of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content, on electrolysis duration, t. The influence of current density, sodium chloride concentration, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration on the rate of COD abatement has been followed.

  15. A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures. ?? 1983.

  16. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate: A practical synthesis of unsymmetrical ureas

    PubMed Central

    Vinogradova, Ekaterina V.; Fors, Brett P.; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N'-di- and N,N,N'-trisubstituted ureas in one pot, and is tolerant of a wide range of functional groups. Insight into the mechanism of aryl isocyanate formation is gleaned through studies of the transmetallation and reductive elimination steps of the reaction, including the first demonstration of reductive elimination from an arylpalladium isocyanate complex to produce an aryl isocyanate. PMID:22716197

  18. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  19. Concrete surface treatment: Effect of exposure temperature on chloride diffusion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.R.; Dhir, R.K.; Gill, J.P. (Univ. of Dundee (United Kingdom))

    1995-01-01

    An investigation is reported on the influence of exposure temperature on the chloride diffusion properties of 7 widely used surface treatment systems for concrete. The variation in dry film thickness, based on the manufacturers recommended application rate, is measured. Chloride diffusion is determined for both treated concrete and standardized sintered glass substrates. It is shown that while all surface treatment systems perform best at low and medium exposure temperatures, the chloride flux through treatments applied to concrete and sintered glass substrates differs greatly. Based on this study, a tentative classification of the surface treatment systems for different exposure temperatures has been developed.

  20. Effects of Road Density and Road-Salt Application Practices on Sodium and Chloride Loads to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, M. C.; Nimiroski, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Scituate Reservoir drainage basin is the drinking-water source area for two thirds of the population of Rhode Island. The effects of road density and road-salt-application practices on sodium and chloride concentrations in streams in the drainage basin were examined using concentration data collected at intervals of one to six months from January 1982 through June 2000 at 32 stream sites distributed throughout the basin. Median concentrations of sodium and chloride for individual streams during the period of data collection were related to 1995 road densities (road miles per square mile of subbasin) for roads maintained by the Rhode Island Department of Transportation (State-maintained roads) and for roads maintained by the four municipalities in the drainage basin (locally maintained roads). Nearly 60 percent of the variation in median stream sodium and chloride concentrations was accounted for by the variation in density of State-maintained roads (R2= 0.595, p < 0.0001). In contrast, no correlations could be identified between median concentrations of sodium and chloride in streams and the densities of locally maintained roads in the subbasins (R2 = 0.001, p = 0.8771). Also, there was no difference in the relations between median stream sodium concentrations and subbasin road densities for data collected before and after a 1990 State-mandated reduction in the rate of application of sodium during winter deicing of State-maintained roads. Analysis of data on sources of sodium and chloride in the Scituate Reservoir drainage basin during water year 2000 (October 1999 through September 2000) indicates that, while the lengths and densities of locally maintained roads were greater than those of State-maintained roads in most subbasins, the total amount of sodium applied during water year 2000 was nearly three times greater for State-maintained roads than for locally maintained roads. This would be expected, given that State-maintained roads carry more traffic at higher speeds than do locally maintained roads. In addition, the State-maintained roads tend to have more efficient drainage systems that quickly transport runoff directly to the streams. The lack of effect of the reduced sodium application rate on the relation between median stream sodium concentration and density of State-maintained roads may be due to inaccurate monitoring of application rates or to mobilization of sodium previously applied and stored in drainage basin soils. Thus, the amounts of sodium and chloride transported by tributary streams to the Scituate Reservoir depend more on the type of roads and other conditions in the tributary subbasins than on the actual length or density of the roads.

  1. An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

    2014-09-01

    Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

  2. Organoaqueous calcium chloride electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in carbon nanotubes at sub-zero-temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yun; Qin, Zhanbin; Guan, Li; Wang, Xiaomian; Chen, George Z

    2015-06-23

    Solutions of calcium chloride in mixed water and formamide are excellent electrolytes for capacitive charge storage in partially oxidised carbon nanotubes at unprecedented sub-zero-temperatures (e.g. 67% capacitance retention at -60 C). PMID:26060845

  3. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams in the system water/sodium chloride/heptane/1-butanol/sodium dodecyl sulphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gilje, E.; Maledal, T. (Production Lab., Statoil, Box 300, N-4491 Stavanger (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    An entirely empirical model for estimating the pseudo-components in quarternary microemulsion systems has been adopted. Data for the system water/NaCl/ heptane/1-butanol/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) are used in the empirical model. In this paper calculated phase volumes and interfacial tensions are compared with experimental data. Further, a calculated pseudo-ternary phase diagram is compared with the data obtained from an experimental phase diagram where the pseudo-components are determined from the model. The results show a good agreement between calculated and experimental data.

  4. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  5. Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant

    DOEpatents

    Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

    1983-11-25

    This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

  6. A New Approach to Determining Gas-Particle Reaction Probabilities and Application to the Heterogeneous Reaction of Deliquesced Sodium Chloride Particles with Gas-Phase Hydroxyl Radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Laskin, Alexander; Wang, Hai; Robertson, William H.; Cowin, James P.; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2006-09-14

    The reaction kinetics for gaseous hydroxyl radicals (OH) with deliquesced sodium chloride particles (NaClaq) were investigated using a novel experimental approach. The technique utilizes the exposure of substrate-deposited aerosol particles to reactive gases followed by chemical analysis of the particles using computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) capability. Experiments were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure with deliquesced NaCl particles in the micron size range at 70-80% RH and with OH concentrations in the range of 1 to 7?109 cm-3. The apparent, pseudo first-order rate constant for the reaction was determined from measurements of changes in the chloride concentration of individual particles upon reaction with OH as a function of the particle loading on the substrate. Quantitative treatment of the data using a model that incorporates both diffusion and reaction kinetics yields a lower-limit to the net reaction probability of ?net > 0.1, with an overall uncertainty of a factor of two.

  7. High pressure high temperature elasticity study of sodium disilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

    2011-12-01

    Many deep earth geophysical phenomena observed are related to physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions. Understanding the structures and physical properties of silicate melts at a fundamental level is essential to help us understand the dynamics of mineral crystallization and fractionation, thermal transport, etc. inside the Earth. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good analog for studying amorphous phase basalt since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Besides, sodium disilicate is not only simple in chemistry but also has a low melting point, thus permitting detailed experimental studies using currently available techniques. Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was ground into powder and loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell. The PE high pressure apparatus was installed inside the 16-BM-B hutch at the Advanced Photon Source. In our experiment, the glass sample was pressed up to 2GPa and heated up to 1000oC. At various pressure and temperature conditions, ultrasonic elastic wave velocities of the amorphous sample were collected using the pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer mounted on one end of the PE anvil. White beam x-ray radiographs that covered the entire length of the sample were also collected to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Experimental results show that before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure), the transverse wave velocity remains nearly constant with increasing temperature, while the longitudinal wave velocity decreases monotonically. A sudden drop in transverse wave velocity is observed above the glass transition temperature at 800oC. Within the 2GPa pressure range, we did not observe clear pressure dependence of the elastic wave velocities in sodium disilicate glass.

  8. An electron spin resonance investigation of irradiated potassium chloride crystals doped with sodium nitroprusside

    E-print Network

    Mayers, Richard Ralph

    1968-01-01

    ~ed to NO3 could not be due to iron. Three of these radi- cals were found in the spectrum of irradiated sodium nitroprusside crystals. The spectrum assigned to )Fel(CN)5NOI ~" in sodium nitroprusside was never de- tected in the doped crystals. One peak... OF CENTERS ABSORPTION DUE TO CENTERS PREVIOUS NORK EXPEHIs' ENTAL PHOCED JR ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF SPECTRA CONCLUSIONS ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ REFERENCES ~ VITA ~ Page iii vii viii 27 50 52 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE I' F...

  9. Research note: sodium and potassium chloride drinking water supplementation effects on acid-base balance and plasma corticosterone in broilers reared in thermoneutral and heat-distressed environments.

    PubMed

    Deyhim, F; Teeter, R G

    1991-12-01

    One experiment utilizing 188 Vantress x Arbor Acres broilers was conducted to evaluate the effects of isomolar KCl (.5%) and NaCl (.39%) drinking water supplementation on venous pH, PO2, PCO2, HCO3-, hematocrit, and plasma corticosterone as well as rectal temperature and water consumption of broilers reared in heat-distressed and thermoneutral environments. Birds were allotted at 5 wk posthatch into either a thermoneutral (TN; 24 C) or cycling temperature (24 to 35 C) environmental chamber. Heat-distressed (HD) controls had elevated (P less than .05) body temperature (42.9 versus 41.7 C) and PO2 (144.5 versus 108.4 mm Hg). Blood pH, PCO2, and HCO3- (P greater than .1) were not affected by high ambient temperature, but hematocrit (31 versus 32%) for HD controls was reduced (P = .07) compared with TN control birds. At 35 C, drinking water NaCl supplementation decreased (P less than .05) venous PCO2 and HCO3-, increased (P less than .05) PO2, and had no effect on venous pH and water consumption relative to HD controls. Potassium chloride lowered (P = .07) venous pH, decreased (P less than .05) HCO3-, and increased water consumption at 35 C, but PO2 and PCO2 were unaffected relative to HD controls. Heat distress increased (P less than .05) plasma corticosterone by 53%. Sodium chloride failed to impact (P greater than .1) plasma corticosterone but KCl reduced (P less than .05) its concentration during heat distress and increased (P less than .05) bird survivability as compared with heat-distressed controls. The data reported herein suggests that KCl and to a lesser extent NaCl reduces HD consequences by a mechanism as yet undefined. PMID:1784578

  10. A Solution NMR Investigation into the Early Events of Amelogenin Nanosphere Self-Assembly Initiated with Sodium Chloride or Calcium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Buchko, Garry W.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L.; Shaw, Wendy J.

    2009-01-01

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early events governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (?c) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to ~10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly. PMID:19086270

  11. The influence of ultrasound frequency on the shape of the D-line of Na in the sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeychuk, T. V.; Kazachek, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    The multibubble sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate saturated with argon were measured around the D-line of Na under irradiation with ultrasound with a frequency of 20 and 870 kHz. The Na line had a complex shape and incorporated two overlapping components: an asymmetrically broadened shifted band and a narrow unshifted doublet. The Na line in the spectra of the dodecylsulfate solution was notably narrower than the line in the NaCl solution spectra at both ultrasound frequencies. At the same time, the changes in the line shape observed upon the transition from one frequency to the other in these two solutions were similar. The line was narrower and had a prominent narrow component at a frequency of 870 kHz, and the line was broader with a dominant broad component at a frequency of 20 kHz. The results are discussed within the context of different dynamics of bubbles at high and low ultrasound frequencies.

  12. Temperature controlled icy dust reservoir of sodium: A possible mechanism for the formation of sporadic sodium layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shican; Tang, Yihuan; Dou, Xiankang

    2015-06-01

    Using seven years, from 2006 to 2013, sodium lidar observations over Hefei, China (31.80N, 117.3E), we attempt to propose a possible mechanism for the formation of sporadic sodium layers (SSLs or NaS). We analyze the relationship between low temperature (<150 K) and SSL occurrence and detect a statistically significant link that the low temperature (<150 K) occur in three days before an SSL with an occurrence rate of 93.4% (57/61). The sharp decrease of water vapor concentration nearby before an SSL and the recover after the SSL are also detected frequently. Based upon these evidences and some case studies, we propose an icy dust reservoir in the formation of an SSL. The icy dust could form in the extremely cold mesopause region where the temperature falls below 150 K and it will absorb sodium atoms to form a solid sodium metal film as a sodium reservoir. The icy dust will then sublimate rapidly when meeting with warm air (e.g., 150 K < T < 190 K) and leave behind the solid metal atom film. The remanent sodium film might release vapor sodium atoms finally by some means through high temperature (e.g., >190 K and sometimes even >230 K) and form a sporadic sodium layer. Although not conclusive and highly uncertain, the icy dust reservoir model not only provides a good explanation for the observed characteristics of SSLs; it is also in good agreement with many other observations, such as the simultaneous sporadic sodium and iron layers, the behavior of SSLs on small time scale, the deviation of the sodium density profile of SSLs from the normal one, and the sharply decreased scale height above the peak of the sodium layer. These results further suggest that the icy dust might be a viable option of sodium reservoir for the formation of SSLs.

  13. Effect of low sodium, tetrodotoxin, and temperature variation upon excitation.

    PubMed

    Guttman, R; Barnhill, R

    1968-05-01

    The lowering of external sodium raised both the constant quantity threshold, Q(o), and the rheobase, I(o), in both real space-clamped squid axons and the theoretical axon as computed on the basis of the standard Hodgkin-Huxley equations. In both real and theoretical axons the minimum intensity for excitability for short pulses, which occurs at about 15 degrees C, was still present when low sodium replaced seawater. Low sodium did not affect the temperature dependence of the strength-duration relationship in the range, 5 degrees to 25 degrees C. The excitability of tetrodotoxin-treated real axons was found to be more temperature-dependent than that of normal real axons. Also the data on dosage-response to TTX of real axons fit the dose-response relationship of a hypothetical system in which one TTX ion binds reversibly to its receptor to produce a fraction of the inhibitory effect, the curve being identical to a simple adsorption isotherm. The Hodgkin-Huxley equations describe the broad outline of events occurring during excitation quite well. PMID:5654403

  14. Pitting corrosion of inconel 600 in chloride and sulfate solutions at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ming-Yu; Yu, Ge-Ping

    1993-06-01

    Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 was examined in chloride and sulfate solutions through usage of potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The effects of chloride and sulfate concentration were investigated in the range of 0.0001 to 0.1M. Increasing chloride concentrations resulted in active shifts of the pit nucleation potential. Immunity to pitting corrosion was evident at a chloride level below 0.005M. Increasing sulfate concentrations resulted in improved pitting resistance of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions. Detrimental effects associated with pitting were evident with low-level sulfate being added to dilute chloride media. The density of pits increased with increasing chloride concentrations or temperature between room temperature and 70C. Systematic trends for the depth of pits were not evident. The observations of pitting corrosion in open immersion were consistent with those in polarization methods. Corrosion products contained in the pits were enriched in nickel, chromium and iron with a small amount of titanium and silicon. The enrichment of chlorine or sulfur was still, however, not found.

  15. Aerosol photoemission for quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in simple mixtures adsorbed on carbonaceous and sodium chloride aerosols.

    PubMed

    Niessner, R; Hemmerich, B; Wilbring, P

    1990-10-01

    The photoelectric aerosol sensor was applied as a tool for the in situ and on-line detection of surface-enriched polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Carbon aerosol and sodium chloride aerosol were coated stepwise with up to four different PAHs or simultaneously with three different PAHs (internally mixed aerosol). The measured photoelectric signal of the internally mixed aerosol was compared with the expected signal, which was calculated from the previous calibration of the sensor. An additivity of the individual contributions of the absorbed PAHs on the sum signal was found. Experiments with photoelectrically inactive paraffin adsorbed on photoelectrically active aerosol particles have demonstrated that only the surface composition contributes to the photoemission signal. PMID:2256543

  16. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Sktt; Boye L. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular cells in vitro are sensitive to changes in osmolality, but it is unknown whether volumeregulatory changes in cellular ion fluxes are important for the renin secretory process. The sensitivity of renin release to increases in osmolality by NaCl was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli treated with bicarbonate\\/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl\\/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+\\/H+ antiport inhibitor

  17. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food ( Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus(Rotifera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vctor M. Peredo-lvarez; S. S. S. Sarma; S. Nandini

    2003-01-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tol- erance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non- euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers

  18. Pyridine as a Borane Scavenger to Avoid Overreduction During the Conversion of Acid Chlorides to the Corresponding Aldehydes Using Sodium Borohydride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Babler

    1982-01-01

    By use of sodium borohydride in N, N-dimethylformamide solution containing a molar excess of pyridine as a borane scavenger, direct conversion of both aliphatic and aromatic acid chlorides to the corresponding aldehydes can be achieved in >70% yield with minimal (510%) alcohol formation.

  19. PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of survival data of an eight strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate (NaL) obtained after heating at different temperatures (55, 60, 65, and 71.1C) indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella i...

  20. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  1. Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Chan, E-mail: jongchan@snu.ac.k [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

  2. Temperature noise analysis and sodium boiling detection in the fuel failure mockup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Jr. Sides; D. N. Fry; W. H. Leavell; M. V. Mathis; R. F. Saxe

    1976-01-01

    Sodium temperature noise was measured at the exit of simulated, fast-reactor fuel subassemblies in the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM) to determine the feasibility of using temperature noise monitors to detect flow blockages in fast reactors. Also, acoustic noise was measured to determine whether sodium boiling in the FFM could be detected acoustically and whether noncondensable gas entrained in the sodium

  3. Sodium density and atmospheric temperature in the mesopause region in polar summer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kurzawa; U. von Zahn

    1990-01-01

    Sodium lidar measurements have been performed during three summer seasons at a polar latitude (69 deg N), yielding profiles of sodium number density and temperature of the 85-100 km altitude region. Density measurements were performed during the months of June-August; temperature measurements only were made in August. The sodium layer was found to be both significantly weaker and more variable

  4. Effect of Temperature on the Breakthrough of a Charcoal Tube During Vinyl Chloride Monomer Sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehoon Roh; Yun Jung Park; Chy Nyun Kim; Nam Gu Lim; Sang Hoe Lee; Jae Suk Song; Jong Uk Won; Glenn Talaska

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of temperature on breakthrough of two standard collection media at various concentrations during vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) sampling. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) methods were evaluated. To determine whether breakthrough of VCM would occur at the extremes of exposure and temperature that might be

  5. The renal transport of taurine and the regulation of renal sodium-chloride-dependent transporter activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell W. Chesney; Israel Zelikovic; Deborah P. Jones; Andrea Budreau; Kent Jolly

    1990-01-01

    A model for the -amino acid taurine transport is presented to help define the ionic, pH, and voltage requirements for the movement of taurine into the rat proximal tubule brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV). Sodium-(Na+)-taurine symport across the apical surface of the proximal tubule has a highly specific requirement for Cl- and Br-. Active taurine transport operates with a 2

  6. Intracarotid hypertonic sodium chloride differentially modulates sympathetic nerve activity to the heart and kidney.

    PubMed

    Frithiof, Robert; Xing, Tao; McKinley, Michael J; May, Clive N; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2014-04-15

    Hypertonic NaCl infused into the carotid arteries increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and changes sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via cerebral mechanisms. We hypothesized that elevated sodium levels in the blood supply to the brain would induce differential responses in renal and cardiac SNA via sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier. To investigate this hypothesis, we measured renal and cardiac SNA simultaneously in conscious sheep during intracarotid infusions of NaCl (1.2 M), sorbitol (2.4 M), or urea (2.4 M) at 1 ml/min for 4 min into each carotid. Intracarotid NaCl significantly increased MAP (91 2 to 97 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) without changing heart rate (HR). Intracarotid NaCl was associated with no change in cardiac SNA (11 5.0%), but a significant inhibition of renal SNA (-32.5 6.4%, P < 0.05). Neither intracarotid sorbitol nor urea changed MAP, HR, central venous pressure, cardiac SNA, and renal SNA. The changes in MAP and renal SNA were completely abolished by microinjection of the GABA agonist muscimol (5 mM, 500 nl each side) into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). Infusion of intracarotid NaCl for 20 min stimulated a larger increase in water intake (1,100 75 ml) than intracarotid sorbitol (683 125 ml) or intracarotid urea (0 ml). These results demonstrate that acute increases in blood sodium levels cause a decrease in renal SNA, but no change in cardiac SNA in conscious sheep. These effects are mediated by cerebral sensors located outside the blood-brain barrier that are more responsive to changes in sodium concentration than osmolality. The renal sympathoinhibitory effects of sodium are mediated via a pathway that synapses in the PVN. PMID:24523342

  7. Quantitative Interaction Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Sodium Chloride, and Sodium Nitrite on Neurotoxin Gene Expression in Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Type B

    PubMed Central

    Lvenklev, Maria; Artin, Ingrid; Hagberg, Oskar; Borch, Elisabeth; Holst, Elisabet; Rdstrm, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite on type B botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/B) gene (cntB) expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were investigated in a tryptone-peptone-yeast extract (TPY) medium. Various concentrations of these selected food preservatives were studied by using a complete factorial design in order to quantitatively study interaction effects, as well as main effects, on the following responses: lag phase duration (LPD), growth rate, relative cntB expression, and extracellular BoNT/B production. Multiple linear regression was used to set up six statistical models to quantify and predict these responses. All combinations of NaCl and NaNO2 in the growth medium resulted in a prolonged lag phase duration and in a reduction in the specific growth rate. In contrast, the relative BoNT/B gene expression was unchanged, as determined by the cntB-specific quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. This was confirmed when we measured the extracellular BoNT/B concentration by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CO2 was found to have a major effect on gene expression when the cntB mRNA levels were monitored in the mid-exponential, late exponential, and late stationary growth phases. The expression of cntB relative to the expression of the 16S rRNA gene was stimulated by an elevated CO2 concentration; the cntB mRNA level was fivefold greater in a 70% CO2 atmosphere than in a 10% CO2 atmosphere. These findings were also confirmed when we analyzed the extracellular BoNT/B concentration; we found that the concentrations were 27 ng??ml?1??unit of optical density?1 in the 10% CO2 atmosphere and 126 ng??ml?1??unit of optical density?1 in the 70% CO2 atmosphere. PMID:15128553

  8. Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

    2012-10-30

    The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

  9. Loading effects of sodium chloride solutions on the high frequency titrimeter

    E-print Network

    Miller, Benjamin Peter

    1952-01-01

    Solution to 60 ml, M. stilled 1@ter in a 25 naa? Tuhs XX+ Xoadin, , Response to ~ Volumes of Bodiura Chio ride Solutions XXX(a), ~~ Rsaoonas to Sodiun Chloride Solutions in a XXX(h)s Aotivi "y i'uuotioua n' audio"~ ~florida l(a) ~ Loading Carve... o UIJU i '. smaller o!18s ('ocf 1 uot A 'is)'e F$F, ' . s ?" CR of to reach to t. 'ffs bottom of t'ie tubes, rliis coulii be used for filling The O n!!C 1, .1!? ~ t 'Jc? ~ il i 1 I f, as tOO lal 1 e TO? t!1s 1 6 t!1be ~ "e only method thai wns...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

    1999-09-01

    Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

  11. Volume regulation and basolateral co-transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in frog skin epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans H. Ussing

    1985-01-01

    Frog skin epithelium, which is normally almost tight to chloride, acquires a basolateral leakiness to chloride during osmotic swelling. By measuring the epithelial thickness (volume) after equilibration first with half thiocyanate Ringer, and then full thiocyanate Ringer, one obtains the chloride-free volume. Partial or full recovery of the volume and cellular chloride concentration occurs only when the inside of the

  12. Dietary Sodium

    MedlinePLUS

    Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

  13. The effect of citric acid and its sodium salts in test meals on the gastric outputs of acid and of chloride.

    PubMed

    Hunt, J N; Knox, M T

    1973-04-01

    Five subjects were given 750 ml. test meals lasting 10-20 min, containing 0-300 mN citric acid, monosodium dihydrogen citrate, disodium monohydrogen citrate or trisodium citrate.1. Increase in concentration of sodium citrate in the range 0-125 mN gave increasing outputs of acid and chloride.2. The more acid the meal for any given citrate ion concentration, the less the output of acid and chloride.3. The greater the concentration of an acid citrate salt, the less the output of acid.4. There was evidence of loss of acid from the stomach by diffusion with the more acid meals. PMID:4702420

  14. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of growth and toxicity. No significant toxicity was noted until concentrations of 1-10 ppm for Ag+ and 10-100 ppm for AgNPs. In all NaCl concentrations, Ag+ is more toxic than for AgNPs. In addition, we noted that AgNPs in the .5 M of NaCl had the largest toxicity compared to the other salt concentrations and can be explained by the high Cl/Ag ratio. The concentrations for which toxicity has been observed are fewer orders of magnitude higher than the predicted Ag-NPs concentration released in natural waters in the next years.

  15. The solubility of ozone and kinetics of its chemical reactions in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, A. V.; Kuskov, I. V.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    The solubility of ozone and the kinetics of its decomposition and interaction with chloride ions in a 1 M aqueous solution of NaCl at 20C and pH 8.4-10.8 were studied. The ratio between the concentration of O3 in solution and the gas phase was found to be 0.16 at pH 8.4-9.8. The concentration of dissolved ozone decreased sharply as pH increased to 10.8 because of a substantial increase in the rate of its decomposition. It was observed for the first time that the interaction of O3 with Cl- in alkaline media resulted in the formation of ClO{3/-} chlorate ions. The dependence of the rate of formation of ClO{3/-} on pH was determined; its maximum value was found to be 9.6 10-6 mol l-1 min-1 at pH 10.0 and the concentration of ozone at the entrance of the reactor 30.0 g/m3. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of chlorate ions (concentrations 1 10-5-3 10-4 M) in aqueous solutions was suggested.

  16. Formation of palladium(II) hydroxychloride complexes and precipitates in sodium chloride solutions and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Yao, Wensheng

    2000-12-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements of Pd(II) in 0.5 M NaCl indicate that the PdCl3OH2- formation constant at 25C is ClK?1 = [PdCl3OH2-][H+][Cl-][PdCl42-]-1 = 10-8.98. This constant is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than previous results derived through solubility analysis. Kinetic experiments indicate that equilibration between PdCl42- and PdCl3OH2- is complete in less than one second. The discrepancy between depictions of Pd(II) speciation obtained by using spectrophotometric and solubility analysis is apparently caused by the formation of mixed hydroxychloride solid phases (PdClaOH2-a), rather than pure Pd(OH)2(s), when Pd(OH)2(s) is equilibrated in concentrated chloride solutions at high pH. In Pd(II) solubility analysis, and solubility analyses of other strongly hydrolyzed metals in seawater, the composition of the solid phase must be carefully examined for appropriate deconvolution of data.

  17. The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UVVisible

    E-print Network

    The stability of aqueous nickel(II) chloride complexes in hydrothermal solutions: Results of UV of aqueous nickel chloride complexes is important for understanding and quantitatively evaluating nickel for dissolved nickel in perchlorate, triflic acid and sodium chloride solutions at temperatures up to 250 C

  18. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic The EmpowerMEnt Challenge Resources How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Tips to Make Fast Food Friendlier for Kids Top 10 Tips to Help ...

  19. Densitometry and ultrasound velocimetry of hyaluronan solutions in water and in sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Kargerov, A; Peka?, M

    2014-06-15

    The densities of hyaluronan solutions in water and 0.15M NaCl were measured in the temperature range from 25 to 50C for the hyaluronan molecular weights from 10 to 1,750 kDa. The density increased linearly with concentration and decreased with temperature. The data were fitted by the equation describing the density as a linear function of concentration and a quadratic function of temperature. The effect of molecular weight was negligible and thus single equation was sufficient to describe all data. The apparent and partial specific volumes were calculated from the density data including their extrapolated values to infinite dilutions. The measurement of ultrasound speed in the same solutions under the same conditions enabled to calculate the compressibility and its dependence on concentration and temperature. The compressibility decreased with both the concentration and the temperature but the effect of the concentration was only slight mild. The compressibility was used to estimate the hydration numbers which slightly decreased with increasing temperature and concentration. The addition of NaCl changed only the numerical values of density and ultrasound velocity while not changing the character of their dependence on temperature and concentration. Measured and calculated data indicate that hyaluronan does not disturb the specific water structure in the studied concentration range and support the idea of the existence of water clusters or nanodroplets hydrating the hyaluronan chains in solution. PMID:24721101

  20. High temperature infrared spectrum of sodium iodide (NaI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Arthur G.

    2014-09-01

    The absorption spectrum of sodium iodide vapor between 200 and 275 cm-1 has been measured with a resolution of 0.006 cm-1 at a temperature of 1096 K. The ?v = 1 transitions from v = 1 ? 0 to v = 13 ? 12 have been measured. Dunham constants are given from an least-squares analysis of 1285 fairly well resolved transitions. The band center for the fundamental band is ?0 = 257.2837 0.0002 cm-1. The relative intensities of the ?v = 1 transitions from different vibrational states are studied and it is shown that the intensity is roughly proportional to v? + 1 as expected from the harmonic oscillator approximation. From measurements of the Herman-Wallis constant, ?1,0 = -0.0054 0.0008, it is estimated that the transition moment must be ?1,0 ? 0.135 0.020 debye.

