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1

Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense ??-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247Scm-1) at 150C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285mAhg-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750mWhg-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785mWhg-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680mWhg-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

2014-12-01

2

The Effects of Temperature on the Electrochemical Performance of Sodium-Nickel Chloride Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically fabricated with a thick tubular ?"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at relatively high temperatures (? 300C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present work, a planar-type sodium-nickel chloride battery possessing a thin BASE (~600 ?m thick) was tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of the battery operation at low temperatures (?200C). Electrochemical test results revealed that the battery was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175C despite the higher cell polarization at the reduced temperature. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the performance degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride in the cathode. The cells tested at lower temperatures (e.g., 175 and 200C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in cell voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of NaAlCl4 melt or the poor wettability of sodium on the BASE. Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of a secondary electrolyte and sodium wetting are desirable to further enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-10-01

3

Effects of pressure, temperature, and concentration on the viscosity of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pressure (0.1-375 MPa), temperature (283.15-323.15 K), and concentration (0.5-3 mol\\/kg) on the viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solution, namely, the activation energy and B coefficient, are measured. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Seiji Sawamura; Yukihiro Yoshimura; Kiyoshi Kitamura; Yoshihiro Taniguchi

1992-01-01

4

The effects of temperature on the electrochemical performance of sodium-nickel chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) batteries are typically operated at relatively high temperatures (3300C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. In the present study, the effects of operating temperature on the electrochemical performance of planar-type Na/NiCl2 batteries were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of battery operation at low temperatures (200 C). The planar-type cell was able to be cycled at C/3 rate at as low as 175 C despite higher cell polarization. Overall, low operating temperature resulted in a considerable improvement in the stability of cell performance. Cell degradation was negligible at 175 C, while 55% increase in end-of-charge polarization was observed at 280 C after 60 cycles. SEM analysis indicated that the degradation at higher temperatures was related to the particle growth of both nickel and sodium chloride. The cells tested at lower temperatures (200 C), however, exhibited a sharp drop in voltage at the end of discharge due to the diffusion limitation, possibly caused by the limited ionic conductivity of catholyte or the poor wettability of sodium on the ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE). Therefore, improvements in the ionic conductivity of catholyte and sodium wetting as well as reduction in the ohmic resistance of BASE are required to enhance the battery performance at low temperatures.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-10-01

5

Sodium Chloride (Catheter Flush) Injection  

MedlinePLUS

... use a sodium chloride flush several times a day. Your health care provider will determine the number of sodium chloride flushes you will need a day. ... health care provider probably will give you several days supply of sodium chloride. You will be told ...

6

Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature  

SciTech Connect

Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

Ortiz-Morales, A. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, IPN, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico D.F., Mexico and Unidad de Irradiacion y Segurid (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C. [Unidad de Irradiacion y Seguridad Radiologica, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F (Mexico); Kitis, G. [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP. 20-364, 01000 Mexico D.F (Mexico)

2013-07-03

7

Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl2:MnCl2(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from 60Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J., C.; Hernndez A., J.; Murrieta S., H.

2013-07-01

8

Novel Ternary Molten Salt Electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is typically operated at relatively high temperature (250~350C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150 to 200C can lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature related degradation mechanisms. The reduced temperature range also allows for lower cost materials of construction such as elastomeric sealants and gaskets. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures requires an overall reduction in ohmic losses associated with temperature. This includes reducing the ohmic resistance of ?-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point molten salt as the secondary electrolyte. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin flat plate BASE (600 ?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salt formulation for use as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replace of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of the ternary molten salts demonstrated , improved ionic conductivity, and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150oC.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-15

9

Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of ??-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600?m) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150C.

Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2012-12-01

10

Plating and stripping of sodium from a room temperature 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride melt  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium chloride and aluminum chloride have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions which provide the most efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Most work was performed on a tungsten substrate using cyclic voltammetry. Melts were treated with gaseous HCl using a closed electrochemical cell which allowed for quantification of the effect of HCl on the electrochemical behavior of sodium in the molten salt. The HCl threshold partial pressure was less than 1 kPa for sodium plating. This result was complicated by the slow equilibrium between gaseous HCl and that dissolved in the molten salt; the effect of HCl addition was found to last for months, demonstrating the slow equilibrium. Small amounts of water contamination were found to produce a similar effect. At elevated temperatures the melt had higher conductivity, an order of magnitude higher current densities, and higher coulombic efficiency.

Gray, G.E.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1996-07-01

11

Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)  

MedlinePLUS

... for Physical Activity in Children My Family Health Tree What's that you're drinking? Get Active with ... salt coming from? Reducing Sodium in a Salty World The Salty Six Surprising Foods that Add the ...

12

[Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].  

PubMed

Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and raw vegetables were examined. Vinegar solution (1-2% acidity, 3-7% NaCl) produced more than 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers of E. coli O157:H7 on the surface of cutting board, and cabbage and cucumber at 20-50 degrees C. These results suggested that the treatment with vinegar solution containing sodium chloride may be one of the useful methods to prevent food poisoning. PMID:9209127

Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

1997-05-01

13

MACROMINERALS - SODIUM, POTASSIUM AND CHLORIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of minerals in the diet of horses is well recognized by horse owners and equine nutritionists alike. The type and quantity of minerals required are very diverse and essential minerals include the major or macrominerals and the trace or microminerals. This discussion will be restricted to three macrominerals, sodium, potassium, and chloride (Na+, K+, Cl-), that are essen-

L. J. McCutcheon

14

A fiber-optic sensor using an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to measure temperature and water level simultaneously.  

PubMed

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

15

Molecular Structure of Sodium chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium chloride, or simply (table) salt, is found in the mineral Halite (rock salt) but also in seawater, sweat, etc. It is used in industry and in our everyday life, for seasoning and perserving food or for winter road maintenance. Seawater contains a lot of salt, on average of 2.6% NaCl, or 26 million metric tons per cubic kilometer. In rock salt the NaCl content typically ranges between 95% and 99% NaCl, and mechanically evaporated salt and solar salt normally exceed 99% NaCl.

2002-08-15

16

Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

1994-01-01

17

Secondary electron emission from sodium chloride, glass and aluminum oxide at various temperature  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of single impulses was used to measure the coefficients of the secondary electronic emission for 2 types of Al2O2, monocrystalline NaCl and glass at different temperatures and for different values of the energy of the primary electrons. The value of the secondary electron emission does not depend upon temperature. The effect of a gas film on the value of the secondary electron emission was detected.

Shulman, A. R.; Makedonskiy, V. L.; Yaroshetskiy, I. D.

1980-01-01

18

Sodium/metal chloride batteries: Summary of status  

SciTech Connect

In 1972, there was an effort underway at ESB to try to develop a sodium/antimony trichloride battery that would operate at 200/degree/C or less. These cells, like their sodium/sulfur counterpart, used beta alumina electrolyte tubes, but with a second component in the electrolyte, namely molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate. The latter was used on the acid side, i.e., with an excess of aluminum chloride. Starting a little later, about 1975 it is rumored, workers at the Anglo American Company in South Africa began experimenting with positive electrodes consisting of iron or nickel chloride, using an electrolyte system that was similar to that of ESB except that the sodium tetrachloroaluminate was used on the basic side, i.e., with an excess of sodium chloride. The Anglo American work was focused on the high-temperature chlorination of the metal carbides as the means to form the porous iron or nickel chloride positive electrodes. Ultimately, the work at ESB was abandoned, while that at Anglo American blossomed, eventually leading to the formation of Zebra Power Systems S.A. in South Africa. The latter has been involved, since about 1980, in a number of collaborative programs with UKAEA Harwell and Beta RandD Ltd. in the UK to develop the sodium/metal chloride battery technology. The embodiment with iron chloride has become known as the Zebra battery, while the nickel chloride variant is known as the Cheetah battery. 17 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Sen, R.K.

1988-09-01

19

Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1986-01-01

20

Thermoluminescence of ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high dilutions of lithium chloride and sodium chloride (10?30gcm?3) have been irradiated by X- and ?-rays at 77K, then progressively rewarmed to room temperature. During that phase, their thermoluminescence has been studied and it was found that, despite their dilution beyond the Avogadro number, the emitted light was specific of the original salts dissolved initially.

Louis Rey

2003-01-01

21

An Introduction to Chemistry: Dissolving Sodium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What happens at the molecular level when a compound dissolves in water? This interactive animation explores how negative and positive ions in sodium chloride (table salt) collide with water molecules and become separated from each other to become a solution. The model does an effective job of depicting how the water molecules disrupt the attraction between the positive sodium ions and the negative chloride ions, and then become stabilized by attractions to the atoms in the water molecule.

Bishop, Mark

2011-05-02

22

A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

Gold, Marvin

1988-01-01

23

Kainate Receptor Modulation by Sodium and Chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent\\u000a of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity\\u000a is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation\\u000a by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property

Andrew J. R. Plested

24

Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride, and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product. PMID:25285486

Juneja, Vijay K; Garcia-Dvila, Jimena; Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; Pena-Ramos, Etna Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin

2014-10-01

25

Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

26

Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

1971-01-01

27

Optimization of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations and cooking temperature of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effect of cooking temperature (CT: 65-75C) and the incorporation of whey protein concentrate (WPC: 0-3.5%) and sodium chloride (NaCl: 0-2.5%) on technological, physical and sensory characteristics of cooked whole-muscle beef. Post-injection weight loss diminished when NaCl concentration increased. Moreover, the increment of both additives produced a reduction of cooking loss. An opposite effect was observed with the increment of CT. As it was expected, a total yield improvement was achieved by increasing both ingredients and diminishing CT. Equivalent yields are achieved complementing both ingredients, meaning that if one ingredient concentration is reduced the other has to be increased. Shear force values were not affected by the studied factors. Instead, lightness was reduced by their increment. At 65C, injected muscles had lower flavour and odour scores than control. At all CT analyzed, the incorporated brines improved juiciness and tenderness-related attributes. Present results recommend the use of a CT of 70C and maxima WPC and NaCl concentrations of 2.6% and 1.9%, respectively. PMID:22062917

Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

2008-07-01

28

Kainate receptor modulation by sodium and chloride.  

PubMed

The kainate-type glutamate receptor displays strong modulation by monovalent anions and cations. This modulation is independent of permeation of the ion channel. Instead, structural, computational and biophysical evidence shows that receptor activity is controlled by binding of sodium and chloride ions at sites that stabilize active dimers of glutamate binding domains. Modulation by monovalent ions is a surprisingly general property across ion channel families. However, evidence of a physiological role for ion-dependent effects on glutamate receptors is lacking, perhaps reflecting the adventitious use of ions as structural components of the kainate receptor. "ergo, Hercules, vita humanior sine sale non quit degree []" "Heaven known, a civilized life is impossible without salt" -Pliny the Elder, Natural History XXXI 88. PMID:21713670

Plested, Andrew J R

2011-01-01

29

Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

Birks, N.

1983-01-01

30

Mathematical modeling of the sodium/iron chloride battery  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical model of the sodium/iron chloride battery containing a molten AlCl{sub 3}-NaCl electrolyte is presented. A cylindrical cell consisting of a positive iron electrode, an electrolyte reservoir, a separator, and a negative sodium electrode is considered. The analysis uses concentrated-solution theory within the framework of a macroscopic porous electrode model. The effects of the state of discharge, the cell temperature, the precipitation and dissolution rates of NaCl, and the current density on the current-potential relation during the discharge and charge cycles are discussed. The major influences on battery performances are changes in porosity and component volume fractions during cycling.

Sudoh, M.; Newman, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Materials and Chemical Sciences Div.)

1990-03-01

31

The interference effect of more than one salt in graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry Part 1: Effect of magnesium chloride-sodium chloride mixture on manganese  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The simultaneous interference effects of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride on the atomization of manganese in a graphite furnace were investigated. For this purpose, the individual interference mechanisms of each salt were also studied. It was found that the interference of sodium chloride originates from expulsion of the analyte with matrix and gas phase reaction between manganese and chlorine during the atomization step. In the presence of magnesium chloride, interferences depend on the pyrolysis temperature. If low pyrolysis temperatures are applied, expulsion and gas phase reaction in the atomization step are very likely. At elevated temperatures, MgCl 2 is converted to MgO, which does not cause expulsion or gas phase reaction in the atomization step, although some loss of manganese occurs owing to the volatilization of manganese chloride formed in the pyrolysis step. If sodium chloride and magnesium chloride are present simultaneously, interferences are reduced at elevated pyrolysis temperatures. Obviously, the magnesium oxide generated by the hydrolysis of magnesium chloride acts as a modifier and partially protects the analyte, but some losses cannot be completely eliminated because of the interference due to sodium chloride and the volatilization of manganese chloride.

Ince Tekgl, H.; Akman, S.

1997-05-01

32

Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlCl) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium\\/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using

Gary E. Gray; P. A. Kohl; J. Winnick

1995-01-01

33

Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.  

PubMed

Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30?ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30?ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes. PMID:25454733

Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

2015-01-01

34

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of sodium chloride salinity on root growth and respiration in oak either 50 or 250 mM NaCl. Both moderate and high salinity treatment strongly altered root elongation. In contrast, specific respiration of roots was unaffected by the moderate salinity treatment while

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed  

E-print Network

Long-Term Sodium Chloride Retention in a Rural Watershed: Legacy Effects of Road Salt% of the input. Road salt use in the watershed did not increase during the study include road salt, oil field brine, water softeners, septic and sewage effluent, natural salt deposits

Weathers, Kathleen C.

36

Disinfection potential of electrolyzed solutions containing sodium chloride at low concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrolyzed products of sodium chloride solution were examined for their disinfection potential against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro. Electrolysis of 0.05% NaCl in tap water was carried out for 45 min at room temperature using a 3 A electric current in separate wells installed with positive and negative electrodes. The electrolyzed products were obtained

Chizuko Morita; Kouichi Sano; Shinichi Morimatsu; Hiromasa Kiura; Toshiyuki Goto; Takehiro Kohno; Wu Hong; Hirofumi Miyoshi; Atsuo Iwasawa; Yoshiko Nakamura; Masami Tagawa; Osamu Yokosuka; Hiromitsu Saisho; Toyoyuki Maeda; Yoji Katsuoka

2000-01-01

37

40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...sodium chloride production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar evaporation...

2010-07-01

38

Ion transport in proximal colon of the rat. Sodium depletion stimulates neutral sodium chloride absorption.  

PubMed Central

The model of sodium and chloride transport proposed for the colon is based on studies performed in the distal segment and tacitly assumes that ion transport is similar throughout the colon. In rat distal colon, neutral sodium-chloride absorption accounts for the major fraction of overall sodium absorption and aldosterone stimulates electrogenic, amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Since we have demonstrated qualitative differences in potassium transport in proximal and distal segments of rat colon, unidirectional 22Na and 36Cl fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated proximal colon of control and sodium-depleted rats with secondary hyperaldosteronism. In the control group, net sodium absorption (JNanet) (7.4 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2) was greater than Isc (1.4 +/- 0.1 mu eq/h . cm2), and JClnet was 0 in Ringer solution. Residual flux (JR) was -5.2 +/- 0.5 mu eq/h . cm2 consistent with hydrogen ion secretion suggesting that neutral sodium absorption may represent sodium-hydrogen exchange. 1 mM mucosal amiloride, which inhibits sodium-hydrogen exchange in other epithelia, produced comparable decreases in JNanet and JR (4.1 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively) without a parallel fall in Isc. Sodium depletion stimulated JNanet, JClnet, and Isc by 7.0 +/- 1.4, 6.3 +/- 1.9, and 0.8 +/- 0.2 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, and 1 mM amiloride markedly inhibited JNanet and JClnet by 6.0 +/- 1.1 and 4.0 +/- 1.6 mu eq/h . cm2, respectively, with only a minimal reduction in Isc. Conclusions: the predominant neutral sodium-absorptive mechanism in proximal colon is sodium-hydrogen exchange. Sodium depletion stimulates electroneutral chloride-dependent sodium absorption (most likely as a result of increasing sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchanges), not electrogenic chloride-independent sodium transport. The model of ion transport in the proximal colon is distinct from that of the distal colon. PMID:2418060

Foster, E S; Budinger, M E; Hayslett, J P; Binder, H J

1986-01-01

39

Activity coefficients of aqueous sodium chloride from 15?? to 50??C measured with a glass electrode  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Values of the mean activity coefficient of sodium chloride at 15??, 25??, 38?? and 50??C were determined for aqueous NaCl solutions of 0.01 to 1.0 molal from electromotive force measurements on the cell: (sodium-sensitive glass electrode, aqueous sodium chloride, silver chloride-silver).

Truesdell, A.H.

1968-01-01

40

Effect of Total and Partial Substitution of Sodium Chloride on the Quality of Cheddar Cheese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheddar cheese was manufactured to give 1.6% residual sodium chloride or equivalent amounts (ionic strength basis) of magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, or 1:1 mixtures of sodium chloride and the chloride salt of magnesium, calcium, or potassium from two split batches of curd. Sensory evalua- tion after 4 mo ripening at 4C showed that cheese salted solely with magnesium

E. Fitzgerald; J. Buckley

1985-01-01

41

Assimilation and respiration of radioactive ethylene glycol, in the presence of high sodium chloride concentrations, by a sodium chloride requiring bacterium  

E-print Network

ASSIMILATION AND RESPIRATION OF RADIOACTIVE ETHYLENE GLYCOL, IN THE PRESENCE OF HIGH SODIUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATIONS& BY A SODIUM CHLORIDE REQUIRING BACTERIUM A Thesis by CARLOS FRANCISCO GONZALEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1972 Major Subject: Microbiology ASSIMILATION AND RESPIRATION OF RADIOACTIVE ETHYLENE GLYCOL, IN THE PRESENCE OF HIGH SODIUM CHLORIDE CONCENTRATIONS, BY A...

Gonzalez, Carlos Francisco

2012-06-07

42

The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the tablet strength is reflected as a function of the sodium chloride volume fraction in the tablet. Starch particles in the mixture tablets decrease the sodium chloride volume fraction-tensile strength relationship compared with that of pure sodium chloride tablets. To determine the contribution of the sodium chloride matrix to the tablet strength, the starch particles were removed from the mixture tablets by heat treatment. Determination of the strengths of these heat-treated tablets reveals that the sodium chloride matrix strength determines the tablet strength of mixture tablets containing a single matrix of sodium chloride particles. The decrease of the sodium chloride matrix density in the three different tablets (pure sodium chloride tablets, mixture tablets and heat-treated tablets) is reflected by an increase of the median pore size. The matrix in sodium chloride tablets shows a higher tensile strength to median pore size relation than the matrices in the mixture and heat-treated tablets. Based on calculations according to the theory of elastic-brittle fracture, it is suggested that the initial presence of starch particles during tablet compaction causes the pores in the matrices of the mixtures and heat-treated tablets to be relatively more flat and longer. These pores weaken the sodium chloride matrix in the mixture and heat-treated tablets to a larger extent than the shorter, more spherical pores formed during compaction of pure sodium chloride. PMID:12208452

van Veen, B; van der Voort Maarschalk, K; Bolhuis, G K; Gons, M; Zuurman, K; Frijlink, H W

2002-09-01

43

Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

44

The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

1979-01-01

45

PII S0016-7037(00)00487-7 The dissolution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride solutions  

E-print Network

PII S0016-7037(00)00487-7 The dissolution kinetics of amorphous silica into sodium chloride by applying three types of reactor systems to assess kinetic behavior over the full temperature range with the introduction of NaCl to near-neutral pH solutions such that 0.05 molal sodium ion enhances rates by 21 compared

Dove, Patricia M.

46

The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sodium chloride is one of the primary contaminants that enter gas turbine engines and contribute, either directly or indirectly, to the hot corrosion degradation of hot-gas-path components. The paper surveys the results of laboratory experiments along with thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, intended for elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments. It is shown that besides being a source of sodium for the formation of corrosive liquid Na2SO4, the NaCl itself contributes in other indirect ways to the material degradation associated with the high-temperature environmental attack. In addition, the experimental results lend credence to the conceptual scheme presented schematically (behavior of NaCl in a turbine engine combustion gas environment) and resolve conflicting aspects of relevant NaCl misconceptions.

Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

1979-01-01

47

Extended Stability of Intravenous 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution After Prolonged Heating or Cooling  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of an intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution that had been cooled or heated for an extended period of time. Methods: Fifteen sterile 1 L bags of 0.9% sodium chloride solution were randomly selected for this experiment. Five bags were refrigerated at an average temperature of 5.2C, 5 bags were heated at an average temperature of 39.2C, and 5 bags were stored at an average room temperature of 21.8C to serve as controls. All samples were protected from light and stored for a period of 199 days prior to being assayed and analyzed for microbial and fungal growth. Results: There was no clinically significant difference in the mean sodium values between the refrigerated samples, the heated samples, and the control group. There were no signs of microbial or fungal growth for the duration of the study. Conclusion: A sterile intravenous solution of 0.9% sodium chloride that was heated or cooled remained stable and showed no signs of microbial or fungal growth for a period of 199 days. This finding will allow hospitals and emergency medical technicians to significantly extend the expiration date assigned to these fluids and therefore obviate the need to change out these fluids every 28 days as recommended by the manufacturer. PMID:24715747

Puertos, Enrique

2014-01-01

48

Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7:

Hui Xu; Dorothy P. L. Laflamme; Grace L. Long

2009-01-01

49

Stability and compatibility of anakinra with intravenous cimetidine hydrochloride or famotidine in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.  

PubMed

We designed a study to evaluate the stability and compatibility of anakinra (recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist) with cimetidine hydrochloride or famotidine in 0.9% sodium chloride injection during a 4-h period at room temperature (22 degrees C) and light. Anakinra was diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride to concentrations of 4 and 36 mg/ml. At each concentration, anakinra was mixed with 3 mg/ml cimetidine or with 1 mg/ml famotidine, in a 50:50 proportion and stored in plastic culture vials with polypropylene caps. The mean concentrations of anakinra, cimetidine hydrochloride, and famotidine exceeded 95% of initial concentrations throughout the study. No changes were noted in the physical appearance, pH, or the chromatograms during the study period. Thus, anakinra appears to be stable and compatible with cimetidine hydrochloride or famotidine when diluted into 0.9% sodium chloride injection for 4 h at ambient room temperature and light. PMID:7650081

Nahata, M C; Morosco, R S; Sabados, B K; Weber, T R

1995-04-01

50

A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

1991-01-01

51

The role of sodium chloride on surface properties of chalcopyrite leached with ferric sulphate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaching of chalcopyrite in oxidizing conditions usually results in low copper extraction due to mineral passivation. It has been proposed that sodium chloride has a positive effect on chalcopyrite dissolution increasing copper extraction. Aiming to bring further insight into this topic, the present work seeks to evaluate the influence of sodium chloride on the leaching of chalcopyrite focusing on surface

M. F. C. Carneiro; V. A. Leo

2007-01-01

52

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of  

E-print Network

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on the heat resistance and recovery of Salmonella inhibitory effect in the recovery media. Keywords : Salmonella typhimurium, Sodium chloride, Heat treatment, but they also generate damaged cells. The ability of heated cells to survive depends on the recovery conditions

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Sodium-dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl?) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl? efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl? substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 79 weeks were used and intracellular Cl? was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl?-free buffer (Cl? substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl?-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl? efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl? efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl? efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl? efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl? efflux via Cl?/HCO3? exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

Stakiaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juka, Alfonsas; Matusevi?ius, Paulius; Didiapetrien?, Janina

2014-01-01

54

Presence of a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system in the rectal gland of Squalus acanthias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to investigate whether the loop diuretic sensitive, sodium-chloride cotransport system described previously in shark rectal gland is in fact a sodium-potassium chloride cotransport system, plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rectal glands ofSqualus acanthias and sodium and rubidium uptake were measured by a rapid filtration technique. In addition, the binding of N-methylfurosemide to the membranes was investigated.

J. Hannafin; E. Kinne-Saffran; D. Friedman; R. Kinne

1983-01-01

55

Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

1984-01-01

56

High Power Planar Sodium-Nickel Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

Widespread penetration of renewable energy and increasing demands on reliability/security of the electrical grid require extensive advances in energy storage technologies. One most promising technology is the sodium-beta batteries (NBBs) based on a sodium-ion conducting ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) and operated at elevated temperatures (300-350oC). Current NBBs, constructed on a 1-3 mm thick tubular electrolyte, have high capital cost, performance/safety issues and relatively high operating temperature that limit market penetration of the technology. In this work we report a new generation NBB that utilizes a planar design, incorporating a thinner BASE that reduces the area of specific resistance and may be operated at reduced temperatures. The lower operating temperatures allows for use of more cost-effective cell materials and decreases adverse temperature effects that impact cycle life and overall cost. We here present recent progress generated from planar NBB button cells, including initial cell performance, cathode design and chemistry.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Coffey, Greg W.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo; Lemmon, John P.

2010-07-01

57

Water redispersible dried nanofibrillated cellulose by adding sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The present study reports for the first time a method to obtain water redispersible dried NFC using freeze-drying. No chemical surface modification was required to get this kind of product. Salt addition (sodium chloride: NaCl) strategy has been selected to block and then to regenerate hydrogen bonds during the drying and the redispersion steps, respectively. Several samples were produced at different pH (i.e., 4, 6, 8, and 10). All the redispersed NFC were characterized by different techniques (e.g., FE-SEM, XRD, EPMA-EDX) to check the effect of salt on NFC aggregation. The interactions between NFC and NaCl at different pH conditions have been discussed and the rheology of the redispersed NFC suspension has been performed. All the results prove a perfect water redispersion at pH 8 and exactly similar suspension is obtained after water dispersion of dried NFC following our procedure. These results are very promising for increasing application of NFC. PMID:23140404

Missoum, Karim; Bras, Julien; Belgacem, Mohamed Naceur

2012-12-10

58

Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride  

SciTech Connect

Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

2003-01-01

59

Stability of Diclofenac Sodium Oral Suspensions Packaged in Amber Polyvinyl Chloride Bottles  

PubMed Central

Background: Prescribing of diclofenac for children usually involves a dose different from commercially available strengths. This drug is available only as tablets, which can be divided only so many times before the dose obtained becomes inaccurate. In addition, children may have difficulty swallowing tablets. For these reasons, a compounding formula for a liquid dosage form is essential to ensure effective delivery of the drug to pediatric patients. Objectives: To develop a compounding formula for diclofenac sodium and to determine the extended physical and chemical stability of this compound when stored in amber polyvinyl chloride (PVC) prescription bottles under refrigeration and at room temperature. Methods: A suspension of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) was prepared from commercially available diclofenac sodium tablets, with Ora-Blend as the suspending and flavouring agent. The suspension was packaged in 60-mL amber PVC prescription bottles and stored at either room temperature (23C) or under refrigeration (5C). Samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 56, and 93. Chemical stability was determined using a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. At each sampling time, the suspensions were checked for changes in appearance (i.e., colour, layering, caking, ease of resuspension), odour, and pH. Results: The diclofenac sodium suspensions were very stable, retaining at least 99.5% of the original concentration for up to 93 days, regardless of storage temperature. There were no apparent changes in the physical appearance of the suspensions, nor were there any substantial changes in odour or pH. Conclusions: Suspensions of diclofenac sodium (10 mg/mL) were quantitatively stable but difficult to prepare because of the enteric coating of the tablets. Therefore, it is recommended that diclofenac powder be used for the preparation of suspensions. For pediatric use, palatability is a consideration, and a masking agent should be added before administration. An expiry date of up to 93 days is suggested. PMID:22478950

Donnelly, Ronald F; Pascuet, Elena; Ma, Carmen; Vaillancourt, Rgis

2010-01-01

60

Stability of sodium electrodeposited from a room temperature chloroaluminate molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Room temperature molten salts consisting of 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) and aluminium chloride (AlCl{sub 3}) have been examined as possible electrolytes for a room temperature design of the sodium/iron(II) chloride battery. This work examines the conditions required to achieve efficient reduction and oxidation of sodium from a sodium chloride buffered, neutral melt. Two substrates were examined, tungsten and 303 stainless steel, using both cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Melts were protonated using a closed electrochemical cell to allow quantification of the effect of dissolved HCl on the efficiency of the sodium couple. A threshold of approximately 6 Torr HCl partial pressure was observed for sodium plating-stripping. Below this threshold, the sodium couple was not observed. The results, show that the sodium plating-stripping efficiency increases with increasing current density; however, the efficiency reaches a maximum and is adversely affected by high over potentials and extended exposure of the sodium to the melt. It appears that some passivation occurs as even a very thin layer of plated sodium exhibits a steady open-circuit voltage over long periods in the melt.

Gray, G.E.; Kohl, P.A.; Winnick, J. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1995-11-01

61

Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products. PMID:24099538

Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

2014-02-01

62

The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.  

PubMed

The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium. PMID:16531035

Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

2006-01-01

63

Stability of Low-Concentration Ceftazidime in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection and Balanced Salt Solutions in Plastic Syringes Under Various Storage Conditions.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the stability of ceftazidime in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and balanced salt solutions. Ceftazidime was dissolved in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or balanced salt solution at a concentration of 1 mg/mL. Samples of these solutions were then stored under three different sets of conditions, ambient temperature (25 deg C), refrigeration (4 deg C), or frozen (-20 deg C). The concentration of ceftazidime in each solution was determined at various intervals using the high-performnace liquid chromatographic method outlined in the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary. Our results show that ceftazidime was stable (>90% concentration) for up to 72 hours in both 0.9% sodium chloride injection and balanced salt solutions at ambient temperature. Ceftazidime was stable in both solutions in the refrigerator for 17 days. No siginificant degradation was noticed for up to 60 days when the solutions were kept in the freezer. PMID:23970010

Xu, Meng; Warren, Flynn W; Bartlett, Michael G

2009-01-01

64

Reactive uptake of nitric acid onto sodium chloride aerosols across a wide range of relative humidities.  

PubMed

Reactive uptake coefficients for nitric acid onto size-selected (d(ve) = 102 and 233 nm) sodium chloride aerosols are determined for relative humidities (RH) between 85% and 10%. Both pure sodium chloride and sodium chloride mixed with magnesium chloride (X(Mg/Na) = 0.114, typical of sea salt) are studied. The aerosol is equilibrated with a carrier gas stream at the desired RH and then mixed with nitric acid vapor at a concentration of 60 ppb in a laminar flow tube reactor. At the end of the reactor, the particle composition is determined in real time with a laser ablation single particle mass spectrometer. For relative humidities above the efflorescence relative humidity (ERH), the particles exist as liquid droplets and the uptake coefficient ranges from 0.05 at 85% RH to >0.1 near the ERH. The droplet sizes, relative humidity and composition dependencies, are readily predicted by thermodynamics. For relative humidities below the ERH, the particles are nominally "solid" and uptake depends on the amount of surface adsorbed water (SAW). The addition of magnesium chloride to the particle phase (0.114 mole ratio of magnesium to sodium) facilitates uptake by increasing the amount of SAW. In the presence of magnesium chloride, the uptake coefficient remains high (>0.1) down to 10% RH, suggesting that the displacement of chloride by nitrate in fine sea salt particles is efficient over the entire range of conditions in the ambient marine environment. In the marine boundary layer, displacement of chloride by nitrate in fine sea salt particles should be nearly complete within a few hours (faster in polluted areas)-a time scale much shorter than the particle residence time in the atmosphere. PMID:16774205

Saul, Thomas D; Tolocka, Michael P; Johnston, Murray V

2006-06-22

65

Electrostatic N-95 respirator filter media efficiency degradation resulting from intermittent sodium chloride aerosol exposure.  

PubMed

The effects of intermittently loading small masses of sodium chloride aerosol on the filtration efficiency of N-95 filtering facepiece respirators was investigated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) certifies that N-95 respirators must provide at least 95 percent filtration efficiency against a sodium chloride aerosol challenge as per the respirator certification (42 CFR 84) test criteria. N-95 respirators are specified for protection against solid and water-based particulates (i.e., non-oil aerosols). New N-95 respirators from three different manufacturers were loaded with 5 +/- 1 mg of sodium chloride aerosol one day a week, over a period of weeks. Aerosol loading and penetration measurements were performed using the TSI 8130 Filter Tester. Respirators were stored uncovered on an office desktop outside the laboratory. To investigate environmental and temporal effects of filters being stored without sodium chloride exposure, control respirators were stored on the desk for various lengths of time before being initiated into weekly testing. For all manufacturers' respirators, the controls showed similar initial penetrations on their day of initiation (day zero) to those of the study samples on day zero. As the controls were tested weekly, they showed similar degradation rates to those of the study samples. Results show that some of the manufacturers' models had penetrations of greater than 5 percent when intermittently exposed to sodium chloride aerosol. It is concluded that intermittent, low-level sodium chloride aerosol loading of N-95 respirators has a degrading effect on filter efficiency. This reduction in filter efficiency was not accompanied by a significant increase in breathing resistance that would signal the user that the filter needs to be replaced. Furthermore, it was noted that the effect of room storage time prior to initial exposure was much less significant. PMID:10957815

Moyer, E S; Bergman, M S

2000-08-01

66

A Novel Low-Cost Sodium-Zinc Chloride Battery  

SciTech Connect

The sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) battery has been considered as one of the most attractive energy storage systems for stationary and transportation applications. Even though Na-NiCl2 battery has been widely investigated, there is still a need to develop a more economical system to make this technology more attractive for commercialization. In the present work, a novel low-cost Na-ZnCl2 battery with a thin planar ??-Al2O3 solid electrolyte (BASE) was proposed, and its electrochemical reactions and battery performance were investigated. Compared to the Na-NiCl2 chemistry, the ZnCl2-based chemistry was more complicated, in which multiple electrochemical reactions including liquid-phase formation occurred at temperatures above 253C. During the first stage of charge, NaCl reacted with Zn to form Na in the anode and Na2ZnCl4 in the cathode. Once all the residual NaCl was consumed, further charging led to the formation of a NaCl-ZnCl2 liquid phase. At the end of charge, the liquid phase reacted with Zn to produce solid ZnCl2. To identify the effects of liquid-phase formation on electrochemical performance, button cells were assembled and tested at 280C and 240C. At 280C where the liquid phase formed during cycling, cells revealed quite stable cyclability. On the other hand, more rapid increase in polarization was observed at 240C where only solid-state electrochemical reactions occurred. SEM analysis indicated that the stable performance at 280C was due to the suppressed growth of Zn and NaCl particles, which were generated from the liquid phase during discharge of each cycle.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

2013-02-28

67

THE SALTING OUT OF GELATIN INTO TWO LIQUID LAYERS WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE AND OTHER SALTS.  

PubMed

1. Conditions under which gelatin may be salted out into two liquid layers at 35 degrees were studied. 2. The equilibria governing the amounts and composition of the layers salted out with sodium chloride are found to accord with the requirements of the phase rule for the quaternary system gelatin-sodium chloride-hydrogen ion-water. 3. So far, soaps and gelatin are found to be surprisingly similar in their behaviour and definite indications are given as to where further similarities may be sought. 4. It is evident from this work that the term "coagulation" as ordinarily applied to the salting out of proteins is definitely a misnomer. PMID:19872438

McBain, J W; Kellogg, F

1928-09-20

68

Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries  

SciTech Connect

This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

Trickett, D.