  1. Some aspects of the atmospheric corrosion of copper in the presence of sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, H.; Johansson, L.G. [Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    The effect of NaCl in combination with O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on the atmospheric corrosion of copper was investigated. Corrosion products formed after 4 weeks exposure were characterized qualitatively by X-ray diffraction and quantitatively by gravimetry and ion chromatography of leaching solutions. Studies of SO{sub 2} deposition and O{sub 3} consumption were performed using on-line gas analysis. Large amounts of cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) formed in all environments at 70 and 90% relative humidity. The corrosive effect of salt was strong in pure humid air and in air containing O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Corrosion rate was correlated to the amount of chloride applied to the surface and to humidity. In an atmosphere containing a combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at 90% relative humidity, corrosion was rapid in the absence of NaCl. In this case, small additions of NaCl resulted in a marked decrease in corrosion rate. In the absence of SO{sub 2}, tenorite (CuO), nantokite (CuCl), clinoatacamite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl], and malachite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}] were identified. In the presence of SO{sub 2}, brochantite [Cu{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}SO{sub 4}], soluble sulfate, and an unknown phase occurred, while no tenorite or malachite was formed. The combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} resulted in the formation of antlerite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4}] and Cu{sub 2.5}(OH){sub 3}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O as well.

  2. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henrys law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henrys law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  3. The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Teutonico, L.J.

    1982-09-01

    A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

  4. The temperature dependence of the dislocation charge in potassium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Robinson; J. L. Tallon; P. H. Sutter

    1977-01-01

    Using the piezoelectric defect technique (Robinson 1970, 1972 a), the charge on edge dislocations in bent single crystals of KCl has been measured from 300 to 1039 K at 40 and 80 kHz with strain amplitudes from 27 10 to 72 10-. At room temperature the dislocation charge, for crystals oriented in < 100 > < 110 >

  5. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT CALCIUM FORMS ON GAS EXCHANGE ACTIVITIES, WATER USAGE AND MACRONUTRIENT UPTAKE BY STRAWBERRY PLANTS UNDER SODIUM CHLORIDE STRESS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Khayyat; S. Khanizadeh; E. Tafazoli; S. Rajaee; B. Kholdebarin; Y. Emam

    2011-01-01

    Strawberry cv. Selva was grown in soilless culture under greenhouse conditions to study the effects of supplementary calcium added to nutrient solution and applied to the plants grown under sodium chloride (NaCl) (35 mM) salinity. Treatments were: 1) commercial nutrient solution or control [expressed as (N)]; 2) N+NaCl (35 mM) [expressed as (NS)]; 3) NS+CaCl2 (5 mM) [expressed as (NS1)];

  6. Melt rheology and extrudate swell of sodium chloride-filled low-density polyethylene: Effects of content and size of salt particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rapeephun Dangtungee; Pitt Supaphol

    2010-01-01

    The rheological properties in terms of melt rheology and extrudate swell of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) filled with sodium chloride (NaCl) of varying particle size (i.e., 45, 75, and 125?m) in the range of 525wt.% were investigated by capillary rheometry. The real shear stress increased monotonously with increasing apparent shear rate, with the rate of change decreasing with increasing apparent shear

  7. Effect of Sodium Dodecylsulfate and Cetylpyridinium Chloride Act as Templates at Different pH Values on Sorption and Textural Properties of Mesoporous Silicas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatyana F. Kouznetsova; Anatoly I. Ratko; Vladimir S. Komarov; Svetlana I. Eremenko; Yuriy L. Zub

    Cationic and anionic surfactants are used for structuring of the negatively charged silica species during the formation of\\u000a ordered mesoporous silicas from stable dilute silica sols, obtained by ion-exchange method. Isotherms of nitrogen adsorption-desorption\\u000a at 77 K on silicas, which are prepared by the thermal decomposition of silica hydrogels, obtained at different pH using sodium\\u000a dodecylsulfate or cetylpyridinium chloride as

  8. Effect of Bicarbonate Ion Additives on Pitting Corrosion of Type 316L Stainless Steel in Aqueous 0.5 M Sodium Chloride Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-J. Park; S.-I. Pyun; W.-J. Lee; H.-P. Kim

    1999-01-01

    The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO⁻) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO⁻ ions to NaCl solutions extended the

  9. Microcalorimetric studies on lithium thionyl chloride cells: temperature effects between 25 C and -40 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Sibbald, A. M.; Donepudi, V. S.; Adams, W. A.; Donaldson, G. J.

    Microcalorimetry studies were performed on commercial lithium thionyl chloride cells to investigate whether there was a change in reaction mechanism in the temperature range between 25 C and -40 C. The entropy change associated with cell discharge was calculated from the calorimetry data and was also determined from the temperature dependence of the open-circuit potential. The entropy changes determined by the two methods are compared and discussed in terms of the electrolyte composition variable.

  10. Effect of temperature gradient on the optical quality of mercurous chloride crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Davies, D. K.; Gottlieb, M.; Henningsen, T.; Mazelsky, R.

    1989-01-01

    Single crystals of mercurous chloride were grown at temperature gradients of 8, 11 and 17 K/cm by the physical vapor transport method. The optical quality of these crystals was evaluated by measuring bulk scattering and inhomogeneity of refractive index by birefringence interferometry. It was observed that a high temperature gradient at the solid-vapor interface induced thermal stresses and crystals showed higher scattering and irregular fringes.

  11. Evaluation of the pH- and Thermal Stability of the Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in the Presence of Sodium Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Marina; Kunimura, Juliana Sayuri; Jeng, Hlio Tallon; Vessoni Penna, Thereza Christina; Cholewa, Olivia

    The thermal stability of recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP) in sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions at different concentrations, pH, and temperatures was evaluated by assaying the loss of fluorescence intensity as a measure of denaturation. GFP, extracted from Escherichia coli cells by the three-phase partitioning method and purified through a butyl hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) column, was diluted in water for injection (WFI) (pH 6.0-7.0) and in 10 mM buffer solutions (acetate, pH 5.0; phosphate, pH 7.0; and Tris-EDTA, pH 8.0) with 0.9-30% NaCl or without and incubated at 80-95C. The extent of protein denaturation was expressed as a percentage of the calculated decimal reduction time (D-value). In acetate buffer (pH 4.84 0.12), the mean D-values for 90% reduction in GFP fluorescence ranged from 2.3 to 3.6 min, independent of NaCl concentration and temperature. GFP thermal stability diluted in WFI (pH 5.940.60) was half that observed in phosphate buffer (pH 6.080.60); but in both systems, D-values decreased linearly with increasing NaCl concentration, with D-values (at 80C) ranging from 3.44, min (WFI) to 6.1 min (phosphate buffer), both with 30% NaCl. However, D-values in Tris-EDTA (pH 7.650.17) were directly dependent on the NaCl concentration and 5-10 times higher than D-values for GFP in WFI at 80C. GFP pH-and thermal stability can be easily monitored by the convenient measure of fluorescence intensity and potentially be used as an indicator to monitor that processing times and temperatures were attained.

  12. Establishment of an activated peroxide system for low-temperature cotton bleaching using N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changhai; Hinks, David; Sun, Chang; Wei, Qufu

    2015-03-30

    Cotton bleaching is traditionally carried out in strongly alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at temperatures close to the boil. Such harsh processing conditions can result in extensive water and energy consumptions as well as severe chemical damage to textiles. In this study, an activated peroxide system was established for low-temperature cotton bleaching by incorporating a bleach activator, namely N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride (TBBC) into an aqueous H2O2 solution. Experimental results showed that the TBBC-activated peroxide system exhibited the most effective bleaching performance in a pH range of 6-8 which could be approximated by adding sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system led to rapid bleaching of cotton at a temperature as low as 50C. In comparison with the hot alkaline peroxide bleaching system, the TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system provided cotton fabric with an equivalent degree of whiteness, higher degree of polymerization, and slightly lower water absorbency. The new activated peroxide system may provide a more environmentally benign approach to cotton bleaching. PMID:25563946

  13. Evaporation of water from sodium chloride solutions under controlled climatic conditions

    E-print Network

    Moore, Jaroy

    1967-01-01

    nations 21 IV EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 23 A. Evaporation Investigations B. Physical Model for Evaporation l. Evaporation rates 2. Vapor pressure of the solution 3. Vapor pressure of the air 4. Constant for wind speed C. Statistical Model... for Evaporation 23 27 27 27 28 28 34 D. Relation Between the Statistical and Physical Models 37 E. Effects of the Variables Employed l. Air temperature'e 2. Relative humidity 3 ~ Wind speed 4. Salt concentration 38 39 40 41 Chapter F. Reduction...

  14. Effect of Temperature on the Intensity of X-Rays Scattered by Powdered Sodium Fluoride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Shonka

    1933-01-01

    The ratio of the integrated intensities of a number of regularly reflected x-ray lines from powdered sodium fluoride crystals at room and liquid air temperatures has been studied by means of a photographic method. The results of the experiments show that the ratio varies with the angle as predicted by the Debye-Waller formula. The characteristic temperature of sodium fluoride was

  15. Aldosterone modulates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter abundance via DUSP6-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zhang, Yiqian; Shao, Ningjun; Wang, Yanhui; Zhuang, Zhizhi; Wu, Ping; Lee, Matthew J; Liu, Yingli; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Delpire, Eric; Gu, Dingying; Cai, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone is known to modulate NCC abundance. Previous studies reported that dietary salts modulated NCC abundance through either WNK4 [with no lysine (k) kinase 4]-SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase) or WNK4-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. To exclude the influence of SPAK signaling pathway on the role of the aldosterone-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in NCC regulation, we investigated the effects of dietary salt changes and aldosterone on NCC abundance in SPAK knockout (KO) mice. We found that in SPAK KO mice low-salt diet significantly increased total NCC abundance while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas high-salt diet decreased total NCC while increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, exogenous aldosterone administration increased total NCC abundance in SPAK KO mice while increasing DUSP6 expression, an ERK1/2-specific phosphatase, and led to decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation without changing the ratio of phospho-T53-NCC/total NCC. In mouse distal convoluted tubule (mDCT) cells, aldosterone increased DUSP6 expression while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DUSP6 Knockdown increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation while reducing total NCC expression. Inhibition of DUSP6 by (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reversed the aldosterone-mediated increments of NCC partly by increasing NCC ubiquitination. Therefore, these data suggest that aldosterone modulates NCC abundance via altering NCC ubiquitination through a DUSP6-dependent ERK1/2 signal pathway in SPAK KO mice and part of the effects of dietary salt changes may be mediated by aldosterone in the DCTs. PMID:25761881

  16. Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10?4mM SA, 50mM NaCl, 100mM NaCl, 150mM NaCl, SA+50mM NaCl, SA+100mM NaCl and SA+150mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50mM and 100mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

  17. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  18. Secondary aluminium-iron (III) chloride batteries with a low temperature molten salt electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Donahue; S. E. Mancini; L. Simonsen

    1992-01-01

    Secondary aluminium-iron (III) chloride batteries using a low temperature molten salt electrolyte were constructed and tested. Discharge current densities were in the range 5 to 100 mA (~ 1 to 20 mA cm-2; ~C\\/4 to 5C); charging currents were 5mA (C\\/4 toC\\/2). Utilization of the positive electrode reactant was low due to the discharge rates and loading procedure. The mode

  19. The impact of organic coatings on light scattering by sodium chloride particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Ezell, Michael J.; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

    2011-08-01

    Light scattering by airborne particles plays a major role in visibility degradation and climate change. The composition and structure of particles in air can be complex, so that predictions of light scattering a priori have significant uncertainties. We report here studies of light scattering by NaCl, a model for airborne salt particles from the ocean and alkaline lakes, with and without an organic coating formed from the low volatility products of the reaction of ?-pinene with ozone at room temperature at 1 atm in air. Light scattering at 450, 550 and 700 nm was measured using an integrating nephelometer on particles whose size distribution was independently determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). For comparison, polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) of a known size and dioctylphthalate (DOP) particles generated with a narrow size distribution were also studied. The measured values were compared to those calculated using Mie theory. Although excellent agreement between experiment and theory was found for the PSL and DOP particles, there were large discrepancies for a polydisperse NaCl sample. These were traced to errors in the size distribution measurements. Despite the use of 85Kr neutralizers, the Boltzmann charge equilibrium distribution assumption used to derive particle size distributions from SMPS data was shown not to be valid, leading to an overestimate of the concentration of larger particles and their contribution to light scattering. Correcting for this, the combination of experiments and theory show that as salt takes up low volatility organics in the atmosphere and the geometric mean diameter increases, the effect on light scattering may be reasonably approximated from the change in size distribution under conditions where the organic coating is small relative to the core size. However, for a given particle diameter, light scattering decreases as the relative contribution of the organic component increases. Thus, light scattering by salt particles with a specific size distribution will be reduced when organics comprise a significant portion of the particles. This will lessen their impact on the visual range compared to pure salt particles, but also lead to less counterbalancing of the tropospheric warming due to greenhouse gases.

  20. High Temperature Solid -Solid Transition in Ammonium Chloride Confined to Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farasat, Reza; Yancey, Benjamin; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry was employed to measure the temperature and thermal effect of the solid-solid phase transition in ammonium chloride confined to silica matrices with pore sizes ranging from 4 to 30 nm. Ammonium chloride was loaded from aqueous solutions. The concentration and number of loads were varied to control the pore fullness, which was defined as a fraction of the filled volume to the total available volume of the nanopores. Assuming cylindrical pore shape, the pore fullness was used to estimate the height of the layer deposited on the pore walls. Thermogravimetric analysis was employed to evaluate the pore fullness, which was further used to estimate the height of ammonium chloride layer deposited inside the pores. With increasing the layer height, the heat of transition increased toward the bulk value. Relative to the bulk value, the transition temperature measured on heating and on cooling respectively increased and decreased with decreasing the layer height. It was concluded that a strong interaction with the nanoconfining medium may have a larger effect on the behavior of a nanoconfined substance than the effect of nanosize alone. The temperature dependencies of the effective activation energy derived from isoconversional kinetic analysis of DSC data have been parametrized in terms of the Turnbull -Fisher model. It was found that the transition in the pores encounters a larger free energy barrier to nucleation. Financial support of NSF under grant CHE 1052828 is appreciated.

  1. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Massacret, N. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aix-Marseille Universit, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Moysan, J., E-mail: joseph.moysan@univ-amu.fr; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Universit, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France); Jeannot, J. P. [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-05-28

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  2. Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2014-05-01

    The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

  3. Chloride transport across the basolateral cell membrane of the Necturus proximal tubule: Dependence on bicarbonate and sodium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Guggino; E. L. Boulpaep; G. Giebisch

    1983-01-01

    Summary The transport of chloride across theNecturus proximal tubule cell was studied in the doubly-perfused kidney using conventional, chloride-sensitive and pH-sensitive microelectrodes. Lowering chloride activity in the basolateral solution results in a reduction in intracellular Cl- activity (aCli). This reduction inaCli is inhibited by removing either HCO3- or Na+ from the perfusion solution, indicating that both HCO3- and Na+ are

  4. Microwave reflection and dielectric properties of mortar subjected to compression force and cyclically exposed to water and sodium chloride solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shanup Peer; Joseph T. Case; Eric Gallaher; Kimberly E. Kurtis; Reza Zoughi

    2003-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcing steel is a major cause of damage and deterioration in reinforced concrete structures such as concrete bridge decks and columns. Chloride intrusion into concrete can lead to depassivation of the steel and initiation of corrosion. Thus, it is very important to be able to nondestructively detect and evaluate the free chloride content in concrete. Near-field microwave

  5. Synthesis of Pb/sub 2/B/sup III/B/sup V/O/sub 6/ compounds in a melt of sodium and potassium chlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Lopatin, S.S.; Lupeiko, T.G.; Ivleva, T.I.; Lukov, V.V.; Derbaremdiker, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    The compounds Pb/sub 2/B/sup III/B/sup V/O/sub 6/ (B/sup V/ - Nb or Ta) with the structures of perovskite (B/sup III/ - Sc, Fe, Mn, Cr) and pyrochlore (B/sup III/ - Ga) were prepared from oxides in the presence of a melt of sodium and potassium chlorides. To increase the yield of the reaction product excess lead oxide must be added to the mixtures. The excess lead oxide is then flushed out with dilute acetic acid. The melt of chlorides isolates the reaction mixtures from contact with air, as a result of which the degrees of oxidation of the transition elements does not change.

  6. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A. (Mary Ann); Salazar, R. R. (Richard R.); Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A. (Elizabeth A.); Danis, J. A. (Janet A.)

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  7. Effects of added tetramethylammonium chloride on sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar structure: electron scavenging ability of doxylstearic acid spin probes and their reaction with N,N,N'N'-tetramethylbenzidine photogenerated cations studied by electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Hiromitsu, I.; Kevan, L.

    1986-07-03

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies are carried out for a series of chi-doxylstearic acids (chi = 5, 7, 10, 12, and 16) and photoproduced N,N,N'N'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) cations in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in order to investigate the effects of added tetramethylammonium chloride (TMACl) on the micellar structure at room temperature. It is observed that chi-doxylstearic acids not only act as electron acceptors for electrons produced by photoionization of TMB but also react with TMB cations to produce nonparamagnetic products. chi-Dependences of the reactivities of these two reactions suggest that chi-doxylstearic acids increase their average number of gauche conformations inside the micelles when TMACl is added to the micellar solution. It is concluded that tetramethylammonium cations act as spacers between head groups of surfactant molecules to become more disordered and loosely packed inside the micelles. This confirms previous electron spin echo modulation studies on frozen micellar solutions.

  8. Thermodynamic study of gaseous sodium-phosphorous-oxygen ternary molecules by high temperature mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Miller, Federico

    1974-01-01

    THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF GASEOUS SODIUM-PHOSPHOROUS-OXYGEN TERNARY MOLECULES BY HIGH TEMPERATURE MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by FEDERICO MILLER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Major Subject: Chemistry THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF GASEOUS SODIUM-PHOSPHOROUS-OXYGEN TERNARY MOLECULES BY HIGH TEMPERATURE MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis FEDERICO MILLER Approved as to style and content by: Y...

  9. The Chemistry of Mixed Sodium Chloride and Sodium Nitrate Aerosol Particles: Impacts of a Secondary Inorganic Ion on Gas Phase Chlorine Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Wingen; A. C. Moskun; J. L. Thomas; M. Roeselova; D. J. Tobias; B. J. Finlayson-Pitts

    2005-01-01

    Unique chemistry at the air-water interface from the reaction of the chloride ion and the hydroxyl radical has been suggested to play a major role in the production of increased levels of molecular chlorine in the marine boundary layer, including coastal regions. Molecular chlorine can then be photolyzed by solar radiation to produce the highly reactive atomic chlorine radical. Laboratory

  10. Sodium effects on mechanical performance and consideration in high temperature structural design for advanced reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natesan, K.; Li, Meimei; Chopra, O. K.; Majumdar, S.

    2009-07-01

    Sodium environmental effects are key limiting factors in the high temperature structural design of advanced sodium-cooled reactors. A guideline is needed to incorporate environmental effects in the ASME design rules to improve the performance reliability over long operating times. This paper summarizes the influence of sodium exposure on mechanical performance of selected austenitic stainless and ferritic/martensitic steels. Focus is on Type 316SS and mod.9Cr-1Mo. The sodium effects were evaluated by comparing the mechanical properties data in air and sodium. Carburization and decarburization were found to be the key factors that determine the tensile and creep properties of the steels. A beneficial effect of sodium exposure on fatigue life was observed under fully reversed cyclic loading in both austenitic stainless steels and ferritic/martensitic steels. However, when hold time was applied during cyclic loading, the fatigue life was significantly reduced. Based on the mechanical performance of the steels in sodium, consideration of sodium effects in high temperature structural design of advanced fast reactors is discussed.

  11. Leaching of lead slag component by sodium chloride and diluted nitric acid and synthesis of ultrafine lead oxide powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yuehong; Ma, Cheng; Zhu, Longguan; Chen, Hongyu

    2015-05-01

    The compounds in lead slag are transformed into [PbCl4]2- in a mixed solution of HNO3 and NaCl, which is converted into PbC2O4 by the addition of sodium oxalate and polyethylene glycol dispersant. Novel lead oxides are prepared via a combustion-calcination process from lead oxalate precursor. Key properties of the new oxides, such as crystalline phases and morphology, have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that lead oxides synthesized at different calcination temperatures comprise mainly ?-PbO and ?-PbO phases. In battery testing, the results reveal that the ?-PbO phase exhibits higher initial capacity as positive active material, discharging about 150 mAh g-1 at 20 mA g-1. While ?-PbO yields a relatively improved cycle life, in 50 cycles, its capacity loss is 5%. Further work is being carried out with the aim to optimize the battery manufacturing process or to find out the optimum ratio of ?-PbO to ?-PbO in order to sustain high discharge capacity and acceptable cycle life.

  12. NiXantphos: A Deprotonatable Ligand for Room-Temperature Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Couplings of Aryl Chlorides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although the past 15 years have witnessed the development of sterically bulky and electron-rich alkylphosphine ligands for palladium-catalyzed cross-couplings with aryl chlorides, examples of palladium catalysts based on either triarylphosphine or bidentate phosphine ligands for efficient room temperature cross-coupling reactions with unactivated aryl chlorides are rare. Herein we report a palladium catalyst based on NiXantphos, a deprotonatable chelating aryldiphosphine ligand, to oxidatively add unactivated aryl chlorides at room temperature. Surprisingly, comparison of an extensive array of ligands revealed that under the basic reaction conditions the resultant heterobimetallic PdNiXantphos catalyst system outperformed all the other mono- and bidentate ligands in a deprotonative cross-coupling process (DCCP) with aryl chlorides. The DCCP with aryl chlorides affords a variety of triarylmethane products, a class of compounds with various applications and interesting biological activity. Additionally, the DCCP exhibits remarkable chemoselectivity in the presence of aryl chloride substrates bearing heteroaryl groups and sensitive functional groups that are known to undergo 1,2-addition, aldol reaction, and O-, N-, enolate-?-, and C(sp2)H arylations. The advantages and importance of the PdNiXantphos catalyst system outlined herein make it a valuable contribution for applications in Pd-catalyzed arylation reactions with aryl chlorides. PMID:24745758

  13. Temperature dependences of the order parameter for sodium nitrite embedded into porous glasses and opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskrovny, A. I.; Vasilovski?, S. G.; Vakhrushev, S. B.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Zvorykina, O. I.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Okuneva, N. M.; Tovar, M.; Rysiakiewicz-Pasek, E.; Jagu?, P.

    2010-05-01

    The temperature dependences of the order parameter ?( T) for sodium nitrite NaNO2 embedded in porous glasses with average pore diameters of 320 and 20 nm, as well as in artificial opals, have been investigated. It has been demonstrated that the dependence ?( T) for sodium nitrite in the porous glass almost coincides with that for the bulk material, whereas this dependence for NaNO2 in opals differs substantially from that observed in the bulk material and from those previously determined for sodium nitrite in porous glasses with average pore diameters of 3 and 7 nm. It has been revealed that the dependence of the order parameter for sodium nitrite in opals exhibits a temperature hysteresis (approximately equal to 8 K). The temperature dependence ?( T) has been described using a simple model, which takes into account the nanopore diameter distribution existing in artificial opals.

  14. Electrochemistry of Cd(II) in the basic 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride\\/tetrafluoroborate room temperature molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Yu Chen; I-Wen Sun

    2000-01-01

    The electrochemistry of cadmium species was investigated at glassy carbon, polycrystalline tungsten and platinum electrodes in a basic 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride\\/tetrafluoroborate room temperature molten salt. Amperometric titration experiments suggest that Cd(II) chloride is complexed as [CdCl4]2? in this melt. [CdCl4]2? could be reduced to cadmium metal via a single-step quasi-reversible electron transfer process. On the other hand, effective dissolution of cadmium

  15. Low temperature synthesis of microwave dielectric LaAlO 3 nanoparticles: effect of chloride on phase evolution and morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prashant K. Sahu; S. K. Behera; S. K. Pratihar; S. Bhattacharyya

    2004-01-01

    A novel chemical synthesis route has been developed to prepare LaAlO3 from low cost inorganic precursors, by gelationprecipitation technique. Phase evolution, morphology, agglomeration and surface area were studied as a function of chloride content and heat treatment temperature. The samples containing chloride crystallized at 1100C with the formation of intermediate phases. The product was highly agglomerated and had low surface

  16. Effect of chloride impurities on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Talat Ali; Qingfeng Li; Chao Pan; Jens Oluf Jensen; Lars Pleth Nielsen; Per Mller

    2011-01-01

    The effect of chloride as an air impurity and as a catalyst contaminant on the performance and durability of polybenzimidazole (PBI)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) was studied. The ion chromatographic analysis reveals the existence of chloride contaminations in the Pt\\/C catalysts. Linear sweep voltammetry was employed to study the redox behavior of platinum in 85% phosphoric

  17. Pessimum effect of externally applied chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation: Proposed mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ekolu, S.O. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Str, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: s.ekolu@utoronto.ca; Thomas, M.D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, N.B., E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hooton, R.D. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Str, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    Mortars and concretes were subjected to a heat treatment cycle consisting of a pre-set period of 4 h at 23 deg. C followed by accelerated curing at 95 deg. C prior to storage at room temperature in water or limewater, 0.5 M, 2.8 M sodium chloride solutions. It was found that the specimens stored in 0.5 M sodium chloride solution gave a much greater expansion than those stored in limewater or 2.8 M sodium chloride solution. This pessimum influence of chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation deviates from the commonly held view that chlorides mitigate sulphate attack in concretes. The mechanism of the pessimum effect of chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation, and the final products of the associated phase transformations have been proposed. X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques were used to follow phase transformations.

  18. The determination of x-ray temperature factors for aluminium and potassium chloride single crystals using nuclear resonant radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Butt; D. A. OConnor

    1967-01-01

    The elastic scattering of 14.4 keV gamma rays from 57Fe by single crystals of aluminium and potassium chloride has been measured as a function of Bragg angle and temperature using the Mssbauer effect to distinguish between the elastic and inelastic scattering processes. From the results, using the Debye model, Debye temperatures of 202 5 K for KCl and 387

  19. The Effect of Concentration, Temperature and Wave-Length of Light upon the Verdet Constant of Cerous Chloride Solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis G. Slack; Ralph L. Reeves; James A. Peoples

    1934-01-01

    The Verdet constants of solutions of cerous chloride in water have been measured at concentrations varying from zero to an almost saturated solution. Measurements were made at temperatures from 10 to 45C and for the wavelengths 5893, 5461 and 4481A. The results are given in the form of curves showing the Verdet constant as a function of temperature and as

  20. Equilibrium analysis of the affect of temperature, moisture and sodium content on heavy metal emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Durlak; Pratim Biswas; Jichun Shi

    1997-01-01

    An equilibrium analysis was performed to determine the impact of the variations in the moisture and sodium contents in the solid waste feed on heavy metal speciation in municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators. This analysis was based on the speciation of heavy metals among chlorides, oxides and other species under various incinerator conditions. The Gibbs free energy of the reaction

  1. Electrodeposition behavior of nickel and nickelzinc alloys from the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride low temperature molten salt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Ping Gou; I.-Wen Sun

    2008-01-01

    The electrodeposition of nickel and nickelzinc alloys was investigated at polycrystalline tungsten electrode in the zinc chloride-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride molten salt. Although nickel(II) chloride dissolved easily into the pure chloride-rich 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic melt, metallic nickel could not be obtained by electrochemical reduction of this solution. The addition of zinc chloride to this solution shifted the reduction of nickel(II) to more

  2. The high-temperature sodium coolant technology in nuclear power installations for hydrogen power engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.; Alekseev, V. V.; Konovalov, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    In the case of using high-temperature sodium-cooled nuclear power installations for obtaining hydrogen and for other innovative applications (gasification and fluidization of coal, deep petroleum refining, conversion of biomass into liquid fuel, in the chemical industry, metallurgy, food industry, etc.), the sources of hydrogen that enters from the reactor plant tertiary coolant circuit into its secondary coolant circuit have intensity two or three orders of magnitude higher than that of hydrogen sources at a nuclear power plant (NPP) equipped with a BN-600 reactor. Fundamentally new process solutions are proposed for such conditions. The main prerequisite for implementing them is that the hydrogen concentration in sodium coolant is a factor of 100-1000 higher than it is in modern NPPs taken in combination with removal of hydrogen from sodium by subjecting it to vacuum through membranes made of vanadium or niobium. Numerical investigations carried out using a diffusion model showed that, by varying such parameters as fuel rod cladding material, its thickness, and time of operation in developing the fuel rods for high-temperature nuclear power installations (HT NPIs) it is possible to exclude ingress of cesium into sodium through the sealed fuel rod cladding. However, if the fuel rod cladding loses its tightness, operation of the HT NPI with cesium in the sodium will be unavoidable. Under such conditions, measures must be taken for deeply purifying sodium from cesium in order to minimize the diffusion of cesium into the structural materials.

  3. Size exclusion properties of polyelectrolyte complex microcapsules prepared from sodium cellulose sulphate and poly[diallyldimethylammonium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horst Dautzenberg; Ute Schuldt; Dietmar Lerche; Holger Woehlecke; Rudolf Ehwald

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion experiments aided by high performance size exclusion chromatography were carried out to describe the size exclusion properties of microcapsules prepared from cellulose sulphate and poly[diallyldimethylammonium chloride] (PDADMAC). The membrane cut-off was characterised by the dependence of the distribution ratio (luminal concentration\\/external concentration) of dextran molecules on their Stokes' radius (19nm) after diffusion periods of 72 and 240h.When capsules were

  4. Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L.

    2012-05-01

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

  5. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825C to 1300C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

  6. Sodium chloride induces an NhaA/NhaR-independent acid sensitivity at neutral external pH in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Rowbury, R J; Goodson, M; Humphrey, T J

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli previously grown in low-salt broth, pH 7.0, produced organisms which were markedly more acid sensitive when subsequently cultured in the same broth with 200 mM or more salt (NaCl) added. Induction of acid sensitivity occurred rapidly at both 37 and 30 degrees C, with a substantial effect within 15 min. Sensitization was partially inhibited by chloramphenicol and tetracycline and may depend on both protein synthesis-dependent and -independent physiological changes in the NaCl-induced organisms; sensitization did not result from osmotic shocking on transfer to challenge medium. Induction of acid sensitivity was affected by neither the sodium ion pore inhibitor amiloride nor the DNA synthesis inhibitor nalidixic acid; rifampin had a small effect, similar to that of chloramphenicol. Chlorides of other monovalent cations, especially Li+ and NH4+, also produced sensitization to acid, although CsCl was ineffective but did not interfere with sensitization by NaCl. Other sodium salts were also active as sensitizers, as were chlorides of divalent cations, but although sucrose (but not glycerol) was a good inducer, the results were not fully in accord with triggering of induction solely by the NaCl-associated increase in osmotic pressure. Sensitization was not prevented by deletion of the nhaA, nhaR, or nhaB gene. Acid sensitivity of NaCl-induced cells was slightly reduced after 90 min of growth at 37 degrees C in low-salt broth but was completely lost after 240 min. For NaCl-induced cells, acid killing in challenge media was not inhibited by amiloride. The NaCl-induced sensitization is distinct from the phenomenon of acid sensitivity induction in E. coli at alkaline external pH. PMID:8017942

  7. Bleaching of F-centers in sodium chloride at room temperature by electron tunneling

    E-print Network

    Carroll, Herbert Burnett

    1967-01-01

    . 18 Ahsorptioll AnaliFsis of ths R$54tion ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1. Posit. ion of ?-. .eneer Absorption Aek 3' Counting' gaia es for 7arious Absorber Thicknesses 3. F-Cmnter Gonoentrat ion ' it& ~ed Time Wavenun, bere Used to Callbrat, e t, he Spect...

  8. In vitro pharmacologic restoration of CFTR-mediated chloride transport with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells containing delta F508-CFTR.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, R C; Egan, M E; Zeitlin, P L

    1997-01-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation, delta F508-CFTR, is a partially functional chloride channel that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded. We hypothesize that a known transcriptional regulator, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), will enable a greater fraction of delta F508-CFTR to escape degradation and appear at the cell surface. Primary cultures of nasal polyp epithelia from CF patients (delta F508 homozygous or heterozygous), or the CF bronchial epithelial cell line IB3-1 (delta F508/W1282X) were exposed to 4PBA for up to 7 d in culture. 4PBA treatment at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 mM resulted in the restoration of forskolin-activated chloride secretion. Protein kinase A-activated, linear, 10 pS chloride channels appeared at the plasma membrane of IB3-1 cells at the tested concentration of 2.5 mM. Treatment of IB3-1 cells with 0.1-1 mM 4PBA and primary nasal epithelia with 5 mM 4PBA also resulted in the appearance of higher molecular mass forms of CFTR consistent with addition and modification of oligosaccharides in the Golgi apparatus, as detected by immunoblotting of whole cell lysates with anti-CFTR antisera. Immunocytochemistry in CF epithelial cells treated with 4PBA was consistent with increasing amounts of delta F508-CFTR. These data indicate that 4PBA is a promising pharmacologic agent for inducing correction of the CF phenotype in CF patients carrying the delta F508 mutation. PMID:9366560

  9. Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

    2012-08-01

    We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China (31.5 N, 117 E). Patterned after the Colorado State University (CSU) narrowband sodium lidar with a dye laser-based transmitter, the USTC sodium temperature/wind lidar was deployed with a number of technical improvements that facilitate automation and ease of operation; these include a home constructed pulsed dye amplifier (PDA), a beam-steering system, a star-tracking program, and an electronic timing control. With the averaged power of ?1.2 W output from PDA and the receiving telescope diameter of 0.76 m, our lidar system has a power aperture product of ?0.55 Wm(2) and is comparable to the CSU and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) sodium lidar systems. The uncertainties of typical measurements induced by photon noise and laser locking fluctuation for the temperature and wind with a 2 km vertical and 15 min temporal resolutions under the nighttime clear sky condition are estimated to be ?1.0 K and ?1.5 m/s, respectively, at the sodium peak (e.g., 91 km), and 8 K and 10 m/s, respectively, at both sodium layer edges (e.g., 81 km and 105 km). The USTC narrowband sodium lidar has been operated regularly during the night since November 2011. Using the initial data collected, we demonstrate the reliability and suitability of these high resolution and precision datasets for studying the wave perturbations in the mesopause region. PMID:22859028

  10. Solvatochromic probe behavior within choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents: effect of temperature and water.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-12-18

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

  11. Effect of different ratios of sodium to chloride using isokalemic diets for growing and finishing swine raised during hot weather

    E-print Network

    Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othon

    1982-01-01

    is complicated and involves the use of buffers, respiratory, and renal control systems. Disturbance of this balance can lead to acidosis or alkalosis which affects adversely animal metabolism and per f orm ance. one of the major variables influencing animal... on osmalarity and ECP volume. Sodium concentration is regulated by aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Theme two hormones have opposite effects on Na concentration. If Na concentration is decreased, this stimulates increased aldosterone secretion...

  12. A new method for measuring the Doppler temperature of the atmospheric sodium layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R Clemesha; M. P. P Martins Jorge; D. M Simonich; P. P Batista

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years measurement of the thermal broadening of lidar returns from the atmospheric sodium layer has become a practical technique for monitoring temperature between 80 and 105 km. The method, first demonstrated more than 15 years ago, has now reached the point where it provides the best accuracy, time and height resolution of any technique for the

  13. Sodium/beta/double prime/-alumina/organosulfur batteries operating at intermediate temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C.

    1988-10-01

    Concurrent with impressive advances in advanced batteries operating at high temperatures such as the Na/Na/sub 2/S/sub x/ and Li/FeS systems, have been concerns over safety and reliability of such batteries. Accordingly, various efforts have been made to offer alternative high specific energy/power batteries operating at reduced temperatures. However, since electrode kinetics and mass transport processes in batteries are thermally activated, lower temperature systems often present a compromise between lower power output, and enhanced reliability, safety, and economic factors. Fortunately, lower temperature systems also offer far more flexibility in cell design, allowing geometries with higher electrode surface area than would be feasible with high temperature systems, thereby reducing the necessary current densities for acceptable power output. The sodium/organosulfur cells discussed in the following paper are based on the well known Na/beta/double prime/-alumina/Na/sub 2/S/sub x/ battery technology. However, in the present cells the sodium polysulfide electrode which has an operating temperature of 300 to 350/degree/C has been replaced with an organosulfur electrode which is limited at the low temperature limit by the melting point of sodium (approx.100/degree/C). 10 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The stability of Au-chloride complexes in water vapor at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, S. M.; Migdisov, A. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    The solubility of gold in liquid-undersaturated HCl-bearing water vapor was investigated experimentally at temperatures of 300 to 360C and pressures up to 144 bars. Results of these experiments show that the solubility of gold in the vapor phase is significant and increases with increasing fHCl and fH 2O . This behavior of gold is attributed to formation of hydrated gold-chloride gas species, interpreted to have a gold-chlorine ratio of 1:1 and a hydration number varying from 5 at 300C to 3 at 360C. These complexes are proposed to have formed through the following reaction: Ausolid+ m HClgas+ n H2Ogas= AuClm( H2O) ngas+ m/2 H2gas which was determined to have log K values of -17.28 0.36 at 300C, -18.73 0.66 at 340C, and -18.74 0.43 at 360C. Gold solubility in the vapor was retrograde, i.e., it decreased with increasing temperature, possibly as a result of the inferred decrease in hydration number. Calculations based on our data indicate that at 300C and fO 2-pH conditions, encountered in high sulfidation epithermal systems, the vapor phase can transport up to 6.6 ppb gold, which would be sufficient to form an economic deposit (e.g., Nansatsu, Japan; 36 tonnes) in 30,000 yr.

  15. Concurrent OH imager and sodium temperature//wind lidar observation of a mesopause region undular bore event

    E-print Network

    Concurrent OH imager and sodium temperature//wind lidar observation of a mesopause region undular, for the first time, the existence of a collocated temperature inversion layer to serve as the ducting region and Atmospheric Dynamics: Waves and tides; KEYWORDS: airglow, mesospheric bore, sodium lidar Citation: She, C. Y

  16. Characteristics of Electrogenic Sodium Pumping in Rat Myometrium

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Grahame S.; Paton, David M.; Daniel, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Sodium-rich myometrium, obtained from the uteri of pregnant rats, rapidly hyperpolarized when 4.6120 mM potassium was added to the bathing medium at 37C. Hyperpolarization was due to sodium pumping since the process was markedly temperature dependent, was abolished by ouabain, and required both intracellular sodium and extracellular potassium. The observed membrane potential exceeded the calculated potassium equilibrium potential during hyperpolarization providing evidence that sodium pumping was electrogenic. Hyperpolarization was reduced in the presence of chloride. The rate of sodium pumping may influence potassium permeability since potassium apparently did not short-circuit the pump during hyperpolarization. PMID:4920320

  17. Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Liu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350?C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150?C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95?C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation. PMID:25081362

  18. Superionic glass-ceramic electrolytes for room-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Akitoshi; Noi, Kousuke; Sakuda, Atsushi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Innovative rechargeable batteries that can effectively store renewable energy, such as solar and wind power, urgently need to be developed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes and electrodes are promising power sources for a wide range of applications because of their safety, long-cycle lives and versatile geometries. Rechargeable sodium batteries are more suitable than lithium-ion batteries, because they use abundant and ubiquitous sodium sources. Solid electrolytes are critical for realizing all-solid-state sodium batteries. Here we show that stabilization of a high-temperature phase by crystallization from the glassy state dramatically enhances the Na(+) ion conductivity. An ambient temperature conductivity of over 10(-4) S cm(-1) was obtained in a glass-ceramic electrolyte, in which a cubic Na(3)PS(4) crystal with superionic conductivity was first realized. All-solid-state sodium batteries, with a powder-compressed Na(3)PS(4) electrolyte, functioned as a rechargeable battery at room temperature. PMID:22617296

  19. Predictive thermal inactivation model for effects and interactions of temperature, NaCl, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects and interactions of heating temperature (60 to 73.9C), salt (0.0 to 4.5% w/v), sodium pyrophosphate (0.0 to 0.5% w/v), and sodium lactate (0.0 to 4.5% w/v) on the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Meat samples in st...

  20. Effect of temperature on accumulation of methylmercuric chloride and p,p'DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Willford, Wayne A.

    1974-01-01

    Amounts of mercury and DDT residues accumulated from water by yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the laboratory increased as water temperature increased. Fish exposed to methylmercuric chloride at concentrations of 234-263 parts per trillion for 12 wk at 5, 10, and 15 C accumulated 1.19, 1.71, and 1.96 ppm; fish exposed to p,p'DDT at concentrations of 133-176 parts per trillion accumulated 3.76, 5.93, and 6.82 ppm. Concentrations of mercury accumulated by the fish were significantly different (P < 0.01) at each of the three temperatures, and the concentrations of DDT were significantly different at 5 and 10 and 5 and 15 C. Throughout the period of exposure, the concentration factors (concentration of contaminant in the fish/concentration in water) at each of the three temperatures were far higher for p,p'DDT than for methylmercuric chloride.

  1. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. W. Vassie

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analysing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater

  2. Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, J C; Wilsted, H D; Mulcahy, B A

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of a thermocouple installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 degrees F. was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 r.p.m. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear-spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

  3. Effect of linear nonionic polymer additives on the kinetic stability of dispersions of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecylsulfate nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pojjk, Katalin; Fegyver, Edit; Mszros, Rbert

    2013-08-13

    In this article, the impact of different neutral polymers on the kinetic stability of charge-stabilized poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC)/sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) colloidal dispersions is analyzed using dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, turbidity, and coagulation kinetics measurements. Poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO), poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and dextran of comparable molecular masses as well as a higher-molecular-weight dextran sample were tested as nonionic additives. The light scattering and mobility data indicate that the PEO and PVP molecules may adsorb on the surface of the PDADMAC/SDS nanoparticles formed in the presence of excess surfactant. The primary effect of these additives is manifested in enhanced coagulation of the PDADMAC/SDS nanoparticles due to bridging at lower polymer concentrations and depletion flocculation at higher polymer concentrations. These findings are in sharp contrast to the earlier published effect of the same nonionic polymers on the poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI)/SDS colloidal dispersions, which can be sterically stabilized at appropriate PEO or PVP concentrations. However, the adsorption of the investigated dextran samples is negligible on the PDADMAC/SDS nanoparticles. Therefore, dextran molecules may cause only depletion flocculation in the PDADMAC/SDS system in the vicinity of the critical overlap concentration. PMID:23869814

  4. Water-soluble copolymers. XLV. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Salazar, L.C. (Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg (United States))

    1993-05-10

    Water-soluble, low charge density polyampholytes have been synthesized by free-radical terpolymerization of acrylamide (AM) with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC). Terpolymer compositions obtained by [sup 13]C0NMR reflect monomer feed concentrations. Molecular weights and second virial coefficients range from 3.43 to 19.4 [times] 10[sup 6] g/mol and from 1.63 to 3.61 mL mol/g[sup [minus]2], respectively, as determined by low-angle laser light scattering. Ionic associations were explored by investigating the dilute solution properties as a function of terpolymer concentration, terpolymer charge density, and added electrolytes. Terpolymers with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mol% of both of the cationic (AMTAC) and anionic (NaAMB) monomers were soluble in deionized water, whereas those with 10 and 15 mol% of each monomer required electrolyte addition. The higher-density terpolymers undergo a 700% increase in intrinsic viscosity upon changing NaCl concentration from 0.05 to 1M. Polyelectrolyte behavior could be induced by decreasing solution pH below the pK[sub a] of the NaAMB mer. Intermolecular ionic associations resulting in gel networks were studied utilizing dynamic mechanical analysis.

  5. Worst case aerosol testing parameters. I. Sodium chloride and dioctyl phthalate aerosol filter efficiency as a function of particle size and flow rate

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G.A.; Moyer, E.S.

    1989-05-01

    The efficiency of filter media is dependent on the characteristics of the challenge aerosol and the filter's construction. Challenge aerosol parameters, such as particle size, density, shape, electrical charge, and flow rate, are influential in determining the filter's efficiency. In this regard, a so-called ''worst case'' set of conditions has been proposed for testing respirator filter efficiency in order to ensure wearer protection. Data collected on various types of filters (dust and mist; dust, fume, and mist; paint, lacquer, and enamel mist; and high efficiency) challenged with a worst case-type sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) aerosol are presented. The particle size of maximum penetration varies as a function of filter type and was less than 0.25-micron count mean diameter (CMD) in all cases. The count efficiency for high efficiency filters was greater than 99.97% at worst case testing conditions, but the worst case count efficiencies for dust and mist; dust, fume and mist; and paint, lacquer and enamel mist filters were not nearly as efficient as existing test methods indicate. Also, as the test flow rate is increased, the count efficiency decreases. Thus, respirator filters were found to conform to the prediction of single-fiber filtration theory.

  6. Size-selective DNA separation: recovery spectra help determine the sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentrations required.

    PubMed

    He, Zhangyong; Xu, Hong; Xiong, Min; Gu, Hongchen

    2014-10-01

    In the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl), DNA fragments can be size-selectively separated by varying the final concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG). This separation strategy in combination with the use of paramagnetic particles provides a valuable platform for achieving the desired DNA size interval, which is important in automated library preparation for high-throughput DNA sequencing. Here, we report the establishment of recovery spectra of DNA fragments that enable the determination of suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective separation. Firstly, at a given NaCl concentration, the recovery equation was obtained by fitting the DNA recovery ratios versus the PEG concentrations using the logistic function to determine the required parameters. Secondly, the slope function of the recovery equation was achieved by deducing its first derivative. Therefore, the recovery spectrum can be generated using the slope function based on those parameters. According to the recovery spectra of different length DNA fragments, suitable NaCl and PEG concentrations can be determined, respectively, by calculating their resolution values and recovery ratios. The strategy was effectively applied to the size-selective separation of 532-, 400-, and 307-bp fragments at the selected reagent concentrations with recoveries of 96.9, 64.7, and 85.9%, respectively. Our method enables good predictions of NaCl and PEG concentrations for size-selective DNA separation. PMID:25044673

  7. The effect of Perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against spores of Clostridium difficile and Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces.

    PubMed

    Block, C

    2004-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for Perasafe, a recently introduced biocide, to contribute to control of C. difficile spores in the patient environment, in comparison with the chlorine-releasing agent sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). These agents were evaluated against a water control, in a surface test on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor covering, materials commonly found in the hospital environment. The organisms studied were a toxigenic clinical isolate of C. difficile, and Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly B. subtilis var niger). The data indicate that in our in vitro system, Perasafe was significantly more active than NaDCC (1000 ppm available chlorine) against C. difficile spores dried on stainless steel surfaces, and against B. atrophaeus on PVC floor covering material, achieving mean log10 reduction factors in viable counts of 6 and 5.5, respectively, at 10 min exposures. Perasafe appeared to be less lethal in 10 min exposures to C. difficile spores fixed on PVC floor covering material. In general, 1000 ppm chlorine generated from NaDCC showed lower log10 reduction factors in viable counts at 10 min, ranging from 0.7 to 1.5, than Perasafe which ranged from 2.7 to 6.0. The potential efficacy of Perasafe in reducing the density of C. difficile spores in the patient environment in hospitals, nursing homes or other long-stay facilities should be evaluated in field studies. PMID:15183245

  8. Electrodeposition of antimony in a water-stable 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride tetrafluoroborate room temperature ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Yang; I. W. Sun

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemistry and electrodeposition of antimony were investigated on glassy carbon and nickel electrodes in a basic 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-tetrafluoroborate room temperature ionic liquid. Cyclic voltammetry results show that Sb(III) may be either oxidized to Sb(V) via a quasi-reversible charge-transfer process or reduced to Sb metal. Diffusion coefficients for both Sb(III) and Sb(V) species were calculated from rotating disc voltammetric data.

  9. Reaction of solid sorbents with hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Binlin Dou; Bingbing Chen; Jinsheng Gao; Xingzhong Sha

    2005-01-01

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curves in the fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the prediction of these factors a difficult problem. In this study, the reaction rate between solid sorbents and hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature was first investigated. On the basis of a fixed-bed reactor, the experimental results

  10. Formation of metallic particles during temperature-programmed reduction of silica-supported platinum and nickel chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Jentys; J. A. Lercher; G. L. Haller

    1993-01-01

    The formation of (bi-) metallic particles during temperature-programmed reduction of silica-supported mixtures of Pt and Ni chlorides was followed by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The concentration and composition of the metal particles in the final catalysts were derived from the results of the EXAFS analysis. The reduction kinetics followed by XANES were related to the formation of ordered metallic phases. During

  11. Effect of Temperature on the Binding and Distribution Characteristics of Thionine in Sodium Dodecylsulfate Micelles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinem Gktrk; R. Ye?im Talman

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between thionine (a cationic thiazine dye) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate in aqueous solution\\u000a at different temperatures has been studied spectrophotometrically. The absorption spectra were used to quantify the dye\\/surfactant\\u000a binding constants and surfactant\\/water partition coefficients of the dye by applying mathematical models that consider partitioning\\u000a of the dye between the micellar and aqueous pseudo-phases. The Benesi-Hildebrand equation

  12. Thermodynamic study of gaseous sodium-phosphorous-oxygen ternary molecules by high temperature mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Miller, Federico

    1974-01-01

    less work has been performed on ternary 9 compounds, such as tungstates, molybdates, and mixed halides. With an interest in obtaining thermodynamic properties of gaseous ternary compounds, a vaporization study was performed on a sodium... thermodynamic properties of the system. The principle behind the mass spectrometric method and its use at elevated temperatures, along with the evaluation of equilibrium data to obtain thermodynamic quantities have been discussed in 4-7 several recent...

  13. Elasticity and structure of sodium disilicate glass at high pressures and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

    2012-12-01

    Studying the structures and physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions is essential for understanding the dynamics of the earth's interior. A complete understanding of physical and thermodynamic properties of melts at high pressures requires systematic studies from low temperature (super-cooled state - glass) to high temperature (liquid state - melt). In this study, we focus on the super-cooled liquid. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good model material for studying basalt magma since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell and pressed up to 4.5GPa and heated up to 1000oC at the HPCAT beamline 16-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source. Elastic wave travel times of the amorphous sample were collected using the ultrasonic pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer. X-ray radiographs were used to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Room temperature velocity results show minimum velocity values between 2-3 GPa for both the longitudinal wave velocity (Vp) and the transverse wave velocity (Vs), similar pressure dependence of elastic wave velocities at ambient temperature have also been observed in pure SiO2 from previous studies. Under high pressure (3 GPa), both Vp and Vs for sodium disilicate glass remain nearly constant with increasing temperature before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure). An 8.7% drop in Vp and a 11.9% drop in Vs were observed above the glass transition temperature. Structure information of the glass sample has recently been collected and the results will be presented in the context of observed velocity drops. We acknowledge the supports of COMPRES on facility development, of GSECARS for the Paris-Edinburgh press system, and of HPCAT for elastic wave velocity measurement developments.

  14. Calibration and measurement uncertainties of a continuous-flow cloud condensation nuclei counter (DMT-CCNC): CCN activation of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in theory and experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Rose; S. S. Gunthe; E. Mikhailov; G. P. Frank; U. Dusek; M. O. Andreae; U. Pschl

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical uncertainties in the measurement of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with a continuous-flow thermal-gradient CCN counter from Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT-CCNC) have been assessed by model calculations and calibration experiments with ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol particles in the diameter range of 20-220 nm. Experiments have been performed in the laboratory and during field measurement campaigns, covering

  15. Mesospheric temperatures and sodium properties measured with the ALOMAR Na lidar compared with WACCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunker, Tim; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.; Marsh, Daniel R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a comparison of the temperature and sodium layer properties observed by the ALOMAR Na lidar (69.3N, 16.0E) and simulated by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model with specified dynamics and implemented sodium chemistry (WACCM-Na). To constrain the meteorological fields below 60 km, we use MERRA and GEOS-5. For the years 2008 to 2012, we analyse daily averages of temperature between 80.5 km and 101.5 km altitude, and of the Na layer's peak height, peak density, and centroid height. Both model runs are able to reproduce the pronounced seasonal cycle of Na number density and temperature at high latitudes very well. Especially between 86.5 km and 95.5 km, the measured and simulated temperatures agree very well. The lidar measurements confirm the model predictions that the January 2012 stratospheric warming led to large variation in temperature and Na density. The correlation coefficient between Na number density and temperature is positive for almost all altitudes in the lidar data, but not in the simulations. On average, the centroid height and peak height measured by lidar is about 2 km-3 km higher than simulated by WACCM-Na.

  16. Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganitesA potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2014-03-03

    Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300?K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5?Jkg{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} was observed near 300?K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300?K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300?K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62?K at 280?K.

  17. Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the French R&D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlabin order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

  18. Temperature dependent structural and spectroscopic studies of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite

    SciTech Connect

    Gesing, Thorsten M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard C. [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)] [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Murshed, M. Mangir, E-mail: mmurshe@gwgd.de [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    We report on temperature dependent crystal structures of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite Na{sub 8}[GaSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} between 293 and 973 K. The crystal structures were refined from X-ray powder data Rietveld refinements in the space group P4-bar 3n. The gallium and silicon atoms on the tetrahedral framework positions are totally ordered. The nitrite anion was found slightly away from the center of the sodalite cage, which is tetrahedrally surrounded by four sodium atoms. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was calculated from the lattice expansion data. The change of the geometries of the framework has been observed on heating the polycrystalline sample, that is, T-O bond lengths slightly decreased, T-O-T angle non-linearly increased, tilt of the TO{sub 4} tetrahedra decreased (framework untwist) and their tetragonal tetrahedral distortion decreased with some scatterings. Of particular note, the tetragonal tetrahedra distortion of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra approached close to zero at higher temperatures, which points to a distortion direction to a relaxed state of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra on heating. The mobility of sodium atoms above 600 K leads to different sodium content in some sodalite cages and results in the appearance of different domains. The consequence of this domain formation to the strain of the crystalline system and to the average crystals size have been explained. Both Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra showed typical absorption bands of nitrite sodalite. The change of the frequency shift and full-width at half-maximum of some selected bands has been studied as function of temperature.

  19. The temperature dependence of the movement of sodium ions associated with nerve impulses.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L B; Landowne, D

    1974-01-01

    1. The movement of sodium ions across the membrane of the squid giant axon was measured by the use of radioactive tracers. Unidirectional fluxes were measured at rest and when the nerve was stimulated. The difference was considered the extra flux association with nerve impulses.2. The extra influx in intact axons at room temperature was 5.5 p-mole/cm(2). impulse. At 6 degrees C the extra influx was 6.5 p-mole/cm(2). impulse giving a Q(10) of 1/1.2.3. In perfused axons a Q(10) of 1/1.6 was obtained for the extra sodium influx in bracketed experiments on individual axons.4. The Q(10) of the extra sodium efflux associated with nerve impulses was found to be 1/1.2 in intact axons.5. Hodgkin & Huxley had predicted a much larger temperature dependence for the extra fluxes. If this difference between prediction and experiment does not result from some experimental error, then the class of models for the ion fluxes suggested by Hodgkin & Huxley may be inapplicable. PMID:4818526

  20. Influence of population and radius of cavity bubbles on size of sodium chloride crystals in ultrasound ablation.

    PubMed

    Araghi, Houshang; Saeidi, Mohammadreza; Eghtedar, Arash; Zarei, Mohsen; Vaezzadeh, Majid

    2012-11-01

    Crystal size distribution as a function of power in ultrasound ablation is simulated by using a theoretical method based on population and radius of bubbles. In this method, population and radius of bubbles are related to ultrasound power and Debye temperature of crystals. The best power for production of crystals with uniform size is obtained from the theory. In addition, it is shown that the population of bubbles effects the radius of the productions and the radius of bubbles influences the population of products. Results from the theory are supported by experimental results. PMID:22512995

  1. A metal mixture lowers the reaction temperature of copper chloride as shown using in situ quick XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Tanino, Yuta; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2009-11-01

    Trace chlorinated organic compounds are generated via thermal processes. Their formation is promoted by copper chloride in solid phase such as fly ash, especially in the post-combustion zone in municipal solid waste incineration. Previously, we reported the chemical state and change of copper chloride in a single model using the in situ quick scan x-ray absorption fine structure (QXAFS). However, a real solid phase, which is a complex system involving many elements, was not simulated. In this paper, we measured the Cu-K XAFS of a metal-mixture model upon heating to discuss the effect of mixing. The in situ QXAFS technique revealed that the reaction temperature of copper was lower, compared with the single model, when a mixture was measured. The result shows that the formation mechanism of chlorinated organic compounds derived from anthropogenic thermal sources can be described more correctly.