1998-12-15

69

THE SALTING OUT OF GELATIN INTO TWO LIQUID LAYERS WITH SODIUM CHLORIDE AND OTHER SALTS  

PubMed Central

1. Conditions under which gelatin may be salted out into two liquid layers at 35 were studied. 2. The equilibria governing the amounts and composition of the layers salted out with sodium chloride are found to accord with the requirements of the phase rule for the quaternary system gelatin-sodium chloride-hydrogen ion-water. 3. So far, soaps and gelatin are found to be surprisingly similar in their behaviour and definite indications are given as to where further similarities may be sought. 4. It is evident from this work that the term "coagulation" as ordinarily applied to the salting out of proteins is definitely a misnomer. PMID:19872438

McBain, James W.; Kellogg, Frederick

1928-01-01

70

Response of the Higher Basidiomycetic Ganoderma resinaceum to Sodium Chloride Stress  

PubMed Central

Ganoderma resinaceum tolerated sodium chloride salt stress within a range of 0 mM till 300 mM. It responded to salt stress with fluctuation in proline formation at different NaCl concentrations. However,the mycelial dry weight,total protein contents and exopolysaccharides did not changed considerably. Increasing sodium chloride concentration led to morphological alteration in fungal mycelia with disappearance of fungal cell wall,plasmolysis,and vacuolation as indicated with electron microscopic examination of the fungal growth. PMID:24015082

Mohamed, Eman H. F. A.; Abd Elzaher, E. H. F.

2007-01-01

71

Evaporation of water from sodium chloride solutions under controlled climatic conditions  

E-print Network

EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SODIUM CELORIDE SOLUTIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CLIMATIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by Jaroy Moore Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE January 1967 Haj or Subject: Soil Physics EVAPORATION OF WATER FROM SODIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS UNDER CONTROLLED CLIMATIC CONDITIONS A Thesis by Jaroy Moore Approved as to style and content by: (Ch+jman of Committee) (Member) (, j. (Head...

Moore, Jaroy

2012-06-07

72

The anion specificity of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter in rabbit kidney outer medulla: studies on medullary plasma membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from rabbit kidney outer medulla and employed in sodium, rubidium, and chloride flux studies. Chloride dependence and bumetanide sensitivity of (part of) the sodium and rubidium flux indicate that this plasma membrane fraction can be used to study the properties of Na-K-2Cl cotransport system present in the luminal membrane of the medullary thick ascending limb.

R. Kinne; E. Kinne-Saffran; B. Schlermann; H. Schiitz

1986-01-01

73

CORNER ION, EDGE-CENTER ION, AND FACE-CENTER ION MADELUNG EXPRESSIONS FOR SODIUM CHLORIDE  

E-print Network

CORNER ION, EDGE-CENTER ION, AND FACE-CENTER ION MADELUNG EXPRESSIONS FOR SODIUM CHLORIDE A. DAVID present expressions for calculating the corner ion, edge-center ion, and face-center ion Madelung the charge on an ion in an infinite cubic lattice. In [2], Tyagi gives a representation of the Madelung

Hanusa, Christopher

74

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion of Silver  

E-print Network

Effects of Sodium Chloride Particles, Ozone, UV, and Relative Humidity on Atmospheric Corrosion The corrosion of Ag contaminated with NaCl particles in gaseous environments containing humidity and ozone analyzed using a coulometric reduction technique. The atmospheric corrosion of Ag was greatly accelerated

75

Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level

Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

2007-01-01

76

Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride on fungal-infected rainbow trout eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the USA, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture. However, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and their use is

Theresa M. Schreier; Jeff J. Rach; George E. Howe

1996-01-01

77

Investigation of H-center diffusion in sodium chloride by molecular dynamics simulation  

E-print Network

Investigation of H-center diffusion in sodium chloride by molecular dynamics simulation by KarunCl crystal on a 200ps timescale using a molecular dynamics simulation. The clustering is measured and mostly of experimental work the project was switched to the theoretical simulations. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations

Vellekoop, Michel

78

Symmetrical, unsymmetrical and bridged calix[4]arene derivatives as neutral carrier ionophores in poly (vinyl chloride) membrane sodium selective electrodes.  

PubMed

The complexing ability of a range of 19 symmetrical, unsymmetrical and bridged calix[4]arene derivatives having ester, ketone, amide, amine and thioether functionalities were determined by the picrate extraction method. On incorporating these calix[4]arene derivatives as neutral carrier ionophores in sodium-selective poly (vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes the performance was assessed on the basis of the sensitivity and selectivity over the alkali, alkaline earth metals and hydrogen and ammonium ions. The temperature dependence, response times and lifetimes were also determined. Four ionophores in particular gave excellent sensitivity and selectivity and lifetimes of > 200 days. These electrodes were then tested without additional lipophilic additives and one ionophore was incorporated into poly (vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes with plasticizing solvents of varying polarity. PMID:18966058

O'Connor, K M; Cherry, M; Svehla, G; Harris, S J; McKervey, M A

1994-07-01

79

Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.  

PubMed

Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. PMID:25149022

Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nbrega, Jandu E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

2014-10-15

80

Low temperature sodium-beta battery  

DOEpatents

A battery that will operate at ambient temperature or lower includes an enclosure, a current collector within the enclosure, an anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, a cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower within the enclosure, and a separator and electrolyte within the enclosure between the anode and the cathode. The anode is a sodium eutectic anode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower. The cathode is a low melting ion liquid cathode that will operate at ambient temperature or lower and is made of a material that is in a liquid state at ambient temperature or lower.

Farmer, Joseph C

2013-11-19

81

Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm. PMID:24956779

Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

2014-08-01

82

Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

1973-01-01

83

Zucchini growth, yield, and fruit quality in response to sodium chloride stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L. cv. Moschata) plants were grown in a pot experiment under greenhouse conditions at Almera (Southeastern Spain) in 1994 and 1995. Sodium chloride (NaCl) added to the irrigation water at 0 (control), 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0 g L and complemented with a fertilizer solution. Yield was determined on number and weight (kg) of fruit per plant. The

Gemma Vllora; Diego A. Moreno; Gregoria Pulgar; Luis M. Romero

1999-01-01

84

Effect of sodium chloride and pH on the rennet coagulation and gel firmness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium chloride concentration and pH of milk at renneting on the rennet clotting time (RCT) and gel firmness was studied. The results showed that rennet clotting activity and gel firmness decreased with increasing NaCl concentration in milk. The RCT increased as the pH of the salted milk decreased below 6.4. Milk containing 5 and 10g NaCl\\/100g did

Sameh Awad

2007-01-01

85

Microgravity experiments on colloidal crystallization of silica spheres in the presence of sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate coefficients (k) in the colloidal crystallization of monodispersed silica spheres in the presence of sodium chloride are studied in microgravity\\u000a achieved by parabolic flights of an aircraft. Time-resolved reflection spectroscopy is made with a continuous circulating-type\\u000a stopped-flow cell system. The k values decrease as the salt concentration increases both at 0 and 1?G and those in microgravity are smaller

A. Tsuchida; K. Taguchi; E. Takyo; H. Yoshimi; S. Kiriyama; T. Okubo; M. Ishikawa

2000-01-01

86

Palladium-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Triflates with Sodium Cyanate: A Practical Synthesis of Unsymmetrical Ureas  

E-print Network

An efficient method for palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and triflates with sodium cyanate is reported. The protocol allows for the synthesis of unsymmetrical N,N?-di- and N,N,N?-trisubstituted ureas ...

Fors, Brett P.

87

Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.  

PubMed

A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para-casein protein matrix changed with the Ca content of the test solution. Compared with test solutions containing 10g/L Ca, at low Ca levels (i.e., 1 and 5g/L) the proportion of bound Ca was lower, whereas at 20g/L Ca, the proportion of bound Ca was higher. Both Ca and salt concentration influence the physicochemical properties of the protein matrix such that at low concentrations the curd expands, whereas at high concentrations the curd contracts and expels whey. PMID:25465634

Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

2015-01-01

88

Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.  

PubMed

The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

2012-12-01

89

Inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of mild steel by sodium gluconate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of gluconate (G) anion on the inhibition of chloride pitting corrosion of Delta vanadium steel has been studied using potentiodynamic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The effect of concentration of G ions, pH, potential scanning rate and composition of mild steel are discussed. The data show that complete protection of mild steel from pitting corrosion is achieved with a very low concentration of G ions in weak alkaline media. Pitting corrosion increases with increasing sodium gluconate (SG) concentrations due to a formation of soluble Fe-G complex. The critical pitting potential depends on the chloride and G ion concentrations, pH, scan rate and the composition of the steel. An increase of Mn% in the composition of the steel leads to the increase of the pitting corrosion potential towards the positive direction, i.e., increases the resistance to pitting corrosion. The presence of vanadium in the steel also increases its resistance to pitting corrosion.

Refaey, S. A. M.

2000-04-01

90

An empirical equation with tables of smoothed solubilities of methane in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions up to 25 weight percent, 360 degrees C, and 138 MPa  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The total pressure for the system H2O-CH 4 is given by p(total) = P(H2O,t) + exp10[log x(CH 4) - a - b x(CH4)], where P(H2O,t) is the vapor pressure of H2O liquid at the temperature t (?C) and x(CH 4) is the molal concentration of methane in the solution. The terms a and b are functions of temperature only. Where the total pressure and temperature are known, the concentration of methane, x(CH4), is found by iteration. The concentration of methane in a sodium chloride brine, y(CH4), is estimated using the function log y(CH4) = log x(CH4) - A I, where A is the salting out constant and I is the ionic strength. For sodium chloride solutions, the ionic strength is equal to the molality of the salt. The equations are valid to 360?C, 138 MPa, and 25 weight percent sodium chloride.

Haas, John L.

1978-01-01

91

[Chemical composition of one source of sodium chloride mineral water from Neam? county].  

PubMed

This paper describes the analytical study of a sodium chloride mineral water from B?l??te?ti Spa--Neam? county. From the obtained analytical data it was observed that the dominant ions are those of Cl- (48.11 mEq%) and Na+ (43.07 mEq%), respectively. Also, the water contains a significant proportion of Mg2+ ions (6.12 mEq%) compared with the one of Ca2+ ions (0.339 mEq%). It can be remarked that the analysed source consists of a very concentrated, hypertonic water with a high content in chlorine, sodium and magnesium. This kind of mineral water is recommended in external treatments. PMID:16607770

Stefanache, Alina; Stam, C?t?lina; N?stase, V; Miftode, Maria

2005-01-01

92

Microbiological and chemical quality of ground beef treated with sodium lactate and sodium chloride during refrigerated storage  

PubMed Central

The effects of sodium lactate (NaL) and sodium chloride (NaCl), either alone (30 g/kg) or in combination (20+20 g/kg), on the microbiological and chemical quality of raw ground beef during vacuum-packaged storage at 2C were investigated. The results showed that addition of NaL alone or in combination with NaCl significantly delayed the proliferation of aerobic plate counts, psychrotrophic counts, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and extended the shelf life of the product up to 15 and 21 days, respectively, versus 8 days only for control. Over the storage time (21 days), NaL maintained the ground beef at almost constant pH, while the pH of control or NaCl-treated samples significantly decreased. Lipid oxidation (TBA value) was not affected by addition of NaL. At storage day 21 however, TBA values of both NaL-treated (0.309) and control (0.318) samples were significantly lower than those of samples treated with NaCl (0.463). The combination of NaCl with NaL significantly reduced the oxidative changes caused by NaCl (0.384 versus 0.463). Therefore, NaL alone or in combination with NaCl could be utilized successfully to reduce the microbial growth, maintain the chemical quality, and extend the shelf life of ground beef during refrigerated storage. PMID:17330155

Sallam, Kh. I.; Samejima, K.

2007-01-01

93

Analgesic effect of intrathecal bumetanide is accompanied by changes in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 have a role in the modulation of pain transmission at the spinal level through chloride regulation in the pain pathway and by effecting neuronal excitability and pain sensitization. The present study aimed to investigate the analgesic effect of the specific sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 inhibitor bumetanide, and the change in spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 and potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in a rat model of incisional pain. Results showed that intrathecal bumetanide could decrease cumulative pain scores, and could increase thermal and mechanical pain thresholds in a rat model of incisional pain. Sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression increased in neurons from dorsal root ganglion and the deep laminae of the ipsilateral dorsal horn following incision. By contrast, potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression decreased in neurons of the deep laminae from the ipsilateral dorsal horn. These findings suggest that spinal sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1 expression was up-regulated and spinal potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression was down-regulated following incision. Intrathecal bumetanide has analgesic effects on incisional pain through inhibition of sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter 1. PMID:25206759

He, Yanbing; Xu, Shiyuan; Huang, Junjie; Gong, Qingjuan

2014-01-01

94

Thermodynamics of aqueous magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and strontium chloride at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat capacities and densities of aqueous MgCl, CaCl, and SrCl from the accompanying paper are combined with literature data up to 473 K to yield temperature-dependent equations by using the ion-interaction model of Pitzer. These heat capacity equations have been integrated to yield the enthalpy and the Gibbs energy. The enthalpy parameters for 298 K are evaluated in separate calculations

Ramesh C. Phutela; Kenneth S. Pitzer; Preet P. S. Saluja

1987-01-01

95

Thermal Inactivation of Aeromonas hydrophila As Affected by Sodium Chloride and Ascorbic Acid  

PubMed Central

The combined effects of sodium chloride (0, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0%) and ascorbic acid (0, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/liter) with mild heat (46C) on the survival of Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. Because of the nonlinear nature of the survivor curves obtained, several equations yielding an R2 (coefficient of multiple determination) of ? 1 were tested. The equation that most closely fit the curvature of the observed data set was a hyperbolic function. Equation coefficients were combined to obtain a so-called death value. This value (46.67% explained variance) was calculated by extracting the larger eigenvalue and the relative eigenvector from the correlation matrix of the coefficients. the effects of the experimental factors on the death value were described by a quadratic response surface model. Results revealed that the death value was not influenced by the presence of ascorbic acid. However, increased mortality resulted from the interaction between sodium chloride and ascorbic acid. PMID:16349116

Stecchini, Mara Lucia; Sarais, Ileana; Giomo, Andrea

1993-01-01

96

Interfacial tensions and phase behavior of alcohol-hydrocarbon-water-sodium chloride systems  

SciTech Connect

The phase behavior and interfacial tensions of mixtures of alcohol, alkane, water, and sodium chloride that split into two or three liquid phases at 25/sup 0/C are reported as a function of type of alcohol and alkane and sodium chloride concentration. The patterns of phase and tension behavior are similar to those observed with surfactant-based microemulsion systems but in a higher tension regime. The qualitative patterns of phase and tension behavior in the alcohol systems appear to be characteristic of all amphiphile-oil-brine systems, although the magnitudes of the interfacial tensions of microemulsion against oil-rich or water-rich phases can be some hundredfold smaller than the corresponding tensions of the alcohol-rich phase against oil-rich or water-rich phases. This difference appears to be a distinguishing feature of microemulsions and presumably arises from the relatively large scale of microemulsion microstructure. Microemulsions in multiphase equilibria incorporate tenfold or more water or oil than do corresponding alcohol solutions, and this argues for the topology and persistence of that microstructure.

Puig, J.E.; Hemker, D.L.; Gupta, A.; Davis, H.T.; Scriven, L.E.

1987-02-26

97

Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor. PMID:25314953

Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-11-11

98

Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

1985-01-01

99

Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10/sup -13/ to 5.4 x 10/sup -11/ g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the (particle mass)/sup 0.86/. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09 showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol. 22 references, 5 figures.

Sinha, M.P.; Friedlander, S.K.

1985-08-01

100

Effect of temperature and benzalkonium chloride on nitrate reduction.  

PubMed

The effect of temperature and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on nitrate reduction was investigated in batch assays using a mixed nitrate reducing culture. Nitrate was transformed completely, mainly through denitrification, to dinitrogen at 5, 10, 15 and 22 C. In the absence of BAC, reduction of individual nitrogen oxides had different susceptibility to temperature and transient nitrite accumulation was observed at low temperatures. When the effect of BAC was tested up to 100 mg/L from 5 to 22 C, denitrification was inhibited at and above 50mg BAC/L with transient nitrite accumulation at all temperatures. The effect of BAC was described by a competitive inhibition model. Nitrite reduction was the denitrification step most susceptible to BAC, especially at low temperatures. BAC was not degraded during the batch incubation and was mostly biomass-adsorbed. Overall, this study shows that low temperatures exacerbate the BAC inhibitory effect, which in turn is controlled by adsorption to biomass. PMID:21334883

Hajaya, Malek G; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

2011-04-01

101

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium chloride to 823 K and 1 kilobar (100 MPa)  

PubMed Central

It is shown that a very simple semiempirical equation represents quite accurately the thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride from 373 to 823 K. The equation comprises one Margules term and a DebyeHckel term. Just the one Margules parameter is freely adjustable because the DebyeHckel parameter is determined by the properties of water. The equation is valid from the saturation composition down to infinite dilution for solvent density above 0.75 gcm-3 but at lower density only above a solute mole fraction of about 0.1 on an ionized basis. Both solute and solvent activity coefficients are fitted from the lowest pressure of solution existence up to 1 kilobar (1 bar = 100 kPA). Derivation of enthalpy and other related functions is discussed. PMID:16593400

Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Li, Yi-gui

1983-01-01

102

Container-grown tree seedling responses to sodium chloride applications in different substrates.  

PubMed

Seedlings of Norway maple (Acer platanoides), silver birch (Betula pendula), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) were grown in selected sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations, soil types and under different watering regimes. Plants were raised from seeds, except for Scots pine plants which were obtained from a commercial source. Among the plant species tested, Scots pine was the most tolerant to soil salinity, while Norway spruce was the most susceptible. For both Norway maple and Norway spruce some half-sib families were more tolerant than others. No significant correlation was found between the tolerance of different half-sib families and the tolerance of mother trees observed in the field. The extent of leaf necrosis correlated significantly with the leaf concentrations of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl). Among half-sib families within the species no such correlation was found. On the other hand, the least injured progeny of Norway maples had the highest concentrations of NaCl. The extent of salt-induced leaf necrosis varied with soil type, and a significant interaction between species and soil type was observed. Seedlings of Norway spruce grown in sand showed more severe necrosis and significantly higher concentrations of Na and Cl than seedlings grown in loam, silt loam, and peat. The severity of salt-induced leaf injury varied with the watering regime. Silver birch was the most affected species by drought and autumn watering treatments. Plants of silver birch subjected to drought showed increased leaf necrosis compared to the non-treated plants, and autumn watering treatment reduced the severity of leaf necrosis. PMID:15092891

Fostad, O; Pedersen, P A

2000-08-01

103

Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (-) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

2014-01-01

104

Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete  

PubMed Central

This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (?) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

2014-01-01

105

Lipid oxidation of pressurized and cooked chicken: role of sodium chloride and mechanical processing on TBARS and hexanal values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation of pressurized (300 and 500 MPa for 30 min at 20C) or cooked (90C for 15 min) minced chicken breast and slurries was evaluated. Mechanical processing, before and after pressurization and cooking, and addition of sodium chloride were also tested as prooxidant factors. At 1, 3, 6 and 9 days of storage at 4C, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances

E Beltran; R Pla; J Yuste; M Mor-Mur

2003-01-01

106

Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.  

PubMed

Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component. PMID:22236112

Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

2012-06-21

107

Le Lait, 1987, 67 (1), 111-119 Effect of pH and sodium chloride on the viscosity  

E-print Network

Summary Le Lait, 1987, 67 (1), 111-119 Effect of pH and sodium chloride on the viscosity of skim. thermophilus (1 : 1) and incubated at 37°C. The relative viscosities of these retentates were followed as a function of changes in pH and added NaCl. The relative viscosity of retentate was affected by its protein

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Dynamics of cavitation bubble induced by 193 nm ArF excimer laser in concentrated sodium chloride solutions  

E-print Network

Dynamics of cavitation bubble induced by 193 nm ArF excimer laser in concentrated sodium chloride Jerusalem, 91120, and NanoMed Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel Yu. Kokotov Temech Ltd., Jerusalem, Israel Itzhak Hemo 1 February 1995; accepted for publication 20 November 1995 Cavitation bubbles were generated

Palanker, Daniel

109

High-temperature chlorine corrosion of technical carbons Part II. Anodic corrosion in chloride melt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium (200 to 400C) to high (600 to 800C) temperature corrosion of technical carbons (Acheson graphites) have been investigated in alkali chloride melts at chlorine evolving anodes. At low temperature in chloride melts containing free Lewis acid (AlCl3) no chlorine is evolved even at high current densities because chlorine, together with aluminium chloride, instantaneously form intercalation compounds with

H. Wendt; A. Khalil; C. E. Padberg

1991-01-01

110

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal\\/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium\\/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlCl), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlCl melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function

Stephen Pye; J. Winnick; P. A. Kohl

1997-01-01

111

Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.  

PubMed

The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these adulterants in CS and procedures to isolate ASD from CS matrixes containing these adulterants. The authors describe in this paper utilization of an orthogonal approach to establish the identity of Z1 as sodium hexametaphosphate and to confirm the identity of ASD, including ethanol fractionation, FTIR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and NMR spectroscopy. The authors suggest that CAME is a cost-effective and easy to use methodfor detecting certain impurities in CS raw ingredients and recommend that CPC and CAME be used in combination by QC laboratories as a means of effectively deterring the practice of adulterating CS raw materials with the known adulterants ASD and Z1 and/or other non-chondroitin substances that can be separated from CSby CAME and that exhibit CPC titration behavior similar to CS. PMID:25372663

Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

2014-01-01

112

Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

2012-06-01

113

A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.  

PubMed

In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions. PMID:25010468

Sherif, El-Sayed M

2014-01-01

114

Lack of the Sodium-Driven Chloride Bicarbonate Exchanger NCBE Impairs Visual Function in the Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABAA receptors conduct both chloride and bicarbonate, we hypothesized that NCBE may be relevant for GABAergic transmission in the retina. Importantly, we found a differential expression of NCBE in bipolar cells: whereas NCBE was expressed on ON and OFF bipolar cell axon terminals, it only localized to dendrites of OFF bipolar cells. On these compartments, NCBE colocalized with the main neuronal chloride extruder KCC2, which renders GABA hyperpolarizing. NCBE was also expressed in starburst amacrine cells, but was absent from neurons known to depolarize in response to GABA, like horizontal cells. Mice lacking NCBE showed decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in behavioral experiments and smaller b-wave amplitudes and longer latencies in electroretinograms. Ganglion cells from NCBE-deficient mice also showed altered temporal response properties. In summary, our data suggest that NCBE may serve to maintain intracellular chloride and bicarbonate concentration in retinal neurons. Consequently, lack of NCBE in the retina may result in changes in pHi regulation and chloride-dependent inhibition, leading to altered signal transmission and impaired visual function. PMID:23056253

Hilgen, Gerrit; Huebner, Antje K.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seide, Christina; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Schmidt, Karl-Friedrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Lwel, Siegrid; Weiler, Reto

2012-01-01

115

MembFac -Scoring Sheet 1. 12% MPD, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Sodium Chloride  

E-print Network

Acetate pH 4.6 8. 18% PEG 400, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Magnesium Chloride 9. 1.0 M Ammonium Sodium Chloride 11. 12% PEG 6000, 0.1 M Na Acetate pH 4.6, 0.1 M Magnesium Chloride 12. 18% PEG 400, 0 pH 5.6, 0.1 M Sodium Chloride 16. 1.0 M Magnesium Sulfate, 0.1 M Na Citrate pH 5.6 17. 12% PEG 4000

Hill, Chris

116

Chloride Test  

MedlinePLUS

... is an electrolyte. It is a negatively charged ion that works with other electrolytes, such as potassium , ... which is made up of sodium and chloride ions. Most of the chloride is absorbed by the ...

117

Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

Mills, Jessica Breyan

118

Effect of transient sodium chloride shock loads on the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is a promising technological option to meet water reuse demands. Though MBR provides effluent quality of reusable standard, its versatility to shock loads remains unexplored. The present study investigates the robustness of MBR under sodium chloride shock load (5-60 g/L) conditions. A bench scale aerobic submerged MBR (6L working volume) with polyethylene hollow fiber membrane module (pore size 0.4 microm) was operated with synthetic wastewater at steady state OLR of 3.6g COD/L/d and HRT of 8h. This resulted in 99% TSS removal and 95% COD and TKN removal. The COD removal during the salt shock load was in the range of 84-64%. The TSS removal showed maximum disturbance (88%) with a corresponding decrease in biomass MLVSS by 8% at 60 g/L shock. TKN removal was reduced due to inhibition of nitrification with increasing shock loads. It took about 4-9 days for the MBR to regain its steady state performance. PMID:20471251

Yogalakshmi, K N; Joseph, Kurian

2010-09-01

119

Inhibition of the Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter Isoform-1 Reduces Glioma Invasion  

PubMed Central

Malignant gliomas metastasize throughout the brain by infiltrative cell migration into peritumoral areas. Invading cells undergo profound changes in cell shape and volume as they navigate extracellular spaces along blood vessels and white matter tracts. Volume changes are aided by the concerted release of osmotically active ions, most notably K+ and Cl?. Their efflux through ion channels along with obligated water causes rapid cell shrinkage. Suitable ionic gradients must be established and maintained through the activity of ion transport systems. Here, we show that the Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter Isoform-1 (NKCC1) provides the major pathway for Cl? accumulation in glioma cells. NKCC1 localizes to the leading edge of invading processes and pharmacological inhibition using the loop diuretic bumetanide inhibits in vitro Transwell migration by 2550%. shRNA-knockdowns of NKCC1 yielded a similar inhibition and a loss of bumetanide-sensitive cell volume regulation. A loss of NKCC1 function did not affect cell motility in two dimensional assays lacking spatial constraints but manifested only when cells had to undergo volume changes during migration. Intracranial implantation of human gliomas into SCID mice showed a marked reduction in cell invasion when NKCC1 function was disrupted genetically or by twice daily injection of the FDA approved NKCC1 inhibitor Bumex. This data supports consideration of Bumex as adjuvant therapy for patients with high grade gliomas. PMID:20570904

Haas, Brian R.; Sontheimer, Harald

2010-01-01

120

Sodium chloride and potassium sorbate: a synergistic combination against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Incomplete disinfection of the root canal system is a major cause of post-treatment disease. This study aimed to investigate the disinfecting property of organic acid salts and sodium chloride (NaCl), in a double-hurdle strategy, on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. First of all, the high-throughput resazurin metabolism assay (RMA) was used to test a range of organic acid salts. Then, to gain more insight into the efficacy of sorbate salt solutions, 48-h E. faecalis biofilms were evaluated in colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. Chlorhexidine (CHX) and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2) ] were tested in parallel as controls. Sorbate salt produced the largest and most significant reduction of fluorescence intensity in the RMA assay. Neither NaCl nor potassium sorbate (KS) alone induced a clinically relevant reduction of CFU counts after 1 h. Surprisingly, the combination of the two in a single solution had a synergistic effect on the inactivation of E. faecalis. Potassium sorbate amplified the efficacy of NaCl. Of the salts tested, NaCl with KS eradicated E. faecalis biofilms within 1 h. This study showed that the double-hurdle strategy indeed leads to synergistic efficacy and is a possible next step in the complete disinfection of endodontic infections. PMID:22985004

van der Waal, Suzette V; Jiang, Lei-Meng; de Soet, Johannes J; van der Sluis, Lucas W M; Wesselink, Paul R; Crielaard, Wim

2012-10-01

121

Synthesis, growth and studies of undoped and sodium chloride-doped Zinc Tris-thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single crystals of undoped (pure) and sodium chloride (NaCl)-doped Zinc Tris-thiourea Sulphate (ZTS) were grown from aqueous solutions by slow evaporation technique. Morphological alterations have been observed when NaCl is doped into ZTS crystals. Density of the grown crystals was measured by floatation method. The values of unit cell parameters from single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that pure

C. Krishnan; P. Selvarajan; S. Pari

2010-01-01

122

Sodium lactate and hypertonic sodium chloride induce equivalent panic incidence, panic symptoms, and hypernatremia in panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although experimental induction of panic by infusion of 0.5 mol\\/L sodium lactate in persons with panic disorder was described three decades ago, the mechanism underlying this observation remains unclear. Here we asked if the rapid administration of the large sodium load contained in the 0.5-mol\\/L sodium lactate infusion might be involved in panic induction.Methods: We compared in panic disorder

Elaine R Peskind; Carl F Jensen; Marcella Pascualy; Debby Tsuang; Deborah Cowley; Donald C Martin; Charles W Wilkinson; Murray A Raskind

1998-01-01

123

Transcriptional analysis of different stress response genes in Escherichia coli strains subjected to sodium chloride and lactic acid stress.  

PubMed

Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese. PMID:25307558

Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jrg; Tasara, Taurai

2014-12-01

124

EVALUATION OF SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO SODIUM CHLORIDE IN THE MICROTOX R ASSAY: COMPARISON TO FISH AND CLADOCERAN TESTS WITH FRESHWATER EFFLUENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of freshwater effluents was evaluated using the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) and Microtox (Photobacterium phosphoreum). he latter assay was conducted with both sodium chloride (NaCl) and sucrose for osmotic protection of the...

125

HIGH CONCENTRATIONS OF SODIUM CHLORIDE INDUCE A 'POSITIVE' RESPONSE AT THE TK LOCUS OF L5178Y/TK(+)/(-)MOUSE LYMPHOMA CELLS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The experiment with sodium chloride demonstrates the importance of carefully evaluating weak mutagenic responses observed with high concentrations of test compounds. The positive mutagenicity is likely not due to a direct interaction with DNA but from some indirect mechanism resu...

126

An experimental investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on talc solubility and complexing of aqueous magnesium in supercritical hydrothermal fluids  

E-print Network

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON TALC SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEXING OF AQUEOUS MAGNESIUM IN SUPERCRITICAL HYDROTHERMAL FLUIDS A Thesis by KENNETH BRYAN GRABMAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Geology AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECI' OF SODIUM CHLORIDE ON TALC SOLUBILITY AND COMPLEXING OF AQUEOUS...

Grabman, Kenneth Bryan

1989-01-01

127

Investigation of Longitudinal Variation by Using Sodium Temperature Lidar Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observation and model studies show not only latitudinal variation but also large longitudinal variations of density, temperature, and dynamics in the middle atmosphere and ionosphere. Long-term observations by sodium temperature lidar at the mid-latitude were mainly in the US longitude [e.g., She et al., 2000; Chu et al., 2005]. In the Western Pacific longitude, occurrence rate of sporadic sodium (Nas) layer were reported by statistical analysis of sodium density profiles [Nagasawa and Abo, 1995; Gong et al., 2002]. However, vertical distributions of temperature in the mesosphere and lower-thermosphere (MLT) region were not measured well. We have observed the temperature and sodium density profiles since August, 2007 at Uji (34.9oN, 135.8oE) located 25 km west from Shigaraki Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) observatory by a sodium temperature lidar, which was developed by Shinshu University and National Institute for Polar Research (NIPR) and was operated at Syowa in Antarctica, in order to reveal these variations in the Western Pacific longitude. These profiles for 147 nights (more than 1300 hours) have been obtained. Comparisons of seasonal variations of these profiles between Japan and the US longitudes showed some similarities and differences. Sodium density in Japan showed similar seasonal variation to that in the US, except for an enhancement (90-100 km) in June-July caused by Nas in Japan. Temperatures below 98 km showed semi-annual variation in both longitudes, but months of temperature maximum were slightly different. Because the long-term observation periods are different between Japan and the US, the differences between two longitudes include longitudinal variation and also year-to-year variation. An estimate for the vertical motion associated with long-period waves such as the tides can be determined from the temperature perturbations assuming long-period wave motions are adiabatic. A remarkable increase of sodium column density of 70-120 km and OI (557.7 nm) emission were observed on December 9, 2007, simultaneously. The sodium lidar temperature profiles showed long-period wave with a downward phase propagation, and vertical displacement of atomic oxygen, oxygen, and nitrogen estimated from the temperature profiles could explain the OI enhancement. The long-period wave was probably a part of tides, which had unusual large amplitude shown by TIMED/SABER temperature measurements. Further studies of detailed comparison with the Na lidar results in the US, as well as investigation of atmospheric stability characteristics and its longitudinal dependencies are being carried out under collaboration between Japan, the US and China.

Ejiri, M. K.; Nakamura, T.; Kawahara, T. D.; Shepherd, G. G.; Oberheide, J. D.; Shiokawa, K.

2009-05-01

128

Compatibility and Stability of Morphine Sulphate and Naloxone Hydrochloride in 0.9% Sodium Chloride for Injection  

PubMed Central

Background Naloxone may be administered in conjunction with morphine to reduce the risk of opioid-induced pruritis. Combining these drugs for coadministration may be beneficial, but little is known about their physical compatibility and stability in combined solutions. Objective: To describe the physical compatibility and stability of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride (at various concentrations) in IV admixtures. Methods: The physical compatibility and stability of admixtures of morphine 1000 ?g/mL and naloxone 4 ?g/mL, 12.5 ?g/mL, and 25 ?g/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride were studied. For each concentration of naloxone, one bag was stored at room temperature (22C) for 72 h and one bag was stored under refrigeration (4C) for 30 days. For all preparations, physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and formation of precipitate, were evaluated. The samples were also analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. Results: No notable changes in pH or colour and no macroprecipitation were observed in any of the preparations after storage at 22C for up to 72 h or at 4C for up to 30 days. All preparations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentrations of morphine and naloxone at the end of the respective study periods. The calculated lower limit of the 95% confidence interval also indicated that 90% or more of the initial concentration remained at the end of each study period. Conclusion: Admixtures of morphine sulphate and naloxone hydrochloride were stable for 72 h at room temperature and for 30 days with refrigeration. PMID:23814283

Kistner, Charlotte; Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lauder, Gillian; Carr, Roxane R

2013-01-01

129

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

A method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, Wayne H. (Richland, WA); Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

1987-01-01

130

Sodium Chloride Drives Autoimmune Disease by the Induction of Pathogenic Th17 Cells  

PubMed Central

There has been a marked increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases in the last half-century. While the underlying genetic basis of this class of diseases has recently been elucidated implicating predominantly immune response genes1, changes in environmental factors must ultimately be driving this increase. The newly identified population of interleukin (IL)-17 producing CD4+ helper T cells (Th17 cells) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune diseases2. Pathogenic IL-23 dependent Th17 cells have been shown to be critical for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), and genetic risk factors associated with MS are related to the IL23/Th17 pathway1, 2. However, little is known regarding the environmental factors that directly influence Th17 cells. Here we show that increased salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) concentrations found locally under physiological conditions in vivo dramatically boost the induction of murine and human Th17 cells. High-salt conditions activate the p38/MAPK pathway involving the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP/NFAT5) and the serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) during cytokine-induced Th17 polarization. Gene silencing or chemical inhibition of p38/MAPK, NFAT5 or SGK1 abrogates the high-salt induced Th17 cell development. The Th17 cells generated under high-salt display a highly pathogenic and stable phenotype characterized by the up-regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, TNF? and IL-2. Moreover, mice fed with a high-salt diet develop a more severe form of EAE, in line with augmented central nervous system infiltrating and peripherally induced antigen specific Th17 cells. Thus, increased dietary salt intake might represent an environmental risk factor for the development of autoimmune diseases through the induction of pathogenic Th17 cells. PMID:23467095

Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Manzel, Arndt; Titze, Jens; Kvakan, Heda; Yosef, Nir; Linker, Ralf A.; Muller, Dominik N.; Hafler, David A.

2013-01-01

131

Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

1959-01-01

132

Sporicidal Activity of Sodium Hypochlorite at Subzero Temperatures  

PubMed Central

Sodium hypochlorite was an excellent disinfectant at low temperatures. With the addition of ethylene glycol to prevent freezing, hypochlorite solutions at low free available chlorine concentrations, were effective against Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores from 0 to -40 C. The effectiveness of this decontaminant was influenced by temperature, pH, and concentration, with pH 7.2 the optimum for decontamination at all temperatures and concentrations. PMID:4968965

Jones, Lynwood A.; Hoffman, Robert K.; Phillips, Charles R.

1968-01-01

133

Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.  

PubMed

The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials. PMID:23750871

Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

2013-07-01

134

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide) 20-poly(propylene oxide) 70-poly(ethylene oxide) 20 (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl 43H 2O) at 60 C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl 4 molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {111} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added.

Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Byung-Woo; Lee, Jong-Chan

2009-12-01

135

Adsorption of water molecules on selected charged sodium-chloride clusters.  

PubMed

The adsorption of water molecules (H(2)O) on sodium chloride cluster cations and anions was studied at 298 K over a mass range of 100-1200 amu using a custom-built laser desorption ionization reactor and mass spectrometer. Under the conditions used, the cations Na(3)Cl(2)(+) and Na(4)Cl(3)(+) bind up to three water molecules, whereas the larger cations, Na(5)Cl(4)(+) to Na(19)Cl(18)(+), formed hydrates with one or two only. The overall trend is a decrease in hydration with increasing cluster size, with an abrupt drop occurring at the closed-shell Na(14)Cl(13)(+). As compared to the cluster cations, the cluster anions showed almost no adsorption. Among smaller clusters, a weak adsorption of one water molecule was observed for the cluster anions Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-). In the higher mass region, a substantial adsorption of one water molecule was observed for Na(14)Cl(15)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out for the adsorption of one molecule of H(2)O on the cations Na(n)Cl(n-1)(+), for n = 2-8, and the anions Na(n)Cl(n+1)(-), for n = 1-7. For each ion, the structure of the hydrate, the hydration energy, and the standard-state enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of hydration at 298 K were computed. In addition, it was useful to compute the distortion energy, defined as the electronic energy lost due to weakening of the Na-Cl bonds upon adsorption of H(2)O. The results show that strong adsorption of a H(2)O molecule occurs for the linear cations only at an end Na ion and for the nonlinear cations only at a corner Na ion bonded to two Cl ions. An unexpected result of the theoretical investigation for the anions is that certain low-energy isomers of Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-) bind H(2)O strongly enough to produce the observed weak adsorption. The possible implications of these results for the initial hydration of extended NaCl surfaces are discussed. PMID:22098193

Bradshaw, James A; Gordon, Sidney L; Leavitt, Andrew J; Whetten, Robert L

2012-01-12

136

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of aluminum, sodium chloride, cadmium and copper rhizotoxicities in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizotoxic ions in problem soils inhibit nutrient and water acquisition by roots, which in turn leads to reduced crop yields. Previous studies on the effects of rhizotoxic ions on root growth and physiological functions suggested that some mechanisms were common to all rhizotoxins, while others were more specific. To understand this complex system, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis with various rhizotoxic ions, followed by bioinformatics analysis, in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Roots of Arabidopsis were treated with the major rhizotoxic stressors, aluminum (Al) ions, cadmium (Cd) ions, copper (Cu) ions and sodium (NaCl) chloride, and the gene expression responses were analyzed by DNA array technology. The top 2.5% of genes whose expression was most increased by each stressor were compared with identify common and specific gene expression responses induced by these stressors. A number of genes encoding glutathione-S-transferases, peroxidases, Ca-binding proteins and a trehalose-synthesizing enzyme were induced by all stressors. In contrast, gene ontological categorization identified sets of genes uniquely induced by each stressor, with distinct patterns of biological processes and molecular function. These contained known resistance genes for each stressor, such as AtALMT1 (encoding Al-activated malate transporter) in the Al-specific group and DREB (encoding dehydration responsive element binding protein) in the NaCl-specific group. These gene groups are likely to reflect the common and differential cellular responses and the induction of defense systems in response to each ion. We also identified co-expressed gene groups specific to rhizotoxic ions, which might aid further detailed investigation of the response mechanisms. Conclusion In order to understand the complex responses of roots to rhizotoxic ions, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis followed by bioinformatics characterization. Our analyses revealed that both general and specific genes were induced in Arabidopsis roots exposed to various rhizotoxic ions. Several defense systems, such as the production of reactive oxygen species and disturbance of Ca homeostasis, were triggered by all stressors, while specific defense genes were also induced by individual stressors. Similar studies in different plant species could help to clarify the resistance mechanisms at the molecular level to provide information that can be utilized for marker-assisted selection. PMID:19309492

Zhao, Cheng-Ri; Ikka, Takashi; Sawaki, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Yuriko; Suzuki, Yuji; Hibino, Takashi; Sato, Shigeru; Sakurai, Nozomu; Shibata, Daisuke; Koyama, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

137

Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

1996-01-01

138

Electron temperature in a sodium-iodide lighting plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time-dependent electron temperature at the axis of an ac mercury-sodium-iodide arc discharge is determined experimentally. It modulates in phase with the discharge voltage and differs in modulation and magnitude from the temperature obtained assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. The method used is independent of plasma equilibrium assumptions as well as of line-transition probabilities, and since it is based on relative emission measurements, it can, in principle, be applied to discharges contained within translucent envelopes.

Karabourniotis, D.; Drakakis, E.

2002-09-01

139

Rechargeable room-temperature CF(x)-sodium battery.  

PubMed

Here we demonstrate for the first time that CFx cathodes show rechargeable capability in sodium ion batteries with an initial discharge capacity of 1061 mAh g(-1) and a reversible discharge capacity of 786 mAh g(-1). The highly reversible electrochemical reactivity of CFx with Na at room temperature indicates that the decomposition of NaF could be driven by carbon formed during the first discharge. The high reversible capacity made it become a promising cathode material for future rechargeable sodium batteries. PMID:24494989

Liu, Wen; Li, Hong; Xie, Jing-Ying; Fu, Zheng-Wen

2014-02-26

140

Anodic mineralization of organic substrates in chloride-containing aqueous media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical incineration of glucose in alkaline media, in the presence of sodium chloride, has been investigated. The process has been followed through the dependence of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon content, on electrolysis duration, t. The influence of current density, sodium chloride concentration, temperature, sodium hydroxide concentration on the rate of COD abatement has been followed.

F. Bonfatti; A. De Battisti; S. Ferro; G. Lodi; S. Osti

2000-01-01

141

High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (G). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6 HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in immobilization with low NaCl diet ( 0.34 1.2 g/d). However, high NaCl intake in HDBR exacerbated the negative nitrogen balance to 1.34 1.0 g/d (p0.001) compared to low NaCl. We conclude that high dietary NaCl intake induces low grade metabolic acidosis during HDBR. Low grade metabolic acidosis may be a reason for an increased protein turnover reflected by an exaggerated negative nitrogen balance in HDBR. Accordingly, a high dietary NaCl intake may exacerbate loss of body protein in G via low grade metabolic acidosis.

Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

142

An alternative staining method for counting red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta) blood cells using crystal violet in cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride.  

PubMed

Various staining methods are available for reptilian species blood cell quantification. However, these methods have shown inaccurate differentiation limitations. The current study evaluates staining effects and blood cell counting results using an alternative method, counting blood cells diluted with 0.45% sodium chloride solution and stained with crystal violet. Blood samples from 8 red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) were collected. Red and white blood cell counts were performed using different methods: the unstained method, the Unopette method, Liu stain, and crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in various sodium chloride solution osmolarities. The staining properties and blood cell count results were compared. The crystal violet method using blood cells diluted in 0.45% sodium chloride solution delivered the best staining and counting results among all of the tested methods, with the lowest average coefficient of variance. The proposed method can easily be performed, serving as a feasible method for blood cell counting in chelonians. PMID:25080443

Tsai, Chyong-Ying; Yu, Jane-Fang; Wang, Yu-Wen; Fan, Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ting-Yu; Wang, Lih-Chiann

2014-09-01

143

High pressure high temperature elasticity study of sodium disilicate glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many deep earth geophysical phenomena observed are related to physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions. Understanding the structures and physical properties of silicate melts at a fundamental level is essential to help us understand the dynamics of mineral crystallization and fractionation, thermal transport, etc. inside the Earth. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good analog for studying amorphous phase basalt since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Besides, sodium disilicate is not only simple in chemistry but also has a low melting point, thus permitting detailed experimental studies using currently available techniques. Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was ground into powder and loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell. The PE high pressure apparatus was installed inside the 16-BM-B hutch at the Advanced Photon Source. In our experiment, the glass sample was pressed up to 2GPa and heated up to 1000oC. At various pressure and temperature conditions, ultrasonic elastic wave velocities of the amorphous sample were collected using the pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer mounted on one end of the PE anvil. White beam x-ray radiographs that covered the entire length of the sample were also collected to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Experimental results show that before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure), the transverse wave velocity remains nearly constant with increasing temperature, while the longitudinal wave velocity decreases monotonically. A sudden drop in transverse wave velocity is observed above the glass transition temperature at 800oC. Within the 2GPa pressure range, we did not observe clear pressure dependence of the elastic wave velocities in sodium disilicate glass.

Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

2011-12-01

144

Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.  

PubMed

Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis--vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

2014-12-01

145

Method of and apparatus for removing silicon from a high temperature sodium coolant  

DOEpatents

This patent discloses a method of and system for removing silicon from a high temperature liquid sodium coolant system for a nuclear reactor. The sodium is cooled to a temperature below the silicon saturation temperature and retained at such reduced temperature while inducing high turbulence into the sodium flow for promoting precipitation of silicon compounds and ultimate separation of silicon compound particles from the liquid sodium.

Yunker, W.H.; Christiansen, D.W.

1983-11-25

146

Effect of Temperature on the Stiffness of Polyvinyl Chloride and Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride Joints Under Bending  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature on the bending capacity and stiffness of PVC and CPVC cemented socket joints using test specimens as simply supported beams subjected to different bending points. The tests were conducted under six different temperatures (room temperature, 23C, a control treatment), 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90C, three bending points and with a deflection of 55 mm using a hydraulic testing machine. The results show that, at room temperature, the mean maximum bending capacity of CPVC joints was close to that of PVC joints. The rate of decrease in the mean maximum bending force of PVC joints was higher than CPVC joints with an increase in temperature. A dramatic decrease in the mean maximum bending force of PVC joints was observed with an increase in temperature from 60-70C, where the glass transition temperature of PVC material was within the above stated temperature range. At room temperature, the stiffness of PVC joints was slightly more than CPVC joints. But, as the temperature increased, the rate of decrease in the stiffness of PVC joints was more than CPVC joints. The PVC joints lost 80% and the CPVC joints lost 47.6% of its stiffness with an increase in temperature from 23-90C. The study showed an excellent potential for the selection of optimum temperature for using PVC and CPVC joints under arid environment.

Al-Hashem, Hasan A. S.; Al-Naeem, Mushari A. H.

147

Optimum dietary arginine:lysine ratio for broiler chickens is altered during heat stress in association with changes in intestinal uptake and dietary sodium chloride.  

PubMed

1. The effects of varying the dietary arginine:lysine (Arg:Lys) ratio for broiler chickens at thermoneutral and high temperatures was studied in a series of 5 experiments which measured intestinal epithelial transport or evaluated growth and food efficiency with practical diets or diets supplemented with L-arginine free base. 2. The growth studies showed that increasing the Arg:Lys ratio at high temperatures produced consistent improvements in food conversion without any loss in growth. 3. Increasing dietary sodium chloride concentration reduced the Arg:Lys ratio necessary for optimum food conversion. 4. Food conversion responses were improved whether L-arginine free base was used as a dietary supplement in place of an inert filler or practical diets with differing ingredients were used to vary the Arg:Lys ratio. 5. In the presence of an equimolar concentration of lysine the uptake of arginine by the intestinal epithelium of heat-stressed broilers was reduced significantly compared with that of broilers at thermoneutral temperatures. 6. The results indicate that the ideal amino acid balance for broilers varies with ambient temperature. PMID:9925317

Brake, J; Balnave, D; Dibner, J J

1998-12-01

148

[Sylvinite speleochamber and general chloride sodium baths in medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Clinico-laboratory, functional and bronchoscopic examinations were performed in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 50 patients (41.7%) were in stage of low-intensity exacerbation, 70 patients (58.3%)--in remission stage. 55 patients (45.8%) had I degree respiratory failure, 65 patients (54.2%)--II degree respiratory failure. Easy degree of disease was detected in 58 patients (48.3%), mid degree--in 62 patients (51.7%). Possibility and reasonability of the use of artificial sylvinite speleotherapy and general chloride sodium baths in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were proved. Clinical results were confirmed by data of blood morphology and biochemical analysis, microscopy of sputum, spirometry, bronchoscopy, dynamics of immunological indices. PMID:18507183

Rassulova, M A

2008-01-01

149

Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

2010-03-01

150

PREDICTIVE THERMAL INACTIVATION MODEL FOR SALMONELLA SEROTYPES WITH TEMPERATURE, SODIUM LACTATE, NAC1 AND SODIUM PYROPHOSPHATE AS CONTROLLING FACTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analyses of survival data of an eight strain cocktail of Salmonella spp. in ground beef with different concentrations of salt, sodium pyrophosphate (SPP), and sodium lactate (NaL) obtained after heating at different temperatures (55, 60, 65, and 71.1C) indicated that heat resistance of Salmonella i...

151

Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

2014-06-01

152

Shape-controlled synthesis of gold icosahedra and nanoplates using Pluronic P123 block copolymer and sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Gold icosahedra with an average diameter of about 600 nm were easily prepared by heating an aqueous solution of the amphiphilic block copolymer, poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20}-poly(propylene oxide){sub 70}-poly(ethylene oxide){sub 20} (Pluronic P123), and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) at 60 deg. C for 25 min. When sodium chloride (NaCl:HAuCl{sub 4} molar ratio=10:1) was added to this aqueous solution, gold nanoplates were produced. The chloride ion was found to be a key component in the formation of the gold nanoplates by facilitating the growth of {l_brace}111{r_brace} oriented hexagonal/triangular gold nanoplates, because similar gold nanoplates were produced when LiCl or KCl was added to the aqueous solution instead of NaCl, while gold nanocrystals having irregular shapes were produced when NaBr or NaI was added. - Graphical abstract: Gold icosahedra were prepared by heating an aqueous solution of Pluronic P123 and HAuCl{sub 4}. When NaCl was added to this solution, gold nanoplates were produced.

Lee, Won-Ki; Cha, Sang-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Chan, E-mail: jongchan@snu.ac.k [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-12-15

153

Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats. PMID:25064141

Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

2014-11-01

154

Reactivity of thin metal films on sodium beta'' alumina ceramic in high temperature, low pressure sodium vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrochemical techniques including impedance spectroscopy are routinely used to test the performance of AMTEC electrodes. These experiments may be carried out in an actual AMTEC cell. or in an sodium exposure test cell SETC where the sodium pressure and the temperature are identical at both the anode and cathode. These tests reveal details of electrode material grain growth, electrode decomposition and reaction of electrode materials with the sodium beta'' alumina solid electrolyte. Tests of the same sort may be used to examine the compatibility of metals and sodium beta'' alumina under simulated AMTEC operating conditions. Preliminary tests comparing rhodium/tungsten, molybdenum, titanium and vanadium electrodes are reported. .

Williams, R. M.; Kisor, A. K.; Homer, M. L.; Manatt, K.; Shields, V. B.; Ryan, M. A.

2001-02-01

155

Startup of sodium heat pipes from room temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite-element eigenvalue method is used to study the startup phenomenon of a sodium heat pipe initially at the frozen state. The heat pipe has an axial groove structure. The heat conduction equation in the wall and grooves including the melting of the working fluid is solved together with the quasi-steady, one-dimensional compressible vapor flow equations. The choked flow phenomenon and the transition from free-molecular to continnum flow are taken into consideration. Results obtained include the time dependent axial wall temperature distribution, axial vapor temperature distribution, and the vapor Mach number. The evaporator wall temperature increases rapidly in the initial transient period but the increase is arrested as soon as the working fluid is melted and starts to evaporate.

Chow, Louis C.; Zhong, Jiakang

1991-01-01

156

Startup of sodium heat pipes from room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite-element eigenvalue method is used to study the startup phenomenon of a sodium heat pipe initially at the frozen state. The heat pipe has an axial groove structure. The heat conduction equation in the wall and grooves including the melting of the working fluid is solved together with the quasi-steady, one-dimensional compressible vapor flow equations. The choked flow phenomenon and the transition from free-molecular to continuum flow are taken into consideration. Results obtained include the time dependent axial wall temperature distribution, axial vapor temperature distribution, and the vapor Mach number. The evaporator wall temperature increases rapidly in the initial transient period but the increase is arrested as soon as the working fluid is melted and starts to evaporate.

Chow, Louis C.; Zhong, Jiakang

157

Operating Experience of High Temperature Sodium Loops for Material Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two independent sodium loops under common name INSOT facilities were constructed in Fast Reactor Technology Group, IGCAR for conducting material testing of PFBR components in dynamic sodium. One loop is utilized for in-sodium Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and Creep - Fatigue Interaction (CFI) studies and the second loop for in sodium creep studies. The loop components and piping were constructed

M. Shanmugavel; S. Vijayaraghavan; P. Rajasundaram; T. Chandran; M. Shanmugasundaram; K. K. Rajan; P. Kalyanasundaram

2011-01-01

158

Detection of sodium chloride in cured salmon roe by SW-NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Salt and moisture content of cured salmon roe (ikura) was determined using short-wavelength-near-infrared (SW-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy (600-1100 nm). SW-NIR can be used to measure chloride species. Calibrations for salt in bulk samples of high-quality roe (R(2) = 0.904, SEP = 0.421%, RPD = 3.21) and average-quality roe (R(2) = 0.711, SEP = 1.13%, RPD = 1.81), crushed eggs (R(2) = 0.857, SEP = 0.509%, RPD = 2.62), and individual eggs (R(2) = 0.731, SEP = 0.698%, RPD = 1.98) were developed using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The heterogeneous distribution of lipid and moisture in the individual eggs limit the sensitivity of this method; however, this method provides a rapid nondestructive method for high-value food products where destructive testing is expensive or impractical and for process control applications. PMID:11559103

Huang, Y; Rogers, T M; Wenz, M A; Cavinato, A G; Mayes, D M; Bledsoe, G E; Rasco, B A

2001-09-01

159

DEVELOPMENT OF DISPOSABLE SORBENTS FOR CHLORIDE REMOVAL FROM HIGH TEMPERATURE COAL-DERIVED GASES  

SciTech Connect

Advanced integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) and integrated-gasification fuel cell (IGFC) systems require the development of high temperature sorbents for the removal of hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor to less than 1 parts-per-million (ppm) levels. HCl is a highly reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas which must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipment, and to minimize deterioration of hot gas desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this program was to develop disposable, alkali-based sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range from 400 to 750 C and pressures in the range from 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program were to investigate different methods of sorbent fabrication, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining reaction kinetics data, and conducting a preliminary economic feasibility assessment. This program was a joint effort between SRI International (SRI), Research Triangle Institute (RTI), and General Electric Corporate Research and Development (GE-CRD). SRI, the prime contractor and RTI, a major subcontractor, performed most of the work in this program. Thermochemical calculations indicated that sodium-based sorbents were capable of reducing HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm at temperatures up to 650 C, but the regeneration of spent sorbents would require complex process steps. Nahcolite (NaHCO{sub 3}), a naturally-occurring mineral, could be used as an inexpensive sorbent to remove HCl vapor in hot coal gas streams. In the current program, nahcolite powder was used to fabricate pellets suitable for fixed-bed reactors and granules suitable for fluidized-bed reactors. Pilot-scale equipment were used to prepare sorbents in large batches: pellets by disk pelletization and extrusion techniques, and granules by granulation and spray-drying techniques. Bench-scale fixed- and fluidized-bed reactors were assembled at SRI and RTI to conduct tests at high-temperature, high-pressure conditions (HTHP). The HTHP tests confirmed the ability of nahcolite pellets and granules to reduce the HCl vapor levels to less than 1 ppm levels with a very high sorbent utilization for chloride capture. The effect of several operating variables such as temperature, pressure, presence of hydrogen sulfide, and sorbent preparation methods was studied on the efficacy of HCl removal by the sorbent. Pilot-scale tests were performed in the fluidized-bed mode at the gasifier facility at the GE-CRD. Sorbent exposure tests were also conducted using a hot coal gas stream from the DOE/FETC's fluidized-bed gasifier at Morgantown, WV. These tests confirmed the results obtained at SRI and RTI. A preliminary economic assessment showed that the cost of HCl removal in a commercial IGCC system will be about $0.001/kWh (1 mills/kWh).

Gopala Krishnan; Raghubir Gupta

1999-09-01

160

Removal of chloride from MSWI fly ash.  

PubMed

The high levels of alkali chloride and soluble metal salts present in MSWI fly ash is worth noting for their impact on the environment. In addition, the recycling or reuse of fly ash has become an issue because of limited landfill space. The chloride content in fly ash limits its application as basis for construction materials. Water-soluble chlorides such as potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), and calcium chloride hydrate (CaCl(2) 2H(2)O) in fly ash are easily washed away. However, calcium chloride hydroxide (Ca(OH)Cl) might not be easy to leach away at room temperature. The roasting and washing-flushing processes were applied to remove chloride content in this study. Additionally, air and CO(2) were introduced into the washing process to neutralize the hazardous nature of chlorides. In comparison with the water flushing process, the roasting process is more efficient in reducing the process of solid-liquid separation and drying for the reuse of Cl-removed fly ash particles. In several roasting experiments, the removal of chloride content from fly ash at 1050C for 3h showed the best results (83% chloride removal efficiency). At a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 the water-flushing process can almost totally remove water-soluble chloride (97% chloride removal efficiency). Analyses of mineralogical change also prove the efficiency of the fly ash roasting and washing mechanisms for chloride removal. PMID:22947185

Chen, Wei-Sheng; Chang, Fang-Chih; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Ko, Chun-Han

2012-10-30

161

Dietary Sodium  

MedlinePLUS

Table salt is made up of the elements sodium and chlorine - the technical name for salt is sodium chloride. Your body needs some sodium to work properly. ... to healthy eating is choosing foods low in salt and sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than ...

162

Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures  

E-print Network

Near-Infrared Laser Absorption of Poly(vinyl chloride) at Elevated Temperatures James D. Van de Ven, unpigmented state are highly transmissive of light in the near-infrared range, thus allowing laser of light detection [2, 3]. Within the near-infrared region nat- ural polymers have nearly no absorption [2

Van de Ven, James D.

163

N2-broadening coefficients of methyl chloride: Measurements at room temperature and calculations at atmospheric temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopic study on methyl chloride is the first step for its accurate detection in the atmosphere. In our previous work [Barbouchi Ramchani et al. J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2013;120:1-15], line positions, intensities and self-broadening coefficients of both 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl isotopologues have been studied in the 6.9 ?m spectral region. The present work is focused on measurements of N2-broadening coefficients for transitions of 12CH335Cl and 12CH337Cl around 6.9 ?m. For that, high-resolution Fourier transform spectra of CH3Cl-N2 mixtures have been recorded at room temperature using a rapid scan Bruker IFS 120 HR interferometer at LADIR. The N2-broadening coefficients have been retrieved using a Voigt profile and a multispectrum fitting procedure. The average accuracy of the N2-broadening obtained in this work has been estimated to be between 5% and 10% depending on the transitions. The rotational J- and K-dependences of the N2-broadening coefficients have been clearly observed and modeled using empirical polynomial expansions. The 12CH335Cl-N2 line-widths of the ?5 band have also been computed using a semi-classical approach for the PR, RR and QR sub-branches. A global comparison with the experimental data from this work but also existing in the literature was then performed. Similar J- and K-rotational dependences have been observed while no clear evidence of any vibrational or isotopic dependence has been pointed out. Finally, performing theoretical calculations of the N2-broadening coefficients at various temperatures of atmospheric interest between 200 and 296 K allowed deducing the temperature exponent of the 12CH335Cl-N2 line-widths.

Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.

2014-11-01

164

Densitometry and ultrasound velocimetry of hyaluronan solutions in water and in sodium chloride solution.  

PubMed

The densities of hyaluronan solutions in water and 0.15M NaCl were measured in the temperature range from 25 to 50C for the hyaluronan molecular weights from 10 to 1,750 kDa. The density increased linearly with concentration and decreased with temperature. The data were fitted by the equation describing the density as a linear function of concentration and a quadratic function of temperature. The effect of molecular weight was negligible and thus single equation was sufficient to describe all data. The apparent and partial specific volumes were calculated from the density data including their extrapolated values to infinite dilutions. The measurement of ultrasound speed in the same solutions under the same conditions enabled to calculate the compressibility and its dependence on concentration and temperature. The compressibility decreased with both the concentration and the temperature but the effect of the concentration was only slight mild. The compressibility was used to estimate the hydration numbers which slightly decreased with increasing temperature and concentration. The addition of NaCl changed only the numerical values of density and ultrasound velocity while not changing the character of their dependence on temperature and concentration. Measured and calculated data indicate that hyaluronan does not disturb the specific water structure in the studied concentration range and support the idea of the existence of water clusters or nanodroplets hydrating the hyaluronan chains in solution. PMID:24721101

Kargerov, A; Peka?, M

2014-06-15

165

Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.  

PubMed

We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (344) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5C; 65% at 60C; and 25% at 62.5C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers. PMID:23587714

Juneja, Vijay K; Altunta?, Evrim Gne?; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

2013-06-01

166

Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants. PMID:25194697

Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

2014-12-01

167

The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

2015-01-01

168

The role of <100> edge dislocations in nucleating radiation-induced colloid particles in sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical program to investigate the role of dislocations in the nucleation of sodium colloids in irradiated rock salt has been outlined. As the first study in the investigation the interaction of radiation-produced defects with the <001> edge dislocation in rock salt, i.e., the edge dislocation in the principal slip system of NaCl, has been considered. The interaction potential between a symmetric defect and the <001> edge dislocation has been determined on the basis of anisotropic elasticity theory. The potential arises from the interaction between the long-range stress field of the dislocation and the displacements around the point defect. The corresponding flow lines, i.e., the lines along which the defects flow to the dislocation, have also been determined. In general, the flow lines are closed loops passing through the center of the dislocation. One of the novel features introduced by anisotropy is the possibility of open flow lines for certain elastic constant values. Along some of these open flow lines defects are attracted to the dislocation, whereas long others defects are repelled from the dislocation of common plane. 33 refs., 17 figs.

Teutonico, L.J.

1982-09-01

169

Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles  

SciTech Connect

The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henrys law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henrys law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

2014-06-20

170

[Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves].  

PubMed

The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase--at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response--an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions. PMID:22145414

Vasylyk, Iu V; Lushchak, V I

2011-01-01

171

The role of silver in the radiophotoluminescent properties in silver-activated phosphate glass and sodium chloride crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have systematically investigated the X-ray-induced radiophotoluminescence (RPL) bands in a silver-activated phosphate glass (PG:Ag), and we have ascribed these bands to Ag 0, Ag 2+ and Ag2+ centres, using optical characterisation such as absorption, excitation, emission and lifetime measurements. The absorption spectrum of PG:Ag irradiated with X-rays was decomposed into six Gaussian bands on the basis of its strong analogy with irradiated silver-activated sodium chloride (NaCl:Ag). We confirmed that blue emission peaking at 450 nm was connected with the 270 and 345 nm bands of the excitation spectrum, while orange emission peaking at 560 nm was associated with the 308 nm excitation band. Each band of the excitation spectrum was in turn attributed to an Ag2+, Ag 0 or Ag 2+ centre by analogy with the RPL of NaCl:Ag. The excited-state lifetimes for each emissive process were also determined for different X-ray doses. In conclusion, we determined that both blue and orange emissions result from radiation-induced (rather than intrinsic) properties in the range of 1.22-24.5 Gy.

Kurobori, Toshio; Zheng, Wang; Miyamoto, Yuka; Nanto, Hidehito; Yamamoto, Takayoshi

2010-07-01

172

Individual Differences in Sour and Salt Sensitivity: Detection and Quality Recognition Thresholds for Citric Acid and Sodium Chloride  

PubMed Central

Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified HarrisKalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another. PMID:23413310

2013-01-01

173

Gitelman syndrome and glomerular proteinuria: a link between loss of sodium-chloride cotransporter and podocyte dysfunction?  

PubMed

We report on a 27-year-old patient presenting with chronic hypokalaemia, inappropriate kaliuresis, hypomagnesaemia and alkalosis, associated with moderate proteinuria. Genetic analysis evidenced a homozygous mutation (p.Arg399Cys) in the SLC12A3 gene coding for the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), confirming the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome. Further genetic testing did not show any mutation in NPHS2. A renal biopsy was performed in view of the unusual association with proteinuria. Light microscopy showed hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and discrete mesangial thickening. In addition to possible focal segmental glomerular sclerosis lesions, electron microscopy showed extensive segments of variably thickened glomerular basement membrane (GBM), contrasting with segments of regular GBM of low range thickness, and effacement of podocyte foot processes. Of interest, alterations of the GBM were also observed in a Slc12a3 knock-out mouse model for Gitelman syndrome. These data suggest that the association between Gitelman syndrome and secondary changes of the GBM is probably not coincidental. Possible mechanisms include angiotensin II- or renin-induced podocyte lesions, as well as chronic hypokalaemia. PMID:25165177

Demoulin, Nathalie; Aydin, Selda; Cosyns, Jean-Pierre; Dahan, Karin; Cornet, Georges; Auberger, Ines; Loffing, Johannes; Devuyst, Olivier

2014-09-01

174

Toluene pyrolysis studies and high temperature reactions of propargyl chloride  

SciTech Connect

The main focus of this program is to investigate the thermal decompositions of fuels that play an important role in the pre-particle soot formation process. It has been demonstrated that the condition of maximum soot yield is established when the reaction conditions of temperature and pressure are sufficient to establish a radical pool to support the production of polyaromatic hydrocarbon species and the subsequent formation of soot particles. However, elevated temperatures result in lower soot yields which are attributed to thermolyses of aromatic ring structures and result in the bell-shaped dependence of soot yield on temperature. The authors have selected several acyclic hydrocarbons to evaluate the chemical thermodynamic and kinetic effects attendant to benzene formation. To assess the thermal stability of the aromatic ring, the authors have studied the pyrolyses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, chlorobenzene and pyridine. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF) is employed to analyze the reaction zone behind reflected shock waves. Reaction time histories of the reactants, products, and intermediates are constructed and mechanisms are formulated to model the experimental data. The TOF work is often performed with use of laser schlieren densitometry (LS) to measure density gradients resulting from the heats of various reactions involved in a particular pyrolytic system. The two techniques, TOF and LS, provide independent and complementary information about ring formation and ring rupture reactions.

Kern, R.D.; Chen, H.; Qin, Z. [Univ. of New Orleans, LA (United States)

1993-12-01

175

The second sodium site in the dopamine transporter controls cation permeation and is regulated by chloride.  

PubMed

The dopamine transporter (DAT) belongs to the family of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters and controls dopamine (DA) homeostasis by mediating Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent reuptake of DA. Here we used two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus oocytes together with targeted mutagenesis to investigate the mechanistic relationship between DAT ion binding sites and transporter conductances. In Li(+), DAT displayed a cocaine-sensitive cation leak current ?10-fold larger than the substrate-induced current in Na(+). Mutation of Na(+) coordinating residues in the first (Na1) and second (Na2) binding sites suggested that the Li(+) leak depends on Li(+) interaction with Na2 rather than Na1. DA caused a marked inhibition of the Li(+) leak, consistent with the ability of the substrate to interact with the Li(+)-occupied state of the transporter. The leak current in Li(+) was also potently inhibited by low millimolar concentrations of Na(+), which according to our mutational data conceivably depended on high affinity binding to Na1. The Li(+) leak was further regulated by Cl(-) that most likely increases Li(+) permeation by allosterically lowering Na2 affinity. Interestingly, mutational lowering of Na2 affinity by substituting Asp-420 with asparagine dramatically increased cation permeability in Na(+) to a level higher than seen in Li(+). In addition to reveal a functional link between the bound Cl(-) and the cation bound in the Na2 site, the data support a key role of Na2 in determining cation permeability of the transporter and thereby possibly in regulating the opening probability of the inner gate. PMID:25063810

Borre, Lars; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Gether, Ulrik

2014-09-12

176

EFFECTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL POTASSIUM AND SODIUM CHLORIDE SALTS ON RUMINAL TURNOVER RATES, ACIDBASE AND MINERAL STATUS OF LACTATING DAIRY COWS DURING HEAT STRESS 1\\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of added dietary sodium and potassium chloride salts on ruminal turnover rates, acid-base balance and mineral status of lactating dairy cows experiencing a nycterohemeral cycle of heat stress were examined. Black globe-humidity index in the chambers averaged 94 during the daytime and 68 during the nighttime. Four ruminally cannulated multiparous Holstein cows in mid-lactation were confined in climatic chambers

P. L. Schneider; D. K. Beede; C. J. Wilcox

2010-01-01

177

Melt rheology and extrudate swell of sodium chloride-filled low-density polyethylene: Effects of content and size of salt particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological properties in terms of melt rheology and extrudate swell of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) filled with sodium chloride (NaCl) of varying particle size (i.e., 45, 75, and 125?m) in the range of 525wt.% were investigated by capillary rheometry. The real shear stress increased monotonously with increasing apparent shear rate, with the rate of change decreasing with increasing apparent shear

Rapeephun Dangtungee; Pitt Supaphol

2010-01-01

178

Elevated postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride levels distinguish saltwater drowning (SWD) deaths from immersion deaths not related to drowning but recovered from saltwater (DNRD).  