  2. Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram).

    PubMed

    Borges, S A; Fischer da Silva, A V; Majorka, A; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2004-09-01

    Individually caged male Cobb broilers (24), 44 d of age, were used to evaluate effects of heat stress (1 d of data collection) and dietary electrolyte balance (DEB; Na + K - Cl, mEq/kg from 1 d of age). During summer rearing, mortality was variable, but DEB 240 improved growth, feed conversion ratio, water intake, and water:feed ratio vs. DEB 0. The temperature sequence for heat stress was 24 to 32 degrees C in 30 min, 32 to 36 degrees C in 30 min, 36 to 37 degrees C in 15 min, and 37 to 41 degrees C in 45 min. Maximum temperature was held for 15, 60, 90, or 360 min for data collection (relative humidity averaged 42 +/- 7%). Results from the same room before and after heat stress were analyzed by DEB (1-factor ANOVA) and before vs. after heat stress compared across DEB (2-sample t-test). Heat stress decreased blood Na, K, and pCO2, and lymphocytes but increased heterophils. Blood HCO3 rose, Cl declined, and hematocrit gave a concave pattern (lowest at DEB 120) as DEB increased. After heat stress, DEB 0 decreased blood Na and K, and DEB 0 and 120 levels decreased blood HCO3. After heat stress blood pCO2 and hemoglobin decreased with DEB 240, but it had highest pCO2, a key factor. The DEB 120 gave longest times to panting and prostration with DEB 0 and 240 results lower but similar statistically. In heat stress, DEB 360 was excessive, DEB 120 and 240 were favorable, and DEB 0 was intermediate based on hematology, panting, and prostration responses. PMID:15384907

  3. Dextran sodium sulfate inhibits the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase: lithium chloride purification, a rapid and efficient technique to purify RNA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used in mouse studies to induce a very reproducible colitis that effectively mimics the clinical and histological features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanisms of action of DSS remain poorly understood, and observations by our laboratory and other groups indicate that DSS contamination of colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice potently inhibits the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of mRNA. Results A prior study used poly-A-mediated mRNA purification to remove DSS from RNA extracts, but we herein report a second efficient and cost-effective approach to counteract this inhibition, using lithium chloride precipitation to entirely remove DSS from RNAs. We also explored how DSS interferes with qRT-PCR process, and we report for the first time that DSS can alter the binding of reverse transcriptase to previously primed RNA and specifically inhibits the enzymatic activities of reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase in vitro. This likely explains why DSS-treated colonic RNA is not suitable to qRT-PCR amplification without a previous purification step. Conclusion In summary, we provide a simple method to remove DSS from colonic RNAs, and we demonstrate for the first time that DSS can inhibit the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase. In order to reliably analyze gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice, the efficiency rate of qRT-PCR must be the same between all the different experimental groups, including the water-treated control group, suggesting that whatever the duration and the percentage of the DSS treatment, RNAs must be purified. PMID:24010775

  4. Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, H.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

  5. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as affected by pH or sodium chloride and in fermented, dry sausage.

    PubMed Central

    Glass, K A; Loeffelholz, J M; Ford, J P; Doyle, M P

    1992-01-01

    The influence of pH adjusted with lactic acid or HCl or sodium chloride concentration on survival or growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) was determined. Studies also determined the fate of E. coli O157:H7 during the production and storage of fermented, dry sausage. The organism grew in TSB containing less than or equal to 6.5% NaCl or at a pH of 4.5 to 9.0, adjusted with HCl. When TSB was acidified with lactic acid, the organism grew at pH 4.6 but not at pH 4.5. A commercial sausage batter inoculated with 4.8 x 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 per g was fermented to pH 4.8 and dried until the moisture/protein ratio was less than or equal to 1.9:1. The sausage chubs were then vacuum packaged and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 months. The organism survived but did not grow during fermentation, drying, or subsequent storage at 4 degrees C and decreased by about 2 log10 CFU/g by the end of storage. These studies reveal the importance of using beef containing low populations or no E. coli O157:H7 in sausage batter, because when initially present at 10(4) CFU/g, this organism can survive fermentation, drying, and storage of fermented sausage regardless of whether an added starter culture was used. PMID:1514799

  6. The effect of different topical agents (silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and sodium chloride 0.9%) on burn injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Yksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Bal, Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2??1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

  7. The Effect of Different Topical Agents (Silver Sulfadiazine, Povidone-Iodine, and Sodium Chloride 0.9%) on Burn Injuries in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2??1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

  8. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Vctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus. PMID:15162733

  9. Anisometric Polyelectrolyte/Mixed Surfactant Nanoassemblies Formed by the Association of Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) with Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Dodecyl Maltoside.

    PubMed

    Plazzotta, Beatrice; Fegyver, Edit; Mszros, Rbert; Pedersen, Jan Skov

    2015-07-01

    The soluble complexes of oppositely charged macromolecules and amphiphiles, formed in the one-phase concentration range, are usually described on the basis of the beads on a string model assuming spherelike bound surfactant micelles. However, around and above the charge neutralization ionic surfactant to polyion ratio, a variety of ordered structures of the precipitates and large polyion/surfactant aggregates have been reported for the different systems which are difficult to connect to globular-like surfactant self-assembly units. In this article we have demonstrated through SAXS measurements that the structure of precipitates and those of the soluble polyion/mixed surfactant complexes of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and dodecyl-maltoside (DDM) are strongly correlated. Specifically, SDS binds to the PDADMAC molecules in the form of small cylindrical surfactant micelles even at very low SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios. In this way, these anisometric surfactant self-assemblies formed in excess polyelectrolyte mimic the basic building units of the hexagonal structure of the PDADMAC/SDS precipitate and/or suspensions formed at charge equivalence or at higher SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios. The presence of DDM reduces the cmc and cac for the system but does not alter significantly the structure of the complexes in either the one-phase or two-phase region. The only exception is for samples at SDS-to-PDADMAC ratios close to charge neutralization and a high concentration of DDM where the precipitate forms a multiphasic or distorted hexagonal structure. PMID:26057578

  10. The effect of inorganic chloride on the partitioning and speciation of heavy metals during a simulated municipal solid waste incineration process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory tube incinerator was used to investigate the partitioning and speciation of heavy metals, as a result of the presence of inorganic chloride in food residues in simulated Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). The study results indicate that metal partitioning, seen from incinerator ashes and in flue gas depends on the combustion temperature and sodium chloride concentrations in the simulated

  11. Selective conversion of cellulose in corncob residue to levulinic acid in an aluminum trichloride-sodium chloride system.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianmei; Jiang, Zhicheng; Hu, Libin; Hu, Changwei

    2014-09-01

    Increased energy consumption and environmental concerns have driven efforts to produce chemicals from renewable biomass with high selectivity. Here, the selective conversion of cellulose in corncob residue, a process waste from the production of xylose, to levulinic acid was carried out using AlCl3 as catalyst and NaCl as promoter by a hydrothermal method at relatively low temperature. A levulinic acid yield of 46.8?mol% was obtained, and the total selectivity to levulinic acid with formic acid was beyond 90%. NaCl selectively promoted the dissolution of cellulose from corncob residue, and significantly improved the yield and selectivity to levulinic acid by inhibiting lactic acid formation in the subsequent dehydration process. Owing to the salt effect of NaCl, the obtained levulinic acid could be efficiently extracted to tetrahydrofuran from aqueous solution. The aqueous solution with AlCl3 and NaCl could be recycled 4?times. Because of the limited conversion of lignin, this process allows for the production of levulinic acid with high selectivity directly from corncob residue in a simple separation process. PMID:25045141

  12. Deep formation waters of Western Europe, Russia and North America characterised by sodium, calcium, magnesium and chloride concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozau, Elke; Hemme, Christina; Sattler, Carl-Diedrich; van Berk, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Deep formation water can be classified according to depth, temperature, and salinity (e.g., Graf et al. 1966, Kharaka & Hanor 2007). Most of the deep formation waters contain dissolved solids in excess of sea water. The hydrogeochemical development of formation water has been discussed for a long time. It is widely accepted that deep aquifers are influenced by the meteoric cycle and geochemical processes within the crust (e.g., Hebig et al. 2012). Similar hydrogeochemical signatures are found in deep formation waters of all continents and can be explained by general geochemical processes within the deep reservoirs (e.g., Land 1995). Therefore, data of deep formation waters from Western Europe, Russia, and North America are collected and classified by the major water components. The data are used to identify important hydrogeochemical processes (e.g., halite dissolution and albitisation) leading to different compositions of formation water. Two significant water types are identified: Na-Cl water and Na-Ca-Cl water. Based on the collected hydrogeochemical data, development trends are stated for the formation waters, and albitisation is favoured as the main process for calcium enrichment. Furthermore, differences of formation water according to stratigraphical units are shown for deep reservoirs of the North German Basin and the North Sea. References: Graf, D.L., 1982. Chemical osmosis, reverse chemical osmosis, and the origin of subsurface brines. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 46, 1431-1448. Hebig, K.H., Ito, N., Scheytt, T., Marui, A., 2012. Review: Deep groundwater research with focus on Germany. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 227-243. Kharaka, Y.K., Hanor, J.S., 2007. Deep fluids in continents: I. Sedimentary Basins. Treatise on Geochemistry 5, 1-48. Land, L.S., 1995. The role of saline formation water in the crustal cycling. Aquatic Geochemistry 1, 137-145. Acknowledgements: The presented data are results of the collaborative research program "gebo" (Geothermal energy and high performance drilling), financed by the Ministry of Science and Culture of the Federal State of Lower Saxony and industry partner Baker Hughes Celle.

  13. An EXAFS spectroscopic study of aqueous antimony(III)-chloride complexation at temperatures from 25 to 250C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric H. Oelkers; David M. Sherman; K. Vala Ragnarsdottir; Claire Collins

    1998-01-01

    The X-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy of antimony(III)-chloride solutions were obtained at temperatures from 25 to 250C at pressures corresponding to the liquidvapor equilibrium curve for H2O. Two solution compositions were considered: solution A consisted of 0.042 M SbCl3+2.9 M HCl and solution B consisted of 0.1 M SbCl3+2.29 M HCl. Interpretation of resulting spectra indicates the presence of

  14. Transport properties of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride from equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The effect of temperature.

    PubMed

    Rey-Castro, Carlos; Vega, Lourdes F

    2006-07-27

    We present here equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation results for self-diffusion coefficients, shear viscosity, and electrical conductivity in a model ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride) at different temperatures. The Green-Kubo relations were employed to evaluate the transport coefficients. When compared with available experimental data, the model underestimates the conductivity and self-diffusion, whereas the viscosity is overpredicted, showing only a semiquantitative agreement with experimental data. These discrepancies are explained on the basis of the rigidity and lack of polarizability of the model. Despite this, the experimental trends with temperature are remarkably well reproduced, with a good agreement on the activation energies when available. No significant deviations from the Nernst-Einstein relation can be assessed on the basis of the statistical uncertainty of the simulations, although the comparison between the electric current and the velocity autocorrelation functions suggests some degree of cross-correlation among ions in a short time scale. The simulations reproduce remarkably well the slope of the Walden plots obtained from experimental data of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, confirming that temperature does not alter appreciably the extent of ion pairing. PMID:16854152

  15. Learned taste and temperature aversions due to lithium chloride sickness after temporal delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Nachman

    1970-01-01

    78 Sprague-Dawley rats, reared on water, were given saccharin and then made sick with a single lithium chloride (LiCl) injection after various intervals. Similarly, Ss reared on saccharin were made sick with LiCl at various times after drinking water. In both conditions, Ss learned to avoid drinking the fluid which preceded sickness and the amount of aversion was a function

  16. Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

    1979-01-01

    Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

  17. Management of metal chlorides in high temperature processes--application to the nuclear wastes treatment.

    PubMed

    Lemont, Florent

    2012-04-30

    Thermal processes are now the benchmark for the destruction of some waste whose toxicity requires special attention and management. Over many years the Commissariat l'nergie Atomique (French atomic energy commission) has developed technologies to process radioactive waste containing many metals together with chlorine, and thus with a major risk of producing volatile chlorides with potentially catastrophic effects on plant facilities. To mitigate these difficulties in an incineration process for radioactive waste contaminated by plutonium (IRIS), the CEA has investigated the processes by which potentially hazardous compounds are produced in order to eliminate them or prevent their formation. The studies have led to propose a phosphate-based stabilization technique thanks to an addition of phosphorus in the waste. Through a reaction occurring in gas phase, the metals are stabilized under a phosphate form when the formation of volatiles chlorides is avoided. While this technique has substantially improved process maintenance and security, it has revealed other difficulties related to potentially large phosphate deposits capable to cause unacceptable pressure drops detrimental to the gas flow conditions. This article describes the results of recent studies seeking to prevent the formation of volatile chlorides and phosphate deposits liable to obstruct the system flow lines. PMID:22365141

  18. Chemistry of Metal Chloride Complexes in Aprotic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. K. Felker; A. D. Kelmers

    1983-01-01

    A study of metal chloride solubility in aprotic solvents has been initiated. These solvent systems have very low hydrogen ion activities and thus allow chloride ion activities which are much higher than those attainable in water. The high chloride ion activities can be generated by the dissolution of soluble salts, such as calcium chloride or sodium chloride, in the aprotic

  19. Numerical Modeling of Electrochemical Chloride Removal from Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q Said-Shawqi; C Arya; P. R Vassie

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of electrochemical chloride removal from concrete (desalination) based on the Nernst-Planck and the Laplace equations is proposed. The model relies on experimentally derived chloride transport number profiles. It is shown that the model can make realistic predictions of both the chloride removed and the chloride remaining in concrete made with admixed sodium chloride.

  20. Discontinuous variation of the surface plasmon linewidth of small sodium nanoparticles with electron temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guozhong; Zheng, Yizhuang; Zi, Jian

    2015-05-01

    We found a novel behavior of the surface plasmon linewidth of small sodium nanoparticles, which monotonically decreases with the electron temperature and bears a sudden drop or rise at high electron temperatures. Our calculation is based on the model constructed by splitting the total Hamiltonian of all valence electrons of a metallic nanoparticle into two sub-Hamiltonians and the coupling between them. This novel behavior of the surface plasma resonance linewidth can be verified by pump-probe femtosecond spectroscopy experiments and is able to take place for metallic particles with sizes less than few nanometers. In addition, we propose that it is the size uncertainty of small nanoparticles that yields the intrinsic linewidth of the surface plasmon resonance, which is supported by experimental and theoretical results of nanoparticles Na8 and Na20.

  1. Characterizing W-2 SLSF experiment temperature oscillations using computer graphics. [Sodium Loop Safety Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.

    1983-06-23

    The W-2 SLSF (Sodium Loop Safety Facility) experiment was an instrumented in-reactor test performed to characterize the failure response of full-length, preconditioned LMFBR prototypic fuel pins to slow transient overpower (TOP) conditions. Although the test results were expected to confirm analytical predictions of upper level failure and fuel expulsion, an axial midplane failure was experienced. Extensive post-test analyses were conducted to understand all of the unexpected behavior in the experiment. (1) The initial post-test effort focused on the temperature oscillations recorded by the 54 thermocouples used in the experiment. In order to synthesize the extensive data records and identify patterns of behavior in the data records, a computer-generated film was used to present the temperature data recorded during the experiment.

  2. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na?S?O?) and calcium chloride (CaCl?) on changes in NH?(+)?N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg?, UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O? and UN+CaCl? and incubated at 22C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH?? disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO??-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH?(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO??-N kg? was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg?) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O?, and UN+CaCl?, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na?S?O? proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

  3. The effects of a potassium citrate, cetylpyridinium chloride, sodium fluoride mouthrinse on dentine hypersensitivity, plaque and gingivitis. A placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yates, R; West, N; Addy, M; Marlow, I

    1998-10-01

    Home-use studies on dentine hypersensitivity have most commonly involved toothpastes and rarely have mouthrinses been employed. Potassium and/or fluoride toothpastes have been shown effective in the treatment of dentine hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a total formulation, containing potassium citrate, sodium fluoride, cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinse compared to the base rinse minus actives in the reduction of dentine hypersensitivity. The study was a randomised placebo controlled, double blind parallel design. At a screening visit, 90 adult subjects were recruited who were suffering from dentine hypersensitivity from at least 1 tooth responding to tactile stimulation (45gm pressure) and had at least 2 teeth responding to evaporative stimulation (air blast). During a washout period of 28 days and throughout the 56-day study period, subjects used a soft filament toothbrush and standard fluoride toothpaste. At baseline (day 1), threshold sensitivities to incremental tactile (10 g to 70 g) and evaporative stimuli were determined. Gingival health was assessed by recording bleeding on probing at 25 g pressure at mesiobuccal and lingual sites. Plaque scores from buccal and lingual surfaces of disclosed teeth were also measured. Subjects then used the prescribed rinse, 10 ml for at least 30 s after brushing 2x per day returning on days 28 and 56 for rescoring of sensitivity, gingivitis and plaque. Data from 88 subjects were used with the intent to treat analyses and 83 in the completely evaluable analyses. Groups were well balanced for demographic data and product returns suggested good compliance. Both groups showed highly significant improvements in tooth sensitivity. The pattern was for greater improvement in the test compared to the control group (statistically significant for the plaque score), whereas bleeding scores, already low, showed no change in either group. By definition, the placebo rinse could not have exerted any therapeutic action; the study therefore provides clear direct evidence as to the magnitude (30%-40%) of the little studied, but assumed, placebo response in dentine hypersensitivity trials. PMID:9797054

  4. Modulatory effect of naringenin on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine- and saturated sodium chloride-induced gastric carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Peramaiyan, Rajendran; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Venkataraman, Magesh; Dhanapal, Sakthisekaran

    2008-10-01

    Naringenin is a flavanone that is believed to have many biological actions, including as an anti-oxidant, free radical scavenger and an antiproliferative agent. The global incidence of gastric carcinoma is increasing rapidly, more than for any other cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the effects of naringenin on gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and saturated sodium chloride (S-NaCl) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups and treated over a period of 20 weeks as follows: (i) a control group given corn oil (1 mL/rat, p.o.) daily 20 weeks; (ii) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14 with S-NaCl (1 mL/rat) administered twice a week for the first 3 weeks; (iii) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14, with naringenin (200 mg/kg, p.o., daily) treatment for the entire 20 weeks; (iv) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14, with naringenin treatment (200 mg/kg, p.o., daily) initiated from 6 to 20 weeks; (v) 200 mg/kg, p.o., naringenin alone daily for 20 weeks. In Group II rats in which gastric cancer was inducted with MNNG and S-NaCl, there was a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels, with decreases in reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition, in Group II rats with gastric cancer, there were significant increases in the activity of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b(5) and NADPH cytochrome c reductase, with concomitant decreases in the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase. Naringenin treatment (Groups III and IV) restored enzyme activity to near control levels. These results indicate that naringenin has a chemopreventive action against MNNG-induced gastric carcinoma in experimental rats. PMID:18565195

  5. Compatibility of structural materials with molten chloride mixture at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoya, Yuji; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru

    1997-09-01

    Ni-based superalloy Hastelloy-X and refractory metals were examined on compatibility with molten NdCl 3sbnd NaCl sbnd KCl mixture. Weight loss of the specimens caused by dipping was measured, and variation of compositions of Hastelloy-X also estimated by comparing RBS spectra obtained before and after the dipping. It was shown that moisture in these systems played an important role on the corrosion behavior. It was also shown that tantalum, tungsten and Hastelloy-X had sufficient corrosion-resistance against molten chlorides when moisture and oxygen were appropriately removed.

  6. The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony and their aluminum alloys from acidic aluminum chloride 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room-temperature molten salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, John Anthony

    The electrodeposition of cobalt, iron, antimony, and their aluminum alloys was investigated in the room-temperature molten salt, aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (AlClsb3-MeEtimCl). Solutions of Co(II), Fe(II), and Sb(III) were prepared by controlled-potential coulometric anodization of the respective metal in Lewis acidic melt. The plating and stripping of these metals was investigated using cyclic voltammetry, rotating disk and rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry, controlled potential coulometry, and potential step chronoamperometry. Bulk deposits of the pure and aluminum-alloyed metals were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction methods. The underpotential co-deposition of aluminum was observed during the electrodeposition of cobalt and iron; however, this phenomenon did not occur during the electrodeposition of antimony. The results of this investigation suggest that both a positive work function difference between the transition metal and aluminum and the mutual solubility of these components determine whether or not the co-deposition of aluminum takes place. Two electroanalytical techniques were developed for the analysis of co-deposited aluminum alloys: the first was based on anodic linear sweep voltammetry at a rotating-ring-disk electrode. The second was derived from the transition metal ion concentration changes observed during bulk deposition experiments. In the first technique, an alloy deposit was stripped from the disk electrode while the ring potential was held at a value where only one of the ions oxidized from the alloy could be reduced. In the second technique, the concentration of transition metal ions was monitored in an undivided cell with an anode made from the depositing metal. The co-deposition of aluminum was signalled by an increase in the transition metal ion concentration. The alloy composition data resulting from both techniques were in excellent agreement with that obtained from the analysis of partial currents by means of sampled-current voltammetry. Chronoamperometry was used to study the nucleation of antimony and iron on glassy carbon substrates. The electrodeposition of these metals was found to involve three-dimensional nucleation with hemispherical diffusion-controlled growth of the nuclei. Comparison of the experimental dimensionless current-time transients with theoretical transients indicated that the nucleation of iron followed a progressive mechanism whereas the nucleation of antimony followed a progressive mechanism at a finite number of active sites. Analysis of the potential dependence of the nucleation rate according to the Atomistic Theory of Nucleation suggested that active sites on the glassy carbon substrate act as critical nuclei. The formal potentials of the Co(II)/Co, Fe(II)/Fe, and Sb(III)/Sb couples were found to be: 0.86 0.02, 0.52 0.01, and 1.02 0.03 V, respectively, in the 60.0-40.0 m/o AlClsb3-MeEtimCl molten salt at 25spC. The diffusion coefficients of cobalt(II), iron(II), and antimony(III) were found to be: (3.40.1)10sp{-7}; (2.60.3)10sp{-6}; and (1.10.1)10sp{-6} cmsp2\\ ssp{-1}, respectively.

  7. Chemical and mechanical stability of sodium sulfate activated slag after exposure to elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, A.M., E-mail: alaarashad@yahoo.com [Housing and Building National Research Center, HBRC, 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza 11511, P.O. Box: 1770, Cairo (Egypt); Bai, Y., E-mail: y.bai@qub.ac.uk [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Basheer, P.A.M. [School of Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, David Keir Building, Stranmillis Road, Belfast BT9 5AG (United Kingdom); Collier, N.C.; Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Engineering Materials, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The chemical and mechanical stability of slag activated with two different concentrations of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) after exposure to elevated temperatures ranging from 200 to 800 Degree-Sign C with an increment of 200 Degree-Sign C has been examined. Compressive strengths and pH of the hardened pastes before and after the exposure were determined. The various decomposition phases formed were identified using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} activated slag has a better resistance to the degradation caused by exposure to elevated temperature up to 600 Degree-Sign C than Portland cement system as its relative strengths are superior. The finer slag and higher Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration gave better temperature resistance. Whilst the pH of the hardened pastes decreased with an increase in temperature, it still maintained a sufficiently high pH for the protection of reinforcing bar against corrosion.

  8. Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?2225 C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7??1.9%, 59.8??1.9%, and 77.4??1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5??3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

  9. High temperature phase transition in the three-layered sodium cobaltite P'3-NaxCoO2 (x ~ 0.62)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    High temperature phase transition in the three-layered sodium cobaltite P'3-NaxCoO2 (x ~ 0 author: blangero@icmcb-bordeaux.cnrs.fr Abstract The high temperature phase transition in the threelayered and in the distribution of the sodium cations occurring by raising the temperature. The gradual suppression of the second

  10. Flow and Temperature Distribution Evaluation on Sodium Heated Large-sized Straight Double-wall-tube Steam Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Moribe, Takeshi; Sakai, Takaaki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 4002, Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki, 311-1393 (Japan)

    2006-07-01

    The sodium heated steam generator (SG) being designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems is a straight double-wall-tube type. The SG is large sized to reduce its manufacturing cost by economics of scale. This paper addresses the temperature and flow multi-dimensional distributions at steady state to obtain the prospect of the SG. Large-sized heat exchanger components are prone to have non-uniform flow and temperature distributions. These phenomena might lead to tube buckling or tube to tube-sheet junction failure in straight tube type SGs, owing to tubes thermal expansion difference. The flow adjustment devices installed in the SG are optimized to prevent these issues, and the temperature distribution properties are uncovered by analysis methods. The analysis model of the SG consists of two parts, a sodium inlet distribution plenum (the plenum) and a heat transfer tubes bundle region (the bundle). The flow and temperature distributions in the plenum and the bundle are evaluated by the three-dimensional code 'FLUENT' and the two dimensional thermal-hydraulic code 'MSG', respectively. The MSG code is particularly developed for sodium heated SGs in JAEA. These codes have revealed that the sodium flow is distributed uniformly by the flow adjustment devices, and that the lateral tube temperature distributions remain within the allowable temperature range for the structural integrity of the tubes and the tube to tube-sheet junctions. (authors)

  11. Quantitative high-speed burned gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engines using sodium and potassium fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosburger, M.; Sick, V.; Drake, M. C.

    2013-03-01

    When sodium- and potassium-containing fuel additives are used in internal combustion engines, the bright fluorescence that sodium and potassium atoms emit in the burned gas zone offers a large potential for spectroscopic combustion analysis. To utilize this potential quantitatively, it is crucial to fully understand all physical and chemical processes involved. This includes (1) the temperature dependence of the fluorescence intensity due to gas-phase collisions, (2) the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio effects on thermodynamic equilibria in the burned gas zone and (3) pressure and temperature-dependent line shapes for quantitative correction of fluorescence reabsorption. High-speed imaging of sodium and potassium fluorescence in a spark-ignited, direct injection, single-cylinder research engine was conducted under well-controlled homogeneous operating conditions at equivalence ratios ranging from 0.71 to 1.43, cylinder pressure from 3 to 15 bar and burned gas temperatures from 1,700 to 2,600 K. This study demonstrates that the influence of pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio on the fluorescence signals of sodium and potassium is understood quantitatively and establishes the potentials and limitations of this tool for burned gas temperature measurements with high temporal and two-dimensional spatial resolution in a homogeneously operated internal combustion engine.

  12. Reaction of solid sorbents with hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature in a fixed-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Binlin Dou; Bingbing Chen; Jinsheng Gao; Xingzhong Sha [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai (China). Department of Environment Engineering

    2005-12-01

    The gas-solid reaction and breakthrough curves in the fixed-bed reactor are of great importance, and being influenced by a number of factors makes the prediction of these factors a difficult problem. In this study, the reaction rate between solid sorbents and hydrogen chloride gas at high temperature was first investigated. On the basis of a fixed-bed reactor, the experimental results were analyzed by the shrinking core model of diffusion and surface chemical reaction control. The results showed that reaction rates of two sorbents with hydrogen chloride gas were controlled by the combination of the surface chemical reaction and diffusion of product layers, and the reaction rates nearly keep constant within 15 h of the initial reaction period and then decrease gradually. The results of the breakthrough curves show that solid sorbents in the fixed-bed reactor are capable of reducing the HCl level to near-zero levels at 550{sup o}C. The experimental results and prediction for breakthrough curves are in good agreement for two sorbents. 13 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-poly(amidoamine) interactions studied by AFM imaging, conductivity, and Krafft temperature measurements.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Mandeep Singh; Kaura, Aman; Miller, J D; Paruchuri, V K

    2004-10-15

    The conductivity, kappa, and Krafft temperature, TK, of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) of 0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 generations (G) have been determined at different surfactant as well as PAMAM concentrations. The critical micelle concentration of SDS increases with the increase in the amount of each generation and the additive effect of 0.5G is maximum. TK of SDS shows a systematic decrease with maximum reduction in the presence of 0.5G. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) captures a layered pattern of 1.0G in the form of nanorods and no AFM images are detected for 1.0G in the presence of SDS. All results demonstrate that SDS has favorable interactions with ester-terminated 0.5G PAMAM rather than amine-terminated 0.0G and 1.0G. PMID:15450469

  14. Sodium-promoted Pd/TiO2 for catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Changbin; Li, Yaobin; Wang, Yafei; He, Hong

    2014-05-20

    Catalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO) to CO2 at ambient conditions is of great interest for indoor HCHO purification. Here, we report that sodium-doped Pd/TiO2 is a highly effective catalyst for the catalytic oxidation of HCHO at room temperature. It was observed that Na doping has a dramatic promotion effect on the Pd/TiO2 catalyst and that nearly 100% HCHO conversion could be achieved over the 2Na-Pd/TiO2 catalyst at a GHSV of 95000 h(-1) and HCHO inlet concentration of 140 ppm at 25 C. The mechanism of the Na-promotion effect was investigated by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), CO chemisorption, Temperature-programmed reduction by H2 (H2-TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature-programmed desorption of O2 (O2-TPD) methods. The results showed that Na species addition can induce and further stabilize a negatively charged and well-dispersed Pd species, which then facilitates the activation of H2O and chemisorbed oxygen, therefore resulting in the high performance of the 2Na-Pd/TiO2 catalyst for the ambient HCHO destruction. PMID:24738832

  15. Emergence of ambient temperature ferroelectricity in meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulou, Maria; Dimitrakis, Panagiotis; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Velessiotis, Dimitrios; Papadimitropoulos, Georgios; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G.; Argitis, Panagiotis

    2013-07-01

    Here, we demonstrate that the meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride, [H2TMPyP]4+Cl4, with a face-to-face orientation directed along a single direction displays ferroelectric properties at room temperature. This is attributed to its spontaneous polarization, due to an extensive hydrogen-bonded network. From C-V measurements, a remnant polarization of approximately 0.5 ?C cm-2 was estimated for pristine porphyrin film, which increases linearly up to about 1.7 ?C cm-2 after applying 2 V at the top electrode and further to 9.6 ?C cm-2 after 5 V positive poling. This largefor practical utilizationlevel of remnant polarization of [H2TMPyP]4+Cl4 makes it promising for future applications.

  16. An experimental study of the stability of copper chloride complexes in water vapor at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, S. M.; Migdisov, A. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2002-05-01

    The solubility of copper chloride in liquid-undersaturated HCl-bearing water vapor was investigated experimentally at temperatures of 280 to 320C and pressures up to 103 bars. Results of these experiments show that the solubility of copper in the vapor phase is significant and increases with increasing fH 2O , but is retrograde with respect to temperature. This solubility is attributed to the formation of hydrated copper-chloride gas species, interpreted to have a copper-chlorine ratio of 1:1 (e.g., CuCl, Cu 3Cl 3, etc.) and a hydration number varying from 7.6 at 320C, to 6.0 at 300C, and 6.1 at 280C. Complex formation is proposed to have occurred through the reaction: 3 CuCl solid+nH 2O gas? Cu 3Cl 3(H 2O) ngas Log K values determined for this reaction are -21.46 0.05 at 280C (n = 7.6), -19.03 0.10 at 300C (n = 6.0), and -19.45 0.12 at 320C (n = 6.1), if it is assumed that the vapor species is the trimer, Cu 3Cl 3(H 2O) 6-8. Calculations based on the above data indicate that at 300C and HCl fluxes encountered in passively degassing volcanic systems, the vapor phase could transport copper in concentrations as high as 280 ppm. Theoretically, this vapor could form an economic copper deposit (e.g., 50 million tonnes of 0.5% Cu) in as little as 20,500 yr.

  17. a Sodium Wind/temperature LIDAR and Observed Mesopause Thermal Structure Over Fort Collins, Colorado.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jirong

    A new two-frequency narrowband Na lidar, capable of measuring temperature in the mesopause region has been developed at Colorado State University. The uniqueness of this lidar system lies in its transmitter. Using Doppler -free fluorescence spectrum from a laboratory Na vapor cell, the laser frequency can be tuned and locked accurately as desired and the laser lineshape function can be measured directly. The vertically resolved temperature structure throughout the mesopause region (80-105km) can be measured by actively probing the thermally broadened Na D _2 resonance line with the narrowband Na lidar. Absolute temperature accuracy at the Na layer peak of +/-1.6K with a vertical resolution of 1.5 km and integration time of 4 min were achieved. The Na temperature lidar has been in regular nighttime operation since 1991. By the end of January 1994, 147 nights of quality data evenly distributed over one year period have been collected. Analysis of a total of more than 30,000 photocount files gives rise to high resolution seasonally and nightly averaged temperature and Na density profiles. Based on this extensive data set, the thermal structure of the mesopause region over Fort Collins, CO (40.6 N, 105 W), is discussed. Several features in the midlatitude mesopause, either new or significantly strengthened, are investigated in this study. First, the mesopause month -altitude temperature contour represents thermal structure at a midlatitude. Second, the double temperature minima have been seen each year for three years in spring and fall; this is now believed to be a permanent feature of the mesopause region. The trend of the mean nightly temperature at the lower altitude is a clear signature of a wave-driven diabetic circulation observed at midlatitude. Third, the profiles of annual mean temperature, annual and semi-annual temperature waves are presented. Within experimental errors the mean temperature, annual and semiannual amplitude and phases of temperature wave appear to be an extension of the French Rayleigh lidar result. Fourth, wave analysis has yielded parameters associated with the mesopause climatology, such as sodium abundance, centroid height, rms thickness of the Na layer, mesopause temperature and altitude. Like the polar mesopause, the mesopause altitude follows a bistable pattern. Using a uniquely constructed acoustooptic frequency shifter to give three different frequencies, nu _{rm a} = -652MHz and nu_{rm c} = 188MHz as usual along with nu_{ rm s} = -172MHz at the spectral slope, the Na temperature lidar has been up-graded to permit simultaneous measurements of radial wind and temperature in the mesopause region. With the lidar axis tilted 15^circ from zenith, initial observations were made for three nights in September, 1993, achieving a spatial and temporal resolutions of 1.5 km and 6 min with measurement uncertainty 1.6 K and 3.3 m/s at the peak of the Na layer. Sample individual and nightly mean radial wind and temperature profiles are presented to show the effectiveness of the "up-graded" lidar for investigating thermal and dynamical activities in the mesopause region.

  18. Vinyl Chloride

    Cancer.gov

    Vinyl chloride is a colorless gas that burns easily. It does not occur naturally and must be produced industrially for its commercial uses. Vinyl chloride is used primarily to make polyvinyl chloride (PVC); PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials. Vinyl chloride is also produced as a combustion product in tobacco smoke.

  19. High-temperature oxidation and corrosion of structural materials in molten chlorides.

    SciTech Connect

    Indacochea, J. E.; Smith, J. L.; Litko, K. R.; Karell, E. J.; Raraz, A. G.; Chemical Engineering

    2001-02-01

    A molten salt-based process for treatment of spent oxide fuels is under development at the Argonne National Laboratory. A major part of the development effort involves identification of corrosion-resistant structural materials for the process vessels. Coupons of two stainless steels, tantalum, and two Inconel alloys were submitted to a corrosion test in an argon atmosphere with 10% oxygen. The coupons were partially immersed in molten lithium chloride salt containing small amounts of lithium metal, lithium oxide, and lithium nitride. Two sets of coupons were tested, the first at 750{sup o}C for 30 days and the second at 650{sup o}C for 6 days. Coupons of the first set corroded completely. In the second set of coupons, all corroded to some extent, but Inconel 600 showed the best performance overall. The salt-exposed region generally showed the greatest corrosion in the other coupons. One of the 316L SS coupons was welded and the weld area was severely attacked.

  20. Comparison of changes in facial skin temperature caused by ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Im, Y-G; Park, H-J; Chae, H-Y; Kim, B-G; Lim, H-S; Park, J-I; Kim, J-H

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three cryotherapeutic modalities (ethyl chloride spraying, ice block rubbing and cold gel packing) on facial skin temperature. Thirty healthy volunteers (15 men, 15 women; mean age, 29432years) participated in this study. Each of the three modalities was randomly applied to the skin over the right masseter muscle. The skin surface temperature was recorded at baseline and every 5min for 60min after the application of one of the three cryotherapeutic modalities. Immediately after application, cold gel packing demonstrated the greatest reduction in surface temperature (106C), followed by ethyl chloride spraying (43C) and ice block rubbing (37C) (P<0001). During the 60-min post-application period, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing produced similar skin surface temperature changes. The skin surface remained coldest for the longest period of time after cold gel packing. The median time for recovery of the baseline temperature after application of the cold gel pack was about three to four times longer than that for the other modalities (P<0001). Ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing resulted in less reduction and faster recovery of skin surface temperature than did cold gel packing. In conclusion, ethyl chloride spraying and ice block rubbing had a limited cooling effect on the facial skin tissue and could not reduce the skin surface temperature enough for local analgesia. Moreover, the cooling effect of cold gel packing was remarkable, but not sufficient for local analgesia. PMID:22994138

  1. A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W. [Rapidly Solidified Materials Research Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-01

    Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

  2. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rard, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Rard, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Dielectric Breakdown of Potassium Chloride Crystals under dc and Pulse Voltages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis W. Kaseta; H. Tung Li

    1966-01-01

    The dielectric breakdown strength of a KCl single crystal in the temperature range 4.2425K and of a mixed crystal (75?25 mole % KCl-RbCl) between 77 and 375K was measured with dc voltage and with pulses of 1- and 10-?sec risetime. The dc strength lies below the pulse strength over the entire temperature range. Pulse and dc strengths gradually rise from

  5. A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)

    SciTech Connect

    Anil Virkar

    2008-03-31

    This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

  6. The synergistic inhibition between 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ion for the corrosion of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M sulfuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libin Tang; Xueming Li; Yunsen Si; Guannan Mu; Guangheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5M sulfuric acid in the presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The inhibition efficiency increases with increasing concentration of 8-hydroxyquinoline at the same temperature, but decreases with increasing temperature studied. A synergistic effect exists when 8-hydroxyquinoline and chloride ions are used

  7. Galvanic currents and corrosion rates of reinforcements measured in cells simulating different pitting areas caused by chloride attack in sodium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Andrade; P. Garcs; I. Martnez

    2008-01-01

    Chlorides induce localized corrosion in the reinforcement. The pits formed a substantial reduction in the cross-sectional area. The smaller is the ratio between the size of the corrosion spot and the surrounding passive metal area acting as cathode, the higher is the corrosion rate or the progression in the pit depth. This, however, is not always the case. To understand

  8. Transcorneal permeation of diclofenac as a function of temperature from film formulation in presence of triethanolamine and benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Rajaram; Senapati, Sibananda; Sahoo, Chinmaya; Mallick, Subrata

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate the transcorneal permeation of diclofenac potassium (DCP) as a function of temperature from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix film containing triethanolamine (TEM) as plasticizer and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as preservative. Activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (?H), entropy (?S) and free energy (?G) of permeation, diffusion and partition were evaluated to understand the underlying mechanism of permeation. Permeation improved with the presence of both the plasticizer and preservative compared to preservative alone. Further, increased amount of TEM in the film increased drug transport across the cornea. Decreased Ea value of the film supported the fact. Rise of temperature from 26 to 30, 34 and 40 C increased permeation in all the films. Ocular residence of the film in vivo in the rabbit revealed that the film swelled by pronounced lachrymal fluid uptake and traces of hydrogel remained still at the end of 6 h of application. Absence of characteristic exothermic peak of the drug in the thermogram of film formulations indicated the molecular dispersion of drug in polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the drug crystal size decreased with increasing concentration of TEM in presence of BKC due to effective wetting of drug particles by the polymer. PMID:25255701

  9. A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor based on SnO2 doped poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

  10. A Novel Flexible Room Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on SnO2 Doped Poly-Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

    2013-01-01

    A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

  11. Stress corrosion behavior of stainless steel welds in high temperature water containing chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Viswanathan; J. I. Nurminen; R. G. Aspden

    1979-01-01

    The effects of delta ferrite, carbon content and postweld heat treatment on the stress corrosion susceptibility of AISI Types 308, 309, and 316 stainless steel surfacing welds in high temperature water have been investigated. For each type of stainless steel, the initial ferrite level was controlled at three predetermined levels in the range 1 to 10%, and the carbon content

  12. Zinc chloride-promoted aryl bromide-alkyne cross-coupling reactions at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Finke, Aaron D; Elleby, Eric C; Boyd, Michael J; Weissman, Haim; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2009-11-20

    Substoichiometric amounts of ZnCl(2) promote the room temperature, Pd/P(t-Bu)(3)-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl bromides with alkynes. Pd(I) dimer 1 is demonstrated to be a particularly active precatalyst for this reaction. The reaction is general for a wide variety of aryl bromides. PMID:19860393

  13. THE EFFECT OF SODIUM LACTATE AND SODIUM DIACETATE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES IN HAM STORED AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) meats contaminated with L. monocytogenes have been implicated in several listeriosis outbreaks. Lactate and diacetate have been shown to control L. monocytogenes in RTE meats at refrigerated temperature. However, there are no models describing their effects under tem...

  14. Spray pyrolysis deposition of ZnO thin films on FTO coated substrates from zinc acetate and zinc chloride precursor solution at different growth temperatures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    . Alver; A. Kudret; S. Tekerek

    2011-01-01

    ZnO thin films were fabricated using zinc chloride and zinc acetate precursors by the spray pyrolysis technique on FTO coated glass substrates. The ZnO films were grown in different deposition temperature ranges varying from 400 to 550C. Influences of substrate temperature and zinc precursors on crystal structure, morphology and optical property of the ZnO thin films were investigated. XRD patterns

  15. Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate\\/carbonate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Li; Y. R. Feng; Z. Q. Bai; J. W. Zhu; M. S. Zheng

    2007-01-01

    The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO3\\/Na2CO3 buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the

  16. Materials Issues in High Temperature Ultrasonic Transducers for Under-Sodium Viewing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard J. Bond; Jeffrey W. Griffin; Gerald J. Posakony; Robert V. Harris; David L. Baldwin

    2012-01-01

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970's, and, over the intervening 30+ years the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in

  17. Temperature Dependence of Thermodynamic Properties of Thallium Chloride and Thallium Bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanoz, H. B.

    2015-02-01

    Thermodynamic properties as lattice parameters, thermal expansion, heat capacities Cp and Cv, bulk modulus, and Gruneisen parameter of ionic halides TlCl and TlBr in solid and liquid phases were studied using classical molecular dynamics simulation (MD) with interionic Vashistha-Rahman (VR) model potential. In addition to the static and transport properties which have been previously reported by the author [13], this study further confirms that temperature dependence of the calculated thermophysical properties of TlCl and TlBr are in agreement with the available experimental data at both solid and liquid phases in terms of providing an alternative rigid ion potential. The results give a fairly good description of TlCl and TlBr in the temperature range 10-1000 K.

  18. Interaction of hydrogen chloride with alumina. [influence of outgas and temperature conditions on adsorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. R.; Wightman, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of outgas conditions and temperature on the adsorptive properties of two aluminas Alon-c and Al6sG were studied using adsorption isotherm measurements. Alon-C and Al6SG were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET nitrogen surface areas. Some of these techniques were applied to two other aluminas but no isotherm data was obtained. Isotherm data and techniques applied to each alumina are summarized in tabular form.

  19. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

    1986-01-01

    SummaryThe effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

  20. The effect of Perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against spores of Clostridium difficile and Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Block

    2004-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for Perasafe, a recently introduced biocide, to contribute to control of C. difficile spores in the patient environment, in comparison with the chlorine-releasing agent sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). These agents were evaluated against a water control, in a surface test on stainless

  1. THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GREEN TEA (Camellia sinensis) ON Staphylococcus aureus IN COMBINATION WITH ASCORBIC ACID, ACETIC ACID, AND SODIUM CHLORIDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Barnum; Steven Castellano; Annie Chen; Neha Jariwala; Andrew Jung; Christina Sedberry; Heather Tynan; Charles Zou; Rachel Sandler; Danielle Cusmano

    Green tea contains polyphenolic catechins that have been demonstrated to effectively inhibit Staphylococcus aureus and related bacteria. This study aimed to determine if home-brewed green tea could inhibit S. aureus through paper disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration experiments. It was hypothesized that green tea brewed for varying periods of time in solutions with ascorbic acid, acetic acid, and sodium

  2. Three new polyoxometalate-based hybrids prepared from choline chloride\\/urea deep eutectic mixture at room temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Ming Wang; Wei-Lin Chen; En-Bo Wang; Yang-Guang Li; Xiao-Jia Feng; Lin Liu

    2010-01-01

    Three new polyoxometalate-based hybrids {[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]2(H3O)}[Na2(H2O)6][IMo6O24]H2O 1 , {Na2[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]4}[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]28NH2CONH24H2O 2 and {Na6(H2O)18[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]2(CON2H5)2}[NaMo7O24]24NH2CONH2H2O 3 were successfully synthesized in the choline chloride\\/urea deep eutectic mixture at room temperature. Reactant quantities of water presents in the nonaqueous eutectic mixture solvent may influence the structure of the products. The three compounds are fully characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UVvis, TG analyses, power X-ray diffraction and

  3. Effect of [gamma]-irradiation and temperature on the structure of metal chloride treated poly(acrylamide)

    SciTech Connect

    Moharram, M.A.; Rabie, S.M.; Daghistani, A.Y. (National Research Center and Middle Eastern Regional Center for the Arab Countries, Cario (Egypt))

    1993-10-15

    The gamma-induced changes in the structure of poly (acrylamide) (PAAm) treated with metal chlorides were investigated by following the corresponding variations in their ultraviolet spectra. Careful examination of UV spectra revealed that irradiation of the specimens results in the appearance of an absorption peak at 275 nm whose intensity depends on the applied dose and the nature of the metal ions. This band is ascribed to the formation of the carbonyl group. The results indicate that the dependence of the intensities of the band at 275 nm on the nature of the metal used provides strong evidence for the formation of metal polymer complexes. It was found that the pretreatment of PAAm with the appropriate concentration of ZnCl[sub 2], CoCl[sub 2], or NiCl[sub 2] reduces the effects of heating and the oxidation effects of [gamma]-irradiation. These results show that these metal ions can be used as stabilizers against thermal degradation of PAAm in the temperature range up to 160 C.

  4. Manufacturing artificial aggregates from industrial sludge and marine clay with addition of sodium salt.

    PubMed

    Tay, J H; Hong, S Y; Show, K Y; Chien, C Y; Lee, D J

    2003-01-01

    The potential of converting industrial sludge and dredged marine clay into building and construction materials as an alternative to disposal was investigated in this study. The industrial sludge was mixed with marine clay at various compositions and was shaped into round pellets to be used as concrete aggregates. The pellets were then dried and transferred into a high temperature kiln where they were heated at 1,135 degrees C. The artificial aggregates were more porous then the normal granite aggregate. The occurrence of this condition was suspected to be attributed to two factors, viz. the firing temperature and the amount of sodium in the aggregates. To validate this hypothesis, the aggregates with and without added sodium chloride were fired at temperatures of 1,100 and 1, 200 degrees C. Results showed a reduction in the densities of the aggregates with the addition of sodium chloride and the increase in firing temperature. PMID:12578191

  5. Flow and Temperature Distribution Evaluation on Sodium Heated Large-sized Straight Double-wall-tube Steam Generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoyuki Kisohara; Takeshi Moribe; Takaaki Sakai

    2006-01-01

    The sodium heated steam generator (SG) being designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems is a straight double-wall-tube type. The SG is large sized to reduce its manufacturing cost by economics of scale. This paper addresses the temperature and flow multi-dimensional distributions at steady state to obtain the prospect of the SG. Large-sized heat exchanger components

  6. Distributed temperature monitoring for liquid sodium leakage detection using OFDR-based Rayleigh backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldyreva, E.; Cotillard, R.; Laffont, G.; Ferdinand, P.; Cambet, D.; Jeannot, J.-P.; Charvet, P.; Albaladjo, S.; Rodriguez, G.

    2014-05-01

    For the first time, a gold coated single mode optical fiber has been used to detect a liquid sodium leakage on a pipe of secondary circuit pipe mock-up of nuclear fast reactor (Gen IV) by means of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry-based on Rayleigh backscattering. During 150 min of the experiment we were able to detect and monitor the evolution of a liquid sodium leakage on the surface of the pipe.

  7. Temperature dependencies of the Henry's law constant and the aqueous phase dissociation constant of bromine chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.P.; Margerum, D.W.

    1999-10-01

    Modeling ozone depletion observed in the Arctic troposphere requires mass transport of halogen species between the aqueous and the gas phases, which is proportional to its Henry's Law constant (H{sub x}). UV measurements are made in both the aqueous and gas phases to determine the solubility (H{sub BrCl} = [BrCl(aq)]/[BrCl(g)]RT) of BrCl (279--299 K). The gas-phase absorbance spectrum (330--450 nm, 1 nm intervals) is fit for [BrCl(g)], [Br{sub 2}(g)], and [Cl{sub 2}(g)], while the absorbance value at 343 nm is used to determine [BrCl(aq)] (and [BrCl{sub 2}{sup {minus}}]). Dissociation (K{sub aq} = [Br{sub 2}(aq)][Cl{sub 2}(aq)]/[BrCl(aq)]{sup 2}) data are obtained from K{sub aq} = H{sub Cl2}H{sub Br2}K{sub g}/H{sub BrCl}{sup 2} where H{sub Cl2}, H{sub Br2}, and K{sub g} have analogous definitions to H{sub BrCl} and K{sub aq}. Comparison of Henry's Law constants in Table 2 reveals that the order of solubility at 298.2 is BrCl > Br{sub 2} {much{underscore}gt} Cl{sub 2}. At temperatures relevant to the Arctic, BrCl is much more soluble than Br{sub 2} because of differences in {Delta}H{degree}. Consequently, the relative flux of BrCl from the aqueous to the gas phase should not be as large as that of Br{sub 2}. Comparison of dissociation constants in Table 2 reveals the relatively high degree of association of BrCl with H{sub 2}O molecules in the aqueous phase.

  8. Effect of chloride salts, curing compounds and heating and freezing on Trichinella spiralis in pork products

    E-print Network

    Kayfus, Timothy Jon

    1981-01-01

    shoulders were used to make linked pork sausage. Phase one of this study used chloride salt replacements calculated to an ionic strength equivalent to that of sodium chloride (2, 5/). Phase two of this study consisted of sodium chloride replace- ments.... The use of 1. 35X magnesium chloride or 1. 58/ calcium chloride de- creased (P&0. 05) pH in comparison to that for sausages made with either sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The addition of 75 or 150 porn N02 did not lower plate counts (P&0. 05...

  9. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q. [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). Div. of Civil Engineering] [South Bank Univ., London (United Kingdom). Div. of Civil Engineering; Vassie, P.R.W. [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)] [Transport Research Lab., Crowthorne (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  10. Swelling equilibria for temperature-sensitive ampholytic hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.P.; Stephens, D.R.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    Temperature-sensitive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA)-based ampho-lytic hydrogels were synthesized by copolymerizing NIPA with the cationic monomer methacrylamidopropyl trimethylammonium chloride (MAPTAC) and the anionic monomer sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS). The total nominal charge density of the hydrogels was held constant at 8 mol % (dry basis), while the molar ratio of anionic to cationic moieties within the hydrogels was varied. Swelling equilibria were measured in water at 6C, and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions ranging in concentration from 10{sup {minus}5}to 5 M and temperature ranging from 6 to 56C. Consistent with expectations, the swelling behavior of the hydrogels was found to be controlled by temperature at low salt concentrations; as the sodium chloride concentration increased, temperature control of hydrogel swelling decreased. Slight antipolyelectrolyte behavior was observed for the hydrogel prepared with equal molar amounts of MAPTAC and SSS.

  11. Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

  12. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  13. A relationship between the occurrence of sporadic sodium layers and temperatures over Hefei (31.8N, 117.3E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, S.; Dou, X.

    2011-12-01

    A sporadic sodium layer is a narrow layer in which a sudden increase of sodium (Na) is occurring. The mechanism of sporadic sodium layers(SSLs) is unclear although several theories have been proposed. In our study, we compare the sodium density data of the Rayleigh-Sodium fluorescence lidar system of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) at Hefei, China (31.8N,117.3E) with the temperature data of the SABER satellite. We find that there is a strong correlation between the occurrence of sporadic sodium layers and low temperatures below 150K generally two or three days before the SSLs. A few hours before the an SSL event there is always an unusual heating process detected at the altitude where the SSL occurs. From Jan 2006 to Dec 2009, 29 typical SSL events are clearly identified , 22 of which occur following low temperatures below 150K and another 6 of which have no temperature data over night. We also present a new possible mechanism of SSLs called the low-and-high temperature model: in the altitude between 95~100km, the sodium bicarbonate clusters are absorbed by the cold vapour particles for nucleation and the ice grains also adsorb sodium atoms as a thin metal film, then the heavy ice grains sink to down altitudes near 93km. When the temperature is high enough the ice grains vapour, and the NaHCO3 break down to Na to create a sudden increase of the sodium layer.

  14. Effects of duct configuration on flow and temperature structure in sodium-cooled 19-rod simulated LMFBR fuel bundles with helical wire-wrap spacers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Wantland; M. H. Fontana; P. A. Gnadt; N. Hanus; R. E. MacPherson; C. M. Smith

    1976-01-01

    Thermal-hydrodynamic testing of sodium-cooled 19-rod simulated LMFBR fuel bundles is being conducted at the O ak Ridge National Laboratory in the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM), an engineering-scale high-temperature sodium facility which provides prototypic flows, temperatures and power densities. Electrically heated bundles have been tested with two scalloped and two hexagonal duct configurations. Peripheral helical flows, attributed to the spacers, have

  15. Sodiumand silver phosphate glasses doped with chlorides of Fe, Mn and Zn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Das; V. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    A number of samples of sodium and silver phosphate glasses doped with\\u000a various compositions of some transition metals viz. iron, manganese and zinc\\u000a chlorides alongwith undoped samples of sodium and silver phosphate glasses\\u000a were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR spectral, electrical\\u000a conductivity and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The glass transition\\u000a temperature (T\\u000a g)\\u000a and crystallization temperature (T\\u000a c)

  16. Variations of the neutral temperature and sodium density between 80 and 107 km above Troms during the winter of 2010-2011 by a new solid-state sodium lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, S.; Kawahara, T. D.; Saito, N.; Hall, C. M.; Tsuda, T. T.; Kawabata, T.; Wada, S.; Brekke, A.; Takahashi, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Ogawa, Y.; Fujii, R.

    2014-01-01

    A new solid-state sodium lidar installed at Ramfjordmoen, Troms (69.6N, 19.2E), started observations of neutral temperature together with sodium density in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region on 1 October 2010. The new lidar provided temperature data with a time resolution of 10 min and with good quality between 80 and 105 km from October 2010 to March 2011. This paper aims at introducing the new lidar with its observational results obtained over the first 6 months of observations. We succeeded in obtaining neutral temperature and sodium density data of 255.5 h in total. In order to evaluate our observations, we compared (1) the sodium density with that published in the literature, (2) average temperature and column sodium density data with those obtained with Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research Weber sodium lidar, and (3) the neutral temperature data with those obtained by Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry/Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics satellite. For the night of 5 October 2010, we succeeded in conducting simultaneous observations of the new lidar and the European Incoherent Scatter UHF radar with the tristatic Common Program 1 (CP-1) mode. Comparisons of neutral and ion temperatures showed a good agreement at 104 km between 0050 and 0230 UT on 6 October 2010 when the electric field strength was smaller, while significant deviations (up to 25 K) are found at 107 km. We evaluated contributions of Joule heating and electron-ion heat exchange, but derived values seem to be underestimated.