PubMed

A 5-year prospective study of saltwater-related deaths was undertaken in 2 medico-legal centers in Australia. This demonstrated a statistically significant elevation (P<0.01) in postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride (PMVSC) levels and sum of sodium and chloride levels in 15 cases of deaths due to saltwater drowning (SWD) in comparison with 7 immersion deaths not related to drowning but recovered from saltwater (DNRD), and with 50 case controls. From our data, PMVSC was superior to using sodium or chloride levels alone in discriminating SWD from DNRD and controls. It is proposed that in cases where bodies are retrieved from a saltwater environment and SWD is suspected, a PMVSC of 284 mmol/L or higher is consistent with SWD. Conversely, a PMVSC level of less than 258 mmol/L is inconsistent with SWD. A PMVSC between 258 and 284 mmol/L is inconclusive or noninformative, and circumstantial evidence and autopsy findings are needed to determine the cause of death. It is suggested that PMVSC measurement is a worthwhile test in determining the cause of death in cases where bodies are recovered from saltwater, especially in cases where an internal examination of the body may not be authorized or where objections to autopsy are upheld. PMID:23574864

Cala, Allan David; Vilain, Ricardo; Tse, Rexson

2013-06-01

179

Reactions occurring during the sulfation of sodium chloride deposited on alumina substrates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction between solid NaCl and air containing 1 pct SO2 has been studied between 500 and 700 C. The reaction product, Na2SO4, forms not only on the surface of the NaCl but also on surrounding areas of the substrate due to the volatility of the NaCl at these temperatures. At the higher temperatures, the vapor pressure of NaCl is so high that the majority of the reaction product is distributed on the substrate. Above 625 C, the reaction product is a liquid solution of NaCl and Na2SO4 that exists only so long as NaCl is supplied from the original crystal source. Eventually, the liquid solidifies by constitutional solidification as the NaCl is converted to Na2SO4. While it exists, the liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 solution is shown to be highly corrosive to Al2O3 and, on a scale of Al2O3 growing on alloy HOS 875, particularly attacks the grain boundaries of the scale at preferred sites where chromium and iron oxides and sulfides rapidly develop. This is proposed as one mechanism by which NaCl deposition contributes to the initiation of low temperature hot corrosion.

Wu, C. S.; Birks, N.

1986-01-01

180

Establishment of an activated peroxide system for low-temperature cotton bleaching using N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride.  

PubMed

Cotton bleaching is traditionally carried out in strongly alkaline solution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at temperatures close to the boil. Such harsh processing conditions can result in extensive water and energy consumptions as well as severe chemical damage to textiles. In this study, an activated peroxide system was established for low-temperature cotton bleaching by incorporating a bleach activator, namely N-[4-(triethylammoniomethyl)benzoyl]butyrolactam chloride (TBBC) into an aqueous H2O2 solution. Experimental results showed that the TBBC-activated peroxide system exhibited the most effective bleaching performance in a pH range of 6-8 which could be approximated by adding sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system led to rapid bleaching of cotton at a temperature as low as 50C. In comparison with the hot alkaline peroxide bleaching system, the TBBC/H2O2/NaHCO3 system provided cotton fabric with an equivalent degree of whiteness, higher degree of polymerization, and slightly lower water absorbency. The new activated peroxide system may provide a more environmentally benign approach to cotton bleaching. PMID:25563946

Xu, Changhai; Hinks, David; Sun, Chang; Wei, Qufu

2015-03-30

181

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).  

PubMed

Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 ?s, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions. PMID:24480277

Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

2014-01-01

182

Directed evolution of subtilisin E into a highly active and guanidinium chloride- and sodium dodecylsulfate-tolerant protease.  

PubMed

Proteases have niche applications in diagnostic kits that use cell lysis and thereby require high resistance towards chaotropic salts and detergents, such as guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) and sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Subtilisin E, a well-studied serine protease, was selected to be re-engineered by directed evolution into a "chaophilic" protease that would be resistance to GdmCl and SDS, for application in diagnostic kits. In three iterative rounds of directed evolution, variant SeSaM1-5 (S62I/A153V/G166S/I205V) was generated, with improved activity (330?%) and increased half life in 1 M GdmCl (<2 min to 4.7 h) or in 0.5?% SDS (<2 min to 2.7 h). Saturation mutagenesis at each site in the wild-type subtilisin E revealed that positions 62 and 166 were mainly responsible for increased activity and stability. A double mutant, M2 (S62I/G166M), generated by combination of the best single mutations showed significantly improved kinetic constants; in 2 M GdmCl the K(m) value decreased (29-fold) from 7.31 to 0.25 mM, and the k(cat) values increased (fourfold) from 15 to 61 s(-1) . The catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/K(m), improved dramatically (GdmCl: 247 mM(-1)s(-1) (118-fold); SDS, 179 mM(-1)s(-1) (13-fold)). In addition, the SeSaM1-5 variant showed higher stability in 2.0?% SDS when compared to the wild-type (t(1/2) 54.8 min (>27-fold)). Finally, molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type subtilisin E showed that Gdm(+) ions could directly interact with active site residues, thereby probably limiting access of the substrate to the catalytic centre. PMID:22408062

Li, Zhenwei; Roccatano, Danilo; Lorenz, Michael; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

2012-03-19

183

Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

2014-06-01

184

Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organic species and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) ≥ 0.8 and was always observed for O : C < 0.5. For 0.5 ≤ O : C < 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organic species investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ≥ NH4HSO4 ≥ NaCl ≥ NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O : C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

2013-12-01

185

Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10?4mM SA, 50mM NaCl, 100mM NaCl, 150mM NaCl, SA+50mM NaCl, SA+100mM NaCl and SA+150mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50mM and 100mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

2014-01-01

186

Sodium Chloride Inhibits the Growth and Infective Capacity of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus and Increases Host Survival Rates  

PubMed Central

The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a recently emerged pathogen that causes the infectious disease chytridiomycosis and has been implicated as a contributing factor in the global amphibian decline. Since its discovery, research has been focused on developing various methods of mitigating the impact of chytridiomycosis on amphibian hosts but little attention has been given to the role of antifungal agents that could be added to the host's environment. Sodium chloride is a known antifungal agent used routinely in the aquaculture industry and this study investigates its potential for use as a disease management tool in amphibian conservation. The effect of 05 ppt NaCl on the growth, motility and survival of the chytrid fungus when grown in culture media and its effect on the growth, infection load and survivorship of infected Peron's tree frogs (Litoria peronii) in captivity, was investigated. The results reveal that these concentrations do not negatively affect the survival of the host or the pathogen. However, concentrations greater than 3 ppt significantly reduced the growth and motility of the chytrid fungus compared to 0 ppt. Concentrations of 14 ppt NaCl were also associated with significantly lower host infection loads while infected hosts exposed to 3 and 4 ppt NaCl were found to have significantly higher survival rates. These results support the potential for NaCl to be used as an environmentally distributed antifungal agent for the prevention of chytridiomycosis in susceptible amphibian hosts. However, further research is required to identify any negative effects of salt exposure on both target and non-target organisms prior to implementation. PMID:22590639

Stockwell, Michelle Pirrie; Clulow, John; Mahony, Michael Joseph

2012-01-01

187

Spectroscopic and electrochemical studies of europium(III) chloride in aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride room temperature molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Absorption spectroscopy and titration experiments suggest that the addition of EuCl to basic aluminum chloride-1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt produces [EuCl]³⁻, and this species can be reduced at a glassy carbon electrode via a one-electron, quasi-reversible electrode reaction to produce Eu(II) species. The standard heterogeneous rate constant and the cathodic transfer coefficient in the 44.4\\/55.6 mole percent melt are 2.85

Wei-Jyh Gau; I. W. Sun

1996-01-01

188

Effect of three preservatives on the growth of Bacillus cereus, Vero cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, on plates with gradients of pH and sodium chloride concentration.  

PubMed

The effect of temperature, pH, sodium chloride concentration and a preservative (sodium benzoate, sodium nitrite or potassium sorbate) on the growth of three foodborne bacterial pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Vero cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) was studied using gradient gel plates. Growth, expressed in optical density units, was recorded using image analysis techniques, and was expressed as three-dimensional grids. These gave a visual indication of the effects of any three of the environmental factors on bacterial proliferation. Sorbate was completely effective against E. coli at all temperature/pH/NaCl combinations, and was the most effective preservative tested against B. cereus. Increase in the acidity and/or the NaCl concentration improved the effect of all the preservatives, except nitrite when used against St. aureus. Nitrite was the least effective preservative, particularly against St. aureus. At < 25 degrees C, sorbate was more effective than benzoate against St. aureus when used with higher concentrations of NaCl. At 35 degrees C benzoate was the most effective preservative against St. aureus, especially when used at pH < 6. PMID:8466802

Thomas, L V; Wimpenny, J W; Davis, J G

1993-02-01

189

Modelling of ultrasonic propagation in turbulent liquid sodium with temperature gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of ultrasonic instrumentation in sodium-cooled fast reactors requires to understand and to predict how ultrasonic waves can be deflected, slowed down or speeded up, depending on the thermo-hydraulic characteristics of the liquid sodium. These thermo-hydraulic characteristics are mainly the local temperature and flow speed of the sodium. In this study we show that ray theory can be used to simulate ultrasonic propagation in a medium similar to the core of a sodium-cooled fast reactor, in order to study ultrasonic instrumentation and prepare it installation and utilisation in the sodium of the nuclear reactor. A suitable model has been developed and a set of thermo-hydraulics data has been created, taking account of the particularities of the sodium flow. The results of these simulations are then analysed within the framework of acoustic thermometry, in order to determine which disturbance must be taken into account for the correct operation of the temperature measurement.

Massacret, N.; Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Jeannot, J. P.; Corneloup, G.

2014-05-01

190

Electrodeposition and stripping of lithium and sodium on inert electrodes in room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demonstration of a stable, reversible alkali metal anode is an important step in the development of practical secondary batteries using room temperature chloroaluminate molten salts as electrolytes. Such melts are made by mixing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMICI) with aluminum chloride, and can be Lewis buffered by adding LiCl or NaCl. It has been shown previously that protons added to a

Bernard J. Piersma; D. M. Ryan; E. R. Schumacher; T. L. Riechel

1996-01-01

191

A spectrophotometric study of erbium (III) speciation in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures  

E-print Network

A spectrophotometric study of erbium (III) speciation in chloride solutions at elevated 2006; accepted 1 April 2006 Abstract The speciation of erbium in chloride-bearing solutions. Keywords: Rare Earth Elements; Erbium; Chloride; Aqueous solution; Speciation; Formation constants

Long, Bernard

192

Development of Disposable Sorbents for Chloride Removal from High-Temperature Coal-Derived Gases  

SciTech Connect

The integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle approach is an efficient process for producing electric power from coal by gasification, followed by high-temperature removal of gaseous impurities, then electricity generation by gas turbines. Alternatively, molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) may be used instead of gas turbine generators. The coal gas must be treated to remove impurities such as hydrogen chloride (HCl), a reactive, corrosive, and toxic gas, which is produced during gasification from chloride species in the coal. HCl vapor must be removed to meet environmental regulations, to protect power generation equipments such as fuel cells or gas turbines, and to minimize deterioration of hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents. The objectives of this study are to: (1) investigate methods to fabricate reactive sorbent pellets or granules that are capable of reducing HCl vapor in high-temperature coal gas streams to less than 1 ppm in the temperature range 400{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C and the pressure range 1 to 20 atm; (2) testing their suitability in bench-scale fixed- or fluidized-bed reactors; (3) testing a superior sorbent in a circulating fluidized- bed reactor using a gas stream from an operating coal gasifier; and (4) updating the economics of high temperature HCl removal.

Krishnan, G.N.; Canizales, A. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gupta, R. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ayala, R. [General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (United States). Corporate Research and Development Center

1996-12-31

193

Quantitative Determination of Paraquat in Meconium by Sodium Borohydride-Nickel Chloride Chemical Reduction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS)  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to develop a procedure for the GC/MS assay of paraquat in meconium as a biomarker of fetal exposure to paraquat. The method involved a sodium borohydride-nickel chloride reduction procedure, liquid-liquid extraction of the perhydrogenated product, concentration, and GC/MS assay. The method demonstrated good overall recovery (102.56 %) with %CV (inter-assay) of less than 13%, and a limit of detection of 0.0156 ?g/g. Analysis of meconium samples from a study population in the Philippines (n = 70) showed a 2.8% prevalence of fetal exposure to paraquat. PMID:18037033

Posecion, Norberto C.; Ostrea, Enrique M.; Bielawski, Dawn M.

2008-01-01

194

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23

195

Low temperature magnetoresistance and magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube/polyvinyl chloride composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the experimental results of temperature dependent magnetoresistance (MR) and the magnetization studies of iron encapsulated multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composites with different wt% of MWCNTs. Transmission electron microscopy characterization shows that MWCNTs are encapsulated with rod-shaped iron nanoparticles of aspect ratio of ~3. The MR behavior of 1.9 wt% MWCNT/PVC sample shows dominance of forward scattering and wave function shrinkage whereas, weak localization and electron-electron interactions explain the MR data of higher wt% samples (9.1, 16.6 and 44.4 wt%). The composites of 4.7 and 9.1 wt% exhibit ferromagnetic behavior at all temperatures with room temperature coercivities of ~1036 and 628 Oe, respectively.

Vasanthkumar, M. S.; Sameera, I.; Bhatia, Ravi; Prasad, V.; Jayanna, H. S.

2015-01-01

196

Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/  

E-print Network

Temperature-Controlled Vesicle Aggregation in the Mixed System of Sodium n-Dodecyl Sulfate/ n. In Final Form: January 27, 2005 Temperature-controlled vesicle aggregation was investigated in a catanionic place as the temperature reached the critical value (Tc). Tc can be adjusted by the variations

Huang, Jianbin

197

Comparison of rhodomine-WT and sodium chloride tracer transport in a 4th order arctic river  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservative tracers are useful for tracking a parcel of water through a river reach and understanding tracer transport phenomena (i.e. advection, dispersion, and transient storage). Rhodomine- WT (RWT) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are two popular stream tracers. NaCl is considered to be conservative and relatively inexpensive, yet it cannot be detected at very low concentrations. On the other hand, RWT can be detected at very low concentrations (<0.1 ppb), but it is known to photo-degrade and sorb to organic materials. Previous work has compared these tracers with small-scale laboratory analyses and field experiments on small headwater streams. The limitations and advantages to each of these tracers, as applied to large river slug injections, are not clearly understood. This work seeks to answer the following questions: 1) Does RWT improve the tracer window of detection (time of tracer arrival to time of tracer non-detection), compared to NaCl? 2) Are there differences in the late-time tailing behavior of each tracer? More specifically, can we compare RWT and NaCl breakthrough curve tail shapes to understand processes contributing to late time solute transport (transient storage or sorption-desorption)? During the summer of 2012, combined slug additions of RWT and NaCl were injected into a 1.5-kilometer reach on the Kuparuk River, a 4th order tundra river underlain by continuous permafrost located on Alaska's North Slope. Fluorescence and electrical conductivity were continuously logged at the upstream and downstream ends of the reach. Preliminary results show that the window of detection is expanded when using RWT under both high and low flow conditions by 0.2 times the advective transport timescale. Tail shapes are more similar under higher discharge conditions and dissimilar under lower discharge conditions. For example, using an exponential regression model (c(t) = eat) to quantify tail shapes, at Q = 500 l/s the exponential coefficient ratio, aRWT:aNaCl, is 0.80, while at Q = 1400 l/s aRWT:aNaCl is 0.98 (Figure 1). We expect to expand the scope of our results by analyzing a larger set of experiments and exploring different modeling techniques of BTC tails. These results have implications for experimental design of conservative tracer additions in large rivers. Differences in RWT behavior at various flow conditions indicate limitations for its use as a conservative tracer at lower discharges on a given reach. At higher discharges, RWT provides the benefit of a broader data set without considerable effects from sorption-desorption processes. Figure 1: NaCl and RWT BTC tails (tpk - t99) under two contrasting discharge conditions. A more defined difference in tail shape is present at 500 l/s compared to 1400 l/s. Also, the window of detection is longer for RWT compared to NaCl under both flow conditions.

Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

2012-12-01

198

The effects of temperature and pressure on goldchloride speciation in hydrothermal fluids: a Raman spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman spectra have been obtained for goldchloride solutions at elevated temperature and pressure, with gold concentrations of 0.005 to 0.04 M and varying pH. A hydrothermal cell has been developed that allows Raman analyses up to 300C and 2 kbar. Using simple Au (III) chloride solutions at low pH and up to 300C, the expected transformation to Au (I) with

Pamela J Murphy; Gary Stevens; Mandy S LaGrange

2000-01-01

199

[Role of renal and extrarenal mechanisms in the regulation of sodium blood levels after intravenous administration of hypertonic solution of sodium chloride to the rat].  

PubMed

I. v. administration of 1 M and 2 M NaCl solutions (0.17 ml per 100 g body mass) increased sodium concentration in the blood plasma by 2-5% within 10 min. Hypernatriemia and respective hyperosmia were accompanied by the decrease of the protein level in the blood. The amount of NaCl excretion by kidneys within 1.5 hrs was equal to 18 and 39% of the injected sodium load. Close positive correlation was found between the concentration of osmotically active substances in the blood and reabsorption level of osmotically free water in renal tubules. These data suggest existence of at least two mechanisms for regulation of shifts occurring in disturbances of sodium and osmotic balance: 1) extrarenal factor (physico-chemical-the loss of cell water and/or Na influx into the cell); 2) renal factor--an increase in urine Na excretion and osmotically free water reabsorption. PMID:6825885

Monin, Iu G; Goncharevskaia, O A

1983-01-01

200

Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate in the ferroelectric phase  

E-print Network

Temperature dependence of the generalized vibrational density of states of sodium bismuth titanate disordered with respect to the B sublattice. Sodium bismuth titanate Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) is among the group

201

Catalytic liquefaction by zinc chloride melts at pre-pyrolysis temperature  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-phase catalysts have proved effective for opening chemical linkages in subbituminous coal and capping the reactive segments with hydrogen atoms or other low-molecular-weight groups. The preferred temperature range is 275 to 325/sup 0/C (530 to 620/sup 0/F), so that the linkages are opened by controlled catalytic action rather than by thermal pyrolysis which requires appreciably higher temperatures. The best catalyst melt compositions used to date are zinc chloride with 10% water together with tetralin, and zinc chloride with 15% methanol and 3% of zinc metal. Useful residence times range from 30 minutes, or less, to as high as 90 minutes. The products of the treatment have predominately low (300) to medium (3000) molecular weights, analogous to syncrudes and solvent-refined coal. Conversions to pyridine-soluble products of 95% or better are achieved with Wyodak Roland Seam coal, and to date as much as 70% of that coal has been recovered as toluene-solubles (oils and asphaltenes). A major benefit of these conversion conditions is the almost complete absence of by-product char or gas. At these lower temperatures the hydrogen pressures used can be less than in conventional liquefaction; for example, 40 atm rather than 100 atm or more. Hydrogen consumption is significantly lower than in conventional liquefaction; the product yield is higher; and simpler procedures are foreseen for product recovery. The research performed so far clearly shows the industrial potential of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in penetrating and interacting with the mild temperature and pressure of these studies.

Vermeulen, T.; Onu, C.; Joyce, P.J.; Hershkowitz, F.; Grens, E.A.

1980-02-01

202

Pessimum effect of externally applied chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation: Proposed mechanism  

SciTech Connect

Mortars and concretes were subjected to a heat treatment cycle consisting of a pre-set period of 4 h at 23 deg. C followed by accelerated curing at 95 deg. C prior to storage at room temperature in water or limewater, 0.5 M, 2.8 M sodium chloride solutions. It was found that the specimens stored in 0.5 M sodium chloride solution gave a much greater expansion than those stored in limewater or 2.8 M sodium chloride solution. This pessimum influence of chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation deviates from the commonly held view that chlorides mitigate sulphate attack in concretes. The mechanism of the pessimum effect of chlorides on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation, and the final products of the associated phase transformations have been proposed. X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis techniques were used to follow phase transformations.

Ekolu, S.O. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Str, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)]. E-mail: s.ekolu@utoronto.ca; Thomas, M.D.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 4400, Fredericton, N.B., E3B 5A3 (Canada); Hooton, R.D. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, 35 St. George Str, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A4 (Canada)

2006-04-15

203

The influence of temperature during flotation of celestite and calcite with sodium oleate and quebracho  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has been made on the influence of temperature during flotation of the celestite and calcite mineral species, using sodium oleate as the collector and quebracho as the depressant, for a particle size ranging between 80100 A.S.T.M. mesh (177149 ?m). The experiments were conducted on pure minerals in a thermostatted Hallimond tube with working temperatures between 293 and 323

F. Herninz Bermdez de Castro; A. Glvez Borrego

1996-01-01

204

Paradoxical activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) without hypertension in kidney deficient in a regulatory subunit of Na,K-ATPase, FXYD2.  

PubMed

Na,K-ATPase generates the driving force for sodium reabsorption in the kidney. Na,K-ATPase functional properties are regulated by small proteins belonging to the FXYD family. In kidney FXYD2 is the most abundant: it is an inhibitory subunit expressed in almost every nephron segment. Its absence should increase sodium pump activity and promote Na(+) retention, however, no obvious renal phenotype was detected in mice with global deletion of FXYD2 (Arystarkhova et al. 2013). Here, increased total cortical Na,K-ATPase activity was documented in the Fxyd2(-/-) mouse, without increased ?1?1 subunit expression. We tested the hypothesis that adaptations occur in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), a major site of sodium adjustments. Na,K-ATPase immunoreactivity in DCT was unchanged, and there was no DCT hypoplasia. There was a marked activation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC; Slc12a3) in DCT, predicted to increase Na(+) reabsorption in this segment. Specifically, NCC total increased 30% and NCC phosphorylated at T53 and S71, associated with activation, increased 4-6 fold. The phosphorylation of the closely related thick ascending limb (TAL) apical NKCC2 (Slc12a1) increased at least twofold. Abundance of the total and cleaved (activated) forms of ENaC ?-subunit was not different between genotypes. Nonetheless, no elevation of blood pressure was evident despite the fact that NCC and NKCC2 are in states permissive for Na(+) retention. Activation of NCC and NKCC2 may reflect an intracellular linkage to elevated Na,K-ATPase activity or a compensatory response to Na(+) loss proximal to the TAL and DCT. PMID:25472608

Arystarkhova, Elena; Ralph, Donna L; Liu, Yi Bessie; Bouley, Richard; McDonough, Alicia A; Sweadner, Kathleen J

2014-12-01

205

Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to sea-level changes, Floridan aquifer system, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer system, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current sea level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on system responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal sea-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to sea-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind sea-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the sea-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.

Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.

2009-06-01

206

Bleaching of F-centers in sodium chloride at room temperature by electron tunneling  

E-print Network

law t~~- atures, because the elect, rane sre able ta tunnel te boise?jwbs~'y a~wee ~socmct -" with V-centers. Beitsi quebec Batt TIKI ~&rnev 88 heving eh&Pl the energv required to ianiee en F- center in KsCI tharmellv ta be I. gq ev. If ve sesame...

Carroll, Herbert Burnett

2012-06-07

207

Mixed Micelles of Sodium Cholate and Sodium Dodecylsulphate 1:1 Binary Mixture at Different Temperatures Experimental and Theoretical Investigations  

PubMed Central

Micellisation process for sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate in 1?1 molar ratio was investigated in a combined approach, including several experimental methods and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulation. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of mixed micelle was determined by spectrofluorimetric and surface tension measurements in the temperature range of 050C and the values obtained agreed with each other within the statistical error of the measurements. In range of 025C the cmc values obtained are temperature independent while cmc values were increased at higher temperature, which can be explained by the intensive motion of the monomers due to increased temperature. The evidence of existing synergistic effect among different constituent units of the micelle is indicated clearly by the interaction parameter (?1,2) calculated from cmc values according to Rubingh. As the results of the conductivity measurements showed the negative surface charges of the SDS-NaCA micelle are not neutralized by counterions. Applying a 10 s long coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation for system including 30-30 SDS and CA (with appropriate number of Na+ cations and water molecules) we obtained semi-quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Spontaneous aggregation of the surfactant molecules was obtained and the key steps of the micelle formation are identified: First a stable SDS core was formed and thereafter due to the entering CA molecules the size of the micelle increased and the SDS content decreased. In addition the size distribution and composition as well as the shape and structure of micelles are also discussed. PMID:25004142

Jjrt, Balzs; Poa, Mihalj; Fiser, Bla; Sz?ri, Miln; Farka, Zita; Viskolcz, Bla

2014-01-01

208

Interaction of vinyl chloride with poly(vinyl chloride) by inverse gas chromatography: effect of monomer concentration, plasticizer content and temperature.  

PubMed

The interaction of vinyl chloride (VC) with poly(vinyl)chloride) (PVC) has been studied by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The present work focusses on the effect of monomer concentration, temperature and plasticizer content. Values for thermodynamic parameters such as free energy (delta GS), excess free energy (delta GSXS), enthalphy (delta HS), entropy (delta SS) and activity coefficient (gamma S) corresponding to sorption of the monomer (VCM) by the polymer, have been calculated using chromatographic data. It was found that retention of VC by PVC is favored at lower monomer concentrations. Increase in temperature resulted in increase of delta GS, delta GSXS, and gamma S values corresponding to a less spontaneous process or a weaker interaction between VC and PVC. An increase in plasticizer content of the polymer resulted in an increase of degree of binding of the monomer. Data support the hypothesis that at significantly low concentrations of residual monomer, low storage temperatures and high concentrations of plasticizer, in the polymer, the probability of migration of VC from a plastics packaging material into a food contacting phase is markedly reduced. PMID:3765853

Demertzis, P G; Kontominas, M G

1986-08-01

209

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15C) and high temperature (HT; 28C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

210

Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825C to 1300C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

1983-10-01

211

Chloride/bicarbonate exchange in human erythrocytes.  

PubMed

1. The exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the human erythrocyte membrane has been followed by measuring the changes in extracellular pH which occur when chloride-rich erythrocytes are added to chloride-free media containing varying concentrations of bicarbonate and carbonic anhydrase. 2. The dependence of the rate of chloride/bicarbonate exchange on the extracellular concentration of bicarbonate was consistent with the existence of a saturable membrane anion transporter exhibiting Michaelis--Menten kinetics. In a medium containing sodium gluconate buffered to pH 7.0 with imidazole--malate the Km for bicarbonate activation of transport was 0.39 (+/- 0.03) mM and the Vmax was 2033 (+/- 80 m-mole anions exchanged/3 X 10(13) cells. min, at 10 degrees C. 3. Chloride/bicarbonate exchange was temperature-dependent with an Arrhenius activation energy of 19.4 kcal/mole in the temperature range 2--10 degrees C. 4. Exchange of intracellular chloride for extracellular bicarbonate was inhibited by the presence of extracellular halides. Inhibition by chloride, bromide and fluoride was competitive and the affinity of the transport system decreased in the order HCO-3 greater than Cl- greater than Br- greater than F-. The kinetics of inhibition by iodide were complex, but inhibitory effects of low concentrations of iodide were less than those of chloride and bromide. PMID:633149

Lambert, A; Lowe, A G

1978-02-01

212

Double opposite end injection capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection for simultaneous determination of chloride, sodium and potassium in cystic fibrosis diagnosis.  

PubMed

A novel approach for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is presented. A simple and fast procedure to obtain sweat sample was developed. It consists of repeatedly wiping the skin of the forearm with deionized water moisturized cotton swab and extraction in 1mL of deionized water. Double opposite end injection capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductometric detection is used for the analysis of the extract. Chloride, sodium and potassium as the three target ions that participate in the ion transfer across the cellular membranes, and are affected by CF, are simultaneously determined in approximately 3min in a background electrolyte containing 20mM 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid, 20mM l-histidine and 2mM 18-crown-6. By using the target ion ratios rather than the concentrations of each individual ion combined with principal component analysis, the diagnosis of CF can be made more accurately and greatly reduce the number of false positive or negative results as is often the case when single ion (chloride) is analyzed. PMID:25039067

Kub?, Petr; Gregu, Michal; Pokojov, Eva; Sk?i?kov, Jana; Foret, Frantiek

2014-09-01

213

Effect of sodium chloride on glassy and crystalline transitions of wheat starch treated with high hydrostatic pressure: Prediction of solute-induced barostability from nonmonotonic solute-induced thermostability  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat starch was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated in various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0 to near-saturation), in order to explore the effects of salt on glassy and crystalline transitions of starch during the treatment, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For wheat st...

214

Comparative effects of added sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or potassium bicarbonate in the drinking water of broilers, and feed restriction, on the development of the ascites syndrome.  

PubMed

A hypothesis that the ionic composition of drinking water might affect development of the ascites syndrome in broilers was investigated in two trials. The first trial comprised four groups of 650 male chicks. A control treatment was normal tap water and the other three treatments comprised the addition to the tap water of 1,000 mg/L sodium as NaCl, 5,000 mg/L NH4Cl, or 5,000 mg/L KHCO3, supplied from age 2 to 47 d. At Day 28, equally sized subsets of these groups were moved to individual cages, where they received a severe exposure to ambient cold. The development of the ascites syndrome was monitored by measurements of hematocrit and arterial blood oxygen saturation (PaO2) by oximetry, body weight, and examination of dead birds for cause of death. Mortality from ascites in cold-exposed birds from Days 28 to 47 was 28, 48, 40, and 16% in the tap water, NaCl, NH4Cl, and KHCO3 groups, respectively; only the NaCl mortality was significantly different from the tap water mortality. The KHCO3 treatment increased PaO2 (compared with tap water treatment) at Day 28 by 5.5% and at Day 35 by 10.5%, but not at Day 42. The KHCO3 caused a reduction in body weight, which was 13% less than the tap water group at Day 42, probably due to a chronic toxicity. The second trial specifically examined the same parameters with lower water levels of KHCO3 (3,000 and 1,000 mg/L), in comparison to a 10% feed restriction protocol, in order to clarify whether the increased PaO2 was due to a specific effect of the KHCO3 or was a metabolic manifestation of a reduced growth rate. The 3,000 mg/L KHCO3 treatment had no effect on PaO2, but the 1,000 mg/L treatment augmented PaO2 by 5.3% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), without reducing the final body weight. The feed restriction group showed an elevated PaO2 of 5.4% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), with no reduction in the final body weight. The inclusion of 1,000 mg/L of KHCO3 into the drinking water of broilers or a temporary 10% feed restriction may be means to augment PaO2. PMID:9733114

Shlosberg, A; Bellaiche, M; Berman, E; Ben David, A; Deeb, N; Cahaner, A

1998-09-01

215

Design of High Temperature Ultrasonic Linear Arrays for Under-Sodium Viewing  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the design process for high temperature ultrasonic phased array transducers for imaging in liquid sodium at temperatures up to 260C. The project is funded by the USDOE Generation IV Reactor Program and includes collaboration with the Japanese Atomic Energy Agency. The transducer system is being designed to be able to provide images inside a sodium cooled fast reactor, to support operation and maintenance activities including potentially location of looseor damaged parts during service outages. The prototype transducer array is being designed for 8 to 16, 3MHz rectangular lead niobate (K-81) or bismuth titanate (K-15) piezoelectric elements spaced at ?/2 (wavelength in sodium). A nickel or nickel alloy faceplate serves as the sodium wetting surface. Scan angle of the focused ultrasonic beam is 30 degrees. Imaging spatial resolution is ? 1mm. The array is designed to be operated using a commercial phased array control system and it is planned that array testing will be performed in room temperature water, hot oil (260C), and molten sodium (260C).

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Bond, Leonard J.; Jones, Anthony M.; Peters, Timothy J.

2010-11-07

216

Narrowband sodium lidar for the measurements of mesopause region temperature and wind.  

PubMed

We report here a narrowband high-spectral resolution sodium temperature/wind lidar recently developed at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) in Hefei, China (31.5 N, 117 E). Patterned after the Colorado State University (CSU) narrowband sodium lidar with a dye laser-based transmitter, the USTC sodium temperature/wind lidar was deployed with a number of technical improvements that facilitate automation and ease of operation; these include a home constructed pulsed dye amplifier (PDA), a beam-steering system, a star-tracking program, and an electronic timing control. With the averaged power of ?1.2 W output from PDA and the receiving telescope diameter of 0.76 m, our lidar system has a power aperture product of ?0.55 Wm(2) and is comparable to the CSU and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) sodium lidar systems. The uncertainties of typical measurements induced by photon noise and laser locking fluctuation for the temperature and wind with a 2 km vertical and 15 min temporal resolutions under the nighttime clear sky condition are estimated to be ?1.0 K and ?1.5 m/s, respectively, at the sodium peak (e.g., 91 km), and 8 K and 10 m/s, respectively, at both sodium layer edges (e.g., 81 km and 105 km). The USTC narrowband sodium lidar has been operated regularly during the night since November 2011. Using the initial data collected, we demonstrate the reliability and suitability of these high resolution and precision datasets for studying the wave perturbations in the mesopause region. PMID:22859028

Li, Tao; Fang, Xin; Liu, Wei; Gu, Sheng-Yang; Dou, Xiankang

2012-08-01

217

Solvatochromic Probe Behavior within Choline Chloride-Based Deep Eutectic Solvents: Effect of Temperature and Water.  

PubMed

Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown potential as promising environmentally friendly alternatives to conventional solvents. Many common and popular DESs are obtained by simply mixing a salt and a H-bond donor. Properties of such a DES depend on its constituents. Change in temperature and addition of water, a benign cosolvent, can change the physicochemical properties of DESs. The effect of changing temperature and addition of water on solvatochromic probe behavior within three DESs formed from choline chloride combined with 1,2-ethanediol, glycerol, and urea, respectively, in 1:2 mol ratios termed ethaline, glyceline, and reline is presented. Increase in temperature results in reduced H-bond donating acidity of the DESs. Dipolarity/polarizability and H-bond accepting basicity do not change with changing temperature of the DESs. The response of the fluorescence probe pyrene also indicates a decrease in the polarity of the DESs as temperature is increased. Addition of water to DES results in increased dipolarity/polarizability and a decrease in H-bond accepting basicity. Except for pyrene, solvatochromic probes exhibit responses close to those predicted from ideal-additive behavior with slight preferential solvation by DES within the aqueous mixtures. Pyrene response reveals significant preferential solvation by DES and/or the presence of solvent-solvent interactions, especially within aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline, the DESs constituted of H-bond donors with hydroxyl functionalities. FTIR absorbance and Raman spectroscopic measurements of aqueous DES mixtures support the outcomes from solvatochromic probe responses. Aqueous mixtures of ethaline and glyceline possess relatively more interspecies H-bonds as compared to aqueous mixtures of reline, where interstitial accommodation of water within the reline molecular network appears to dominate. PMID:25418894

Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, Siddharth

2014-12-18

218

Effect of sodium chloride and nitroprusside on protein carbonyl groups content and antioxidant enzyme activity in leaves of corn seedlings Zea mays L.  