  17. Analysis of the isotope effect in the hydrogen exchange reaction between pyridinium chloride and hydrogen chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Szydlowski; M. Zielinski

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange between pyridinium chloride and gaseous hydrogen chloride has been studied both experimentally and theoretically over the temperature range of 273 to 353 K. The experimental fractionation factor obtained shows some dependence on the composition of the substrates. This phenomenon can be accounted for by specific interactions in pyridinium chloride + hydrogen chloride system. The calculated fractionation factor

  18. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 ?L) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  19. Temperature dependence of erythromelalgia mutation L858F in sodium channel Nav1.7

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chongyang Han; Angelika Lampert; Anthony M Rush; Sulayman D Dib-Hajj; Xiaoliang Wang; Yong Yang; Stephen G Waxman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The disabling chronic pain syndrome erythromelalgia (also termed erythermalgia) is characterized by attacks of burning pain in the extremities induced by warmth. Pharmacological treatment is often ineffective, but the pain can be alleviated by cooling of the limbs. Inherited erythromelalgia has recently been linked to mutations in the gene SCN9A, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7. Nav1.7 is

  20. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    PubMed

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Vronique; Zanni, Hlne; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress. PMID:15833625

  1. Microfluidic two-dimensional separation of proteins combining temperature gradient focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Shameli, Seyed Mostafa; Ren, Carolyn L

    2015-04-01

    A two-dimensional separation system is presented combining scanning temperature gradient focusing (TGF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in a PDMS/glass microfluidic chip. Denatured proteins are first focused and separated in a 15 mm long channel via TGF with a temperature range of 16-47 C and a pressure scanning rate of -0.5 Pa/s and then further separated via SDS-PAGE in a 25 mm long channel. A side channel is designed at the intersection between the two dimensions to continuously inject SDS into the gel, allowing SDS molecules to be compiled within the focused bands. Separation experiments are performed using several fluorescently labeled proteins with single point detection. Experimental results show a dramatic improvement in peak capacity over one-dimensional separation techniques. PMID:25787346

  2. Effects of sodium lactate on the microbiological, chemical and color attributes of cooked, vacuum-packaged beef stored at various temperatures

    E-print Network

    Bigner, Marnie Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM LACTATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND COLOR ATTRIBUTES OF COOKED, VACUUM- PACKAGED BEEF STORFD AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES A Thesis hv MARNIE ELIZABFTH BIGNER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM... University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTFRS OF SCII=. NCE August I')')3 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECT OF SODIUM LACTATE ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND COLOR ATI'RIBUTES OF COOKED, VACUUM...

  3. Study of the dependence of the specific output power of a copper chloride laser on the radial temperature profile of a gas plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Sadighi-Bonabi, R; Mohammadpour, R; Tavakoli, M [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanmoradi, F [Bonab Research Center, Bonab, Azerbaijan province (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zand, M [Laser Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-04-30

    The design of a copper chloride laser is described, and the laser is optimised by studying the dependence of its output power on the buffer gas type. The voltage and current of the laser discharge at the optimum buffer gas pressure are measured. The influence of the diaphragm diameter on the specific output power is studied after optimisation of switch parameters. When an diaphragm producing the optimal temperature gradient in the laser gas-discharge tube, the record specific output power of 123 W L{sup -1} is obtained without any admixtures. (lasers)

  4. Supported palladium catalysts for the reduction of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate in aqueous solution at room temperature and one atmosphere of hydrogen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. Stalder; Shuchi Chao; David P. Summers; Mark S. Wrighton

    1983-01-01

    The reduction has been effected by using a variety of Pd (palladium)-based catalysts. The typical procedure was to suspend 0.25 g of catalyst in 25 cc of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate purged slowly with hydrogen gas. The sodium formate concentration was followed by withdrawing aliquots for formate determination by ¹³C, \\/sup H\\/NMR. The reduction may be quite rapid;

  5. Observations of the sodium layer using a Fabry-Perot spectrometer - Twilight temperature variations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Greet; F. Jacka

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the twilight Na emission from the 90-km level have been made at Mt. Torrens, a southern midlatitude station, using a high resolution Fabry-Perot spectrometer. An outline of the analysis required to determine temperatures is presented. A winter mean temperature of 199 K and a summer mean temperature of 150 K are determined from 2 years of data. The

  6. Chlorination kinetics for actinoid and fission-product phosphates in chloride melts. 3. Cerium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Kryukova, A.I.; Burnaeva, A.A.; Skiba, O.V.; Korshunov, I.A.

    1987-09-01

    Kinetic measurements have been made on the reactions of cerium phosphate with carbon tetrachloride vapor in the molten chlorides of sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. There is a discussion of the effects of temperature, gas flow, liquid composition, and grain size of the phosphate solid on the chlorination rate. Effective rate constants and activation energies have been calculated. A model has been constructed for the chlorination by means of a complete factor experiment.

  7. Synergistic inhibition between o-phenanthroline and chloride ion for steel corrosion in sulphuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueming Li; Libin Tang; Lin Li; Guannan Mu; Guangheng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of cold rolled steel in 0.5M sulphuric acid in the presence of o-phenanthroline and sodium chloride (NaCl) has been investigated by using weight loss and electrochemical techniques. The experimental data suggest that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing NaCl concentration in the presence of 0.0002M o-phenanthroline, but decreases with increasing temperature. A synergistic effect is observed when

  8. The effect of different dietary ratios of sodium and chloride on the physiological responses of lactating dairy cattle in hot weather

    E-print Network

    Grant, Pamela Ann

    1980-01-01

    ) claimed that milk yield is reduced 15(o, accompanied by a 35fo decrease in efficiency of energy utilization for productive purposes, when a lactating Holstein is transferred from an air temperature of 18 to 30 CD Milk fat, SNF, and milk protein... effects combined. Bia'nca (9 ) reviewed many research studies conducted 15 before 1965 on the effect of a hot climate on lactation. Milk composition was affected; there was a fall in milk fat, total solids, SNF, total nitrogen, lactose, short- chain...

  9. Effects of hydrothermal temperature and time on hydrothermal synthesis of colloidal hydroxyapatite nanorods in the presence of sodium citrate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Xiaohu; Cheng, Yute; Wang, Longshen; Hu, Bing; Tan, Junjun

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, colloidal hydrophilic hydroxyapatite nanorods were synthesized in the presence of sodium citrate via thermal-decomplexing method. The influences of hydrothermal temperature and time on the synthesis of HA nanorods were characterized in terms of structure, size, morphology, and colloidal stability through TEM, XRD, zeta potential, DLS and long-term standing test. Results show that increasing hydrothermal temperature and prolonging hydrothermal time would evidently improve crystallinity and enlarge size of HA nanorods but decrease the colloidal stability of nanorods. It is worth noting that the effect of raising the hydrothermal temperature and time on diameter increase is far greater than that on length increase; meanwhile, the colloidal stability would be seriously deteriorated when the hydrothermal temperature is over 180C for 24h or when the hydrothermal temperature is 150C for over 48h, in these cases, dispersion of HA nanorods would apparently settle within 2months. The origin responding to the results is that although the charge density of HA nanorods is not obviously affected, the dynamic diameters of HA particles increase greatly, which reduces colloidal stability of the dispersion. This work provides new insights into the role of hydrothermal temperature and time on tailoring morphology, crystallinity and colloidal stability of HA nanorods. Moreover, it would be helpful to optimize the experimental procedure both on scientific and industrial applications related to HA. For example, on the premise of satisfying the necessary requirements including crystallinity, size, morphology and colloid stability, it is feasible to compress the consumption of experimental time through raising the hydrothermal temperature, or vice versa. PMID:25818354

  10. Reactive layer-by-layer deposition of poly(ethylene imine) and a precursor of TiO2: influence of the sodium chloride concentration on the film growth, interaction with hexacyanoferrate anions, and particle distribution in the film.

    PubMed

    Ladhari, Nadia; Ringwald, Christian; Ersen, Ovidiu; Florea, Ileana; Hemmerl, Joseph; Ball, Vincent

    2011-06-21

    Films prepared according to a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner find increasing importance in many applications such as coatings with dedicated optical or electronic properties, particularly when including nanomaterials. An alternative way to prepare such hybrid layer-by-layer coatings is to perform sol-gel chemistry in a layer-by-layer manner. In this article, we highlight the importance of the NaCl concentration as a parameter to control the growth as well as the properties of LBL films made from poly(ethylene imine) as the organic counterpart and titanium IV (bisammoniumlactato)dihydroxyde ([Ti(lac)(2)(OH)(2)](2-)) as the precursor of TiO(2). An increase in the sodium chloride concentration leads to the faster growth of the film and to a decrease in the number of hexacyanoferrate anions remaining in the film after a buffer rinse. This may be due to a progressive increase in the fraction of negatively charged TiO(2) as suggested by transmission electron microscopy. In the presence of 0.5 M NaCl, the fraction of TiO(2) is close to 60% in mass. As a surprising finding, the films produced from 0.15 M NaCl are not homogeneously filled with TiO(2) even if the film is produced in an LBL fashion. The increased concentration of TiO(2) at the film-solution interface could constitute a barrier for the incorporation of the negatively charged redox probe. PMID:21619015

  11. High temperature aqueous potassium and sodium phosphate solutions: two-liquid-phase boundaries and critical phenomena, 275-400/sup 0/C; potential applications for steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, W.L.

    1981-12-01

    Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400/sup 0/C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO/sub 4/ or Na/PO/sub 4/, were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360/sup 0/C for the potassium system and 279/sup 0/C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360/sup 0/C did not produce solid phases nor liquid-liquid immiscibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators. 16 refs.

  12. Polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Yu Sizov; Aleksei F Kolomiets; Alexandr V Fokin

    1992-01-01

    Data appearing since 1975 are correlated for the methods of synthesis of polyfluoroalkanesulfenyl chlorides, their reactions with O-, S-, N-, P- and C-nucleophiles, with unsaturated aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds, for their behaviour in oxidation and heterocyclisation reactions and in free radical conversions. The bibliography includes 214 references.

  13. Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyper, N. C.; Kirkland, A. I.; Harding, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The cohesive energetics of three phases of solid cubic rubidium chloride, the zinc blende structured 4:4 phase, the 6:6 sodium chloride polymorph and the 8:8 phase with the cesium chloride structure, are computed using a non-empirical fully ionic model. The rearrangement energies needed to convert free anions to their optimal states in-crystal, two-body inter-ionic potentials, plus the further contributions arising from electron correlation, are reported. The 'optimal' anion-anion potentials, computed by using at each geometry the optimal wavefunction, are compared with the 'frozen' potential using the same wavefunction at all geometries. The lattice energy of the 4:4 structure is predicted to be some 40 kJ mol-1 smaller than that of either the 6:6 or the 8:8 phases. Introduction of the Axilrod-Teller triple dipole dispersion interactions and the vibrational zero point energy predicts the 8:8 phase to lie 3.2 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the 6:6 structure. This is both consistent with radius ratio arguments and supported by two separate experiments that strongly suggest that the 8:8 phase is favoured over the 6:6 structure at low temperatures even though the latter is more stable at ambient temperatures. A shell model description is presented for the ion-induced dipole interactions that arise both in small clusters and in crystals encapsulated in nanotubes. The elastic constants and entropy at 300 K predicted for the 6:6 phase from this model by using the GULP program agree well with experiment. A smaller entropy is predicted for the 8:8 structure.

  14. Thermodynamic behaviour of sodium and calcium based sorbents in the emission control of waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Verdone, Nicola; De Filippis, Paolo

    2004-02-01

    The dry treatment of flue gas produced by incineration processes is discussed thermodynamically. The study investigates the theoretical limits achieved by sodium and calcium based sorbents in the removal of the pollutant species HCl, NOx and SO2. Calculations were performed varying the temperature and the molar ratio between the amount of the injected alkaline sorbent and the content of the pollutant gaseous species in the flue gas. Results show that sodium cation based sorbents are more efficient than calcium based ones in the whole investigated temperature range (100-600 degrees C). The higher effectiveness of sodium based sorbents is particularly remarkable towards hydrogen chloride, whose concentration can always be reduced below the values set by the environmental regulations. Possible improvements in the treatment efficiency of combustion fumes obtainable with sodium based sorbents can be mainly summarised in a lower concentration of HCl in the treated gas and in a partial reduction of NOx concentration. PMID:14637355

  15. Effect of sodium alginate concentration, bead diameter, initial pH and temperature on lactic acid production from pineapple waste using immobilized Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ani Idris; Wahidin Suzana

    2006-01-01

    Batch fermentation of liquid pineapple waste to lactic acid was performed using immobilized Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Delbrueckii ATCC 9646 under anaerobic condition for 72h. Calcium alginate was used as the immobilization matrix and the effects of sodium alginate concentration, bead diameter, initial pH and temperature on cell growth, glucose consumption and lactic acid production were investigated. The results indicate that

  16. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Translational Temperature and Relative Cycle Number by use of Optically Pumped Trace-Sodium Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.

    1998-01-01

    Sodium fluorescence induced by a narrow bandwidth tunable laser has been used to measure temperature, pressure, axial velocity and species concentrations in wind tunnels, rocket engine exhausts and the upper atmosphere. Optical pumping of the ground states of the sodium, however, can radically alter the shape of the laser induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating such measurements. Here a straightforward extension of rate equations originally proposed to account for the features of the pumped spectrum is to make temperature measurements from spectra taken in pumped vapor. Also determined from the spectrum is the relative fluorescence cycle number, which has application to measurement of diffusion rate and transverse flow velocity. The accuracy of both the temperature and cycle-number measurements is comparable with that of temperature measurements made in the absence of pumping.

  17. Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of translational temperature and relative cycle number by use of optically pumped trace-sodium vapor.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C C

    1999-06-20

    Sodium fluorescence induced by a narrow-bandwidth tunable laser has been used to measure temperature, pressure, axial velocity, and species concentrations in wind tunnels, rocket engine exhausts, and the upper atmosphere. Optical pumping of the ground states of the sodium, however, can radically alter the shape of the laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating such measurements. Here a straightforward extension of rate equations originally proposed to account for the features of the pumped spectrum is used to make temperature measurements from spectra taken in pumped vapor. Also determined from the spectrum is the relative fluorescence cycle number, which has application to measurement of diffusion rate and transverse flow velocity. The accuracy of both the temperature and the cycle-number measurements is comparable with that of temperature measurements made in the absence of pumping. PMID:18320000

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Translational Temperature and Relative Cycle Number by use of Optically Pumped Trace-Sodium Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.

    1999-01-01

    Sodium fluorescence induced by a narrow-bandwidth tunable laser has been used to measure temperature, pressure, axial velocity, and species concentrations in wind tunnels, rocket engine exhausts, and the upper atmosphere. Optical pumping of the ground states of the sodium, however, can radically alter the shape of the laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating such measurements. Here a straightforward extension of rate equations originally proposed to account for the features of the pumped spectrum is used to make temperature measurements from spectra taken in pumped vapor. Also determined from the spectrum is the relative fluorescence cycle number, which has application to measurement of diffusion rate and transverse flow velocity, The accuracy of both the temperature and the cycle-number measurements is comparable with that of temperature measurements made in the absence of pumping.

  19. USE OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN GRANULAR BASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Javier; Reyes Ortiz; Javier Fernando; Camacho Tauta; Juan Ricardo Troncoso Rivera

    The purpose of this work is to study the mechanical properties of granular bases added with NaCl. After conventional characterization tests, including Atterberg limits and grain size distribution, compaction tests were carried out to find optimal water contents and maximum dry densities. Finally, by use of mechanical tests such as CBR, non-confined compression and diametral compression tests, strength differences between

  20. Orientation imaging microscopy of polycrystalline sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, M.P., E-mail: mark.staiger@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8020 (New Zealand); Kolbeinsson, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8020 (New Zealand); Newman, J. [Newman Energy Research, 2 Rose Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Woodfield, T.; Sato, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8020 (New Zealand)

    2010-04-15

    A novel preparation technique is described that makes possible grain size analysis of polycrystalline NaCl using orientation imaging microscopy via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The preparation methodology is specifically developed to overcome difficulties in preparing microporous NaCl for microscopy. The grain size and crystallographic texture of polycrystalline NaCl samples, prepared via solution pressure and sintered in the range of 650-780 deg. C, were able to be measured successfully with EBSD. The limitations of the preparation technique for EBSD analysis of NaCl are also discussed.

  1. Diffusion of sodium chloride in pork tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Graiver; A. Pinotti; A. Califano; N. Zaritzky

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (a) to establish the effect of brine concentration on porcine tissue microstructure (scanning electron microscopy) and protein denaturation (differential scanning calorimetry), (b) to examine the influence of NaCl concentration on the changes in water content, salt uptake, and protein solubilization, using mass balances, (c) to determine the effect of brine concentration on the

  2. Sodium Chloride Tolerance of Terrestrial Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Tresner, H. D.; Hayes, Jean A.

    1971-01-01

    A survey was made of the NaCl tolerance of 975 species of terrestrial fungi selected from the major taxonomic classes. The penicillia and aspergilli were notably the most resistant with the majority of their species able to grow in the presence of 20% or more of NaCl. The Basidiomycetes, as a class, were decidedly the least tolerant with over half the species unable to withstand more than 2% NaCl. Uniformity of tolerance by multiple strains of various species suggests that this may provide a useful taxonomic criterion. PMID:5096381

  3. Sodium Doping Could Enhance the Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of (ZnO):Mn Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Gao; Ming Fan; Yang Qi; Lianfeng Wang; Benzhe Sun

    2012-01-01

    Zn0.995-yMn0.005NayO (y = 0.00 to 0.010) nano-crystal powders are synthesized by a sol-gel method. All samples have ferromagnetism at room temperature and are composed of wurtzite ZnO with hexagonal structure without any secondary phases. The ferromagnetism is enhanced while 0.005 ? y ? 0.007 (Na:Mn = 1:1 to 1.4:1). The sample of Zn0.988Mn0.005Na0.007O has the largest coercivity of 62.018GS; saturation

  4. Sensory and physical characteristics of reduced sodium, chunked and formed hams from hot-processed, electrically stimulated pork carcasses

    E-print Network

    Bohac, Joseph John

    1987-01-01

    solution contained sodium nitrite (O. lyo), dextrose (1. 25y), sodium erythorbate (0. 42K), sodium tripolyphosphate (0. 5y), and a chloride salt (15. 0y) consisting of either sodium chloride (NaC1) or equivalent amounts of NaC1 and KC1. The injected ham...

  5. Structural characterization and Curie temperature determination of a sodium strontium niobate ferroelectric nanostructured powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfredi, Silvania; Gnova, Diego H. M.; Brito, Iara A. O.; Lima, Alan R. F.; Nobre, Marcos A. L.

    2011-05-01

    The Curie temperature and its correlation with the magnitude of the displacement of the niobium atom from the center of [NbO 6] octahedra in NaSr 2Nb 5O 15 nanostructured powder were investigated. A single powder was prepared by high-energy ball milling. A powder with an average crystallite size of 37 nm was prepared by calcining the precursor at 1423 K. The refinement of the structural parameters was carried out by the Rietveld method. NaSr 2Nb 5O 15 exhibits tetragonal symmetry with the tungsten bronze structure ( a= b=12.3495 (6) , c=3.8911 (2) , V=593.432 (5) 3, and Z=2). The site occupancy of the Na + and Sr 2+ cations and the interatomic distances between the niobium and oxygen atoms were derived. The [NbO 6] octahedron undergoes both rotation and tilting depending on the crystallographic site. The Curie temperature of the powder was derived using both the impedance and infrared spectroscopy methods.

  6. Stability of cefazolin sodium admixtures in plastic bags after thawing by microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tomecko, G.W. Jr.; Kleinberg, M.L.; Latiolais, C.J.; Prior, R.B.; Pesko, L.J.; Jones, B.C.

    1980-02-01

    The effect on antibiotic stability of thawing, with microwave radiation, cefazolin sodium admixtures frozen in polyvinyl chloride minibags was studied. Two brands of cefazolin sodium (Ancef and Kefzol) were reconstituted and placed in 50- and 100-, and 250-ml polyvinyl chloride minibags of 5% dextrose in water or 0.9% sodium chloride. The resulting solutions were assayed for antibiotic stability, using an agar disk diffusion technique, and for pH. The solutions were then stored at -20/sup 0/C for 48 hours, thawed to room temperature in a microwave oven, and kept at room temperature for four hours, after which they were reassayed for potency and pH. The results indicated that after the freeze-thaw process, the cefazolin sodium minibag admixtures retained at least 90% of their initial antimicrobial activity. The minimal pH changes could not be related to changes in antimicrobial activity, and no color changes could be detected visually. Using a microwave oven can greatly reduce thawing time of antibiotic admixtures. To maintain solution stability and prevent accidents, it is important to calibrate the oven, avoid solution overheating, and observe full precautions in oven operation.

  7. A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

    2007-06-08

    This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

  8. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions.

    PubMed

    Shamie, Jack S; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multi-electron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored. PMID:26063629

  9. Room Temperature, Hybrid Sodium-Based Flow Batteries with Multi-Electron Transfer Redox Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Shamie, Jack S.; Liu, Caihong; Shaw, Leon L.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new concept of hybrid Na-based flow batteries (HNFBs) with a molten Na alloy anode in conjunction with a flowing catholyte separated by a solid Na-ion exchange membrane for grid-scale energy storage. Such HNFBs can operate at ambient temperature, allow catholytes to have multiple electron transfer redox reactions per active ion, offer wide selection of catholyte chemistries with multiple active ions to couple with the highly negative Na alloy anode, and enable the use of both aqueous and non-aqueous catholytes. Further, the molten Na alloy anode permits the decoupled design of power and energy since a large volume of the molten Na alloy can be used with a limited ion-exchange membrane size. In this proof-of-concept study, the feasibility of multi-electron transfer redox reactions per active ion and multiple active ions for catholytes has been demonstrated. The critical barriers to mature this new HNFBs have also been explored. PMID:26063629

  10. New potassium-sodium niobate lead-free piezoceramic: Giant-d33 vs. sintering temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Lou, Xiaojie

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this work is to achieve a giant piezoelectric constant in (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics, and then 0.96K0.46Na0.54Nb0.95Sb0.05O3-0.04Bi0.5(Na0.82K0.18)0.5ZrO3 lead-free piezoceramics were designed and prepared by optimizing the sintering temperature (TS). The rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary is found in the ceramics sintered at 1070 1105 C and is suppressed when sintered at low TS of 1060 1065 C. The threshold for TS is 1070 C in terms of their ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties owing to the difference in the phase boundary and the microstructure, and a large d33 of 388 465 pC/N could be attained in a wide TS range of 1070 1105 C, benefiting their practical applications because of broad TS. More interestingly, the ceramic sintered at 1075 C has a giant d33 of 465 pC/N. We think that such a giant d33 of this material system can benefit the development of (K,Na)NbO3-based piezoceramics.

  11. Behavior of bromide, chloride, and phosphate during low-temperature aqueous Fe(II) oxidation processes on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu-Yan Sara; McLennan, Scott M.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-05-01

    The behaviors of bromide, chloride, and phosphate were studied experimentally under previously proposed Martian diagenetic conditions, involving jarosite (KFe3(OH)6(SO4)2), goethite (?-FeOOH), and hematite (?-Fe2O3). Experiments evaluated (1) the behavior of Cl-/Br- with and without aqueous phosphate during oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+, (2) the stability of halogen-bearing jarosite, and (3) the uptake of Cl-, Br-, H2PO4-, and SO42- by halogen-free-hematite, -goethite, and -jarosite through adsorption. Our results demonstrate that when precipitated from a solution, in which Cl- is higher than Br-, jarosite preferentially incorporated at least an order of magnitude more Br- than Cl-. Such enrichment of Br- over Cl- in the solids compared to initial solutions suggests that jarosite could be a host for elevated Br on the Martian surface, and the fluids from which jarosite forms could be depleted in Br- with respect to Cl-. Moreover, the incorporation of halogens in jarosite would affect its stability during aqueous alteration, and the dissolution rates of four types of jarosite at both 25C and 70C were in the same order: Br,Cl bearing > Br only > halogen free > Cl only. In addition, competitive adsorption of Cl-, Br-, SO42-, and H2PO4- on halogen-free-hematite, -goethite, and -jarosite demonstrates that in a sulfate-dominant aqueous system, Cl-, Br-, and H2PO4- could not compete with SO42-. This observation suggests that the adsorption may not result in an enrichment of phosphate or halogens in Fe oxides in a sulfate-dominant aqueous system like Meridiani Planum, consistent with the absence of significant correlations of Cl and P with nanoparticle Fe oxides found in Martian soils.

  12. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

  13. Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous solution has formed, efflorescence (recrystallization) of the salt is kinetically hindered and supersaturated solutions can exist at humidities far below the DRH. Regardless of temperature or initial hydration state of the solid salt, we do not observe efflorescence of the aqueous solutions to occur until single digit RH values are reached. We show here that calcium chloride is at least as deliquescent as many perchlorate salts, and that solutions of calcium chloride are even more difficult to recrystallize once a brine solution has formed. These experimental results will assist with interpretation of observations of deliquescence in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and will help us understand potential liquid water formation on Mars. In addition to formation of brines through melting, deliquescence of salts such as CaCl2 is a reasonable mechanism for formation of aqueous solutions on current Mars.

  14. Influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Ashok, Priyanka; Kumar, AR Pradeep; Narayanan, L Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Settings and Design: In vitro Materials and Methods: Dynamic viscosity measurements of sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl (5.25%, 2.6%, 1.25%)], EDTA (17%), and chlorhexidine gluconate [CHX, 2%] were measured using a rotational digital viscometer at room temperature (25C). The influence of temperature (45C, 60C) and concentration (5.25%, 2.6%, and 1.25%) on the dynamic viscosity of NaOCl was also evaluated. The measurements were performed using a circulating water bath calibrated with a thermostat, and the dynamic viscosity measurements were noted in Centipoise (Cps). Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used for the statistical analysis were Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro Wilk tests, one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-test. Results: Viscosity statistically increased with NaOCl concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. Amongst the tested NaOCl groups, 5.25% NaOCl at room temperature was significantly the most viscous (? =1.5300 Cps) while 1.25% NaOCl at 60C was significantly the least viscous (? =1.1800 Cps). Conclusions: 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA are significantly viscous at room temperature. Elevating the temperature of 1.25% NaOCl to 60C significantly reduces the viscosity of the NaOCl. PMID:24554863

  15. ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH, AND BEHAVIOR Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate, Cool Temperatures, and Feed Withdrawal: Impact on Arterial and Venous Blood-gas Values in Broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Wideman; D. M. Hooge; K. R. Cummings

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pul- monary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to pro- vide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas val- ues from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences

  16. Preparation of sodium borohydride by the reaction of MgH 2 with dehydrated borax through ball milling at room temperature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. P. Li; N. Morigazaki; B. H. Liu; S. Suda

    2003-01-01

    A convenient method was developed to synthesize NaBH4 by the reaction of MgH2 with Na2B4O7 through ball milling at room temperature. In order to improve the sodium borohydride yield, Na compounds were added to compensate the Na insufficiency in reactants when MgH2 instead of NaH was used as the reducing agent. It was found that Na2CO3 addition was better than

  17. Effects of material and environmental parameters on chloride penetration profiles in concrete structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Hwan Oh; Seung Yup Jang

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the transport mechanism of chloride ion, a prediction model of chloride penetration into concrete structures has been developed. The model includes the diffusion of chloride and its dependences on temperature, age, relative humidity, chloride binding and chloride convection by moisture transport. The experimental program has been set up to verify the model developed in the present

  18. Proper use of sodium bisulfite with minimal salt penetration during brine immersion freezing of shrimp

    E-print Network

    Broussard, Suzanne Rene

    1988-01-01

    produced undesirable shrimp. Acceptability of flavor, texture and overall acceptability as determined by consumer taste tests for shrimp frozen in calcium/sodium chloride mixtures decreased with storage time. Shrimp frozen in calcium/sodium chloride.... Preliminary data indicates shrimp may absorb up to 3% salt from the brine during freezing, decreasing the sodium chloride concentration of the brine. uptake of salt by shrimp is important not only organoleptically because of the salty taste, but also...