PubMed

The effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on protein carbonyl group content and activity of antioxidant enzymes was investigated in leaves of maize seedlings. Incubation with NaCl and SNP+NaCl increased the content of carbonyl proteins after 24 h. Treatment with SNP+NaCl during 48 h showed lower and after 72 h higher carbonyl protein content than that in the control. Catalase activity was higher in the leaves of SNP+NaCl-treated than in the leaves of SNP-treated seedlings after 24 h. Ascorbate peroxidase activity increased after incubation with 0.2 mM SNP for 24 h. Significant increment of guaiacol peroxidase activity was obtained in all treated groups in comparison with the control after 72 h. Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased after 48 h seedling treatment with NaCl or SNP and 72 h seedling incubation with NaCl. Under experimental conditions used, glutathione reductase activity was virtually not affected. It is proposed that SNP can be used to prevent salt-induced oxidative stress in maize. PMID:22860405

Vasylyk, Yu V; Semchuk, N M; Lushchak, Ok V; Lushchak, V I

2012-01-01

219

[Inhibition of growth of E. coli cells by anolites of sodium and potassium chloride after processing solutions in a diaphragmatic electrolyzer].  

PubMed

The relationship between the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride and potassium anolites, obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser, and the physicochemical parameters of solutions was compared with that between the inhibitory effect and physicochemical properties of hypochlorites obtained after treating the solutions in an electrolyser having no diaphragm was compared. The biological activity of solutions containing molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ions was determined by their effect on the growth of E. coli cells. After a 5-min incubation of cells with each of the oxidizers, the bacterial growth stopped and was not restored during one day. The conclusion is made that the oxidizers irreversibly disturb the barrier properties of cell membranes and, in some cases, destroy cells. In model solutions, as well as in solutions treated after heating on a water bath or after the addition of sodium thiosulfate, a delay in the start of E. coli growth occurs. After the lag-phase, the repair of cells sets on, and after a day the optical density of cells increases and approaches the control. PMID:10079921

Miroshnikov, A I

1998-01-01

220

Temperature and concentration effects in electron-stimulated desorption of sodium atoms from sodium layers adsorbed on tungsten coated with a gold film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The yield and energy distributions of sodium atoms upon electron-stimulated desorption from sodium layers adsorbed on tungsten coated with a gold film are investigated for the first time as functions of the thickness of the gold film, the concentration of deposited sodium, and the surface temperature. It is found that the energy distributions exhibit two peaks, namely, a narrow peak with a maximum at about 0.15 eV, whose intensity continuously increases with increasing temperature, and a broad peak with a maximum at about 0.35 eV, whose intensity either decreases or remains constant with increasing temperature. It is shown that both peaks arise as a result of the same excitation, which gives rise to different channels of electron-stimulated desorption of sodium atoms. Possible mechanisms of electron-stimulated desorption and the kinetics of destruction of the surface coating are discussed.

Ageev, V. N.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.; Potekhina, N. D.

2008-08-01

221

Shuttle suppression in room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries using ion selective polymer membranes.  

PubMed

A sodiated Nafion-coating on a porous polypropylene backbone was used as a cation selective separator for room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries. The capacity of the cells after 20 cycles could be enhanced by 75% to 350 mA h g(sulfur)(-1) using the new separator. PMID:24522659

Bauer, I; Kohl, M; Althues, H; Kaskel, S

2014-03-25

222

Moderate temperature sodium cells. I - Transition metal disulfide cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TiS2, VS2, and Nb(1.1)S2 transition metal disulfides were evaluated as cathode materials for a moderate temperature rechargeable Na cell operating at 130 C. The 1st discharge of TiS2 results in a capacity of 0.85 eq/mole; approximately half of the Na in the 1st phase spanning the Na range from zero to 0.30 and almost all the Na in the 2nd phase spanning the 0.37 to 0.80 range are rechargeable. VS2 intercalates up to one mole of Na/mole of VS2 in the 1st discharge; the resulting Na(x)VS2 ternary consists of 3 phases in the 3 ranges of Na from zero to 1. Niobium disulfide undergoes a phase change in the 1st discharge; the average rechargeable capacity in extended cycling of this cathode is 0.50 eq/mole.

Abraham, K. M.; Pitts, L.; Schiff, R.

1980-01-01

223

Liquid-metal electrode to enable ultra-low temperature sodium-beta alumina batteries for renewable energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial sodium-sulphur or sodium-metal halide batteries typically need an operating temperature of 300-350?C, and one of the reasons is poor wettability of liquid sodium on the surface of beta alumina. Here we report an alloying strategy that can markedly improve the wetting, which allows the batteries to be operated at much lower temperatures. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that addition of caesium to sodium can markedly enhance the wettability. Single cells with Na-Cs alloy anodes exhibit great improvement in cycling life over those with pure sodium anodes at 175 and 150?C. The cells show good performance even at as low as 95?C. These results demonstrate that sodium-beta alumina batteries can be operated at much lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a strategy to use liquid metals in advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Y.; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01

224

Effect of temperature on accumulation of methylmercuric chloride and p,p'DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amounts of mercury and DDT residues accumulated from water by yearling rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) in the laboratory increased as water temperature increased. Fish exposed to methylmercuric chloride at concentrations of 234-263 parts per trillion for 12 wk at 5, 10, and 15 C accumulated 1.19, 1.71, and 1.96 ppm; fish exposed to p,p'DDT at concentrations of 133-176 parts per trillion accumulated 3.76, 5.93, and 6.82 ppm. Concentrations of mercury accumulated by the fish were significantly different (P < 0.01) at each of the three temperatures, and the concentrations of DDT were significantly different at 5 and 10 and 5 and 15 C. Throughout the period of exposure, the concentration factors (concentration of contaminant in the fish/concentration in water) at each of the three temperatures were far higher for p,p'DDT than for methylmercuric chloride.

Reinert, Robert E.; Stone, Linda J.; Willford, Wayne A.

1974-01-01

225

Behavior of UO2 and fissium in sodium vapor atmosphere at temperatures up to 2800 C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique was developed to study the behavior of fuel and fission products in out-of-pile tests in a sodium vapor atmosphere. Evaporation rates of UO2 were measured up to 2800 C. The evaporation is found to depend on temperature and the active surface. Evaporation restructures the surface of the samples, however no new active surface is formed; UO2 can form well shaped crystals and curious erosion products. The efficiency of the used condenser/filter lines is 99.99%. In an HCDA, all the evaporated substances condense in the sodium pool. Thermal reduction of the UO2 reduces the oxygen potential of the system. The final composition at 2500 C is UO1.95. The only influence of the sodium vapor is found for the diffusion of UO2 into the thoria of the crucible. Compared with experiments in an atmosphere of pure argon, the diffusion rate is reduced.

Feuerstein, H.; Oschinski, J.

1986-11-01

226

Predictive thermal inactivation model for effects and interactions of temperature, NaCl, sodium pyrophosphate and sodium lactate on Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects and interactions of heating temperature (60 to 73.9C), salt (0.0 to 4.5% w/v), sodium pyrophosphate (0.0 to 0.5% w/v), and sodium lactate (0.0 to 4.5% w/v) on the heat resistance of a four-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in 75% lean ground beef were examined. Meat samples in st...

227

Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, acidified sodium chlorite, and potassium sorbate on populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on fresh beef.  

PubMed

The effects of selected food-grade antimicrobial agents at decreasing the number of pathogenic bacteria on fresh beef were determined. Beef cubes inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, or Staphylococcus aureus were sprayed with 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 0.1% potassium sorbate (PS), or an equal mix of any two solutions. The beef samples were placed on absorbent tray pads sprayed with each single or mixed solution, wrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, heat sealed, and stored at 4 degrees C for 2 weeks. Surface sanitization using CPC, ASC, or an equal mix of these two agents effectively reduced microbial numbers on the beef during storage. At day 0, ASC and the CPC-ASC mix reduced the number of E. coli O157:H7 by 2.50 and 1.58 log CFU/cm2, respectively. CPC demonstrated a 3.25-log reduction of L. monocytogenes and a 4.70-log reduction of S. aureus at 14 days. The CPC-PS mix reduced E. coli O157:H7 numbers by 1.46, L. monocytogenes by 2.95, and S. aureus by 4.41 log CFU/cm2 at 14 days. PS alone and the mixed solutions, CPC-ASC, CPC-PS, or ASC-PS, were not as effective as ASC or CPC alone. To effectively reduce E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, or S. aureus numbers, higher (> 0.1%) concentrations of PS were necessary. Loss of redness and light color of beef surfaces consistently coincided with decreases in pH for ASC-treated beef samples. PMID:14968963

Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

2004-02-01

228

Effect of Temperature and Chloride Ion Concentration on Corrosion of Passive Films on Nano/Ultrafine Grained Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solution temperature, concentration of chloride ions, and grain refinement on the corrosion resistance of the passive film formed on 304 stainless steels in borate buffer solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results showed that the passive films formed on the surface of 304 stainless steels possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature, the corrosion resistance of the passive film of coarse and nano/ultrafine grained stainless steels decreased. However, the corrosion resistance of the passive film in nano/ultrafine grained stainless steel was higher than that in the coarse grained one. Moreover, in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests, chloride ions changed semiconductor characteristics of the passive film formed on the surface of stainless steel.

Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

2014-12-01

229

Effect of Temperature and Chloride Ion Concentration on Corrosion of Passive Films on Nano/Ultrafine Grained Stainless Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of solution temperature, concentration of chloride ions, and grain refinement on the corrosion resistance of the passive film formed on 304 stainless steels in borate buffer solution were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results showed that the passive films formed on the surface of 304 stainless steels possessed n- and p-type semiconductor characteristics. With the increase of solution temperature, the corrosion resistance of the passive film of coarse and nano/ultrafine grained stainless steels decreased. However, the corrosion resistance of the passive film in nano/ultrafine grained stainless steel was higher than that in the coarse grained one. Moreover, in cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests, chloride ions changed semiconductor characteristics of the passive film formed on the surface of stainless steel.

Jinlong, Lv; Hongyun, Luo

2014-09-01

230

Organic electrolytes for sodium batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of earlier given status reports in connection with the project on organic electrolytes for sodium batteries is presented. The aim of the investigations was to develop new room temperature molten salts electrolytes mainly with radical substituted heterocyclic organic chlorides mixed with aluminum chloride. The new electrolytes should have an ionic conductivity comparable with MEIC1:AlCl3 or better. A computer model program MOPAC (Molecular Orbital Package) was to be included to calculate theoretically reduction potentials for a variety of organic cations. Furthermore, MOPAC could be utilized to predict the electron densities, and then give a prediction of the stability of the organic cation.

Vestergaard, B.

1992-09-01

231

Ionic and excited species in irradiated poly(vinyl chloride) doped with aromatic admixtures: low temperature studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of temperature (77290 K) on the fate of dopant radical ions and respective excited states in irradiated poly(vinyl\\u000a chloride) (PVC) matrix, doped with pyrene, (Py) and tris(2-ethylhexyl) trimellitate (TOTM) is described. At 77 K dopant radical\\u000a ions start to recombinevia tunneling charge transfer, leading to weak isothermal luminescence (ITL). The wavelength-selected radiothermoluminescence\\u000a (WS RTL) broad maxima observed for

J. Mayer; M. Szadkowska-Nicze

2008-01-01

232

The peculiar temperature response of dynamic rheological behaviors of poly (vinyl chloride)\\/trioctyl trimellitate (100\\/70) system  

Microsoft Academic Search

he dynamic rheological behavior, application of time-temperature superposition (TTS) and the failure mechanism of TTS are studied for the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)\\/trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) (100\\/70) system. The Arrhenius equation, WLF equation, mathematical non-linear fitting and manual shift are applied to TTS fitting. For the PVC\\/TOTM (100\\/70) system, none of those methods can give well-superimposed master curves with either single horizontal

Jiajia Zou; Feng You; Lin Su; Zhuo Yang; Guangshun Chen; Shaoyun Guo

2012-01-01

233

Water-soluble copolymers. XLV. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride  

SciTech Connect

Water-soluble, low charge density polyampholytes have been synthesized by free-radical terpolymerization of acrylamide (AM) with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC). Terpolymer compositions obtained by [sup 13]C0NMR reflect monomer feed concentrations. Molecular weights and second virial coefficients range from 3.43 to 19.4 [times] 10[sup 6] g/mol and from 1.63 to 3.61 mL mol/g[sup [minus]2], respectively, as determined by low-angle laser light scattering. Ionic associations were explored by investigating the dilute solution properties as a function of terpolymer concentration, terpolymer charge density, and added electrolytes. Terpolymers with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mol% of both of the cationic (AMTAC) and anionic (NaAMB) monomers were soluble in deionized water, whereas those with 10 and 15 mol% of each monomer required electrolyte addition. The higher-density terpolymers undergo a 700% increase in intrinsic viscosity upon changing NaCl concentration from 0.05 to 1M. Polyelectrolyte behavior could be induced by decreasing solution pH below the pK[sub a] of the NaAMB mer. Intermolecular ionic associations resulting in gel networks were studied utilizing dynamic mechanical analysis.

McCormick, C.L.; Salazar, L.C. (Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg (United States))

1993-05-10

234

Evidence of a two-step process and pathway dependency in the thermodynamics of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/poly(sodium acrylate) complexation.  

PubMed

Recent studies have pointed out the importance of polyelectrolyte assembly in the elaboration of innovative nanomaterials. Beyond their structures, many important questions on the thermodynamics of association remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the complexation between poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PANa) chains using a combination of three techniques: isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), static and dynamic light scattering and electrophoresis. Upon addition of PDADMAC to PANa or vice-versa, the results obtained by the different techniques agree well with each other, and reveal a two-step process. The primary process is the formation of highly charged polyelectrolyte complexes of size 100 nm. The secondary process is the transition towards a coacervate phase made of rich and poor polymer droplets. The binding isotherms measured are accounted for using a phenomenological model that provides the thermodynamic parameters for each reaction. Small positive enthalpies and large positive entropies consistent with a counterion release scenario are found throughout this study. Furthermore, this work stresses the importance of the underestimated formulation pathway or mixing order in polyelectrolyte complexation. PMID:25347132

Vitorazi, L; Ould-Moussa, N; Sekar, S; Fresnais, J; Loh, W; Chapel, J-P; Berret, J-F

2014-12-21

235

Influence of pH, benzoic acid, glutathione, EDTA, 4-hexylresorcinol, and sodium chloride on the pressure inactivation kinetics of mushroom polyphenol oxidase.  

PubMed

Pressure inactivation of mushroom PPO was studied for pH values ranging from 4 to 8, and the effect of some antibrowning agents on the pressure stability of mushroom PPO at pH 6.5 was evaluated. pH reduction below 6.5 resulted in a lowered inactivation threshold pressure and an increase of the absolute value of the activation volume (or a decrease of the z(p) value), the latter two parameters reflecting the pressure dependency of the inactivation rate constant. An increase in pH from 6.5 to 8, on the other hand, did only marginally affect the pressure stability of the enzyme. Mushroom PPO at pH 6.5 was markedly sensitized toward pressure by the presence of 2.5 mM 4-hexylresorcinol and slightly stabilized by the presence of 5 mM EDTA. The presence of 5 mM glutathione, sodium chloride, or benzoic acid caused no significant alteration of the enzyme pressure stability. Only in the presence of 4-hexylresorcinol, significant changes of the activation volume and z(p) value were noticed. PMID:10552679

Weemaes, C A; Ludikhuyze, L R; Van den Broeck, I; Hendrickx, M E

1999-09-01

236

Effect of chlorine, sodium chloride, trisodium phosphate, and ultraviolet radiation on the reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and mesophilic aerobic bacteria from eggshell surface.  

PubMed

Eggshell sanitizing practices are necessary to improve microbiological safety of fresh hen eggs and their products. In this work, the effects of 100 mg/liter free chlorine (chl), 3% sodium chloride (NaCl), 1, 5, and 12% trisodium phosphate (TSP) in wash solutions, and UVR (ultraviolet radiation; 4.573 microW/cm2) were studied at different times on uninoculated and Yersinia enterocolitica-inoculated eggs. On uninoculated eggs, the best results were obtained with 100 mg/liter chlorine and UV exposure for >25 min, with reductions of 1.28 and 1.60 log cycles, respectively, compared to the average bacterial count (4.55 log CFU/egg) on the control (untreated eggs). On Y. enterocolitica-inoculated eggs, highest reductions of the average bacterial count (7.35 log CFU/egg) were obtained with 5 and 12% TSP and 100 mg/liter chl. The decrease obtained with 12% TSP (3.74-log reduction) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those obtained with the remaining treatments. Y. enterocolitica was more resistant to UVR than the eggshell natural mesophilic aerobic microflora, except when low inoculum (4.39 log CFU/egg) was assayed. Changes in eggshell microstructure were measured by the blue lake staining method. The presence of Yersinia and Salmonella in eggshell natural flora was also investigated. PMID:11601717

Favier, G L; Escudero, M E; de Guzman, A M

2001-10-01

237

Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus on sliced roast beef by cetylpyridinium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite.  

PubMed

The effects of 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and a mix of equal volume of the two (0.25% CPC-0.06% ASC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were evaluated on inoculated sliced roast beef. The antimicrobial agents were, respectively, sprayed on the beef surfaces and tray absorbent pads, and samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 10 days (d). At 0 d, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were reduced to undetectable levels in 2 h after spraying with CPC. CPC-ASC treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus by 4.07, 6.37 and 4.32 log cfu/cm2, respectively, at 0 d. ASC treatment reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 by 6.09 log cfu/cm2 at 10 d. CPC treatment caused a slight discoloration and ASC-treated beef surfaces demonstrated the lowest redness and highest lightness. The grey colour and off-odour were significant in the ASC-treated beef samples, while CPC-treated samples demonstrated less off-odor and brown colour from 0 to 4 d. Based on our results, it appears that the application of CPC on sliced roast beef can extend the shelf-life of the product without impairing its quality. PMID:16943099

Lim, Kyungwha; Mustapha, Azlin

2007-02-01

238

Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.  

PubMed

Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles. PMID:22062918

Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

2008-07-01

239

Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride addition plus tumbling procedures on technological parameters, physical properties and visual appearance of sous vide cooked beef.  

PubMed

Beef muscles cooked by the sous vide system were evaluated for the effects of pre-injection tumbling, brine addition and post-injection tumbling on technological parameters, physical properties, visual appearance and tissue microstructure. The muscles were injected at 120% (over original weight) with a brine formulated to give a concentration of 3.5% whey protein concentrate and 0.7% sodium chloride on an injected raw product basis. Pre-injection tumbling did not affect most of the evaluated parameters. Brine addition reduced significantly the cooking and total weight losses. Total weight loss was 7.2% for injected muscles, and significantly higher (28.2%) for non-injected ones. Brine incorporation increased pH and reduced shear force values of cooked muscles. Extended post-injection tumbling (5rpm-10h) improved brine distribution and visual appearance, and also diminished the shear force values of cooked muscles. However, this treatment increased the weight losses of post-injection tumbling and cooking-pasteurization stages. PMID:22060988

Szerman, N; Gonzalez, C B; Sancho, A M; Grigioni, G; Carduza, F; Vaudagna, S R

2007-07-01

240

Elasticity and structure of sodium disilicate glass at high pressures and high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the structures and physical properties of silicate melts under extreme conditions is essential for understanding the dynamics of the earth's interior. A complete understanding of physical and thermodynamic properties of melts at high pressures requires systematic studies from low temperature (super-cooled state - glass) to high temperature (liquid state - melt). In this study, we focus on the super-cooled liquid. Sodium disilicate (Na2Si2O5) glass is a good model material for studying basalt magma since they have similar ratios of non-bridging oxygen to tetrahedrally coordinated cations (NBO/T). Synthesized sodium disilicate glass was loaded into a Paris-Edinburgh (PE) cell and pressed up to 4.5GPa and heated up to 1000oC at the HPCAT beamline 16-BM-B of the Advanced Photon Source. Elastic wave travel times of the amorphous sample were collected using the ultrasonic pulse reflection method with a 10o Y-cut LiNbO3 transducer. X-ray radiographs were used to determine the elastic wave travel distance. Room temperature velocity results show minimum velocity values between 2-3 GPa for both the longitudinal wave velocity (Vp) and the transverse wave velocity (Vs), similar pressure dependence of elastic wave velocities at ambient temperature have also been observed in pure SiO2 from previous studies. Under high pressure (3 GPa), both Vp and Vs for sodium disilicate glass remain nearly constant with increasing temperature before the glass transition temperature (~700oC at ambient pressure). An 8.7% drop in Vp and a 11.9% drop in Vs were observed above the glass transition temperature. Structure information of the glass sample has recently been collected and the results will be presented in the context of observed velocity drops. We acknowledge the supports of COMPRES on facility development, of GSECARS for the Paris-Edinburgh press system, and of HPCAT for elastic wave velocity measurement developments.

Yu, T.; Kono, Y.; Sakamaki, T.; Jing, Z.; Wang, Y.; Shen, G.

2012-12-01

241

Sympathetic stimulation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport in the generation of salt-sensitive hypertension.  

PubMed

Excessive renal efferent sympathetic nerve activity contributes to hypertension in many circumstances. Although both hemodynamic and tubular effects likely participate, most evidence supports a major role for ?-adrenergic receptors in mediating the direct epithelial stimulation of sodium retention. Recently, it was reported, however, that norepinephrine activates the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) by stimulating ?-adrenergic receptors. Here, we confirmed this effect and developed an acute adrenergic stimulation model to study the signaling cascade. The results show that norepinephrine increases the abundance of phosphorylated NCC rapidly (161% increase), an effect largely dependent on ?-adrenergic receptors. This effect is not mediated by the activation of angiotensin II receptors. We used immunodissected mouse distal convoluted tubule to show that distal convoluted tubule cells are especially enriched for ??-adrenergic receptors, and that the effects of adrenergic stimulation can occur ex vivo (79% increase), suggesting they are direct. Because the 2 protein kinases, STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (encoded by STK39) and oxidative stress-response kinase 1, phosphorylate and activate NCC, we examined their roles in norepinephrine effects. Surprisingly, norepinephrine did not affect STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase abundance or its localization in the distal convoluted tubule; instead, we observed a striking activation of oxidative stress-response kinase 1. We confirmed that STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase is not required for NCC activation, using STK39 knockout mice. Together, the data provide strong support for a signaling system involving ??-receptors in the distal convoluted tubule that activates NCC, at least in part via oxidative stress-response kinase 1. The results have implications about device- and drug-based treatment of hypertension. PMID:24799612

Terker, Andrew S; Yang, Chao-Ling; McCormick, James A; Meermeier, Nicholas P; Rogers, Shaunessy L; Grossmann, Solveig; Trompf, Katja; Delpire, Eric; Loffing, Johannes; Ellison, David H

2014-07-01

242

Effect of different ratios of sodium to chloride using isokalemic diets for growing and finishing swine raised during hot weather  

E-print Network

sprinkler sy tern (2 min out of ten) when the tesperatute was over 25 C. Average temperature during the grcwer trial was of 29. 5 C N similar experiment was performed with seventy two crcsslrwd finishing pigs (average initial weight of 52. 8 kq... is therefore ver v important for swine: I:igh ambient t mpera tune affe. 6- t). eir fee efficiency, rate of weight gains nn". carcass compositicr IHolne nnd Ccrv, I667) . The body temperature of the adult pig averages 39 C with a normal range of 38 6 to a0...

Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othon

2012-06-07

243

Characterization of condensed phase species produced during the thermal treatment of metal chlorides on a graphite platform using surface analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification and distribution of condensed phase species produced on a graphite platform at temperatures between 200 and 2000 C was studied using data obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive (ED) X-ray spectrometry and Raman microanalysis. The first general conclusion is that there is no unique path in the thermal transformation of the metal chlorides tested, even for a particular metal chloride. Sodium, potassium and calcium chlorides showed similar vaporization characteristics, evolving mainly as monochlorides, while magnesium, beryllium and aluminium mainly vaporized as free atoms, following transformation caused by hydrolysis. The replacement of chlorine atoms by oxygen occurred at lower temperatures for beryllium and aluminium chlorides than for magnesium chloride. There were some particular areas on the platform surface where other mechanisms, such as hydrolysis of calcium chloride and dissociation of sodium chloride in the condensed phase, seemed occasionally to occur to a minor extent.

Castro, M. A.; Faulds, K.; Smith, W. E.; Aller, A. J.; Littlejohn, D.

2004-12-01

244

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150C. The cells can even operate at 95C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01

245

Near fifty percent sodium substituted lanthanum manganitesA potential magnetic refrigerant for room temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

Nearly half of lanthanum sites in lanthanum manganites were substituted with monovalent ion-sodium and the compound possessed distorted orthorhombic structure. Ferromagnetic ordering at 300?K and the magnetic isotherms at different temperature ranges were analyzed for estimating magnetic entropy variation. Magnetic entropy change of 1.5?Jkg{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} was observed near 300?K. An appreciable magnetocaloric effect was also observed for a wide range of temperatures near 300?K for small magnetic field variation. Heat capacity was measured for temperatures lower than 300?K and the adiabatic temperature change increases with increase in temperature with a maximum of 0.62?K at 280?K.

Sethulakshmi, N.; Anantharaman, M. R., E-mail: mraiyer@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, Kerala (India); Al-Omari, I. A. [Department of Physics, Sultan Qaboos University, PC 123 Muscat, Sultanate of Oman (Oman); Suresh, K. G. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

2014-03-03

246

Temperature dependent structural and spectroscopic studies of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite  

SciTech Connect

We report on temperature dependent crystal structures of sodium gallosilicate nitrite sodalite Na{sub 8}[GaSiO{sub 4}]{sub 6}(NO{sub 2}){sub 2} between 293 and 973 K. The crystal structures were refined from X-ray powder data Rietveld refinements in the space group P4-bar 3n. The gallium and silicon atoms on the tetrahedral framework positions are totally ordered. The nitrite anion was found slightly away from the center of the sodalite cage, which is tetrahedrally surrounded by four sodium atoms. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was calculated from the lattice expansion data. The change of the geometries of the framework has been observed on heating the polycrystalline sample, that is, T-O bond lengths slightly decreased, T-O-T angle non-linearly increased, tilt of the TO{sub 4} tetrahedra decreased (framework untwist) and their tetragonal tetrahedral distortion decreased with some scatterings. Of particular note, the tetragonal tetrahedra distortion of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra approached close to zero at higher temperatures, which points to a distortion direction to a relaxed state of GaO{sub 4} tetrahedra on heating. The mobility of sodium atoms above 600 K leads to different sodium content in some sodalite cages and results in the appearance of different domains. The consequence of this domain formation to the strain of the crystalline system and to the average crystals size have been explained. Both Fourier transform infrared and micro-Raman spectra showed typical absorption bands of nitrite sodalite. The change of the frequency shift and full-width at half-maximum of some selected bands has been studied as function of temperature.

Gesing, Thorsten M. [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)] [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmidt, Burkhard C. [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)] [GZG, Abt. Mineralogie, Universitaet Goettingen, Goldschmidtstrasse 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Murshed, M. Mangir, E-mail: mmurshe@gwgd.de [Institut fuer Mineralogie, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2010-11-15

247

Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy studies of the Mott insulator to superconductor evolution in calcium-sodium-copper-chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The parent compounds of the high-temperature cuprate superconductors are antiferromagnetic Mott insulators. To explain the microscopic mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity, it is first necessary to understand how the electronic states evolve from the parent Mott insulator into the superconducting compounds. This dissertation presents angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of one particular family of the cuprate superconductors, Ca 2-xNaxCuO 2Cl2, to investigate how the single-electron excitations develop throughout momentum space as the system is hole doped from the Mott insulator into a superconductor with a transition temperature of 22 K. These measurements indicate that, due to very strong electron-boson interactions, the quasiparticle residue, Z, approaches zero in the parent Mott insulator due to the formation of small lattice polarons. As a result, many fundamental quantities such as the chemical potential, quasiparticle excitations, and the Fermi surface evolve in manners wholly unexpected from conventional weakly-interacting theories. In addition, highly anisotropic interactions have been observed in momentum space where quasiparticle-like excitations persist to low doping levels along the nodal direction of the d-wave super-conducting gap, in contrast to the unusual excitations near the d-wave antinode. This anisotropy may reflect the propensity of the lightly doped cuprates towards forming a competing, charge-ordered state. These results provide a novel and logically consistent explanation of the hole doping evolution of the lineshape, spectral weight, chemical potential, quasiparticle dispersion, and Fermi surface as Ca2- xNaxCuO2Cl2 evolves from the parent Mott insulator into a high-temperature superconductor.

Shen, Kyle Michael

248

Sodium and hydrogen analysis of room temperature glass corrosion using low energy Cs SIMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion affects commercial float glass production and glasses used to contain high level nuclear waste. In order to prevent the corrosion it is necessary to understand the composition of the corroded glass and the corrosion mechanism taking place. SIMS depth profiling lends itself well to monitoring the compositional changes that occur during the corrosion process. However, most studies have analysed glass that has been corroded using accelerated ageing conditions. In this work a soda-lime glass has been aged at room temperature under known atmospheric humidity for increasing periods of time. The aged glass has then been depth profiled using a low energy (1 keV) Cs beam monitoring both the sodium and hydrogen signals concurrently. The depth profiles show that in the region directly below the glass surface that is severely depleted in sodium, there is an increased level of hydrogen compared to the bulk glass indicating an increase in the water content within this region.

Fearn, S.; McPhail, D. S.; Morris, R. J. H.; Dowsett, M. G.

2006-07-01

249

DOE STI Product/Final Report Number 3 Electrochemical Investigation of Novel Electrolytes for Ambient Temperature Sodium Batteries  

SciTech Connect

The need for low-cost, high-energy density, durable, secondary batteries continues to rise with the demands of the electronics and automobile industries. A room-temperature version of the (high-temperature) ''Zebra Cell'' may provide an interesting technology for portable electronics and transportation. Sodium-based batteries have received attention as an alternative to the lithium-based batteries due to several factors including the absence of dendrite formation during sodium deposition and the abundance of sodium. This work focused on (1) the development of room-temperature ionic liquids (IL) for use in electrochemical devices, including batteries, (2) development and evaluation of secondary sodium batteries using room-temperature ILs, and (3) advancing the fundamental understanding of the electrochemical processes involving ILs and battery technology. Several objectives were accomplished during this program.

Kim, Ketack; Lang, Christopher M.; Doyle, Kevin; Kohl, Paul A.

2005-12-01

250

Effects of heating rate, temperature and iron catalysis on the thermal behaviour and decomposition of 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride.  

PubMed

Runaway reactions arising from the decomposition of thermally unstable materials are a concern in industry due to the potentially devastating effects that they yield. Studies into the occurrence of thermal runaway incidents have shown the most likely cause to be a result of an inadequate investigation of the process prior to its operation on a large-scale. The chlorination of ortho-nitrated carboxylic acids is an industrially important reaction in the fine and agrochemical industries. The products of these reactions, ortho-nitrated acid chlorides, have been involved in runaway incidents that have resulted in violent explosions; hence, their thermal stability must be studied. Previous studies [S.D. Lever, M. Papadaki, Study of condition-dependent decomposition reactions: the thermal behaviour and decomposition of 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride, Part I, J. Hazard. Mater. 115 (2004) 91-100] showed that the decomposition of the parent molecule, 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride, is highly condition-dependent with the sample heating rate and temperature of decomposition playing a preponderant role in the course of the decomposition. Here, we present the results of studies of the decomposition of 2-nitrobenzoyl chloride, when the sample is subjected to various heating treatments, temperatures and in the presence of iron. As the temperature of decomposition was increased from 150 to 162 degrees C, the heat of decomposition was reduced from -215 to -90 kJ/mol. As the heat up rate applied in bringing the sample to the decomposition temperature increased, the heat of decomposition also increased. An increase in the heat up rate from 2 to 7.5 degrees C/min resulted in an increase in the heat of decomposition from -90 to -215 kJ/mol. The presence of iron and silver was observed to lower the heat of decomposition from -185 to -160 and -110 kJ/mol, respectively. Under most conditions investigated, the temperature at which gas flow was initiated was 147-150 degrees C. The presence of iron reduced this temperature to 140 degrees C. Decomposition was observed to take place over two stages, where the sample was heated directly from 40 degrees C at the required heat up rate. Where the sample was heated in stages and where calibrations had been carried out preceding decomposition, the decomposition took place in one stage alone. PMID:16236442

Lever, Sarah D; Papadaki, Maria

2006-03-17

251

Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.  

PubMed

We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <10(3); Medium, 10(3)-10(4); and High, >10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.]. PMID:23473056

Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

2013-01-01

252

Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board.  

PubMed

Currently, seawater flushing is the only management strategy for reducing the number of viable organisms in residual sediments and water of ballast tanks of vessels declaring no ballast on board (NOBOB) that traffic ports of the eastern United States. Previously, we identified several species of freshwater and brackish-water peracarid crustaceans able to survive the osmotic shock that occurs during open-ocean ballast water exchange and, potentially, to disperse over long distances via ballasted ships and NOBOB vessels. We tested the efficacy of concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for eradicating the halotolerant taxa often present in the ballast tanks of NOBOB ships. The lowest brine treatments (30 ppt for 1 h) caused 100% mortality in several species of cladocerans and copepods collected from oligohaline habitats. Several brackish-water peracarid crustaceans, however, including some that can survive in freshwater as well, required higher brine concentrations and longer exposure durations (45-60 ppt for 3-24 h). The most resilient animals were widely introduced peracarid crustaceans that generally prefer mesohaline habitats but do not tolerate freshwater (required brine treatments of 60-110 ppt for 3-24 h). Brine treatments (30 ppt) also required less time to cause 100% mortality for eight taxa compared with treatments using 34 ppt seawater. Based on these experiments and published data, we present treatment strategies for the ballast tank biota often associated with NOBOB vessels entering the Great Lakes region. We estimate the lethal dosage of brine for 95% of the species in our experiments to be 110 ppt (95% confidence interval, 85-192 ppt) when the exposure time is 1 h and 60 ppt (95% confidence interval, 48-98 ppt) when the exposure duration is 6 h or longer. PMID:18811222

Santagata, Scott; Bacela, Karolina; Reid, David F; Mclean, Kevin A; Cohen, Jill S; Cordell, Jeffery R; Brown, Christopher W; Johengen, Thomas H; Ruiz, Gregory M

2009-02-01

253

Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution  

SciTech Connect

The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, H.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

254

The effect of different topical agents (silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and sodium chloride 0.9%) on burn injuries in rats.  