  19. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  20. The influence of sulphates on chloride binding and pore solution chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y. [University College of London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering] [University College of London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and OPC/ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) 65% cements containing 2.0 to 9.0% sulphates derived from sodium sulphate and calcium sulphate were investigated in respect to their chloride binding properties and the concentrations of chloride and hydroxyl ions in the pore solutions. Chlorides derived from sodium and calcium chlorides were introduced at the time of mixing. The results indicate that calcium sulphate has a different effect on chloride binding and the pore solution chemistry than sodium sulphate. The slag cement has higher chloride binding capacities as a result of simple replacement for OPC, but at the same sulphate contents, the slag cement does not give the expected higher binding capacities, suggesting that the difference in sulphate content between the two cements may be the main reason for their different chloride binding behavior.

  1. [Sodium and hypertension].

    PubMed

    de Wardener, H E

    1996-09-01

    Over several million years the human race was programmed to eat a diet which contained about 15 mmol of sodium (1 g of sodium chloride) per day. It is only five to ten thousand years ago that we became addicted to salt. Today we eat about 150 mmol of sodium (9-12 g of salt) per day. It is now apparent that this sudden rise in sodium intake (in evolutionary terms) is the most likely cause for the rise in blood pressure with age that occurs in the majority of the world's population. Those which consume less than 60 mmol/day do not develop hypertension. The reason for the rise in sodium intake is not known but it is probable that an important stimulus was the discovery that meat could be preserved by immersion into a concentrated salt solution. This seemingly miraculous power endowed salt with such magical and medicinal qualities that it became a symbol of goodness and health. It was not until 1904 Ambard and Beaujard suggested that on the contrary dietary salt could be harmful and raise the blood pressure. At first the idea did not prosper and it continues to be opposed by a diminishing band. The accumulated evidence that sodium intake is related to the blood pressure in normal man and animals and in inherited forms of hypertension has been obtained from experimental manipulations and studies of human populations. The following observation links sodium and hypertension. An increase in sodium intakes raises the blood pressure of the normal rat, dog, rabbit, baboon, chimpanzee and man. Population studies have demonstrated a significant correlation between sodium intake and the customary rise in blood pressure with age. The development of hypertensive strains of rats has revealed that the primary genetic lesion which gives rise to hypertension resides in the kidney where it impairs the urinary excretion of sodium. There is similar but less convincing evidence in essential hypertension. The kidney in both essential hypertension and hypertensive strains of rats share a number of functional abnormalities most of which are capable of impairing sodium excretion. Essential hypertension would appear to be as much a renal disturbance related to the intake of sodium as hypertension secondary to renal disease. PMID:8952809

  2. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Operation of the sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures below 200C reduces cell degradation and improves cyclability. One of the main technical issues with operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175C is the poor wettability of molten sodium on ?-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE), which causes reduced active area and limits charging. In order to overcome the poor wettability of molten sodium on BASE at 175C, a Pt grid was applied on the anode side of the BASE using a screen printing technique. Cells with their active area increased by metallized BASEs exhibited deeper charging and stable cycling behavior.

  3. Solubilities of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Zheng, D.Q.; Guo, T.M. [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)] [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    1997-01-01

    The solubility of natural gas mixtures in formation water (brine) plays an important role in estimating the natural gas reserve, the formation/dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in situ, and the interfacial tension of the hydrocarbon-formation water system. However, solubility data at high pressure and elevated temperature conditions for aqueous electrolyte systems are rare. Recently, in the reservoirs found at the South China Sea areas, the main salt species in the formation water is sodium bicarbonate, and the solubility data of gases in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under reservoir conditions have not previously been reported. An apparatus for measuring the solubility of gases in aqueous electrolyte solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature conditions is described. The solubility of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions were measured up to 58 MPa and 403 K. The modified Patel-Teja equation of state proposed by Zuo and Guo (1991) for aqueous electrolyte systems was applied to correlate the measured solubility data, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  4. Sources of error in using silver\\/silver chloride electrodes to monitor chloride activity in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P Atkins; M. A Carter; J. D Scantlebury

    2001-01-01

    The silver\\/silver chloride electrode is discussed as a chloride-monitoring device in concrete rather than as a reference electrode. The effects of temperature, bromide ions, and applied potential fields on the reliability and accuracy of these electrodes are evaluated. The effect of temperature is assessed using a novel mathematical approach and the other two effects are examined experimentally.

  5. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O.M.; Hansen, P.F.; Coats, A.M.; Glasser, F.P.

    1999-09-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature). The measurements are modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect diffusion rates.

  6. Surface tension of low-temperature aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Horibe, A.; Fukusako, S.; Yamada, M. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the surface tension have been carried out to determine the effects of both temperature and concentration on the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol. A differential capillary-rise method was employed for the measurements. The results show that the surface tension of the ethylene glycol solution and the propylene glycol solution increases as the concentration of the solution decreases, while for the sodium chloride solution the surface tension increases monotonically as the concentration increases. The surface tension of the liquids was found to be an almost-linear function of temperature from 20{degrees}C to just above the freezing temperature. Equations for the surface tension of the three binary aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration are presented.

  7. Synergistic effects of sodium chloride, Glucose, and temperature on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a and 4b strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes is generally associated with its persistence in the food processing environment. Serotype 1/2a strains make up more than 50% of the total isolates recovered from food and environment, while serotype 4b strains are most often associated with major outbreaks...

  8. Atmospheric Dispersion of Sodium Aerosol due to a Sodium Leak in a Fast Breeder Reactor Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Punitha; A. Jasmin Sudha; N. Kasinathan; M. Rajan

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results

  9. The structure and dynamics of the non-network forming elements sodium and magnesium in glassy and molten silicates: A high temperature NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Anna Melissa

    Properties of silicate glasses and melts like diffusivities, partitioning of elements, and ionic conductivity are thought to depend on the structure and motional behavior of non-network elements like Na and Mg; however, little is directly known about the roles of these elements in the structure. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is an element-specific technique which can yield information about the local structure of an element through chemical shift measurements and its dynamics, from spin-lattice relaxation times. This dissertation covers recent sp{23}Na and sp{25}Mg in situ high temperature NMR spectroscopy of silicates from room temperature to 1500spC. sp{23}Na chemical shifts vary linearly with bond length in crystalline materials, as shown by a MAS study of sodium chemical shifts in albite (NaAlSisb3Osb8) from 25sp-350spC. This correlation of decreasing frequency with increasing bond length is used to interpret the differences in silicate glass and melt signals as a function of temperature and composition. sp{23}Na spin-lattice relaxation times are related to local cation hopping and ionic conductivity; the effect of adding Al to silicates on sodium mobility is discussed in this context. A discussion of the difficulties in interpreting data from quadrupolar nuclides like sp{23}Na is also included. sp{23}Na chemical shifts were also shown to follow a trend of decreasing frequency with increasing average bond length in crystalline sodium borates and germanates, and glass and melt spectra were interpreted from this correlation. The trends with size of sodium site in silicates, borates, and germanates are discussed in terms of being due to a decreased contribution from the paramagnetic shielding as the bonds become longer and more ionic. sp{25}Mg measurements show that the oxygen coordination number of Mg in the melts is between five and six and that the size of the Mg site varies with field strength of other cations present. Relaxation times indicate that the Mg motion is correlated to that of the network, even at relatively low temperatures, and the limiting factor on observation of this nuclide in melts/glasses at lower temperatures is viscosity.

  10. Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S.; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-Ichi; Meyer, Ernst

    2014-07-01

    Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a Swiss cross of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface.

  11. Direct atomic-scale confirmation of three-phase storage mechanism in Li?Ti?O?? anodes for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Zhao, Liang; Pan, Huilin; Lu, Xia; Gu, Lin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Armand, Michel; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Chen, Liquan; Huang, Xuejie

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature sodium-ion batteries attract increasing attention for large-scale energy storage applications in renewable energy and smart grid. However, the development of suitable anode materials remains a challenging issue. Here we demonstrate that the spinel Li4Ti5O12, well-known as a 'zero-strain' anode for lithium-ion batteries, can also store sodium, displaying an average storage voltage of 0.91?V. With an appropriate binder, the Li4Ti5O12 electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 155?mAh?g(-1) and presents the best cyclability among all reported oxide-based anode materials. Density functional theory calculations predict a three-phase separation mechanism, 2Li4Ti5O12+6Na(+)+6e(-)?Li7Ti5O12+Na6LiTi5O12, which has been confirmed through in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and advanced scanning transmission electron microscope imaging techniques. The three-phase separation reaction has never been seen in any insertion electrode materials for lithium- or sodium-ion batteries. Furthermore, interfacial structure is clearly resolved at an atomic scale in electrochemically sodiated Li4Ti5O12 for the first time via the advanced electron microscopy. PMID:23695664

  12. Watershed scale chloride storage across a gradient of urbanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellen, C. C.; Oswald, C. J.; Oni, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sodium chloride is the main de-icing agent used during the winter in Canada and the northern United States. However, little is known about the long term fate, residence time, and ecological effects of chloride. This talk integrates work taking place across three sites in Southern Ontario, Canada: Hamilton Harbour, the Toronto lakeshore, and Lake Simcoe. We quantify chloride inputs, outputs, and changes in storage for a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. For the three winter months (January, February, March), we show that stream water chloride concentrations approach those of brackish waters for urban watersheds. Chloride is also highly persistent, with stream water chloride concentrations decreasing from the winter months and approaching baseline levels only in July. These baseline levels are greater than 100 mg Cl/l in the urban watersheds, suggesting high levels of chloride storage in soil and groundwater. Using road salt application rates and groundwater levels and chloride concentrations, we estimate the magnitude and residence time of the chloride pools in a number of watersheds across a gradient of urbanization. Our results suggest that the magnitude and residence time of chloride storage varies with urbanization and other factors. We show that summer baseflow concentrations do approach the EPA's chronic exposure guideline of 230 mg Cl/l, implying more work is needed to understand the in stream and downstream ecological effects of chloride.

  13. Overexpression of Pendrin in Intercalated Cells Produces Chloride-Sensitive Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Thibaut; Picard, Nicolas; Miller, R. Lance; Riemondy, Kent A.; Houillier, Pascal; Sohet, Fabien; Ramakrishnan, Suresh K.; Bsst, Cara J.; Jayat, Maximilien; Cornire, Nicolas; Hassan, Hatim; Aronson, Peter S.; Hennings, Jean Christopher; Hbner, Christian A.; Nelson, Raoul D.; Chambrey, Rgine

    2013-01-01

    Inherited and acquired disorders that enhance the activity of transporters mediating renal tubular Na+ reabsorption are well established causes of hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether primary activation of an Na+-independent chloride transporter in the kidney can also play a pathogenic role in this disease. Here, mice overexpressing the chloride transporter pendrin in intercalated cells of the distal nephron (TgB1-hPDS mice) displayed increased renal absorption of chloride. Compared with normal mice, these transgenic mice exhibited a delayed increase in urinary NaCl and ultimately, developed hypertension when exposed to a high-salt diet. Administering the same sodium intake as NaHCO3 instead of NaCl did not significantly alter BP, indicating that the hypertension in the transgenic mice was chloride-sensitive. Moreover, excessive chloride absorption by pendrin drove parallel absorption of sodium through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and the sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ndcbe), despite an appropriate downregulation of these sodium transporters in response to the expanded vascular volume and hypertension. In summary, chloride transport in the distal nephron can play a primary role in driving NaCl transport in this part of the kidney, and a primary abnormality in renal chloride transport can provoke arterial hypertension. Thus, we conclude that the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin plays a major role in controlling net NaCl absorption, thereby influencing BP under conditions of high salt intake. PMID:23766534

  14. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  15. Optical Absorption Measurements of Hydrogen Chloride at High Temperature and High Concentration in the Presence of Water Using a Tunable Diode Laser System for Application in Pyrohydrolysis Non-Ferrous Industrial Process Control.

    PubMed

    Tzanetakis, Tommy; Susilo, Robin; Wang, Zhenyou; Padmanabhan, Arathi; Davis, Boyd R; Thomson, Murray J

    2015-06-01

    A tunable diode laser (TDL) was used to measure hydrogen chloride (HCl) spectra at 5747 cm(-1) (1.74 ?m) and temperatures of 25-950 C in a quartz cell. The purpose was to evaluate the capability of monitoring HCl concentration under pyrohydrolysis conditions using a near-infrared (NIR) laser. These conditions are characterized by 20-40% HCl, 2-40% H2O, and the presence of metal chloride vapors at temperatures of 600-1000 C. Spectral peak area measurements of HCl-N2 mixtures at atmospheric pressure and a path length of 8.1 cm showed linear absorption behavior between concentrations of 5-95% and temperatures of 25-950 C. Results from the addition of 2-40% water (H2O) indicate that the HCl peak area relationships are not affected for temperatures of 350-950 C. Evaporating NiCl2 within the cell did not show spectral interference effects with HCl between 650 and 850 C. The results from this work indicate that a near-infrared optical sensor is capable of measuring high HCl concentrations at high temperatures in the presence of high H2O content during pyrohydrolysis process conditions. PMID:26054333

  16. Temperature-dependent phase transition and desorption free energy of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the water/vapor interface: approaches from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Lu, Xiancai; Liu, Xiandong; Hou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Youyi; Zhou, Huiqun

    2014-09-01

    Adsorption of surfactants at the water/vapor interface depends upon their chemical potential at the interface, which is generally temperature-dependent. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to reveal temperature influences on the microstructure of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) molecule adsorption layer. At room temperature, SDS molecules aggregate at the interface, being in a liquid-expanded phase, whereas they tend to spread out and probably transit to a gaseous phase as the temperature increases to above 318 K. This phase transition has been confirmed by the temperature-dependent changes in two-dimensional array, tilt angles, and immersion depths to the aqueous phase of SDS molecules. The aggregation of SDS molecules accompanies with larger immersion depths, more coordination of Na(+) ions, and less coordination of water. Desorption free energy profiles show that higher desorption free energy appears for SDS molecules at the aggregate state at low temperatures, but no energy barrier is observed. The shapes of desorption free energy profiles depend upon the distribution of SDS at the interface, which, in turn, is related to the phase state of SDS. Our study sheds light on the development of adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics theories. PMID:25127193

  17. Exploring the cell: Sodium (beta-alumina) cupric chloride - Aluminum chloride - Sodium chloride between 136 and 200 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. O.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were done with a molten-salt catholyte (initially CuCl2 in AlCl3-NaCl) separated from molten Na by beta alumina. The open-circuit reduction potentials were 4.3 and 3 volts for Cu++ and Cu+, respectively. High polarization and nonrechargeability characterized the cell's operation. The cell's ohmic resistance during discharge was higher than what would be expected from only the ionic resistance of the beta-alumina.

  18. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  19. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  20. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    SciTech Connect

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J. (Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (USA))

    1988-09-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until {approximately}64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s).

  1. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et al. (2002, Meteor. Planet. Sci. 8, 3357-3374) successfully explaining their velocity and column density profiles vs. heliocentric distance. Comparison with this data allows us to constrain the supply rate of new sodium atoms to the surface. We also discuss the possible origins of the strong high latitude emissions (Potter and Morgan, 1990, Science 248, 835-838; 1997a, Adv. Space Res. 19, 1571-1576; 1997b, Planet. Space Sci. 45, 95-100; Sprague et al., 1998, Icarus 135, 60-68) and the strong variations of the total content of the sodium exosphere on short (Potter et al., 1999, Planet. Space Sci. 47, 1441-1449) and long time scales (Sprague et al., 1997, Icarus 129, 506-527).

  2. Optical Fiber Refractive Index Sensor for Chloride Ion Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathy Chung Chun Lam; Rajesh Mandamparambil; Tong Sun; Kenneth T. V. Grattan; Sreejith V. Nanukuttan; Su E. Taylor; P. A. Muhammed Basheer

    2009-01-01

    The development of a reflective, gold-coated long-period grating-based sensor for the measurement of chloride ions in solution is discussed. The sensor scheme is based around a long-period fiber grating (LPG)-based Michelson interferometer where the sensor was calibrated and evaluated in the laboratory using sodium chloride solutions, over a wide range of concentrations, from 0.01 to 4.00 M. The grating response

  3. Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shekiro, J.M., Jr.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

  4. Factors affecting threshold chloride for reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.E. [Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Rasheeduzzafar; Al-Musallam, A.; Al-Gahtani, A.S. [King Fahd Univ., of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [King Fahd Univ., of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-10-01

    Three cements with variable C{sub 3}A contents were mixed with different levels of chloride, alkali and sulfate contents to study the effect of these parameters on pore solution composition. Effect of exposure temperature was also studied by curing the chloride-treated specimens at 20 and 70 C. Pore solution was extracted using a high pressure pore solution extrusion device and analyzed for chloride and hydroxyl ion concentrations. Threshold chloride for onset of reinforcement corrosion was computed using threshold [Cl{sup {minus}}/OH{sup {minus}}] ratio of 0.3. The results showed that C{sub 3}A content and exposure temperature have very strong influence on threshold chloride content. Alkali content of cement has marginal effect whereas presence of sulfates along with chlorides has moderate effect on the threshold chloride content.

  5. Materials for Conoco zinc chloride hydrocracking process

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, V.B.; Keiser, J.R.; DeVan, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Use of zinc chloride to augment hydrogenation of coal and yield a high-octane gasoline product is the most significant feature of a coal liquefaction process being developed by Conoco Coal Development Company. The zinc chloride catalyst is regenerated in a fluidized sand bed, where the spent melt is mixed with air and hydrogen chloride at about 1000/sup 0/C. Recovery is completed at 370/sup 0/C in a condenser, where the zinc chloride is collected and the oxygen and sulfur are separated as H/sub 2/O and SO/sub 2/. The economic viability of the entire process is highly dependent on almost complete recovery of the zinc chloride. The severe environmental conditions of this recovery process cause unique materials problems. Although high-temperature oxidation and sulfidation are being studied in related programs, suitable materials to resist their combined effects along with those of chlorides have not yet been specifically addressed. Common engineering materials, such as the austenitic stainless steels and many nickel-base alloys, are unsuitable because of their inability to tolerate the elevated temperatures and sulfidation, respectively. The objectives of this task are to screen various metallic and ceramic materials for resistance to the zinc chloride recovery system environment and to determine the nature of the attack by exposing coupons to the simulated environment in the laboratory.

  6. Influence of temperature on the galvanic current induced by a localized repair when using primers to the reinforcement in slightly chloride contaminated concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Andrade; P. Castro; E. Pazini

    2008-01-01

    An electrochemical macrocell between repaired and adjacent unrepaired zones has been reported when a local concrete patch\\u000a is performed. This macrocell seems to lead to the corrosion of neighboring not repaired zones. Previous experiments of the\\u000a authors in slightly chloride contaminated concrete have shown that the macrocell activity lasts very short time (only during\\u000a the curing). In present paper the

  7. Dielectric Measurements as a Function of Temperature of Sodium-Lithium Phosphate Glasses Evaluated at 10MHz and 9GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bergo; J. M. Prison

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric constant measurements can be performed at temperatures greater than room temperature; some techniques are shown in this work. The dielectric constant of phosphate glasses, measured in the X?band microwave range, was determined using a microwave setup assembled to measure the shift in the standing wave pattern produced by the insertion of the sample inside the waveguide. The glass system

  8. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the residue revealed that it contains calcium carbonate, calcium chloride, and other yet unidentified minor components when calcium hydroxide was used as the electrolyte. The surface film can be completely removed mechanically or to some extent inhibited chemically, with both of these processes resulting in an increase in the efficiency of the electrochemical chloride extraction process. In addition, an obvious relationship between the cover depth, water-to-cement ratio, and chloride extraction efficiency does not exist, however, cover depth does influence the current density. The final phase of this study will be presented in a VTRC/FHWA final report. This report will include the results that are presented in this dissertation, in addition to the results from the ongoing research. It will also include an estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment.

  9. Effects of cyclic chloride exposure on penetration of concrete cover

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, K.; Hooton, R.D.

    1999-09-01

    Concretes are in a state of flux between saturated and partially saturated conditions as they undergo continuous cycles of wetting and drying. In saturated concrete, dissolved ions enter through diffusion, whereas in partially saturated concrete, ion-containing fluids are absorbed by capillary suction and concentrated by evaporation of water. The primary focus of this study was to examine the effects of cyclic wetting and drying with sodium chloride solution on chloride ingress into concrete. Chloride profiles of samples exposed to various lengths and numbers of cycles were determined for three mixtures of concrete: two containing slag and/or silica fume with a 0.4 w/cm (water to cementing materials ratio) and one with a 0.3 w/cm. It was found that longer drying times increase the rate of chloride ingress. A good relationship exists between the depth of chloride penetration and the square root of the number of cycles.

  10. Temperature adaptation of active sodium-potassium transport and of passive permeability in erythrocytes of ground squirrels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Willis, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Unidirectional active and passive fluxes of K-42 and Na-24 were measured in red blood cells of ground squirrels (hibernators) and guinea pigs (nonhibernators). As the temperature was lowered, ?active' (ouabain-sensitive) K influx and Na efflux were more considerably diminished in guinea pig cells than in those of ground squirrels. The fraction of total K influx which is ouabain-sensitive in red blood cells of ground squirrels was virtually constant at all temperatures, whereas it decreased abruptly in guinea pig cells as temperature was lowered.

  11. Pure pseudoboehmite from sodium aluminate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Ozimek; J. Grzechowiak; B. Radomyski

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Na2O\\/Al2O3 mole ratio in sodium aluminate, the pH and the temperature of precipitation upon physicochemical properties of pseudoboehmite obtained from sodium aluminate has been studied. A mole ratio of 1?1 and low pH are favorable for the preparation of pure alumina.

  12. Evaporative cooling of sodium atoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kendall B. Davis; Marc-Oliver Mewes; Michael A. Joffe; Michael R. Andrews; Wolfgang Ketterle

    1995-01-01

    We have observed evaporative cooling of magnetically trapped sodium atoms. A novel technique, rf induced evaporation, was used to reduce the temperature by a factor of 12 and increase the phase space density by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The elastic collision cross section of cold sodium atoms in the {ital F}=1, {ital m}{sub {ital F}}=-1 hyperfine state was

  13. Electrochemical chloride extraction: efficiency and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Orellan, J.C.; Escadeillas, G.; Arliguie, G

    2004-02-01

    Some specimens of reinforced concrete cast with an alkali-resistant aggregate, previously maintained in a solution of NaCl, were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). The chloride profiles before and after treatment were determined. Likewise, alkali ions profiles before and after treatment were determined. After treatment, some specimens were stored in a controlled atmosphere (60 deg. C and 100% RH) in order to accelerate the alkali-silica reaction, if any. Results of chloride content after treatment show that about 40% of the initial chloride is removed within 7 weeks. About one-half of the chloride close to steel was removed, but at the same time, significant amounts of alkali ions were observed around the steel. Microstructural observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that after treatment, new cementitious phases containing higher concentrations of sodium, aluminum and potassium were formed. Moreover, alkali-silica gel was observed in the specimens stored at 60 deg. C and 100% RH. It may be possible that the ECE accumulates locally high amounts of alkali ions that stimulate the alkali-silica reaction even though the concrete contained nominally inert siliceous aggregates. The specimen expansions were not recorded, but no cracks were observed.

  14. FORMULATION OF ORAL SUSTAINED RELEASE ACECLOFENAC SODIUM MICROBEADS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivakumar. B

    ABSTACT: The objective of the present study was microencapsulate the Aceclofenac sodium ( NSAIDs) by ionotropic gelation technique by using sodium alginate as hydrophilic carrier in various proportions and examines the influences of various process parameters like drug: polymer ratio, concentration of calcium chloride, stirring speed and cross-linking time on physicochemical properties of drug loaded microbeads. This system was able

  15. Dalteparin sodium.

    PubMed

    Pineo, G F; Hull, R D

    2001-08-01

    Dalteparin sodium (Fragmin, Pharmacia Corporation) is a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) with a mean molecular weight of approximately 5000 Da. As with the other LMWHs, dalteparin sodium has certain advantages over unfractionated heparin (UFH), most important of which are improved bio-availability by sc. injection, a prolonged antithrombotic activity which is highly correlated with body weight permitting the o.d. administration of the drug. Dalteparin sodium has been subjected to a large number of well-designed randomised clinical trials for the prevention and treatment of thrombotic disorders. Based on data from the randomised clinical trials, dalteparin sodium has been approved internationally for a wide spectrum of clinical indications (e.g., prevention of thromboembolic events after surgery). Dalteparin sodium has also been studied in randomised controlled trials in the maintenance of graft patentcy following peripheral vascular surgery, in place of warfarin for the long-term treatment of patients presenting with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), in the prevention of upper extremity thrombosis in patients with indwelling portacath devices and in pregnant patients with a history of previous venous thromboembolism with or without thrombophilia. Dalteparin sodium has been compared with heparin for the prevention of thrombotic complications during haemodyalisis and haemofiltration. These studies have shown promising results but further work is required before dalteparin sodium can be recommended for these indications. PMID:11585001

  16. Aggregation behavior of p-n-alkylbenzamidinium chloride surfactants.

    PubMed

    Talhout, Reinskje; Stafforst, Thorsten; Engberts, Jan B F N

    2004-08-01

    The aggregation behavior of a novel class of surfactants, p-n-alkylbenzamidinium chlorides, has been investigated. The thermodynamics of aggregation of p-n-decylbenzamidinium chloride mixed with cationic and anionic cosurfactants has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry. For mixtures of p-n-decylbenzamidinium chloride with n-alkyltrimethylammonium chlorides, the aggregation process is enthalpically more favorable than for the pure n-alkyltrimethylammonium chlorides, probably caused by diminished headgroup repulsion due to charge delocalization in the amidinium headgroup. A critical aggregation concentration between 3 and 4 mM has been extrapolated for p-n-decylbenzamidinium chloride at 40 degrees C, around two times lower than that of similar surfactants without charge delocalization in the headgroup and well comparable to that of similar surfactants with charge delocalization in the headgroup. In mixtures of p-n-decylbenzamidinium chloride with either sodium n-alkylsulfates or sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, evidence is found for the formation of bilayer aggregates by the pseudo-double-tailed catanionic surfactants composed of p-n-decylbenzamidinium and the anionic surfactant. These aggregates are solubilized to mixed micelles by excess free anionic surfactant at the measured critical aggregation concentration. PMID:15219451

  17. Effect of temperature on the sorption behavior of sodium potassium fluorophlogopite with respect to the heavy metal ions Cd2+, Hg2+, and Pb2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, R.; Sharma, D.; Verma, S.; Sharma, P.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the sorption behavior of a synthesized gel structurally close to the fluorine mica mineral, sodium potassium fluorophologopite, was studied for the heavy metal ions Cd2+, Hg2+, and Pb2+. The synthesized gel was characterized by X-ray powder pattern, energy dispersive spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis and was found to have the composition Na0.5K0.5Mg(AlSi3O10)F26H2O. The effect of temperature on sorption was studied with respect to varying concentrations of metal ions. The overall sorption capacity of the synthesized gel was found to depend on the number of ion active groups per unit weight of the material. The data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients ( K d). Sorption data followed Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Studies showed that sorption decreased as the concentration of metal ions increased and increased as the temperature grew, which was evidence that the process was endothermic.

  18. Thermodynamic Aspects of the Linkage between Binding of Chloride and Oxygen to Human Hemoglobin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert N. Haire; Bo E. Hedlund

    1977-01-01

    Oxygen isotherms of human hemoglobin measured in distilled water and in solutions of sodium chloride in the concentration range from 0.02 to 3.0 M indicate that the oxygen affinity decreases up to about 1 M salt and then begins to increase. The isotherms obtained in the range from 0.02 to 0.6 M sodium chloride, at 37 degrees and pH 7.4,

  19. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jallow, Demba B.; Hsia, Liang Chou

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks). The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 22 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate) or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20C and 30C) in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period). Ambient temperature had significant (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001) effects on meat color from the ribeye area (REA), fat, leg and longissimus dorsi muscles with higher values recorded for lambs in the lower temperature group than those from the higher ambient temperature group. Significant differences (p<0.05) in shear force value (kg/cm2) recorded on the leg muscles showed higher values (5.32 vs 4.16) in lambs under the lower ambient temperature group compared to the other group. Dietary treatments had significant (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.05) effects on meat color from the REA, fat, and REA fat depth (cm2) with higher values recorded for lambs in the NaHCO3 supplementation group than the non supplemented group. Similarly, dietary treatments had significant differences (p<0.05) in shear force value (kg/cm2) of the leg muscles with the NaHCO3 groups recording higher (5.30 vs 4.60) values than those from the other group. Neither ambient temperature nor dietary treatments had any significant (p>0.05) effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality. PMID:25083103

  20. Rate phenomena involved in the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride bearing lixiviants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Palmer; C. O. Nebo; M. F. Rau; M. C. Fuerstenau

    1981-01-01

    The rate of dissolution of monosize chalcopyrite was studied in the presence of lixiviants containing ferric chloride, sodium chloride, and hydrochloric acid to establish the mechanism by which leaching occurs in this system. Linear kinetics are observed which is indicative of control by surface phenomena. Rate exhibits one-half power dependence on total ferric iron concentration. Additionally, the rate of dissolution

  1. The Skeletal Muscle Chloride Channel in Dominant and Recessive Human Myotonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuela C. Koch; Klaus Steinmeyer; Claudius Lorenz; Kenneth Ricker; Friedrich Wolf; Michael Otto; Barbara Zoll; Frank Lehmann-Horn; Karl-Heinz Grzeschik; Thomas J. Jentsch

    1992-01-01

    Autosomal recessive generalized myotonia (Becker's disease) (GM) and autosomal dominant myotonia congenita (Thomsen's disease) (MC) are characterized by skeletal muscle stiffness that is a result of muscle membrane hyperexcitability. For both diseases, alterations in muscle chloride or sodium currents or both have been observed. A complementary DNA for a human skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLC-1) was cloned, physically localized on

  2. Voltage and time-dependent chloride currents in chick skeletal muscle cells grown in tissue culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy A. Steele

    1989-01-01

    Membrane chloride currents in chick skeletal muscle cells grown in tissue culture were studied by use of the whole cell variation of the patch electrode voltage clamp technique. Small diameter myoballs were obtained by adding colchicine to the growth media. To isolate the currents through the chloride channels, the currents through the sodium, calcium and potassium channels were minimized. With

  3. Improved cycling behavior of ZEBRA battery operated at intermediate temperature of 175C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-03-01

    Operation of sodium-nickel chloride battery at temperatures lower than 200C reduces cell degradation and improves the cyclability. One of the main technical issues in terms of operating this battery at intermediate temperatures such as 175C is the poor wettability of sodium melt on ?-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) causing reduced active area and limited charging . In order to overcome the problem related to poor wettability of Na melt on BASE at 175C, Pt grid was applied on the anode side of BASE using a screen printing technique. Deeper charging and improved cycling behavior was observed on the cells with metalized BASEs due to extended active area.

  4. Sodium-calcium ion exchange in the weathering of shales: Implications for global weathering budgets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. E. Cerling; B. L. Pederson; K. L. Von Damm

    1989-01-01

    Unpolluted rivers and streams that drain marine shales show an excess of sodium compared to chloride and a deficiency of calcium and magnesium compared to sulfate and alkalinity. This is due in part to cation exchange of sodium for divalent cations on clay minerals. Consideration of the global weathering budget suggest that up to 34% of the sodium in the

  5. Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-01-01

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

  6. Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*

    PubMed Central

    Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl. PMID:16592111

  7. Modelling the influence of temperature, water activity and sodium metabisulphite on the growth and OTA production of Aspergillus carbonarius isolated from Greek wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Angelos-Gerasimos; Kogkaki, Efstathia A; Natskoulis, Pantelis I; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a modelling approach to quantify the effect of temperature (15-38 C), a(w) (0.88-0.98) and sodium metabisulphite (NaMBS) concentration (0-200 mg L(-1)) on the growth and OTA production of Aspergillus carbonarius on a Grape Juice based Medium (GJM). Growth responses of the fungus were recorded over time in terms of colony diameter changes, and fitted to the primary model of Baranyi and the estimated maximum growth rates (?(max)) and lag phases (?) were subsequently modelled as a function of temperature, a(w) and NaMBS concentration using the cardinal values model with inflection (CMI). Moreover, OTA production was measured during fungal growth and modelled as a function of the same parameters through a quadratic polynomial model. Results showed that NaMBS increased the lag phase of A. carbonarius, particularly at 38 C/0.98 a(w) and 38 C/0.96 a(w), as well as at lower a(w) levels regardless of temperature. In the lowest NaMBS concentration (50 mg L(-1)) there was no inhibitory effect, while at higher concentrations (100 and 150 mg L(-1)) fungal growth was delayed. No growth was observed at 200 mg L(-1) of NaMBS irrespective of temperature and a(w) levels. The optimum values for growth were found in the range 30-35 C and 0.96 a(w), while for OTA production at 20 C and 0.98 a(w). The developed models were subjected to internal and external validation and presented satisfactory performance as inferred by graphical plots and statistical indices (bias and accuracy factors). The present study will complement the findings on the ecophysiology of A. carbonarius using NaMBS as an inhibitory agent. PMID:25846911

  8. Effect of sodium and lithium carbonate catalysts on the rate of steam gasification of low-temperature lignite coke

    SciTech Connect

    Durusoy, T. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.] [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1999-08-01

    Two different catalysts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) were impregnated into a low-rank lignite coke to investigate the effects of catalyst type at different reaction temperatures (600--700 C) on the rate of steam gasification in a fixed reactor. Total conversion sharply increases with increasing gasification time and with the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The catalytic activities under identical experimental conditions were found to be ranked as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}> Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Activation energies and frequency factors of the catalytic reactions were deduced through a kinetic model and compared with noncatalytic steam gasification reactions. Catalytic reactions yielded much smaller values than those of the noncatalytic reactions. Furthermore, it is also observed that the conversion rate is primarily affected by the reaction temperature.

  9. The Effects of Temperature on Sodium Hypochlorite Short-Term Stability, Pulp Dissolution Capacity, and Antimicrobial Efficacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Sirtes; Tuomas Waltimo; Marc Schaetzle; Matthias Zehnder

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test some effects of preheating NaOCl solutions using a commercially available syringe heating device. Irrigating solution temperatures in 10-ml syringes were measured. Stability of 5.25, 2.62, and 1% NaOCl solutions for 60 min at 20, 45, and 60C was assessed using iodine\\/thiosulfate titration. Human pulp tissue dissolution capacity of a 1% NaOCl solution

  10. Two-step sintering of new potassium sodium niobate ceramics: a high d?? and wide sintering temperature range.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Yumei

    2014-09-14

    In this work, the two-step sintering technique is used to realize a high piezoelectric constant (d33) and wide sintering temperature range (T(S)) in the 0.955(K(0.42)Na(0.58))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O3-0.045(Bi(0.5)K(0.5))(0.90)Zn(0.10)ZrO3 lead-free ceramics. Dense microstructures were developed in the ceramics by two-step sintering. In the T(S) range of 800-1130 C, the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary was well maintained, and these ceramics possess enhanced dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties. It is of great interest to note that a d33 of 323-416 pC/N could be attained in a temperature gap range of 330 C. We believe that the two-step sintering could both widen the sintering temperature and obtain a high d33 for this material system. PMID:25051530

  11. Phosphonium chloride for thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Development of systems for storage of thermal energy is discussed. Application of phosphonium chloride for heat storage through reversible dissociation is described. Chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties of phosphonium chloride are analyzed and dangers in using phosphonium chloride are explained.

  12. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  13. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  14. The effects of temperature on sodium hypochlorite short-term stability, pulp dissolution capacity, and antimicrobial efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sirtes, George; Waltimo, Tuomas; Schaetzle, Marc; Zehnder, Matthias

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to test some effects of preheating NaOCl solutions using a commercially available syringe heating device. Irrigating solution temperatures in 10-ml syringes were measured. Stability of 5.25, 2.62, and 1% NaOCl solutions for 60 min at 20, 45, and 60 degrees C was assessed using iodine/thiosulfate titration. Human pulp tissue dissolution capacity of a 1% NaOCl solution was gauged at the latter temperatures, and compared to corresponding values with a 5.25% solution at 20 degrees C. Killing efficacy of diluted NaOCl solutions against 48-h incubations of Enterococcus feacalis ATCC 29212 was compared at 45 degrees C and 20 degrees C. Using the heating device, a 20 degrees C solution reached 45 degrees C and 60 degrees C in 7 and 20 min, respectively. Solutions remained stable during the observation period. The 1% NaOCl solution at 45 degrees C dissolved pulp tissues as effectively as the 5.25% solution at 20 degrees C, while the 60 degrees C/1% solution was significantly more effective (p < 0.05). A 100-fold increase in killing efficacy was observed between corresponding NaOCl solutions at 20 degrees C and 45 degrees C. PMID:16123703

  15. Low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of the three-layered sodium cobaltite P3-Na{sub x}CoO{sub 2} (x ? 0.60)

    SciTech Connect

    Miclau, M., E-mail: marinela.miclau@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara, 1 Plautius Andronescu, 300224, Timisoara (Romania); Bokinala, K. [National Institute for Research and Development in Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, Timisoara, 1 Plautius Andronescu, 300224, Timisoara (Romania); CNRS, Universit de Bordeaux, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr. A. Schweitzer, Pessac, F-33608 (France); Politehnica University of Timisoara, Pta Victoriei No. 2, 300006, Timisoara (Romania); Miclau, N. [Politehnica University of Timisoara, Pta Victoriei No. 2, 300006, Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: We report direct synthesis of the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2}. The hydrothermal synthesis of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} involves one step and low temperature. The yield diagram for NaCoH{sub 2}O system has been builded up to 250 C. We propose a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of HT-XRD. - Abstract: In order to obtain the layered sodium cobalt oxide materials by hydrothermal synthesis, the yield diagram for NaCoH{sub 2}O system has been built and studied. In the same time, the well-known data of CoH{sub 2}O system have been extended at 250 C in basic solution. We had first synthesized directly the high temperature stable phase, P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} by a one-step low-temperature hydrothermal method. The rhombohedral structure of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the purity of phases has been confirmed by XPS. The thermal stability of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} has been investigated by means of high temperature X-ray diffraction in 298873 K range and when the temperature has reached 723 K, the completely transformation of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} in the rhombohedral stable phase ?-NaCoO{sub 2} (space group R-3m) was observed. Also, a formation mechanism of P3-Na{sub 0.6}CoO{sub 2} phase using the unit cell theory in the hydrothermal process was proposed.

  16. Aluminum chloride and membrane potentials of barley root cells

    SciTech Connect

    Etherton, B.; Shane, M.

    1986-04-01

    Aluminum chloride at pH 4 hyperpolarizes the membrane potentials of barley root epidermal cells. The authors tested to see whether this hyperpolarization could be caused by an aluminum induced alteration of the permeability of the membrane to potassium or sodium ions by measuring the effect of .04 mM aluminum ions (the Ca/sup + +/ conc. was 0.1 mM) on the membrane potential changes induced by changing the potassium or sodium concentrations in the medium bathing the roots. Aluminum ions did not change the magnitude of potassium or sodium induced changes in membrane potentials but significantly altered the rates of potassium and sodium induced changes of the potential. The results indicate that aluminum ions did not change sodium or potassium ion permeabilities of barley root cells.

  17. Ion Transport Characteristics of Grape Root Lipids in Relation to Chloride Transport 1

    PubMed Central

    Kuiper, Pieter J. C.

    1968-01-01

    Ion transport properties of grape root lipids were measured as liquid-membrane permeability. Phosphatidylcholine exchanged chloride very slowly against carbonate and bicarbonate but more rapidly against nitrate, phosphate, and sulfate. Exchange of chloride against nitrate was rather low for the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid fractions; monogalactose diglyceride was by far the most effective chloride transporter studied. Comparison between the lipid composition of the roots of the 5 grape rootstocks and the chloride transport capacity of the specific membranes strongly suggests that, indeed, the chloride transport capacity of the lipids present in the membranes of the root cells accounts for the observed differences in chloride transport to the leaves. Whereas monogalactose diglyceride had a high chloride transport capacity, compared with phosphatidylcholine, the reverse was true for exchange of sodium against potassium. Thus, phosphatidylcholine has more the properties of a cation exchanger, and monogalactose diglyceride those of an anion transporter. PMID:16656922

  18. A priori prediction of thermodynamic properties of electrolytes in mixed aqueous-organic solvents to extreme temperatures.

    PubMed

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Kan, Amy T; Tomson, Mason B

    2012-08-01

    The unified theory of electrolytes (J. Phys. Chem. B 2009, 113, 2398-2404) for predicting the standard state thermodynamic properties of aqueous electrolytes has been extended to include mixed solvent systems. The solubility of solid sodium chloride in mixed solvents (methanol/water concentration up to 75% w/w) was also measured up to 466 K and pressures near 7 MPa. The present model, together with a simple modification of Pitzer's thermodynamic treatment of aqueous solutions, allows a priori prediction of solubility of electrolytes in aqueous/organic systems to extreme temperatures and pressures. Solubility is predicted for sodium chloride and potassium chloride in mixed solvents (methanol/water, ethanol/water) over a wide range of temperatures and compositions from the extension of the unified theory of electrolytes to mixed solvents. Comparisons indicate good agreement in all cases to well within the uncertainties of the experimental data. The stoichiometric activity coefficients of saturated solution of sodium chloride in methanol/water mixed solvents were calculated up to 473.15 K. The stoichiometric activity coefficients, as a function of temperature at all concentrations (0 ? m ? m(sat)) and the entire range of mole fraction of methanol, were also calculated up to 473.15 K. The novelty of the present approach is that no additional parameters are required to account for the medium effect. PMID:22747332

  19. Cryosynthesis, structure, and spectroscopic properties of aluminum chloridecobalt(ii) chloride complexes: experiment and calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Shilina; R. V. Bakharev; G. M. Kuramshina; V. V. Smirnov

    2004-01-01

    Products of co-condensation of aluminum chloride and cobalt(ii) chloride vapors were studied by low-temperature (80200 K) IR spectroscopy. In addition to 2 : 1 complexes, previously unknown equimolar associates were found and their IR spectra were investigated. Quantum-mechanical calculations were carried out including electron correlation with the use of the B3LYP and PBE density functionals. The geometric structures were optimized

  20. CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  1. Sodium bicarbonate, N-acetylcysteine, and saline for prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. A comparison of 3 regimens for protecting contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary procedures. A single-center prospective controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emin E. Ozcan; Sema Guneri; Bahri Akdeniz; Z. Akylldlz; Omer Senaslan; Nezihi Baris; Ozgur Aslan; Ozer Badak

    2007-01-01

    Background Several protective therapies have been developed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate by comparing 2 other regimens, including combination of N- acetylcysteine (NAC) plus sodium chloride and sodium chloride alone, to prevent CIN in patients undergoing cardiovascular procedures. Methods We prospectively enrolled 264 patients who were scheduled for cardiovascular procedures and

  2. The upper atmosphere of the exoplanet HD209458b revealed by the sodium D lines: Temperature-pressure profile, ionization layer, and thermosphere

    E-print Network

    Vidal-Madjar, A; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Ferlet, R; Desert, J -M; Hebrard, G; Boisse, I; Ehrenreich, D; Moutou, C

    2010-01-01

    A complete reassessment of the HST observations of the transits of the extrasolar planet HD209458b has provided a transmission spectrum of the atmosphere over a wide range of wavelengths. Analysis of the NaI absorption line profile has already shown that the sodium abundance has to drop by at least a factor of ten above a critical altitude. Here we analyze the profile in the deep core of the NaI doublet line from HST and high-resolution ground-based spectra to further constrain the vertical structure of the HD209458b atmosphere. With a wavelength-dependent cross section that spans more than 5 orders of magnitude, we use the absorption signature of the NaI doublet as an atmospheric probe. The NaI transmission features are shown to sample the atmosphere of HD209458b over an altitude range of more than 6500km, corresponding to a pressure range of 14 scale heights spanning 1 millibar to 1e-9 bar pressures. By comparing the observations with a multi-layer model in which temperature is a free parameter at the resol...

  3. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, Candido (Naperville, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  4. Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    DOEpatents

    Pereira, C.

    1999-02-23

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

  5. A method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Candido

    1997-08-11

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

  6. Sodium phosphate enhances plasmid DNA expression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hartikka, J; Bozoukova, V; Jones, D; Mahajan, R; Wloch, M K; Sawdey, M; Buchner, C; Sukhu, L; Barnhart, K M; Abai, A M; Meek, J; Shen, N; Manthorpe, M

    2000-07-01

    Intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA results in myofiber cell expression of proteins encoded by the DNA. The preferred vehicle for plasmid DNA injections has been saline (154 mM sodium chloride) or PBS (154 mM NaCl plus 10 mM sodium phosphate). Here, it is shown that injection of luciferase or beta-galactosidase encoding plasmid DNA in a 150 mM sodium phosphate vehicle into murine muscle resulted in a two- to seven-fold increase in transgene expression compared with DNA injected in saline or PBS. When the DNA encoded secreted alkaline phosphatase, preproinsulin or interferon, sodium phosphate vehicle increased their serum levels by two- to four-fold. When the DNA encoded mouse erythropoietin, sodium phosphate vehicle increased hematocrits by two-fold compared with DNA injected in saline. When the DNA encoded influenza nucleoprotein, sodium phosphate increased anti-nucleoprotein antibody titers by two-fold. The expression of luciferase from plasmid DNA instilled into lung was increased five-fold compared with that in vehicle without sodium phosphate. Incubation of plasmid DNA with muscle extract or serum showed that sodium phosphate protected the DNA from degradation. Thus, a change from sodium chloride to sodium phosphate vehicle can enhance the expression of plasmid DNA in a tissue, possibly by inhibiting DNA degradation. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 1171-1182. PMID:10918485

  7. Crystallization of sodium chloride from a concentrated calcium chloride-potassium chloride-sodium chloride solution in a CMSMPR crystallizer: Observation of crystal size distribution and model validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Sang Choi

    2005-01-01

    Compared to overwhelming technical data available in other advanced technologies, knowledge about particle technology, especially in particle synthesis from a solution, is still poor due to the lack of available equipment to study crystallization phenomena in a crystallizer. Recent technical advances in particle size measurement such as Coulter counter and laser light scattering have made in\\/ex situ study of some

  8. Vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of ammonium iodide, potassium iodide, potassium nitrate, strontium chloride, lithium sulphate, sodium thiosulphate, magnesium nitrate, and uranyl nitrate from T =(278 to 323) K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

    1998-01-01

    Vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of NH4I, KI, KNO3, SrCl2, Li2SO4, Na2S2O3, Mg(NO3)2, and UO2(NO3)2were determined in the temperature range (278 to 323) K using an electronic hygrometer with an electrolyte sensor, and compared with literature data. Water activities, osmotic coefficients, and molar enthalpies of vaporization and solution at saturation point were evaluated from the determined vapour pressures.

  9. Solubility of sodium salts in ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. S. Ghareh Bagh; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; M. K. O. Hadj-Kali; I. M. Alnashef

    2013-01-01

    The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr), and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was measured in nine ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). The aim of the study is to assess the potential use of these DESs as solvents and electrolytes for the separation of sodium metal from its salts. The studied DESs were prepared by combining ammonium salts with various

  10. [Determination of potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Xie, C; Wen, X; Jia, Y; Sun, S

    2001-06-01

    Sodium is used as a coolant in China experiment fast reactor (CEFR). Potassium in sodium has an influence on heat property of reactor. A analytical method has been developed to determinate potassium in sodium by flame atomic emission spectroscopy. Sodium sample is dissolved by ultrasonic humidifier. The working conditions of the instrument and inTerferences from matrix sodium, acid effect and concomitant elements have been studied. Standard addition experiments are carried out with potassium chloride. The percentage recoveries are 94.7%-109.8%. The relative standard deviation is 4.2%. The analytical range accords with sodium quality control standard of CFFR. The precision corresponds to the international analytical method in sodium coolant reactor. PMID:12947670

  11. Stimulation of active and passive sodium absorption by sugars in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Fordtran, J S

    1975-01-01

    The effects of glucose and fructose on water and sodium absorption in the human jejunum were compared to assess the relative contribution of active and passive sugar stimulation of sodium transport. The effect of fructose is assumed to be entirely passive, and the difference between the effects of fructose and glucose is assumed to be a measure of sugar-stimulated, active sodium absorption. Water and sodium movement with mannitol was the base line. Three sets of test solutions with differing sugar concentrations were studied. Fructose stimulated 66-100 per cent as much net sodium and water absorption as glucose. Fructose stimulated potassium absorption, whereas glucose stimulated potassium secretion. Urea absorption was stimulated by both sugars. Glucose and fructose stimulated sodium absorption when chloride was the major anion, but they had relatively little effect on net sodium movement when chloride was replaced by bicarbonate or sulfate. It is concluded that glucose stimulates passive and active sodium transport in the human jejunum. Stimulated active sodium absorption generates an electrical potential across the mucosa that causes sodium (and potassium) secretion and partly or completely nullifies the effect of active sodium transport on net sodium movement. Net sodium absorption sitmulated by glucose is mainly (66-100 per cent) the passive consequence of solvent flow. The accompanying anion determines the degree to which sugars stimulate sodium absorption (C1 greater than SO-4 greater than HCO3). The effects of bicarbonate and sugars on jejunal sodium absorption are not additive. Images PMID:1120780

  12. Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-26

    Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

  13. The effect of chloride ion concentration gradients on the initiation of localized corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.J.; Brown, R. [Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1994-12-31

    It has been established that for steel reinforced concrete roads treated with deicing salts or exposed to a marine environment, chloride ions are introduced at the surface of the concrete structure. Two models were discussed in which chloride ion concentration gradients would form in a steel reinforced concrete structure. Electrochemical testing to investigate the models was conducted on plain carbon steel specimens in a simulated concrete environment of saturated calcium hydroxide solution with varying concentrations of sodium chloride. The varying chloride ion concentrations promoted open circuit potential shifts. These potential shifts may lead to galvanic corrosion effects depending on the chloride ion concentration gradients in the structure.

  14. Electrochemistry in ultrahigh vacuum: underpotential deposition of Al on polycrystalline W and Au from room temperature AlCl(3)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride melts.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew; Lee, Jae-Joon; Chottiner, Gary S; Miller, Barry; Tsuda, Tetsuya; Hussey, Charles L; Scherson, Daniel A

    2005-06-01

    The voltammetric characteristics of polycrystalline Au and W electrodes cleaned (thermal annealing at 1100 K) and characterized (Auger electron spectroscopy) in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) have been examined in ultrapure AlCl(3)/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EtMeImCl) melts in UHV. These experiments were performed using a custom-designed transfer system that allows for the all-Al electrochemical cell to be filled with EtMeImCl in an auxiliary UHV chamber and later transferred under UHV to the main UHV chamber that houses the Auger electron spectrometer. The results obtained for the underpotential (UPD) and bulk deposition of Al on Au were found to be very similar to those reported in the literature for measurements carried out under 1 atm of an inert gas in a glovebox. For the far more reactive W surfaces, voltammetric features ascribed to the stripping of underpotential-deposited Al could be observed following a single scan from 1.0 V vs Al(3+)/Al to a potential negative enough for bulk deposition of Al to ensue. This behavior is unlike that reported in the literature for experiments performed in a glovebox, which required either extensive potential cycling in the Al bulk deposition and stripping region or excursions to potentials positive enough for chlorine evolution to ensue for Al UPD features to be clearly discerned. These observations open new prospects for fundamental electrochemical studies of well-characterized, highly reactive metals, including single crystals, in a variety of low vapor pressure ionic liquids. PMID:16852379

  15. Ambient Temperature Synthesis of Spinel Ni 3S 4: An Itinerant Electron Ferrimagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthiram, A.; Jeong, Y. U.

    1999-11-01

    Ni3S4 crystallizing in the cubic spinel structure has been synthesized by an ambient temperature reaction between aqueous nickel chloride and sodium dithionite solutions. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and magnetic measurements. Ni3S4 is metastable and it begins to decompose above 100C. Ni3S4 is metallic and it exhibits itinerant electron ferrimagnetism.

  16. Osmotic dehydration of bell peppers: influence of high intensity electric field pulses and elevated temperature treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. O Ade-Omowaye; N. K Rastogi; A Angersbach; D Knorr

    2002-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of bell peppers using sucrose and sodium chloride as osmotic agents as influenced by moderate thermal treatment (2555 C) and high intensity electric field pulses at varying field strengths (E=0.52.5 kV\\/cm) was studied. Two product quality indicators (vitamin C and carotenoids) were evaluated. Increasing temperature resulted in water loss from 32% to 48% and increasing field strength resulted

  17. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Migliori; G. W. Swift

    1988-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance has been constructed. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency,

  18. Haemodynamic and metabolic effects in diabetic ketoacidosis in rats of treatment with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Beech; S. C. R. Williams; R. A. Iles; R. D. Cohen; K. M. Nolan; S. J. W. Evans; T. C. D. Going

    1995-01-01

    SummaryTo examine factors determining the haemodynamic and metabolic responses to treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with alkali, groups of anaesthetised and ventilated rats with either diabetic ketoacidosis (mean arterial pH 6.866.96, mean arterial blood pressure 6367 mm Hg) or hypovolaemic shock due to blood withdrawal (mean pHa 7.257.27, mean arterial blood pressure 3641 mmHg) were treated with sodium chloride (saline), sodium

  19. High affinity and temperature sensitivity of blood oxygen binding in Pangasianodon hypophthalmus due to lack of chloride-hemoglobin allosteric interaction.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Christian; Phuong, Le My; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Jensen, Frank B; Wang, Tobias; Bayley, Mark

    2015-06-01

    Air-breathing fishes represent interesting organisms in terms of understanding the physiological changes associated with the terrestrialization of vertebrates, and, further, are of great socio-economic importance for aquaculture in Southeast Asia. To understand how environmental factors, such as high temperature, affect O2 transport in air-breathing fishes, this study assessed the effects of temperature on O2 binding of blood and Hb in the economically important air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus. To determine blood O2 binding properties, blood was drawn from resting cannulated fishes and O2 binding curves made at 25C and 35C. To determine the allosteric regulation and thermodynamics of Hb O2 binding, Hb was purified, and O2 equilibria were recorded at five temperatures in the absence and presence of ATP and Cl(-). Whole blood had a high O2 affinity (O2 tension at half saturation P50 = 4.6 mmHg at extracellular pH 7.6 and 25C), a high temperature sensitivity of O2 binding (apparent heat of oxygenation ?Happ = -28.3 kcal/mol), and lacked a Root effect. Further, the data on Hb revealed weak ATP binding and a complete lack of Cl(-) binding to Hb, which, in part, explains the high O2 affinity and high temperature sensitivity of blood O2 binding. This study demonstrates how a potent mechanism for increasing O2 affinity is linked to increased temperature sensitivity of O2 transport and provides a basic framework for a better understanding of how hypoxia-adapted species will react to increasing temperatures. PMID:25810388

  20. Ascorbic acid induced enhancement of room temperature phosphorescence of sodium tripolyphosphate-capped Mn-Doped ZnS quantum dots: mechanism and bioprobe applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, He-Fang; Li, Yan; Wu, Ye-Yu; He, Yu; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2010-11-15

    Although quantum dot (QD)-based room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) probes are promising for practical applications in complex matrixes such as environmental, food and biological samples, current QD-based-RTP probes are not only quite limited but also exclusively based on the RTP quenching mechanism. Here we report an ascorbic acid (AA) induced phosphorescence enhancement of sodium tripolyphosphate-capped Mn-doped ZnS QDs, and its application for turn-on RTP detection. The chelating ability allows AA to extract the Mn and Zn from the surface of the QDs and to generate more holes which are subsequently trapped by Mn(2+), while the reducing property permits AA to reduce Mn(3+) to Mn(2+) in the excited state, thereby enhancing the excitation and orange emission of the QDs. The enhanced RTP intensity of the QDs increases linearly with the concentration of AA in the range of 0.05-0.8??M. Thus, a QD-based RTP probe for AA is developed. The proposed QD-based turn-on RTP probe avoids tedious sample pretreatment, and offers good sensitivity and selectivity for AA in the presence of the main relevant metal ions and other molecules in biological fluids. The limit of detection (3s) of the developed method is 9?nM AA, and the relative standard deviation is 4.8?% for 11 replicate detections of 0.1??M AA. The developed method is successfully applied to the analysis of real samples of human urine and plasma for AA with quantitative recoveries from 96 to 105?%. PMID:20865703