PubMed

It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2??1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

Yksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Bal, Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay

2014-01-01

255

The Effect of Different Topical Agents (Silver Sulfadiazine, Povidone-Iodine, and Sodium Chloride 0.9%) on Burn Injuries in Rats  

PubMed Central

It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2??1?cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

Yksel, Emir Burak; Y?ld?r?m, Alpagan Mustafa; Kuloglu, Tuncay

2014-01-01

256

Dextran sodium sulfate inhibits the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase: lithium chloride purification, a rapid and efficient technique to purify RNA  

PubMed Central

Background Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is commonly used in mouse studies to induce a very reproducible colitis that effectively mimics the clinical and histological features of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, especially ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanisms of action of DSS remain poorly understood, and observations by our laboratory and other groups indicate that DSS contamination of colonic tissues from DSS-treated mice potently inhibits the quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) amplification of mRNA. Results A prior study used poly-A-mediated mRNA purification to remove DSS from RNA extracts, but we herein report a second efficient and cost-effective approach to counteract this inhibition, using lithium chloride precipitation to entirely remove DSS from RNAs. We also explored how DSS interferes with qRT-PCR process, and we report for the first time that DSS can alter the binding of reverse transcriptase to previously primed RNA and specifically inhibits the enzymatic activities of reverse transcriptase and Taq polymerase in vitro. This likely explains why DSS-treated colonic RNA is not suitable to qRT-PCR amplification without a previous purification step. Conclusion In summary, we provide a simple method to remove DSS from colonic RNAs, and we demonstrate for the first time that DSS can inhibit the activities of both polymerase and reverse transcriptase. In order to reliably analyze gene expression in the colonic mucosa of DSS-treated mice, the efficiency rate of qRT-PCR must be the same between all the different experimental groups, including the water-treated control group, suggesting that whatever the duration and the percentage of the DSS treatment, RNAs must be purified. PMID:24010775

2013-01-01

257

The kinetics of barite dissolution and precipitation in water and sodium chloride brines at 44-85C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution rate of natural barite cleavage fragments was measured in deionized water and NaCl brines over the temperature range 44-85C. Dissolution followed first-order kinetics, with an activation energy of 24.9 10.1 kJ/mol. The observed insensitivity to stirring rate and low absolute value of the rate constant (extrapolated k at 25 C = 3.30 1.31 10 -3L/ m2s) indicated desorption rather than volume diffusion as the rate-determining step. The NaCl concentration had no effect on k up to 0.1 M. Barite growth from supersaturated aqueous solutions was also studied. Precipitation followed a second order rate law, k25 C = 162 65 L2/ sm2mol, Ea = 22.0 14.3 kJ/mol, and was not sensitive to pH variation. A different rate law is likely to apply at high supersaturations, where a change in secondary growth morphology was observed.

Christy, Andrew G.; Putnis, Andrew

1993-05-01

258

The kinetics of barite dissolution and precipitation in water and sodium chloride brines at 44--85[degrees]C  

SciTech Connect

Barite (BaSO[sub 4]) is an extremely insoluble salt which is of importance to the petroleum industry as a particularly intractable scaling agent. Barite precipitation in the wellbore environment generally requires mechanical removal, with considerable associated expense and loss of production. An understanding of the thermodynamics and kinetics of barite precipitation and dissolution is clearly important for prediction of where and how fast scaling is likely to occur. The dissolution rate of natural barite cleavage fragments was measured in deionized water and NaCl brines over the temperature range 44--85[degrees]C. Dissolution followed first-order kinetics, with an activation energy of 24.9 [+-] 10.1 kJ/mol. The observed insensitivity to stirring rate and low absolute value of the rate constant (extrapolated k at 25[degrees]C = 3.30 [+-] 1.31 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] L/m[sup 2] s) indicated desorption rather than volume diffusion as the rate-determining step. The NaCl concentration had no effect on k up to 0.1 M. Barite growth from supersaturated aqueous solutions was also studied. Precipitation followed a second-order rate law, k[sub 25[degrees]C] = 162 [+-] 65 L[sup 2]/sm[sup 2] mol, E[sub a] = 22.0 [+-] 14.3 kJ/mol, and was not sensitive to pH variation. A different rate law is likely to apply at high supersaturations, where a change in secondary growth morphology was observed. 16 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Christy, A.G. (Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)); Putnis, A. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

1993-05-01

259

Numerical modeling of two-phase flow in the sodium chloride-water system with applications to seafloor hydrothermal systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explain the observed time-dependent salinity variations in seafloor hydrothermal vent fluids, quasi-numerical and fully numerical fluid flow models of the NaCl-H2O system are constructed. For the quasi-numerical model, a simplified treatment of phase separation of seawater near an igneous dike is employed to obtain rough estimates of the thickness and duration of the two-phase zone, the amount of brine formed, and its distribution in the subsurface. Under the assumption that heat transfer occurs mainly by thermal conduction it is shown that, for a two-meter wide dike, the maximum width of the two phase zone is approximately 20 cm and that a zone of halite is deposited near the dike wall. The two-phase zone is mainly filled with vapor. After 13 days, the two-phase zone begins to disappear at the base of the system, and disappears completely by 16 days. The results of this simplified model agree reasonably well with transient numerical solutions for the analogous two-phase flow in a pure water system. The seafloor values of vapor salinity given by the model are compared with vapor salinity data from the "A" vent at 9-10N on the East Pacific Rise and it is argued that either non-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior or near-surface mixing of brine with vapor in the two-phase region may explain the discrepancies between model predictions and data. For the fully numerical model, the equations governing fluid flow, the thermodynamic relations between various quantities employed, and the coupling of these elements together in a time marching scheme is discussed. The thermodynamic relations are expressed in terms of equations of state, and the latter are shown to vary both smoothly and physically in P-T-X space. In particular, vapor salinity values near the vapor-liquid-halite coexistence surface are shown to be in strong agreement with recently measured values. The fully numerical model is benchmarked against previously published heat pipe and Elder problem simulation results, and is shown to be largely in agreement with those results. Additionally, code output from an approximately one-dimensional scenario is compared to the analytic solution of the classical one-dimensional thermal advection-diffusion equation, and it is found that the numerical output and analytic solution are in strong agreement. A number of simulation results are presented in the context of two-phase flow and phase separation within the framework of the single pass model, a model that has been shown to be useful in the study of seafloor hydrothermal systems. It is found that a quasi-stable two-phase (liquid + vapor) zone at depth below the hydrothermal discharge outlet gives rise to vent fluid with lower than normal seawater salinity. Additionally, it is shown that increasing the spatial extent of the two-phase zone can lower vent fluid salinity, even with the average temperature of the two-phase zone held constant. As the two-phase zone evolves, brine of high salinity and density collects at the bottom of the system and is held there primarily via the effect of vapor on the liquid phase's relative permeability; however, it is found that lowering the temperature of the heat source until the two-phase zone vanishes and allowing the system to evolve for some time results in the flushing of this brine from the system. The resulting pattern of vent fluid salinities resembles that described in a widely held conceptual model of vent fluid salinity variation in seafloor hydrothermal systems, where low salinity fluids emerge from venting systems during early stages, and high salinity fluids emerge at later stages as brine is flushed from the system. The effect of varying the permeability is investigated, and it is found that peaks in vent fluid salinities occur later in time for lower permeabilities than one might expect for a simple linear relationship. Finally, it is argued that the numerical approach used in this thesis may be able to explain the vent fluid salinities and temperatures found at the Main Endeavour Vent Field on the Juan de Fu

Lewis, Kayla C.

260

[Congenital chloride diarrhea].  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare hereditary disease, with a prenatal onset, secondary to a deficit in the intestinal chloride transport. In the present study, we describe the clinical characteristics of three patients with congenital watery diarrhea, two of them females, aged between 9 and 14 months at the first visit. All patients presented perinatal antecedents of polyhydramnios and prematurity, watery stools since birth and growth failure. Metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia and hypochloremia were found. Stool ionogram with elevated doses of chloride, exceeding both sodium and potassium, confirmed the diagnosis of CCD. Substitute treatment with sodium and potassium chloride was started with good results. CCD should be considered as a differential diagnosis to congenital watery diarrhea, since early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are mandatory for the normal development of the child, avoiding severe complications such as neurological sequelae and even death. PMID:16127986

Contreras, Mnica; Rocca, Ana; Benedetti, Laura; Kakisu, Hisae; Delgado, Sabrina; Ruiz, Jos Antonio

2005-01-01

261

Solubility of some alkali and alkaline earth chlorides in water at moderate temperatures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Solubilities for the binary systems, salt-H2O, of the chlorides of lithium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium from near 0??C to the saturated boiling point are reported. The experimental data and coefficients of an equation for a smoothed curve describing each system are listed in the tables. The data are improvements on those previously reported in the literature, having a precision on the average of ??0.09%.

Clynne, M.A.; Potter, R.W., II

1979-01-01

262

Management of metal chlorides in high temperature processes--application to the nuclear wastes treatment.  

PubMed

Thermal processes are now the benchmark for the destruction of some waste whose toxicity requires special attention and management. Over many years the Commissariat l'nergie Atomique (French atomic energy commission) has developed technologies to process radioactive waste containing many metals together with chlorine, and thus with a major risk of producing volatile chlorides with potentially catastrophic effects on plant facilities. To mitigate these difficulties in an incineration process for radioactive waste contaminated by plutonium (IRIS), the CEA has investigated the processes by which potentially hazardous compounds are produced in order to eliminate them or prevent their formation. The studies have led to propose a phosphate-based stabilization technique thanks to an addition of phosphorus in the waste. Through a reaction occurring in gas phase, the metals are stabilized under a phosphate form when the formation of volatiles chlorides is avoided. While this technique has substantially improved process maintenance and security, it has revealed other difficulties related to potentially large phosphate deposits capable to cause unacceptable pressure drops detrimental to the gas flow conditions. This article describes the results of recent studies seeking to prevent the formation of volatile chlorides and phosphate deposits liable to obstruct the system flow lines. PMID:22365141

Lemont, Florent

2012-04-30

263

Competitive complexation of nitrates and chlorides to uranyl in a room temperature ionic liquid.  

PubMed

By coupling EXAFS, UV-vis spectroscopy, and molecular dynamics and quantum mechanical calculations, we studied the competitive complexation of uranyl cations with nitrate and chloride ions in a water immiscible ionic liquid (IL), C(4)mimTf(2)N (C(4)mim(+): 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium; Tf(2)N(-) = (CF(3)SO(2))(2)N)(-): bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). Both nitrate and chloride are stronger ligands for uranyl than the IL Tf(2)N(-) or triflate anions and when those anions are simultaneously present, neither the limiting complex UO(2)(NO(3))(3)(-) nor UO(2)Cl(4)(2-) alone could be observed. At a U/NO(3)/Cl ratio of 1/2/2, the dominant species is likely UO(2)Cl(NO(3))(2)(-). When chloride is in excess over uranyl with different nitrate concentrations (U/NO(3)/Cl ratio of 1/2/6, 1/4/4, and 1/12/4) the solution contains a mixture of UO(2)Cl(4)(2-) and UO(2)Cl(3)(NO(3))(2-) species. Furthermore, it is shown that the experimental protocol for introducing these anions to the solution (either as uranyl counterion, as added salt, or as IL component) influences the UV-vis spectra, pointing to the formation of different kinetically equilibrated complexes in the IL. PMID:20557035

Gaillard, C; Chaumont, A; Billard, I; Hennig, C; Ouadi, A; Georg, S; Wipff, G

2010-07-19

264

Theoretical calculation of self-broadening coefficients for the ?5 band of methyl chloride at various temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-broadening coefficients of transitions belonging to the ?5 band of methyl chloride have been calculated using a semi-classical model based on the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte (ATC) theory, including some improvements proposed by Robert and Bonamy. The calculations show the predominance of the dipole-dipole interaction. To better match the experimental measurements performed at room temperature in our previous work, a cut-off of the intermolecular distance has been used. The rotational J and K dependencies of the calculated self-broadening coefficients have been clearly observed and are consistent with our previous measurements.

Barbouchi Ramchani, A.; Jacquemart, D.; Dhib, M.; Aroui, H.

2014-02-01

265

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2013-04-01

266

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The ingredient...

2014-04-01

267

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2011-04-01

268

21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution and also by reacting calcium hydroxide with sodium carbonate. (b) The...

2012-04-01

269

21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid and sodium chloride buffer containing 0.1 percent w/v chlorocresol B.P. as a bactericide. (2)...

2013-04-01

270

Compatibility of structural materials with molten chloride mixture at high temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ni-based superalloy Hastelloy-X and refractory metals were examined on compatibility with molten NdCl 3sbnd NaCl sbnd KCl mixture. Weight loss of the specimens caused by dipping was measured, and variation of compositions of Hastelloy-X also estimated by comparing RBS spectra obtained before and after the dipping. It was shown that moisture in these systems played an important role on the corrosion behavior. It was also shown that tantalum, tungsten and Hastelloy-X had sufficient corrosion-resistance against molten chlorides when moisture and oxygen were appropriately removed.

Hosoya, Yuji; Terai, Takayuki; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Satoru

1997-09-01

271

Thermal degradation of weldable poly(vinyl chloride) samples at low temperatures.  

PubMed

A study was performed to determine possible emission products during plastic welding that may be responsible for health problems. Thermal degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) samples was carried out at 170 degrees C in a thermal desorption gas chromatography (GC) injector and in a modified impinger in a GC oven, in combination with various analytical techniques, thermogravimetric analysis, capillary GC, GC-mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and isotachophoresis. Some of the degradation products found are known to be eye irritants. PMID:3215984

Andersson, B

1988-07-22

272

Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem), sodium thiosulphate and calcium chloride on changes in nitrogen transformations and inhibition of nitrification in soil incubated under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) neem seed-cake (Azadirachta indica) (NSC), sodium thiosulphate (Na?S?O?) and calcium chloride (CaCl?) on changes in NH?(+)?N, inhibition of nitrification and recovery of applied nitrogen (N) in soil. Surface soil samples of 0-15 cm were collected from an arable field, amended with urea N (UN) at the rate 200 mg N kg?, UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O? and UN+CaCl? and incubated at 22C periodically over 50 d. Soil without any amendment was used as check (control). Results indicated that more than 58% of N applied as NH?? disappeared over a period of 50 d from the soil mineral-N pool. Some of this N (21%) was accumulated as NO??-N while the remaining N was unaccounted for. Addition of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? resulted in a decrease in the extent of NH?(+) disappearance by 35%, 44% and 30%, respectively. In the treatment receiving UN alone, 56 mg NO??-N kg? was accumulated over 50 d (maximum 93 mg kg?) indicated an active nitrification. Application of nitrification inhibitors NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? with UN inhibited nitrification by 54%, 64%, and 59%, respectively. Apparent N recovery (ANR) in the treatment receiving UN alone was 63% that substantially increased to 83%, 89% and 76% in the treatments receiving UN+NSC, UN+Na?S?O?, and UN+CaCl?, respectively indicating 32%, 41% and 20% increase in N recovery. Among three NIs tested, Na?S?O? proved superior in inhibiting nitrification and increasing ANR. The study demonstrated that application of NSC, Na?S?O?, and CaCl? which are cheap and easily available NIs inhibited nitrification and improved N recovery efficiency of applied N in an arable soil very effectively. It is suggested that these inhibitors should be tested under field conditions for increasing NUE and improving crop productivity. PMID:21146192

Abbasi, M Kaleem; Hina, Munazza; Tahir, Majid Mahmood

2011-03-01

273

Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation.  

PubMed

The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the anionic one. This is opposite as observed for several other hemoproteins. The surfactants at low concentrations produce the oligomeric dissociation, which facilitates the iron oxidation, an important factor modulating further oligomeric protein dissociation. PMID:17196340

Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel

2007-04-01

274

Characterization of the high-pressure structural transition and thermodynamic properties in sodium chloride: a computational investigation on the basis of the density functional theory.  

PubMed

Using first-principles calculations, the elastic constants, the thermodynamic properties, and the structural phase transition between the B1 (rocksalt) and the B2 (cesium chloride) phases of NaCl are investigated by means of the pseudopotential plane-waves method. The calculations are performed within the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional. On the basis of the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of states, the transition pressure Pt between the B1 phase and the B2 phase of NaCl is determined. The calculated values are generally speaking in good agreement with experiments and with similar theoretical calculations. From the theoretical calculations, the shear modulus, Young's modulus, rigidity modulus, and Poisson's ratio of NaCl are derived. According to the quasi-harmonic Debye model, we estimated the Debye temperature of NaCl from the average sound velocity. Moreover, the pressure derivatives of elastic constants, partial differentialC11/partial differentialP, partial differentialC12/partial differentialP, partial differentialC44/partial differentialP, partial differentialS11/partial differential P, partial differentialS12/partial differentialP, and partial differentialS44/partial differentialP, for NaCl crystal are investigated for the first time. This is a quantitative theoretical prediction of the elastic and thermodynamic properties of NaCl, and it still awaits experimental confirmation. PMID:18855434

Lu, Cheng; Kuang, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Qin-Sheng

2008-11-01

275

Rescue of the mutant CFTR chloride channel by pharmacological correctors and low temperature analyzed by gene expression profiling.  

PubMed

The F508del mutation, the most frequent in cystic fibrosis (CF), impairs the maturation of the CFTR chloride channel. The F508del defect can be partially overcome at low temperature (27C) or with pharmacological correctors. However, the efficacy of correctors on the mutant protein appears to be dependent on the cell expression system. We have used a bronchial epithelial cell line, CFBE41o-, to determine the efficacy of various known treatments and to discover new correctors. Compared with other cell types, CFBE41o- shows the largest response to low temperature and the lowest one to correctors such as corr-4a and VRT-325. A screening of a small-molecule library identified 9-aminoacridine and ciclopirox, which were significantly more effective than corr-4a and VRT-325. Analysis with microarrays revealed that 9-aminoacridine, ciclopirox, and low temperature, in contrast to corr-4a, cause a profound change in cell transcriptome. These data suggest that 9-aminoacridine and ciclopirox act on F508del-CFTR maturation as proteostasis regulators, a mechanism already proposed for the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). However, we found that 9-aminoacridine, ciclopirox, and SAHA, in contrast to corr-4a, VRT-325, and low temperature, do not increase chloride secretion in primary bronchial epithelial cells from CF patients. These conflicting data appeared to be correlated with different gene expression signatures generated by these treatments in the cell line and in primary bronchial epithelial cells. Our results suggest that F508del-CFTR correctors acting by altering the cell transcriptome may be particularly active in heterologous expression systems but markedly less effective in native epithelial cells. PMID:21753184

Sondo, Elvira; Tomati, Valeria; Caci, Emanuela; Esposito, Alessia Isabella; Pfeffer, Ulrich; Pedemonte, Nicoletta; Galietta, Luis J V

2011-10-01

276

Low-temperature NMR characterization of reaction of sodium pyruvate with hydrogen peroxide.  

PubMed

It was proposed that the reaction of sodium pyruvate and H2O2 generates the intermediate 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate, which converts into acetate, CO2, and H2O ( Aleksankin et al. Kernenergie 1962 , 5 , 362 - 365 ). These conclusions were based on the products generated in (18)O-enriched water and H2O2 reacting with pyruvic acid at room temperature; however, the lifetime of 2-hydroperoxy-2-hydroxypropanoate at room temperature is too short for direct spectroscopic observation. Therefore, we applied the combination of low-temperature and (13)C NMR techniques to verify, for the first time, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate in mixtures of D2O and methanol-d4 and to monitor directly each species involved in the reaction between D2O2 and (13)C-enriched pyruvate. Our NMR results confirm the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate, where the respective chemical shifts are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. At near-neutral apparent pD (pD*) and -35 C, the formation of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate occurred with k = 2.43 10(-3) dm(3)mol(-1)s(-1). The subsequent decomposition of 2-deuteroperoxy-2-deuteroxypropanoate into acetate, CO2, and D2O occurred with k = 2.58 10(-4) s(-1) at -35 C. In order to provide a full kinetic analysis, we also monitored the equilibrium of pyruvate and methanol with the hemiacetal (2-deuteroxy-2-methoxypropanoate). The kinetics for the reaction of sodium pyruvate and D2O2 were fitted by taking into account all these equilibria and species. PMID:25587753

Asmus, Christopher; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Schneich, Christian

2015-02-12

277

Novel copper redox-based cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layered oxides of P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.66O2, P2-type Na0.68Cu0.34Mn0.50Ti0.16O2, and O'3-type NaCu0.67Sb0.33O2 were synthesized and evaluated as cathode materials for room-temperature sodium-ion batteries. The first two materials can deliver a capacity of around 70 mAh/g. The Cu2+ is oxidized to Cu3+ during charging, and the Cu3+ goes back to Cu2+ upon discharging. This is the first demonstration of the highly reversible change of the redox couple of Cu2+/Cu3+ with high storage potential in secondary batteries.

Xu, Shu-Yin; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Li, Yun-Ming; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Quan

2014-11-01

278

Temperature-dependent deliquescent and efflorescent properties of methanesulfonate sodium studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Modeling of aerosols and cloud formation processes in the marine boundary layer (MBL) require extensive data on hygroscopic properties of relevant methanesulfonate particles, which are currently scarce. In this work, methanesulfonate sodium (CH3SO3Na, MSA-Na), the most abundant methanesulfonate salt, was selected, and its deliquescent and efflorescent properties at temperatures relevant to the lower troposphere were studied using an ATR-FTIR flow system. To validate the approach, we investigated hygroscopic properties of NaCl particles, and our measured deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of the NaCl particles obtained from the changes in integrated absorbance of water peaks in infrared spectra agreed with literature data well. We then reported DRH and ERH of MSA-Na particles as a function of temperature for the first time using both the changes in integrated absorbance of water peaks and the changes in peak position and shape of CH3SO3(-) symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes. Our experiments showed that MSA-Na particles present quite different temperature-dependent hygroscopic behaviors from NaCl. Both the DRH and ERH of MSA-Na particles increase with decreasing temperatures. Due to the significant differences in temperature-dependent DRH and ERH, NaCl particles, if processed in MBL by methanesulfonic acid, are expected to deliquesce slightly earlier during a hydration process but effloresce at a much earlier stage during a dehydration process, especially at lower temperatures. This could considerably influence phase, size, and water content of sea salt aerosols and consequently their reactivity, lifetime, and impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate systems. PMID:24387240

Zeng, Guang; Kelley, Judas; Kish, J Duncan; Liu, Yong

2014-01-23

279

Quantitative high-speed burned gas temperature measurements in internal combustion engines using sodium and potassium fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When sodium- and potassium-containing fuel additives are used in internal combustion engines, the bright fluorescence that sodium and potassium atoms emit in the burned gas zone offers a large potential for spectroscopic combustion analysis. To utilize this potential quantitatively, it is crucial to fully understand all physical and chemical processes involved. This includes (1) the temperature dependence of the fluorescence intensity due to gas-phase collisions, (2) the pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio effects on thermodynamic equilibria in the burned gas zone and (3) pressure and temperature-dependent line shapes for quantitative correction of fluorescence reabsorption. High-speed imaging of sodium and potassium fluorescence in a spark-ignited, direct injection, single-cylinder research engine was conducted under well-controlled homogeneous operating conditions at equivalence ratios ranging from 0.71 to 1.43, cylinder pressure from 3 to 15 bar and burned gas temperatures from 1,700 to 2,600 K. This study demonstrates that the influence of pressure, temperature and equivalence ratio on the fluorescence signals of sodium and potassium is understood quantitatively and establishes the potentials and limitations of this tool for burned gas temperature measurements with high temporal and two-dimensional spatial resolution in a homogeneously operated internal combustion engine.

Mosburger, M.; Sick, V.; Drake, M. C.

2013-03-01

280

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

1990-02-01

281

Prolonged exposure of mixed aerobic cultures to low temperature and benzalkonium chloride affect the rate and extent of nitrification.  

PubMed

The combined effect of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and prolonged exposure to low temperature on nitrification was investigated. Ammonia oxidation at 22-24C by an enriched nitrifying culture was inhibited at increasing BAC concentrations and ceased at 15mg BAC/L. The non-competitive inhibition coefficient was 1.50.9mg BAC/L. Nitrification tests were conducted without and with BAC at 5mg/L using an aerobic, mixed heterotrophic/nitrifying culture maintained at a temperature range of 24-10C. Maintaining this culture at 10C for over one month in the absence of BAC, resulted in slower nitrification kinetics compared to those measured when the culture was first exposed to 10C. BAC was degraded by the heterotrophic population, but its degradation rate decreased significantly as the culture temperature decreased to 10C. These results confirm the negative impact of quaternary ammonium compounds on the nitrification process, which is further exacerbated by prolonged, low temperature conditions. PMID:25544497

Yang, Jeongwoo; Tezel, Ulas; Li, Kexun; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

2015-03-01

282

Chloride inhibition of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exposure of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fingerlings for 24?h to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite (pH?=?7; hardness?=?40?mg/L; temperature?=?2225 C) produced methemoglobin levels of 20.7??1.9%, 59.8??1.9%, and 77.4??1.4% (SE), respectively. However, methemoglobin levels were not elevated when fish were simultaneously exposed to 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0?mg/L nitrite and 25, 50, and 100?mg/L sodium chloride, respectively. Acclimation to sodium chloride for 24?h before exposure to nitrite did not enhance the inhibitory action of sodium chloride. Fish exposed to 5?mg/L nitrite for 5?h developed 42.5??3.8% methemoglobin. When transferred to water containing 5?mg/L nitrite and 250?mg/L sodium chloride, methemoglobin levels returned to normal within 24?h. Environmental chloride probably inhibits methemoglobin formation by competing with nitrite for entrance into the gills of the fish. An ionic ratio of 16 Cl- to 1 NO2- is capable of complete suppression of nitrite-induced methemoglobin formation. Bicarbonate ion present in the test water (1?meq/L) may also have contributed to the inhibitive action of chloride.

Tomasso, J.R.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

1979-01-01

283

Emergence of ambient temperature ferroelectricity in meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we demonstrate that the meso-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin chloride, [H2TMPyP]4+Cl4, with a face-to-face orientation directed along a single direction displays ferroelectric properties at room temperature. This is attributed to its spontaneous polarization, due to an extensive hydrogen-bonded network. From C-V measurements, a remnant polarization of approximately 0.5 ?C cm-2 was estimated for pristine porphyrin film, which increases linearly up to about 1.7 ?C cm-2 after applying 2 V at the top electrode and further to 9.6 ?C cm-2 after 5 V positive poling. This largefor practical utilizationlevel of remnant polarization of [H2TMPyP]4+Cl4 makes it promising for future applications.

Vasilopoulou, Maria; Dimitrakis, Panagiotis; Georgiadou, Dimitra G.; Velessiotis, Dimitrios; Papadimitropoulos, Georgios; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Coutsolelos, Athanassios G.; Argitis, Panagiotis

2013-07-01

284

Wetting of Sodium on ??-Al2O3/YSZ Composites for Low Temperature Planar Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Wetting of Na on B-Al2O3/YSZ composites was investigated using the sessile drop technique. The effects of moisture and surface preparation were studied at low temperatures. Electrical conductivity of Na/B-Al2O3-YSZ/Na cells was also investigated at low temperatures and correlated to the wetting behavior. The use of planar B-Al2O3 substrates at low temperature with low cost polymeric seals is realized due to improved wetting at low temperature and conductivity values consistent with the literature.

Reed, David M.; Coffey, Greg W.; Mast, Eric S.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Mansurov, Jirgal; Lu, Xiaochuan; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

2013-04-01

285

Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

Fahey, J.J.

1937-01-01

286

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298.15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l_brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r_brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center_dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Rard, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1991-07-01

287

Thermodynamics of aqueous sodium sulfate from the temperatures 273 K to 373 K and mixtures of aqueous sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid at 298. 15 K  

SciTech Connect

New isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements on the aqueous system {l brace}(1{minus}y)H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}+yNA{sub 2}SO{sub 4}{r brace} along with earlier experimental investigations that span the range from y=0 to y=1 and infinitely dilute to supersaturated molalities have been analyzed in terms of the Pitzer ion-interaction model. Refined ion-interaction parameters for aqueous sodium sulfate valid over the temperature range 273 K to 373 K have been calculated and used for analyzing results for mixtures containing sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate at 298.15 K. Analysis of experimental results for these aqueous mixtures required explicit consideration of the dissociation reaction of bisulfate ion. Previous treatments of aqueous sulfuric acid and subsequently the bisulfate dissociation equilibrium valid in the range 273 K to 343 K were employed as a first approximation in representing the mixed solutions. Two sets of Pitzer ion-interaction parameters are presented for (sodium sulfate + sulfuric acid). The validity of the first set is limited in ionic strength and molality to saturated solutions of pure aqueous sodium sulfate (4 mol{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}). The second set of parameters corresponds to a slightly less precise representation but is valid over the entire range of experimental results considered. Both sets of parameters provide a more complete description of pure sulfuric acid solutions because of the removal of various redundancies of ion-interaction parameters. The specific ion-interaction terms used and the overall fitting procedure are described as well as selected examples of relevant thermodynamic calculations in the mixed system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}O. 33 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Rard, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1991-07-01

288

Iron, copper, and nickel behavior in buffered, neutral aluminum chloride:1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride molten salt  

SciTech Connect

Iron, copper, and nickel electrodes were examined as possible metal/metal(II) chloride cathodes for the room temperature sodium/metal chloride battery in a molten salt composed of sodium chloride (NaCl), aluminum chloride (AlCl{sub 3}), and 1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC). The iron electrode was investigated in basic, neutral-like, and acidic MEIC:AlCl{sub 3} melts. The solubility and the kinetics of the reduction of Fe(II) was a function of acidity. In the basic melt, the FeCl{sub 2} was soluble; however, its reduction was not observed due to slow kinetics. In the neutral-like and acidic melts, the quasi-reversible reduction of Fe(II) to Fe(0) was observed. The redox potential of copper was approximately 1 V more positive of iron; however, the oxidized copper was soluble in the neutral-like melt, making it unacceptable without a separator. The oxidized and reduced forms of nickel were insoluble and the redox potential was 2.5 V positive of Na/Na{sup +}. The nickel electrode supported a charge density of 3.5 mC/cm{sup 2} at room temperature, suggesting that a high-surface-area electrode would be needed in a practical device.

Pye, S.; Winnick, J.; Kohl, P.A. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

1997-06-01

289

The influence of temperature and salinity on the structure and function of mitochondria in chloride cells in the skin of the larvae of the turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six separate groups of the larvae of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from the same brood stock were incubated in three salinities (24, 34 and 44 ppt) and at three temperatures (12, 15 and 17C). Relative levels in mitochondrial protein and mitochondrial membrane potentials in the cutaneous chloride cells of these larvae were then measured by confocal microscopy, as changes in

Peter Tytler; Jacqueline Ireland

1995-01-01

290

A Novel Flexible Room Temperature Ethanol Gas Sensor Based on SnO2 Doped Poly-Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride  

PubMed Central

A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

291

Transcorneal permeation of diclofenac as a function of temperature from film formulation in presence of triethanolamine and benzalkonium chloride.  

PubMed

The objective of this report was to evaluate the transcorneal permeation of diclofenac potassium (DCP) as a function of temperature from hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) matrix film containing triethanolamine (TEM) as plasticizer and benzalkonium chloride (BKC) as preservative. Activation energy (Ea), enthalpy (?H), entropy (?S) and free energy (?G) of permeation, diffusion and partition were evaluated to understand the underlying mechanism of permeation. Permeation improved with the presence of both the plasticizer and preservative compared to preservative alone. Further, increased amount of TEM in the film increased drug transport across the cornea. Decreased Ea value of the film supported the fact. Rise of temperature from 26 to 30, 34 and 40C increased permeation in all the films. Ocular residence of the film in vivo in the rabbit revealed that the film swelled by pronounced lachrymal fluid uptake and traces of hydrogel remained still at the end of 6h of application. Absence of characteristic exothermic peak of the drug in the thermogram of film formulations indicated the molecular dispersion of drug in polymer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the drug crystal size decreased with increasing concentration of TEM in presence of BKC due to effective wetting of drug particles by the polymer. PMID:25255701

Mohapatra, Rajaram; Senapati, Sibananda; Sahoo, Chinmaya; Mallick, Subrata

2014-11-01

292

A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor based on SnO2 doped poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride.  

PubMed

A novel flexible room temperature ethanol gas sensor was fabricated and demonstrated in this paper. The polyimide (PI) substrate-based sensor was formed by depositing a mixture of SnO2 nanopowder and poly-diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDAC) on as-patterned interdigitated electrodes. PDDAC acted both as the binder, promoting the adhesion between SnO2 and the flexible PI substrate, and the dopant. We found that the response of SnO2-PDDAC sensor is significantly higher than that of SnO2 alone, indicating that the doping with PDDAC effectively improved the sensor performance. The SnO2-PDDAC sensor has a detection limit of 10 ppm at room temperature and shows good selectivity to ethanol, making it very suitable for monitoring drunken driving. The microstructures of the samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), and the sensing mechanism is also discussed in detail. PMID:23549363

Zhan, Shuang; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Shengfa; Chen, Xin; Li, Xia

2013-01-01

293

A study of tungsten nanopowder formation by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Molten salt-assisted self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of nanocrystalline W powder was studied experimentally. The technique involves the reduction of WO{sub 3} in the presence of sodium chloride using three different reducing agents: magnesium (Mg), sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}), and sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}). The effects of the mole fraction of sodium chloride on temperature distributions, combustion parameters, phase compositions, and morphology of the final products were determined. The sodium chloride-assisted method reported here has been found to be effective for lowering combustion temperature and producing uniform and spherical W nanopowders of average particle size around 20-200, 100-200, and 20-50 nm. The effect of combustion temperature on tungsten particle size is discussed, and a sketch describing the chemistry of combustion is proposed.

Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, C.W. [Rapidly Solidified Materials Research Center, Chungnam National University, 220 Gung-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2005-08-01

294

Rh-based catalysts for catalytic dechlorination of aromatic chloride at ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catalytic dechlorination of chlorotoluene to toluene was carried out using several supported Rh-based catalysts in a 2-propanol solution of NaOH at ambient temperature (27C). A carbon-supported Rh catalyst (Rh\\/C) showed high catalytic activity, although an induction period was involved in the reaction and the activity of the catalyst reduced during storage in air. The existence of Pt on the Rh

Yuji Ukisu; Satoshi Kameoka; Tatsuo Miyadera

1998-01-01

295

Design, Analysis and Implementation of an Experimental System to Harvest Energy From Atmospheric Temperature Variations Using Ethyl Chloride Filled Bellows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in global warming and the dwindling supplies of fossil fuels have shifted the focus from traditional to alternate sources of energy. This has resulted in a concerted effort towards finding new energy sources as well as better understanding traditional renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. In addition to the shift in focus towards alternate energy, the last two decades have offered a dramatic rise in the use of digital technologies such as wireless sensor networks that require small but isolated power supplies. Energy harvesting, a method to gather energy from ambient sources including sunlight, vibrations, heat, etc., has provided some success in powering these systems. One of the unexplored areas of energy harvesting is the use of atmospheric temperature variations to obtain usable energy. This thesis investigates an innovative mechanism to extract energy from atmospheric variations using ethyl chloride filled mechanical bellows. The energy harvesting process was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of extracting energy from the temperature variations and converting it into the potential energy stored in a linear coil spring. This was achieved by designing and fabricating an apparatus that consisted of an ethyl chloride filled bellows working against a mechanical spring in a closed and controlled environment. The bellows expanded/contracted depending upon the ambient temperature and the energy harvested was calculated as a function of the bellows' length. The experiments showed that 6 J of potential energy may be harvested for a 23C change in temperature. The numerical results closely correlated to the experimental data with an error magnitude of 1%. In regions with high diurnal temperature variation, such an apparatus may yield approximately 250 microwatts depending on the diurnal temperature range. The second part of the energy harvesting process consisted of transforming linear expansion of the bellows into electric power. A system was designed and simulated using Mathworks Simulink and SimDriveline packages that converted the linear oscillations of the bellows into electric power. This was achieved in two steps; a gear train was designed that would convert the linear displacement of the bellows into potential energy stored in a spiral spring. The spiral spring would then periodically engage to a small generator producing electric power. The electrical power generated was found to depend solely on the potential energy stored in the spring. It was discovered that for a sinusoidal force with constant amplitude and frequency, the potential energy stored in the spring depended on the duration of force input and the parameters of the drivetrain such as the spring stiffness, the gear ratios, and the pinion radii. After simulating the system for different parameters, an optimal set of values was presented to maximize the electrical energy output for a given duration of time. For constant amplitude (120 N) sinusoidal force input with a time period of T seconds, the system stored 37 J, 65 J, and 90 J after a time of 3T, 5T, and 7T, respectively. The electric power output was 7.14 microwatts for a conversion efficiency of 5%. The next step is building a physical geartrain generator assembly based on the design presented in the thesis. The physical system will first be verified by simulating the force input using a pneumatic cylinder. The two parts of the research experiment can then be integrated into one system that would generate electric power directly from temporal temperature and pressure variations.

Ali, Gibran

296

RESEARCH ARTICLE Increasing chloride concentrations in Lake Constance  

E-print Network

for the year 2006, we estimated total chloride imports to the catchment at 101 kt year-1 . Road deicing salts Chloride Á Budget Á Road deicing salt Introduction Sodium chloride (NaCl) is used widely and in large streams, Trowbridge et al. (2010) showed that [90% of the chloride originated from road salt. Imported

Wehrli, Bernhard

297

Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppmv in coal gas streams at temperatures in the range 400{degrees} to 750{degrees}C and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations, obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A. [and others

1995-11-01

298

Development of disposal sorbents for chloride removal from high-temperature coal-derived gases  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program is to develop alkali-based disposable sorbents capable of reducing HCl vapor concentrations to less than 1 ppm in coal gas streams at temperatures in the 480 degree C to 750 degree C range and pressures in the range 1 to 20 atm. The primary areas of focus of this program are investigation of different processes for fabricating the sorbents, testing their suitability for different reactor configurations (fixed-, moving-, and fluidized-bed reactors), obtaining kinetic data for commercial reactor design, and updating the economics of the process.

Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.; Canizales, A.; Gupta, R.; Sheluker, S.D.; Ayala, R.

1994-10-01

299

Interaction of hydrogen chloride with alumina. [influence of outgas and temperature conditions on adsorption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of outgas conditions and temperature on the adsorptive properties of two aluminas Alon-c and Al6sG were studied using adsorption isotherm measurements. Alon-C and Al6SG were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET nitrogen surface areas. Some of these techniques were applied to two other aluminas but no isotherm data was obtained. Isotherm data and techniques applied to each alumina are summarized in tabular form.

Bailey, R. R.; Wightman, J. P.

1975-01-01

300

Effect of [gamma]-irradiation and temperature on the structure of metal chloride treated poly(acrylamide)  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-induced changes in the structure of poly (acrylamide) (PAAm) treated with metal chlorides were investigated by following the corresponding variations in their ultraviolet spectra. Careful examination of UV spectra revealed that irradiation of the specimens results in the appearance of an absorption peak at 275 nm whose intensity depends on the applied dose and the nature of the metal ions. This band is ascribed to the formation of the carbonyl group. The results indicate that the dependence of the intensities of the band at 275 nm on the nature of the metal used provides strong evidence for the formation of metal polymer complexes. It was found that the pretreatment of PAAm with the appropriate concentration of ZnCl[sub 2], CoCl[sub 2], or NiCl[sub 2] reduces the effects of heating and the oxidation effects of [gamma]-irradiation. These results show that these metal ions can be used as stabilizers against thermal degradation of PAAm in the temperature range up to 160 C.

Moharram, M.A.; Rabie, S.M.; Daghistani, A.Y. (National Research Center and Middle Eastern Regional Center for the Arab Countries, Cario (Egypt))

1993-10-15

301

Three new polyoxometalate-based hybrids prepared from choline chloride\\/urea deep eutectic mixture at room temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new polyoxometalate-based hybrids {[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]2(H3O)}[Na2(H2O)6][IMo6O24]H2O 1 , {Na2[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]4}[Al(OH)6Mo6O18]28NH2CONH24H2O 2 and {Na6(H2O)18[(CH3)3N(CH2)2OH]2(CON2H5)2}[NaMo7O24]24NH2CONH2H2O 3 were successfully synthesized in the choline chloride\\/urea deep eutectic mixture at room temperature. Reactant quantities of water presents in the nonaqueous eutectic mixture solvent may influence the structure of the products. The three compounds are fully characterized by elemental analyses, IR, UVvis, TG analyses, power X-ray diffraction and

Shi-Ming Wang; Wei-Lin Chen; En-Bo Wang; Yang-Guang Li; Xiao-Jia Feng; Lin Liu

2010-01-01

302

Low temperature aqueous phase synthesis of silver/silver chloride plasmonic nanoparticles as visible light photocatalysts.  

PubMed

A one pot and environmentally benign synthetic route for plasmonic photocatalytic Ag@AgCl nanoparticles in a PVA-dissolved aqueous solution system is presented. The synthesized AgCl has a cubic-shape and its edge length can be controlled from ~57 to ~170 nm by varying the reaction temperature. In this system, PVA was used as a stabilizer for the formation of Ag@AgCl nanoparticles through interaction with Ag(+) ions. After partial reduction with l-arginine, the metallic Ag is formed on the surface of the AgCl substrates and the contents of the metallic Ag mainly affect both the visible-light absorption properties and the plasmonic photocatalytic efficiency of the Ag@AgCl nanocomposites. A plausible growth mechanism of metallic silver during the reduction process is proposed. More importantly, it is verified that the size of the AgCl substrate affected the light absorption region of the Ag@AgCl nanocomposite. PMID:23921540

Song, Jooyoung; Roh, Jongmin; Lee, Inkyu; Jang, Jyongsik

2013-10-14

303

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

1986-01-01

304

Effect of surface machining and cold working on the ambient temperature chloride stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of AISI 304L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of plastic deformation induced by cold rolling or surface machining on the susceptibility to chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking at ambient temperature of 304L austenitic stainless steel was investigated in this study. The test material was subjected to three treatments: (a) solution annealed, (b) cold rolled and (c) surface machined to induce different levels of strain\\/stresses in the material. Subsequently

Swati Ghosh; Vivekanand Kain

2010-01-01

305

Design and development of a high-temperature sodium compatibility testing facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of advanced alloys within sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) has been identified as a means of increasing plant efficiency and reducing construction costs. In particular, alloys such as NF-616, NF-709 and HT-UPS are promising because they exhibit greater strength than traditional structural materials such as 316-SS. However, almost nothing is known about the sodium compatibility of these new alloys. Therefore, research taking place at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison is focused on studying the effects of sodium corrosion on these materials under prototypic SFR operating conditions (600 [ deg. C], V Na=10 [m/s], C 0{approx} 1 [wppm]). This paper focuses on the design and construction of the testing facility with an emphasis on moving magnet pumps (MMPs). Corrosion data from a preliminary 500 [hr] natural convection test will also be presented. (authors)

Hvasta, M. G.; Nolet, B. K.; Anderson, M. H. [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison - ERB 841, WI 53705 (United States)

2012-07-01

306

A relationship between the occurrence of sporadic sodium layers and temperatures over Hefei (31.8N, 117.3E)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sporadic sodium layer is a narrow layer in which a sudden increase of sodium (Na) is occurring. The mechanism of sporadic sodium layers(SSLs) is unclear although several theories have been proposed. In our study, we compare the sodium density data of the Rayleigh-Sodium fluorescence lidar system of the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) at Hefei, China (31.8N,117.3E) with the temperature data of the SABER satellite. We find that there is a strong correlation between the occurrence of sporadic sodium layers and low temperatures below 150K generally two or three days before the SSLs. A few hours before the an SSL event there is always an unusual heating process detected at the altitude where the SSL occurs. From Jan 2006 to Dec 2009, 29 typical SSL events are clearly identified , 22 of which occur following low temperatures below 150K and another 6 of which have no temperature data over night. We also present a new possible mechanism of SSLs called the low-and-high temperature model: in the altitude between 95~100km, the sodium bicarbonate clusters are absorbed by the cold vapour particles for nucleation and the ice grains also adsorb sodium atoms as a thin metal film, then the heavy ice grains sink to down altitudes near 93km. When the temperature is high enough the ice grains vapour, and the NaHCO3 break down to Na to create a sudden increase of the sodium layer.

Qiu, S.; Dou, X.

2011-12-01

307

Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (inventor); Distefano, Salvador (inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (inventor)

1990-01-01

308

Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.  

PubMed

The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper. PMID:22804717

Armenteros, Mnica; Toldr, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepcin; Ventanas, Jess; Estvez, Mario

2012-08-01

309

Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 ?L) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

2013-10-01

310

Effect of pressure, temperature and time on supercritical fluid extraction of citrate and benzoate plasticisers from poly (vinyl chloride)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) has been demonstrated as a useful tool in the analysis of polymeric materials. This paper describes the off-line SFE followed by Gas Chromatography determination of some citrate and benzoate plasticisers used in poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). Experimental factors affecting SFE with carbon dioxide have been studied by gravimetric analysis. Recoveries of analytes were calculated with the

Rosa Mayel??n Guerra; Mar??a Luisa Mar??n; Ana Snchez; Alfonso Jimnez

2002-01-01

311

Thermodynamic study of gaseous sodium-phosphorous-oxygen ternary molecules by high temperature mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

of commercial grade sodium tripolyphosphate, Na P 0 , obtained from Alfa Inorganics, Beverly, Massachusetts, which had been purified by recrystallization, was 16 introduced into a molybdenum Knudsen cell containing a similar zirconia Knudsen cell... that the zirconia cell was cracked. This is believed to have happened at about 1420 K when a sudden drop in the intensities of the ternary species was observed (See set 20, Table I (p. 12)). Ionization efficiency curves (plots of ion intensity versus electron...

Miller, Federico

2012-06-07

312

Probing crystalline insulator surfaces with neutral helium atom scattering: A study of mixed potassium tantalate/niobate and thin films of potassium chloride and p-quaterphenyl on sodium chloride(001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from experiments using a thermal-energy beam of helium atoms as a probe in studying three crystalline insulator surfaces are presented. The primary focus is the simple ferroelectric perovskite, KTa1- xNbxO3 (or KTN when not specifying an Nb concentration) with x = 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.52. Thin films of KCl and p-quaterphenyl grown onto NaCl(001) were also studied. Extending an earlier work on potassium tantalate (KTaO3), freshly cleaved (001) surfaces of niobium-doped potassium tantalate (KTN) were studied. While KTaO3 is an incipient ferroelectric undergoing no bulk phase changes, KTN, with Nb concentration greater than 1.5%, is a tunable ferroelectric, existing in several bulk phases depending on the temperature of the material. A metastable feature observed in KTN immediately after cleaving results in satellite peaks around the specular peak which decay over time. Also, small, broad half-order peaks were observed when the surface temperature was cycled between 50 K and 270 K for the first time. Surface hysteresis effects and responses to electric fields were also studied. Surface dispersion curves for the two high-symmetry directions are given for various Nb doping levels and substrate temperatures. This work compares the above phenomena to similar occurrences observed previously in KTaO3, and notes how the responses differ as a function of niobium doping. Also building on previous experience, the growth of KCl on NaCl was studied. Several recent works have focused on the physical interpretation of 3/4-order peaks observed during LEED investigations of this system. A HAS study of this system revealed, at best, a weak indication of several n/4-order peaks, but at film thicknesses well above those reported. In our first attempt to examine the surfaces of films of large organic molecules using HAS, p-quaterphenyl (p-4P) was deposited onto an NaCl surface held at 300K. Diffraction intensities from the NaCl were reduced but produced no other effects. However, cooling the surface to 50 K revealed many smaller diffraction peaks from the p-4P in addition to the larger NaCl peaks. The organic film peaks were isotropic, appearing as a two-dimensional diffraction powder pattern.

Trelenberg, Thomas Walter

313

Thermodynamics and cell chemistry of room temperature sodium/sulfur cells with liquid and liquid/solid electrolyte  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cell chemistry of sodium/sulfur cells operating at room temperature (RT-Na/S cells) is being studied electrochemically and structurally. We show by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy that the cell reaction is incomplete but prove that the end members of the cell reaction (S and Na2S) form among the expected polysulfide species Na2Sx. The sulfur utilization can be improved by employing a solid electrolyte membrane (beta?-alumina) that prevents the diffusion of the soluble polysulfide species toward the sodium side. As an important finding, the Na+ conduction within the solid electrolyte phase and across the two liquid/solid interfaces results in only small overpotentials. Nevertheless the utilization of sulfur in the present RT-Na/S (475 mAh g-1) cells is lower than the theoretical value (1675 mAh g-1). One probable reason is the chemical instability of the widely used PVDF binder. Also, the thermodynamic properties of RT-Na/S cells operating at room temperature are discussed and compared with the currently much more studied RT-Li/S cells.

Wenzel, Sebastian; Metelmann, Hauke; Rai, Christine; Drr, Anna Katharina; Janek, Jrgen; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-12-01

314

Cesium Chloride  

MedlinePLUS

... effect on tumors. A few people have had life-threatening problems with heart rhythm, seizures, loss of consciousness, and electrolyte (blood chemistry) imbalances after taking cesium chloride. How is it ...

315

The hidden hand of chloride in hypertension.  

PubMed

Among the environmental factors that affect blood pressure, dietary sodium chloride has been studied the most, and there is general consensus that increased sodium chloride intake increases blood pressure. There is accruing evidence that chloride may have a role in blood pressure regulation which may perhaps be even more important than that of Na(+). Though more than 85% of Na(+) is consumed as sodium chloride, there is evidence that Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations do not go necessarily hand in hand since they may originate from different sources. Hence, elucidating the role of Cl(-) as an independent player in blood pressure regulation will have clinical and public health implications in addition to advancing our understanding of electrolyte-mediated blood pressure regulation. In this review, we describe the evidence that support an independent role for Cl(-) on hypertension and cardiovascular health. PMID:25619794

McCallum, Linsay; Lip, Stefanie; Padmanabhan, Sandosh

2015-03-01

316

An XAS study of the structure and thermodynamics of Cu(I) chloride complexes in brines up to high temperature (400 C, 600 bar)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport and deposition of copper in saline hydrothermal fluids are controlled by the stability of copper(I) complexes with ligands such as chloride. Despite their role in the formation of most hydrothermal copper deposits, the nature and stability of Cu(I) chloride complexes in highly saline brines remains controversial. We present new X-ray absorption data ( P = 600 bar, T = 25-400 C, salinity up to 17.2 m Cl), which indicate that the linear CuClx1-x ( x = 1, 2) complexes are stable up to supercritical conditions. Distorted trigonal planar CuCl32- complexes predominate at room temperature and at high salinity (>3 m LiCl): subtle changes in the XANES spectrum with increasing salinity may reflect geometric distortions of this CuCl32- complex. Similar changes were observed in UV-Vis data [Liu, W., Brugger, J., McPhail, D.C., Spiccia, L., 2002. A spectrophotometric study of aqueous copper(I) chloride complexes in LiCl solutions between 100 C and 250 C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta66, 3615-3633], and were erroneously interpreted as a new species, CuCl42-. Our XAS data and ab-initio XANES calculations show that this tetrahedral species is not present to any significant degree in our solutions. The stability of the CuCl32- complexe decreases with increasing temperature; under supercritical conditions and in brines under magmatic-hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 15.58 m Cl, 400 C, 600 bar), only the linear Cu(I) chloride complexes were observed. This result and the instability of the CuCl42- complex are also consistent with the recent ab-initio molecular dynamic calculations of Sherman [Sherman D. M.(2007) Complexation of Cu + in hydrothermal NaCl brines: ab-initio molecular dynamics and energetics. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta71, 714-722]. This study illustrates the power of the quantitative nature of XANES and EXAFS measurements for deciphering the speciation of weak transition metal complexes up to magmatic-hydrothermal conditions. The systematic XANES data are used to retrieve the formation constant for CuCl32- at 150 C, which is in good agreement with the reinterpretation of the UV-Vis data of Liu et al. (Liu et al., 2002). At high temperatures (?400 C), the solubility of chalcopyrite in equilibrium with hematite-magnetite-pyrite and K-feldspar-muscovite-quartz calculated with the new properties is lower than that calculated using the previous model, and the calculated solubilities are at the lower end of the range of values measured in brine inclusions from porphyry copper systems.

Brugger, J.; Etschmann, B.; Liu, W.; Testemale, D.; Hazemann, J. L.; Emerich, H.; van Beek, W.; Proux, O.

2007-10-01

317

Piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid and (4-phosphono-piperazin-1-yl) phosphonic acid: A new class of iron corrosion inhibitors in sodium chloride 3% media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inhibiting effect of the piperidin-1-yl-phosphonic acid (PPA) and (4-phosphono-piperazin-1-yl) phosphonic acid (PPPA) on the behavior of iron in 3% NaCl media has been examined by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal the fact that the addition of increasing concentrations of phosphonic acids moves the corrosion potential towards negative values and reduces the corrosion rate. In uninhibited and inhibited solutions, the increasing of temperature reduces the inhibition efficiency. Changes in impedance parameters ( Rt and Cdl) are indicative of adsorption of PPA and PPPA on the metal surface leading to the formation of protective films. Gravimetric measurements reveal that the presence of PPA and PPPA increases the inhibition efficiency by decreasing the corrosion rate. The results obtained by corrosion weight loss tests reveal that adsorption of compounds tested on the ARMCO iron surface obeys to Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Amar, H.; Benzakour, J.; Derja, A.; Villemin, D.; Moreau, B.; Braisaz, T.

2006-07-01

318

Reactive layer-by-layer deposition of poly(ethylene imine) and a precursor of TiO2: influence of the sodium chloride concentration on the film growth, interaction with hexacyanoferrate anions, and particle distribution in the film.  

PubMed

Films prepared according to a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner find increasing importance in many applications such as coatings with dedicated optical or electronic properties, particularly when including nanomaterials. An alternative way to prepare such hybrid layer-by-layer coatings is to perform sol-gel chemistry in a layer-by-layer manner. In this article, we highlight the importance of the NaCl concentration as a parameter to control the growth as well as the properties of LBL films made from poly(ethylene imine) as the organic counterpart and titanium IV (bisammoniumlactato)dihydroxyde ([Ti(lac)(2)(OH)(2)](2-)) as the precursor of TiO(2). An increase in the sodium chloride concentration leads to the faster growth of the film and to a decrease in the number of hexacyanoferrate anions remaining in the film after a buffer rinse. This may be due to a progressive increase in the fraction of negatively charged TiO(2) as suggested by transmission electron microscopy. In the presence of 0.5 M NaCl, the fraction of TiO(2) is close to 60% in mass. As a surprising finding, the films produced from 0.15 M NaCl are not homogeneously filled with TiO(2) even if the film is produced in an LBL fashion. The increased concentration of TiO(2) at the film-solution interface could constitute a barrier for the incorporation of the negatively charged redox probe. PMID:21619015

Ladhari, Nadia; Ringwald, Christian; Ersen, Ovidiu; Florea, Ileana; Hemmerl, Joseph; Ball, Vincent

2011-06-21

319

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures.  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF{sub 2} melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing ternary molten salt for the first wall surface and blanket were investigated. The molten salt (FLiNaBe, a ternary mixture of LiF, BeF2 and NaF) salt was selected because a melting temperature below 350 C that would provide an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor application appeared possible. This information came from a Russian binary phase diagram and a US ternary phase diagram in the 1960's that were not wholly consistent. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and, BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a small stainless steel crucible under vacuum. The proportions of the three salts were selected to yield conglomerate salts with as low a melting temperature as possible. The temperature of the salts and the crucible were recorded during the melting and subsequent re-solidification using a thermocouple directly in the salt pool and two thermocouples embedded in the crucible. One mixture had an apparent melting temperature of 305 C. Particular attention was paid to the cooling curve of the salt temperature to observe evidence of any mixed intermediate phases between the fully liquid and fully solid states. The clarity, texture, and thickness were observed and noted as well. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, and the melting procedure are described. The temperature curves for the melting and cooling of each of the mixtures are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible was also done and is reported in a separate paper.

Boyle, Timothy J.; Troncosa, Kenneth P.; Nygren, Richard Einar; Lutz, Thomas Joseph; McDonald, Jimmie M.; Tanaka, Tina Joan; Ulrickson, Michael Andrew

2004-09-01

320

Measurement of the Melting Point Temperature of Several Lithium-Sodium-Beryllium Fluoride Salt (Flinabe) Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium fluorides studied for molten salt fission reactors, has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for fusion applications. The melting points of 2LiF-BeF{sub 2} and LiF-BeF{sub 2} are 460 deg. C and 363 deg. C, but LiF-BeF{sub 2} is rather viscous and has less lithium for breeding. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program, concepts with a free flowing liquid for the first wall and blanket were investigated. Flinabe (a mixture of LiF, BeF{sub 2} and NaF) was selected for a molten salt design because a melting temperature below 350 deg. C appeared possible and this provided an attractive operating temperature window for a reactor. To confirm that a ternary salt with a low melting temperature existed, several combinations of the fluoride salts, LiF, NaF and BeF{sub 2}, were melted in a stainless steel crucible under vacuum. One had an apparent melting temperature of 305 deg. C. The test system, preparation of the mixtures, melting procedures and temperature curves for the melting and cooling are presented along with the apparent melting points. Thermal modeling of the salt pool and crucible is reported in an accompanying paper.

McDonald, J.M; Nygren, R.E.; Lutz, T.J.; Tanaka, T.J; Ulrickson, M.A.; Boyle, T.J.; Troncosa, K.P. [Sandia National Laboratories (United States)

2005-04-15

321

High temperature aqueous potassium and sodium phosphate solutions: two-liquid-phase boundaries and critical phenomena, 275-400/sup 0/C; potential applications for steam generators  

SciTech Connect

Two-liquid-phase boundaries at temperatures between 275 and 400/sup 0/C were determined for potassium phosphate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions for compositions from 0 to 60 wt % dissolved salt. The stoichiometric mole ratios, K/PO/sub 4/ or Na/PO/sub 4/, were varied from 1.00 to 2.12 and from 1.00 to 2.16 for the potassium and sodium systems, respectively. Liquid-vapor critical temperatures were also determined for most of the dilute liquid phases that formed. The minimum temperatures (below which a single solution existed) of two-liquid-phase formation were 360/sup 0/C for the potassium system and 279/sup 0/C for the sodium system at mole ratios of 2.00 and 2.16, respectively. For the sodium system at mole ratios greater than 2.16, solids crystallized at lower temperatures as expected from earlier studies. In contrast, potassium solutions that were explored at mole ratios from 2.12 to 3.16 and at temperatures below 360/sup 0/C did not produce solid phases nor liquid-liquid immiscibilities. Aside from the generally unusual observations of two immiscible liquids in an aqueous inorganic salt system, the results could possibly be applied to the use of phosphate additives in steam power generators. 16 refs.

Marshall, W.L.

1981-12-01

322

Sample Concentration: Temperature  

E-print Network

Citric Acid pH 4.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A2. 0.1 M Citric Acid pH 5.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A3. 0.1 M.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride A6. 0.1 M Bicine pH 9.0, 1.0 M Sodium Chloride B1. 0.1 M Citric Acid pH 4.0, 2.0 M Sodium Chloride B2. 0.1 M Citric Acid pH 5.0, 2.0 M Sodium Chloride B3. 0.1 M MES pH 6.0, 2.0 M

Hill, Chris

323

Measurement of the melting point temperature of several lithium-sodium-beryllium fluoride salt (FLINABE) mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molten salt Flibe, a combination of lithium and beryllium flourides, was studied for molten salt fission reactors and has been proposed as a breeder and coolant for the fusion applications. 2LiF-BeF melts at 460 C. LiF-BeF melts at a lower temperature, 363 C, but is rather viscous and has less lithium breeder. In the Advanced Power Extraction (APEX) Program,

Timothy J. Boyle; Kenneth P. Troncosa; Richard Einar Nygren; Thomas Joseph Lutz; Jimmie M. McDonald; Tina Joan Tanaka; Michael Andrew Ulrickson

2004-01-01

324

An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when must-take wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

2014-03-01

325

Cohesion and polymorphism in solid rubidium chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cohesive energetics of three phases of solid cubic rubidium chloride, the zinc blende structured 4:4 phase, the 6:6 sodium chloride polymorph and the 8:8 phase with the cesium chloride structure, are computed using a non-empirical fully ionic model. The rearrangement energies needed to convert free anions to their optimal states in-crystal, two-body inter-ionic potentials, plus the further contributions arising from electron correlation, are reported. The 'optimal' anion-anion potentials, computed by using at each geometry the optimal wavefunction, are compared with the 'frozen' potential using the same wavefunction at all geometries. The lattice energy of the 4:4 structure is predicted to be some 40 kJ mol-1 smaller than that of either the 6:6 or the 8:8 phases. Introduction of the Axilrod-Teller triple dipole dispersion interactions and the vibrational zero point energy predicts the 8:8 phase to lie 3.2 kJ mol-1 lower in energy than the 6:6 structure. This is both consistent with radius ratio arguments and supported by two separate experiments that strongly suggest that the 8:8 phase is favoured over the 6:6 structure at low temperatures even though the latter is more stable at ambient temperatures. A shell model description is presented for the ion-induced dipole interactions that arise both in small clusters and in crystals encapsulated in nanotubes. The elastic constants and entropy at 300 K predicted for the 6:6 phase from this model by using the GULP program agree well with experiment. A smaller entropy is predicted for the 8:8 structure.

Pyper, N. C.; Kirkland, A. I.; Harding, J. H.

2006-01-01

326

Surface Expression of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Mutant ?F508 Is Markedly Upregulated by Combination Treatment with Sodium Butyrate and Low Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ?F508 gene mutation prevents delivery of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) to the plasma membrane. The current study examines the biochemical basis for the upregulation of ?F508 CFTR expression by sodium butyrate and low temperature. Surface CFTR protein expression was determined by quantitative immunoblot following surface biotinylation and streptavidin extraction. CF gene expression was measured by Northern

Ghanshyam D. Heda; Christopher R. Marino

2000-01-01

327

Sodium Doping Could Enhance the Room Temperature Ferromagnetism of (ZnO):Mn Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zn0.995-yMn0.005NayO (y = 0.00 to 0.010) nano-crystal powders are synthesized by a sol-gel method. All samples have ferromagnetism at room temperature and are composed of wurtzite ZnO with hexagonal structure without any secondary phases. The ferromagnetism is enhanced while 0.005 ? y ? 0.007 (Na:Mn = 1:1 to 1.4:1). The sample of Zn0.988Mn0.005Na0.007O has the largest coercivity of 62.018GS; saturation

Qian Gao; Ming Fan; Yang Qi; Lianfeng Wang; Benzhe Sun

2012-01-01

328

Orientation imaging microscopy of polycrystalline sodium chloride  

SciTech Connect

A novel preparation technique is described that makes possible grain size analysis of polycrystalline NaCl using orientation imaging microscopy via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The preparation methodology is specifically developed to overcome difficulties in preparing microporous NaCl for microscopy. The grain size and crystallographic texture of polycrystalline NaCl samples, prepared via solution pressure and sintered in the range of 650-780 deg. C, were able to be measured successfully with EBSD. The limitations of the preparation technique for EBSD analysis of NaCl are also discussed.

Staiger, M.P., E-mail: mark.staiger@canterbury.ac.nz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8020 (New Zealand); Kolbeinsson, I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8020 (New Zealand); Newman, J. [Newman Energy Research, 2 Rose Street, Christchurch (New Zealand); Woodfield, T.; Sato, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, 8020 (New Zealand)

2010-04-15

329

A High Temperature (400 to 650oC) Secondary Storage Battery Based on Liquid Sodium and Potassium Anodes  

SciTech Connect

This STTR Phase I research program was on the development of high temperature (400 to 650 C), secondary batteries with roundtrip efficiency > 90% for integration with a 3 to 10 kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. In fulfillment of this objective, advanced planar high temperature rechargeable batteries, comprised of an alkali metal ion conducting, highly refractory, beta'' alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) sandwiched between liquid sodium (or potassium) anode and liquid metal salt cathode, were developed at MSRI. The batteries have been successfully demonstrated at a working temperature as high as 600 C. To our knowledge, so far no work has been reported in the literature on planar rechargeable batteries based on BASE, and results obtained in Phase I for the very first time demonstrated the viability of planar batteries, though relatively low temperature tubular-based sodium-sulfur batteries and ZEBRA batteries have been actively developed by very limited non U.S. companies. The results of this Phase I work have fulfilled all the goals and stated objectives, and the achievements showed much promise for further, substantial improvements in battery design and performance. The important results of Phase I are briefly described in what follows: (1) Both Na-BASE and K-BASE discs and tubes have been successfully fabricated using MSRI's patented vapor phase process. Ionic conductivity measurements showed that Na-BASE had higher ionic conductivity than K-BASE, consistence with the literature. At 500 C, Na-BASE conductivity is 0.36 S/cm, which is more than 20 times higher than 8YSZ electrolyte used for SOFC at 800 C. The activation energy is 22.58 kJ/mol. (2) CuCl{sub 2}, FeCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, and AgCl were identified as suitable salts for Na/metal salt or K/metal salt electrochemical couples based on thermochemical data. Further open circuit voltage measurements matched those deduced from the thermochemical data. (3) Tubular cells with CuCl{sub 2} as the cathode and Na as the anode were constructed. However, it was discovered that CuCl{sub 2} was somewhat corrosive and dissolved iron, an element of the cathode compartment. Since protective coating technology was beyond this Phase I work scope, no further work on the CuCl{sub 2} cathode was pursued in Phase I. Notwithstanding, due to its very high OCV and high specific energy, CuCl{sub 2} cathode is a very attractive possibility for a battery capable of delivering higher specific energy with higher voltage. Further investigation of the Na-CuCl{sub 2} battery can be done by using suitable metal coating technologies developed at MSRI for high temperature applications. (4) In Phase I, FeCl{sub 2} and ZnCl{sub 2} were finalized as the potential cathodes for Na-metal salt batteries for delivering high specific energies. Planar Na-FeCl{sub 2} and Na-ZnCl{sub 2} cells were designed, constructed, and tested between 350 and 600 C. Investigation of charge/discharge characteristics showed they were the most promising batteries. Charge/discharge cycles were performed as many as 27 times, and charge/discharge current was as high as 500 mA. No failure was detected after 50 hours testing. (5) Three-cell planar stacks were designed, constructed, and evaluated. Preliminary tests showed further investigation was needed for optimization. (6) Freeze-thaw survival was remarkably good for planar BASE discs fabricated by MSRI's patented vapor phase process.

Tao, Greg; Weber, Neill

2007-06-08

330

Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.  

PubMed

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV < 0.28) or elevated (RV:TV > or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad libitum and maintained at 24 degrees C. Overall, these results demonstrate that changes in diet composition (control vs. 1% NaHCO3 diets) had minimal impact on arterial and venous blood-gas variables when compared with the more dramatic differences associated with feed intake (ad libitum vs. > or = 12 h withdrawal), environmental temperature (24 vs. 16 degrees C), and the pathogenesis associated with PHS (RV:TV < 0.28 vs. > or = 0.28). PMID:12710474

Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

2003-04-01

331

Chloride sensing by WNK1 kinase involves inhibition of autophosphorylation  

PubMed Central

WNK1 [with no lysine (K)] is a serine-threonine kinase associated with a form of familial hypertension. WNK1 is at the top of a kinase cascade leading to phosphorylation of several cotransporters, in particular those transporting sodium, potassium, and chloride (NKCC), sodium and chloride (NCC), and potassium and chloride (KCC). The responsiveness of NKCC, NCC, and KCC to changes in extracellular chloride parallels their phosphorylation state, provoking the proposal that these transporters are controlled by a chloride-sensitive protein kinase. Here, we found that chloride stabilizes the inactive conformation of WNK1, preventing kinase autophosphorylation and activation. Crystallographic studies of inactive WNK1 in the presence of chloride revealed that chloride binds directly to the catalytic site, providing a basis for the unique position of the catalytic lysine. Mutagenesis of the chloride binding site rendered the kinase less sensitive to inhibition of autophosphorylation by chloride, validating the binding site. Thus, these data suggest that WNK1 functions as a chloride sensor through direct binding of a regulatory chloride ion to the active site, which inhibits autophosphorylation. PMID:24803536

Piala, Alexander T.; Moon, Thomas M.; Akella, Radha; He, Haixia; Cobb, Melanie H.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.

2014-01-01

332

Laboratory studies of the low-temperature deliquescence of calcium chloride salts: Relevance to aqueous solutions on Mars and in the Antarctic Dry Valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is significant interest in the possible existence of liquid water on current Mars. This water would likely exist as a brine in order to be stable on Mars today. It has been proposed that soil salts could form aqueous solutions through either the melting of ice by low-eutectic salts, or by the deliquescence of hygroscopic salts present in the Martian soil. The focus thus far has largely been on perchlorate species, which can melt ice at temperatures as low as 206 K and can deliquesce at relative humidity values as low as 38% RH. A Mars-relevant salt that has been neglected thus far is calcium chloride (CaCl2). Calcium has been reported to be an abundant cation at the Phoenix landing site and Mars Science Laboratory instruments have recently identified calcium as well. Simulations suggest subsurface CaCl2 is an ideal candidate to produce brines with seasonality consistent with observed recurring slope lineae (RSL) (Chevrier et al., 2012). Finally, the only terrestrial site where RSL-like features have been observed (near Don Juan Pond in the Antarctic Dry Valleys) contains abundant CaCl2. These seasonal slope streaks are thought to form when CaCl2 in the soil deliquesces due to contact with atmospheric water vapor (Dickson et al., 2013). It is important to understand how this CaCl2 interacts with water vapor at low temperatures relevant to Mars and the Martian analog sites. Here we use a Raman microscope and environmental cell to monitor the low-temperature (223 - 273 K) deliquescence (solid to aqueous phase transition) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid phase transition) of three hydration states of CaCl2 (dihydrate, tetrahydrate, hexahydrate). We have found that the deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) increases with increasing hydration state, which is an expected result. Average DRH values over the temperature range studied are 20.0 2.6% RH for the dihydrate, 31.8 6.3% RH for the tetrahydrate and 60.7 1.6% RH for the hexahydrate. Once the aqueous solution has formed, efflorescence (recrystallization) of the salt is kinetically hindered and supersaturated solutions can exist at humidities far below the DRH. Regardless of temperature or initial hydration state of the solid salt, we do not observe efflorescence of the aqueous solutions to occur until single digit RH values are reached. We show here that calcium chloride is at least as deliquescent as many perchlorate salts, and that solutions of calcium chloride are even more difficult to recrystallize once a brine solution has formed. These experimental results will assist with interpretation of observations of deliquescence in the Antarctic Dry Valleys and will help us understand potential liquid water formation on Mars. In addition to formation of brines through melting, deliquescence of salts such as CaCl2 is a reasonable mechanism for formation of aqueous solutions on current Mars.

Gough, R. V.; Chevrier, V.; Tolbert, M. A.

2013-12-01

333

Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

2012-09-18

334

Phase transfer catalysed surface modification of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) in aqueous media to retard plasticizer migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions. PVC was reacted with a 40% solution of sodium azide in water using tetrabutyl ammonium bromide as the phase transfer catalyst. The reaction was conducted at temperatures ranging from 50 to 80C for various periods of time (14

A. Jayakrishnan; M. C. Sunny

1996-01-01

335

The effect of calcium and sodium lactates on growth from spores of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens in a 'sous-vide' beef goulash under temperature abuse.  

PubMed

The effect of calcium and sodium lactates on growth from spores of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens at three different concentrations (0, 1.5 and 3% w/w) and at different temperatures (10, 15 and 20 degrees C for B. cereus and 15, 20 and 25 degrees C for C. perfringens) was investigated, using beef goulash as a model system for pasteurised vacuum-packaged convenience foods. Calcium lactate at a level of 3% reduced the pH values of the samples from 6.0 to 5.5. No B. cereus growth was observed at 10 degrees C, but after 7 days at an incubation temperature of 15 degrees C, cell number increased by 1 log cfu/g in the control samples. At this temperature, lactates were seen to be effective at inhibiting growth. Calcium lactate was more inhibitory than sodium lactate as the growth of B. cereus was inhibited at 1.5 and 3% concentrations at 20 degrees C, respectively. Growth of C. perfringens was arrested in the presence of 1.5% calcium lactate at all storage temperatures, whereas growth was inhibited by 3% sodium lactate only at 15 degrees C. PMID:11205943

Aran, N

2001-01-22

336

Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium  

SciTech Connect

The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units.

Fink, J.K.

1982-06-01

337

[Sodium transporters and aquaporins: future renal biomarkers?].  

PubMed

Renal sodium and water reabsorption is mediated by renal sodium transporters and water channels or aquaporins which are localized in the apical and basolateral membranes of tubular epithelial cells. The main apical sodium transporters and water channels located along the nephron are: sodium-proton exchanger subtype 3 (NHE-3) which reabsorbs most of the sodium coming from the glomerular filtrate, sodium-phosphate type II cotransporter (NaPiII) and aquaporin-1, all of which are located in the proximal tubule; sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2) which plays a key role in sodium reabsorption in the thick ascending limb; the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) in the distal tubule; and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and aquaporin-2 located in the collecting tubule. There are some experimental studies in which the role of these proteins has been associated with the pathophysiology of several sodium and water balance disorders. In humans, urine is the perfect source to obtain biomarkers useful for the diagnosis of kidney diseases and the assessment of disease progression without the use of invasive procedures. Thus, some of the renal sodium transporters or the aquaporins located in the apical membrane which are excreted in the tubular lumen and detected in urine could become biomarkers of some sodium and water balance disorders. Nowadays there are many studies investigating the role of these proteins in humans in clinical settings. PMID:17927939

Esteva-Font, Cristina; Torra Balcells, Roser; Fernndez-Llama, Patricia

2007-09-29

338

PEG/Ion -Scoring Sheet 1. 0.2 M Sodium Fluoride, 20% PEG 3350  

E-print Network

Magnesium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 6. 0.2 M Sodium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 7. 0.2 M Calcium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 3. 0.2 M Ammonium Fluoride, 20% PEG 3350 4. 0.2 M Lithium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 5. 0.2 M 3350 8. 0.2 M Potassium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 9. 0.2 M Ammonium Chloride, 20% PEG 3350 10. 0.2 M

Hill, Chris

339

Influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate: An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of temperature and concentration on the dynamic viscosity of sodium hypochlorite in comparison with 17% EDTA and 2% chlorhexidine gluconate. Settings and Design: In vitro Materials and Methods: Dynamic viscosity measurements of sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl (5.25%, 2.6%, 1.25%)], EDTA (17%), and chlorhexidine gluconate [CHX, 2%] were measured using a rotational digital viscometer at room temperature (25C). The influence of temperature (45C, 60C) and concentration (5.25%, 2.6%, and 1.25%) on the dynamic viscosity of NaOCl was also evaluated. The measurements were performed using a circulating water bath calibrated with a thermostat, and the dynamic viscosity measurements were noted in Centipoise (Cps). Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used for the statistical analysis were Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro Wilk tests, one-way ANOVA, and independent sample t-test. Results: Viscosity statistically increased with NaOCl concentration and decreased with increasing temperature. Amongst the tested NaOCl groups, 5.25% NaOCl at room temperature was significantly the most viscous (? =1.5300 Cps) while 1.25% NaOCl at 60C was significantly the least viscous (? =1.1800 Cps). Conclusions: 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA are significantly viscous at room temperature. Elevating the temperature of 1.25% NaOCl to 60C significantly reduces the viscosity of the NaOCl. PMID:24554863

Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Ashok, Priyanka; Kumar, AR Pradeep; Narayanan, L Lakshmi

2014-01-01

340

Probing the interaction of hydrogen chloride with low-temperature water ice surfaces using thermal and electron-stimulated desorption.  

PubMed

The interaction and autoionization of HCl on low-temperature (80-140 K) water ice surfaces has been studied using low-energy (5-250 eV) electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). There is a reduction of H(+) and H(2)(+) and a concomitant increase in H(+)(H(2)O)(n=1-7) ESD yields due to the presence of submonolayer quantities of HCl. These changes are consistent with HCl induced reduction of dangling bonds required for H(+) and H(2)(+) ESD and increased hole localization necessary for H(+)(H(2)O)(n=1-7) ESD. For low coverages, this can involve nonactivated autoionization of HCl, even at temperatures as low as 80 K; well below those typical of polar stratospheric cloud particles. The uptake and autoionization of HCl is supported by TPD studies which show that for HCl doses ?0.5 0.2 ML (ML = monolayer) at 110 K, desorption of HCl begins at 115 K and peaks at 180 K. The former is associated with adsorption of a small amount of molecular HCl and is strongly dependent on the annealing history of the ice. The latter peak at 180 K is commensurate with desorption of HCl via recombinative desorption of solvated separated ion pairs. The activation energy for second-order desorption of HCl initially in the ionized state is 43 2 kJ/mol. This is close to the zero-order activation energy for ice desorption. PMID:21548613

Olanrewaju, Babajide O; Herring-Captain, Janine; Grieves, Gregory A; Aleksandrov, Alex; Orlando, Thomas M

2011-06-16

341

Heterogeneous interactions of chlorine nitrate, hydrogen chloride, and nitric acid with sulfuric acid surfaces at stratospheric temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heterogeneous interactions of ClONO2, HCl, and HNO3 with sulfuric acid surfaces were studied using a Knudsen cell flow reactor. The surfaces studied, chosen to simulate global stratospheric particulate, were composed of 65-75 percent H2SO4 solutions at temperatures in the range -63 to -43 C. Heterogeneous loss, but not reaction, of HNO3 and HCl occurred on these surfaces; the measured sticking coefficients are reported. Chlorine nitrate reacted on the cold sulfuric acid surfaces, producing gas-phase HOCl and condensed HNO3. CLONO2 also reacted with HCl dissolved in the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C, forming gaseous Cl2. In all cases studied, the sticking and/or reaction coefficients were much larger for the 65-percent H2SO4 solution at -63 C than for the 75-percent solution at -43 C.

Tolbert, Margaret A.; Rossi, Michel J.; Golden, David M.

1988-01-01

342

Effect of temperature and potassium chloride impurity on the relative ?101?0? tilt grain boundary and surface free energies in ice.  

PubMed

The ratio of the grain boundary free energies relative to the surface free energies ?gb/?s can be determined by measuring the root angles of the grooves formed at the intersection of the grain boundary with the free surface. The grooves were copied by plastic replicas, and the topographic details were revealed with a laser confocal 3D microscope. Values of ?gb/?s were determined for high purity and potassium chloride doped ice bicrystals annealed at -5 and -18 C. The studied samples were ?101?0?/? tilt grain boundaries with ? between 10 and 180. The used KCl concentrations were 1 and 10 ?mol/l, and the conductivity of the pure ice was 0.3 ?S. ?101?0?/60 grain boundary relative energies were also determined for different grain boundary inclinations. All the ?gb/?s obtained values were analyzed and compared using the CSL (coincidence site lattice) theory. For pure samples annealed at -18 C, an important variation of ?gb/?s with the grain boundary inclination was found. In general, a remarkable correspondence between CSL planar density ? and ?gb/?s was observed. Results also showed that the increase of temperature and the impurity changes significantly ?gb/?s. PMID:25101820

Di Prinzio, Carlos L; Druetta, Esteban; Nasello, Olga B

2014-11-26

343

The isotopic and temperature dependent properties of hydrogen chloride dissolved in carbon tetrachloride. A molecular dynamics approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diluted mixtures of HCl and DCl in CCl 4 were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation technique. The solutions were studied over a wide range of temperatures and at corresponding densities close to coexistence curve of the solvent. The thermodynamical properties obtained are found to be in good agreement with the experiment. The local structure around the solutes was described in terms of the calculated solute-solvent site-site pair distribution functions. We found that, over the entire range of investigation, the effect of density leads to a somewhat slight change of the basic solvation structure around the solute molecules. The behavior of the translational and rotational dynamics of the solutes with density was studied in terms of the center of mass linear velocity and the first-order reorientational autocorrelation functions (ACFs), respectively. We found that the extended Macedo-Litovitz theory [Ricci et al. J. Chem. Phys. 81 (1977) 171] predicts successfully the simulated diffusion coefficients of the solutes at these thermodynamic conditions. Finally, the simulated first-order reorientational ACFs of HCl and DCl were compared to each other as well as to the corresponding experimental ones and a reasonable agreement was obtained.

Chatzis, G.; Samios, J.

2000-07-01

344

Solubilities of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature  

SciTech Connect

The solubility of natural gas mixtures in formation water (brine) plays an important role in estimating the natural gas reserve, the formation/dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in situ, and the interfacial tension of the hydrocarbon-formation water system. However, solubility data at high pressure and elevated temperature conditions for aqueous electrolyte systems are rare. Recently, in the reservoirs found at the South China Sea areas, the main salt species in the formation water is sodium bicarbonate, and the solubility data of gases in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under reservoir conditions have not previously been reported. An apparatus for measuring the solubility of gases in aqueous electrolyte solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature conditions is described. The solubility of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions were measured up to 58 MPa and 403 K. The modified Patel-Teja equation of state proposed by Zuo and Guo (1991) for aqueous electrolyte systems was applied to correlate the measured solubility data, and satisfactory results were obtained.

Gao, J.; Zheng, D.Q.; Guo, T.M. [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)] [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

1997-01-01

345

Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

1995-08-01

346

Influences of pH value, temperature, chloride ions and sulfide ions on the corrosion behaviors of 316L stainless steel in the simulated cathodic environment of proton exchange membrane fuel cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

316L stainless steel is in the passive state in a simulated cathodic environment, and the passivity of 316L SS is enhanced with increasing pH value, decreasing temperature, decreasing chloride ions and sulfide ions concentrations. Mott-Schottky plots show that the passive films appear a p-n heterojunction, and the donor and acceptor densities reach 1022cm-3, showing a highly defective character of the passive film. The donor and acceptor densities increase with increasing temperature, increasing chloride ions and sulfide ions concentrations, while they decreased with increasing pH value. The decreased passivity and the increased doping density may be beneficial to the conductivity of the passive film, but they adversely affect the protectiveness of the passive film toward corrosion.

Li, D. G.; Wang, J. D.; Chen, D. R.; Liang, P.

2014-12-01

347

Process for synthesis of beryllium chloride dietherate  

DOEpatents

A low temperature method of producing beryllium chloride dietherate through the addition of hydrogen chloride gas to a mixture of beryllium metal in ether in a reaction vessel is described. A reflux condenser provides an exit for hydrogen produced form the reaction. A distillation condenser later replaces the reflux condenser for purifying the resultant product.

Bergeron, Charles (Baton Rouge, LA); Bullard, John E. (Kendall Park, NJ); Morgan, Evan (Lynchburg, VA)

1991-01-01

348

Sodium Test  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium levels? 1. What is the recommended dietary salt intake? The Food and Nutrition Board recommends a ... of sodium are often processed food to which salt is added during preparation, such as cheeses, soups, ...

349

Surface tension of low-temperature aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the surface tension have been carried out to determine the effects of both temperature and concentration on the surface tension of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, propylene glycol, and ethylene glycol. A differential capillary-rise method was employed for the measurements. The results show that the surface tension of the ethylene glycol solution and the propylene glycol solution increases as the concentration of the solution decreases, while for the sodium chloride solution the surface tension increases monotonically as the concentration increases. The surface tension of the liquids was found to be an almost-linear function of temperature from 20C to just above the freezing temperature. Equations for the surface tension of the three binary aqueous solutions as a function of temperature and concentration are presented.

Horibe, A.; Fukusako, S.; Yamada, M.

1996-03-01

350

[Some clinical aspects of sodium homeostasis disorders].  

PubMed

In this review three major issues of sodium homeostasis are addressed. Specifically, volume-dependent (salt-sensitive) hypertension, sodium chloride content of maintenance fluid and clinical evaluation of hyponatremia are discussed. Regarding volume-dependent hypertension the endocrine/paracrine systems mediating renal sodium retention, the relationship between salt intake, plasma sodium levels and blood pressure, as well as data on the dissociation of sodium and volume regulation are presented. The concept of perinatal programming of salt-preference is also mentioned. Some theoretical and practical aspects of fluid therapy are summarized with particular reference to using hypotonic sodium chloride solution for maintenance fluid as opposed to the currently proposed isotonic sodium chloride solution. Furthermore, the incidence, the aetiological classification and central nervous system complications of hyponatremia are presented, too. In addition, clinical and pathophysical features of hyponatremic encephalophathy and osmotic demyelinisation are given. The adaptive reactions of the brain to hypotonic stress are also described with particular emphasis on the role of brain-specific water channel proteins (aquaporin-4) and the benzamil-inhibitable sodium channels. In view of the outmost clinical significance of hyponatremia, the principles of efficient and safe therapeutic approaches are outlined. PMID:24036017

Sulyok, Endre

2013-09-22

351

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING IN CENTER, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT WITH SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

352

Exploring the cell: Sodium (beta-alumina) cupric chloride - Aluminum chloride - Sodium chloride between 136 and 200 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments were done with a molten-salt catholyte (initially CuCl2 in AlCl3-NaCl) separated from molten Na by beta alumina. The open-circuit reduction potentials were 4.3 and 3 volts for Cu++ and Cu+, respectively. High polarization and nonrechargeability characterized the cell's operation. The cell's ohmic resistance during discharge was higher than what would be expected from only the ionic resistance of the beta-alumina.

Miller, R. O.

1975-01-01

353

Low-Temperature Silicon-to-Silicon Anodic Bonding Using Sodium-Rich Glass for MEMS Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, silicon-to-silicon anodic bonding has been accomplished using an intermediate sodium-rich glass layer deposited by a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering process. The bonding was carried out at low direct-current voltage of about 80 V at 365C. The alkali ion (sodium) concentration in the deposited film, the surface roughness of the film, and the flatness of the silicon wafers were studied in detail and closely monitored to improve the bond strength of the bonded silicon wafers. The effect of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) on the surface roughness of the deposited film was also investigated. The average roughness of the deposited film was found to be ~6 , being reduced to 2 after CMP. It was observed that the concentration of sodium ions in the deposited film varied significantly with the sputtering parameters. Scanning electron microscopy was used to obtain cross-sectional images of the bonded pair. The bonding energy of the bonded wafer pair was measured using the crack-opening method. The bonding energy was found to vary from 0.3 J/m2 to 2.1 J/m2 for different bonding conditions. To demonstrate the application of the process developed, a sealed cavity was created using the silicon-to-silicon anodic bonding technique, which can be used for fabrication of devices such as capacitive pressure sensors and Fabry- Perot-based pressure sensors. Also, a matrix of microwells was fabricated using this technique, which can be used in various biomicroelectromechanical system applications.

Tiwari, Ruchi; Chandra, Sudhir

2014-02-01

354

Overexpression of Pendrin in Intercalated Cells Produces Chloride-Sensitive Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Inherited and acquired disorders that enhance the activity of transporters mediating renal tubular Na+ reabsorption are well established causes of hypertension. It is unclear, however, whether primary activation of an Na+-independent chloride transporter in the kidney can also play a pathogenic role in this disease. Here, mice overexpressing the chloride transporter pendrin in intercalated cells of the distal nephron (TgB1-hPDS mice) displayed increased renal absorption of chloride. Compared with normal mice, these transgenic mice exhibited a delayed increase in urinary NaCl and ultimately, developed hypertension when exposed to a high-salt diet. Administering the same sodium intake as NaHCO3 instead of NaCl did not significantly alter BP, indicating that the hypertension in the transgenic mice was chloride-sensitive. Moreover, excessive chloride absorption by pendrin drove parallel absorption of sodium through the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and the sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (Ndcbe), despite an appropriate downregulation of these sodium transporters in response to the expanded vascular volume and hypertension. In summary, chloride transport in the distal nephron can play a primary role in driving NaCl transport in this part of the kidney, and a primary abnormality in renal chloride transport can provoke arterial hypertension. Thus, we conclude that the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin plays a major role in controlling net NaCl absorption, thereby influencing BP under conditions of high salt intake. PMID:23766534

Jacques, Thibaut; Picard, Nicolas; Miller, R. Lance; Riemondy, Kent A.; Houillier, Pascal; Sohet, Fabien; Ramakrishnan, Suresh K.; Bsst, Cara J.; Jayat, Maximilien; Cornire, Nicolas; Hassan, Hatim; Aronson, Peter S.; Hennings, Jean Christopher; Hbner, Christian A.; Nelson, Raoul D.; Chambrey, Rgine

2013-01-01

355

Influence of ammonia on sodium absorption in rat proximal colon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of ammonia on sodium and chloride fluxes in rat proximal colon was studied in Ussing chamber experiments. Under short-circuit conditions, the proximal colon absorbed sodium and secreted chloride. The presence of ammonia (30 mmol l-1 mucosal) diminished Na+ absorption, but had hardly any influence on Cl- fluxes. Blocking the apical Na+\\/H+ exchanger isoform NHE2 by amiloride or HOE642

Rainer Cermak; Claudia Lawnitzak; Erwin Scharrer

2000-01-01

356

Determination of chloride in geological samples by ion chromatography  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Samples of silicate rocks are prepared by sodium carbonate fusion and then treated by ion chromatography. The method was tested for geological standards with chloride concentration between 0.003 and 3%. Observed chloride concentrations comparedd favorably with literature values. The relative standard deviation and detection limit for the method were 8% and 7 ppm, respectively. Up to 30 determination per 24-hour period were possible. ?? 1983.

Wilson, S.A.; Gent, C.A.

1983-01-01

357

In-situ method for treating residual sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Henslee, S. Paul (Idaho Falls, ID)

2005-07-19

358

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

DOEpatents

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

359

Mechanistic characterization of chloride interferences in electrothermal atomization systems  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A computer-controlled spectrometer with a photodiode array detector has been used for wavelength and temperature resolved characterization of the vapor produced by an electrothermal atomizer. The system has been used to study the chloride matrix interference on the atomic absorption spectrometric determination of manganese and copper. The suppression of manganese and copper atom populations by matrix chlorides such as those of calcium and magnesium is due to the gas-phase formation of an analyte chloride species followed by the diffusion of significant fractions of these species from the atom cell prior to completion of the atomization process. The analyte chloride species cannot be formed when matrix chlorides with metal-chloride bond dissociation energies above those of the analyte chlorides are the principal entitles present. The results indicate that multiple wavelength spectrometry used to obtain temperature-resolved spectra is a viable tool in the mechanistic characterization of interference effects observed with electrothermal atomization systems. ?? 1988 American Chemical Society.

Shekiro, J.M., Jr.; Skogerboe, R.K.; Taylor, H.E.

1988-01-01

360

Temperature adaptation of active sodium-potassium transport and of passive permeability in erythrocytes of ground squirrels.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unidirectional active and passive fluxes of K-42 and Na-24 were measured in red blood cells of ground squirrels (hibernators) and guinea pigs (nonhibernators). As the temperature was lowered, ?active' (ouabain-sensitive) K influx and Na efflux were more considerably diminished in guinea pig cells than in those of ground squirrels. The fraction of total K influx which is ouabain-sensitive in red blood cells of ground squirrels was virtually constant at all temperatures, whereas it decreased abruptly in guinea pig cells as temperature was lowered.

Kimzey, S. L.; Willis, J. S.

1971-01-01

361

Perovskite lithium and bismuth modified potassium-sodium niobium lead-free ceramics for high temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

[(K{sub (1-x)/2}Na{sub (1-x)/2}Li{sub x}){sub 1-3y}Bi{sub y}]NbO{sub 3} (abbreviated as KNLBN) ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state sintering. The addition of Li{sup +} and Bi{sup 3+} makes the orthorhombic-tetragonal phase transition temperature (T{sub O-T}) decrease from 200 deg. C for pure (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} ceramics to -10 deg. C for KNLBN ceramics (x=0.06, y=0.005), while maintaining high Curie temperature (T{sub C}=455 deg. C) and piezoelectric properties (d{sub 33}=185 pC/N, k{sub p}=0.43, k{sub t}=0.45, {epsilon}{sub 33}{sup T}/{epsilon}{sub 0}=1020, and tan {delta}=0.023) at room temperature. In addition, good temperature stability of electrical properties is obtained in KNLBN ceramics (x=0.06, y=0.005) owing to the decrease of T{sub O-T}. These results indicate that KNLBN (x=0.06, y=0.005) ceramic is a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate material for high temperature applications.

Du Hongliang; Zhou Wancheng; Luo Fa; Zhu Dongmei; Qu Shaobo; Pei Zhibin [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China); Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Educational Ministry, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); The College of Science, Air Force Engineering University, Xi'an 710051 (China)

2007-10-29

362

Effect of temperature on the sorption behavior of sodium potassium fluorophlogopite with respect to the heavy metal ions Cd2+, Hg2+, and Pb2+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of temperature on the sorption behavior of a synthesized gel structurally close to the fluorine mica mineral, sodium potassium fluorophologopite, was studied for the heavy metal ions Cd2+, Hg2+, and Pb2+. The synthesized gel was characterized by X-ray powder pattern, energy dispersive spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis and was found to have the composition Na0.5K0.5Mg(AlSi3O10)F26H2O. The effect of temperature on sorption was studied with respect to varying concentrations of metal ions. The overall sorption capacity of the synthesized gel was found to depend on the number of ion active groups per unit weight of the material. The data were expressed in terms of distribution coefficients ( K d). Sorption data followed Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Studies showed that sorption decreased as the concentration of metal ions increased and increased as the temperature grew, which was evidence that the process was endothermic.

Tomar, R.; Sharma, D.; Verma, S.; Sharma, P.

2008-01-01

363

Hydrolytic stability of terephthaloyl chloride and isophthaloyl chloride.  

PubMed

The phthaloyl chloride isomers, terephthaloyl chloride (TCl) and isophthaloyl chloride (ICl), are high production volume chemicals used in polymers to impartflame resistance, chemical resistance, and temperature stability and as water scavengers. In these studies, we determined the hydrolytic stability of TCl and ICl and their hydrolysis products in aqueous solutions. Hydrolysis rates for TCl and ICl were initially determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection in water buffered at pH 4.0, 7.0, and 9.0 and 0 degrees C for up to 30 min. Subsequent studies determined the products from TCl and ICl hydrolysis. The parent phthaloyl chlorides (TCl and ICl), their intermediate hydrolysis products (designated as the "half-acids"), and their stable hydrolysis products (terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA)) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives (t(1/2)) of TCl and ICl ranged from an average of 1.2 to 2.2 min and from 2.2 to 4.9 min, respectively, at pH 4-9 and 0 degrees C. The observed first-order rate constants (k(obs)) ranged from an average of 530 to 1100 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for TCl and 240 to 520 (x 10(5) s(-1)) for ICl. Both phthaloyl chlorides formed their respective short-lived intermediates, in which one of the two carboxylic acid chloride functionalities reacts with water to form the carboxylic acid ("half-acid"). Subsequently, the half-acids underwent further hydrolysis so that greater than 90% of the initial phthaloyl chloride hydrolyzed in less than 60 min at 0 degrees C. The hydrolysis products TPA and IPA were hydrolytically stable, undergoing no further transformations after 20 min at pH 7 and 25 degrees C. This work demonstrated that TCl, ICl, and their respective half-acids will not be persistent in aqueous systems for a time sufficient to have a sustained toxicological effect on aquatic organisms (less than 1 h). Performing additional aquatic toxicity studies, biodegradation studies, and potentially mammalian studies on TCl and ICl are unnecessary since the existing information on TPA and IPA with the hydrolysis data presented here is sufficient to address questions on the fate and effects of these two substances in aqueous environments. PMID:17120561

Berti, William R; Wolstenholme, Barry W; Kozlowski, John J; Sobocinski, Raymond L; Freerksen, Robert W

2006-10-15

364

Molecular Structure of Sodium persulfate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium persulfate is an etchant and oxidizer. Oxidizers are highly reactive chemicals that can be used to clean or to render a metal surface free from corrosion. It is a crystalline or powdery solid at room temperature. Sodium persulfate is commonly used today as a replacement for ammonium persulfate in the etching of metal and semi-conductor surfaces.

2002-10-01

365

Dielectric relaxation in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate-water-decane microemulsions near the percolation temperature threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an extensive study of percolation in order to verify some theoretical predictions about percolation critical indices for changes in static and dynamic dielectric properties of a microemulsion as a function of temperature and frequency are presented in this paper. The dynamic behavior of the microemulsions was also studied in order to reveal the mechanisms that are responsible

Yuri Feldman; Nikolay Kozlovich; Ido Nir; Nissim Garti

1995-01-01

366

Sodium Bicarbonate  

MedlinePLUS

... is an antacid used to relieve heartburn and acid indigestion. Your doctor also may prescribe sodium bicarbonate ... doctor immediately: severe headache nausea vomit that resembles coffee grounds loss of appetite irritability weakness frequent urge ...

367

Two-step sintering of new potassium sodium niobate ceramics: a high d?? and wide sintering temperature range.  

PubMed

In this work, the two-step sintering technique is used to realize a high piezoelectric constant (d33) and wide sintering temperature range (T(S)) in the 0.955(K(0.42)Na(0.58))(Nb(0.96)Sb(0.04))O3-0.045(Bi(0.5)K(0.5))(0.90)Zn(0.10)ZrO3 lead-free ceramics. Dense microstructures were developed in the ceramics by two-step sintering. In the T(S) range of 800-1130 C, the rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary was well maintained, and these ceramics possess enhanced dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties. It is of great interest to note that a d33 of 323-416 pC/N could be attained in a temperature gap range of 330 C. We believe that the two-step sintering could both widen the sintering temperature and obtain a high d33 for this material system. PMID:25051530

Wu, Jiagang; Wang, Yumei

2014-09-14

368

Tunable color temperature solid state white light source using flux grown phosphor crystals of Eu3+, Dy3+ and Tb3+ activated calcium sodium molybdenum oxide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid state light sources with dynamically tunable color temperature in the range of 3000-6000 K with chromaticity coordinates lying on the Planckian black body curve has been designed using mixtures of narrow emissions at 615 nm, 575 nm and 550 nm. These respective emissions lines were generated by individual phosphor crystals of trivalent rare earth (RE3+) species, europium (Eu3+), dysprosium (Dy3+) and terbium (Tb3+) activated calcium sodium molybdenum oxide (Ca1-2xNaxMoO4:RE3+x), when excited by near-ultra-violet (NUV) light emitting diode (LED) with emission wavelength of 380 nm. Highly luminescent crystals of these compounds have been grown from molten solutions (flux) of molybdenum (VI) oxide. The flux grown crystals exhibit emission intensity 2-4 times more than phosphor powders of the same compounds synthesized by traditional solid-state reactions. An optimum flux to solute ratio of 2.5 and solute dissolution temperature of 1100 C resulted in the largest size crystals.

Khanna, A.; Dutta, P. S.

2014-11-01

369

Time course and temperature dependence of allethrin modulation of sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion cells.  

PubMed

Key effects of the pyrethroid insecticide allethrin, delivered to or washed out from cells at 10 or 100 microM in 0.1% DMSO, on neuronal Na(+) channel currents were studied in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells under whole-cell patch clamp. Tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) Na(+) channels were more responsive to allethrin than tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) Na(+) channels. On application of 10 or 100 microM allethrin to cells with TTX-R Na(+) channels, the Na(+) tail current during repolarization developed a large slowly decaying component within 10 min. This slow tail developed multiphasically, suggesting that allethrin gains access to Na(+) channels by a multiorder process. On washout (with 0.1% DMSO present), the slow tail current disappeared monophasically (exponential tau=188+/-44 s). Development and washout rates did not depend systematically on temperature (12 degrees, 18 degrees, or 27 degrees C), but washout was slowed severely if DMSO was absent. As the duration of a depolarizing pulse was increased (range 0.32-10 ms), the amplitude of the slow component of the succeeding tail conductance first increased then decreased. Tail current amplitude had the same dependence on preceding pulse duration (at 18 degrees ) at 10 or 100 microM, consistent with allethrin modification of Na(+) channels at rest before opening. At 10 microM, slow tail conductance was at maximum 40% of the peak conductance during the previous depolarization, independent of temperature; evidently, the fraction of open modified channels did not change. However, at low temperature, the tail is more prolonged, bringing more Na(+) ions into a cell. In functioning neurons, this Na(+) influx would cause a larger depolarizing afterpotential, a condition favoring the repetitive discharges, which are signatory of pyrethroid intoxication. PMID:10564734

Ginsburg, K; Narahashi, T

1999-11-13

370

Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

Wydeven, T.

1972-01-01

371

Sodium Dynamics in a Northern Ecosystem*  

PubMed Central

Analyses of terrestrial sources of sodium and estimates of the sodium requirement of moose (Alces alces) on Isle Royale, Lake Superior, suggest that availability of the element controls the moose population. The terrestrial vegetation is very poor in the element, but, as elsewhere, submerged and floating leaved water-plants are relatively rich. Consumption of such plants in summer would provide an adequate source, if the animal can store the element. The fairly high sodium contents of freshwater vegetation have been little appreciated. In general, sodium concentration in water-plants, unlike that of potassium, is not correlated with chloride but the latter is ordinarily in excess of the sodium, so that uptake of the latter implies an equivalent supply of NaCl. PMID:16592111

Botkin, D. B.; Jordan, P. A.; Dominski, A. S.; Lowendorf, H. S.; Hutchinson, G. E.

1973-01-01

372

Salt craving: The psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake  

PubMed Central

Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors. PMID:18514747

Morris, Michael J.; Na, Elisa S.; Johnson, Alan Kim

2008-01-01

373

The leaching of nickeliferous laterite with ferric chloride  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several experiments were conducted to investigate the extraction of nickel from nickeliferous laterite by ferric chloride solutions as a function of pulp density, solution composition, and temperature. Solubility relationships for goethite and nickel laterite in aqueous solution were reviewed in terms of leaching rates and reaction mechanisms. Generally, the amount of nickel extracted increased with temperature, the amount of free acid, and ferric chloride concentration; however, the amount was inhibited by ferrous chloride. In this investigation, as much as 96 pct of the available nickel was extracted by ferric chloride solution. Nickel extraction was found to be more dependent on ferric chloride concentration than on the concentration of hydrochloric acid. Mechanistically, nickel extraction occurred by the formation of an intermediate ferric chloride complex, which was then hydrolyzed to hematite.

Munroe, Norman D. H.

1997-12-01

374

Reaction between chlorocarbon vapors and sodium carbonate  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of the reactions between tetrachloromethane (CCl{sub 4}), 1,2-dichloroethane (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}), or chlorobenzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Cl) and sodium carbonate were investigated using evolved gas analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Sodium carbonate reacted with CCl{sub 4} between 600 and 900 K to form over 90% carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and less than 10% tetrachloroethene (C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}). This reaction followed the three-dimensional diffusion mechanism and had an activation energy of 105 {+-} 10 kJ/mol and a steric factor of 5000 {+-} 3000 min{sup {minus}1}. The reaction between C{sub 2}H{sub 4}Cl{sub 2} and sodium carbonate produced CO{sub 2}, ethanal (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O), water (H{sub 2}O), vinyl chloride (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl), ethene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), and ethyne (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) between 600 and 900 K from at least two different pathways. The product temperature profiles indicated that CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl were formed initially and that approximately 10% of the product is C{sub 2}H{sub 4} at 900 K. The reaction kinetics followed the Ginstling-Brounshtein diffusion mechanism and had an activation energy of 100 {+-} 10 kJ/mol and a steric factor of approximately 10{sup 4} min{sup {minus}1}. Benzene was produced from the reaction between chlorobenzene and sodium carbonate at temperatures above 800 K. This reaction followed the three-dimensional diffusion mechanism and had an activation energy of 80 {+-} 10 kJ/mol and a steric factor of approximately 500 min{sup {minus}1}. Because the thermodynamics of these reactions are favorable, the kinetics will determine the effectiveness of these processes for destroying chlorocarbon vapors.

Parrett, J.W. Jr.; Sumner, J.P.; Devore, T.C. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-05-15

375

Carbon dioxide solubility in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at geological conditions: Experimental results at 323.15, 373.15, and 423.15 K and 150 bar and modeling up to 573.15 K and 2000 bar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new experimental system was designed to measure the solubility of CO2 at pressures and temperatures (150 bar, 323.15-423.15 K) relevant to geologic CO2 sequestration. At 150 bar, new CO2 solubility data in the aqueous phase were obtained at 323.15, 373.15, and 423.15 K from 0 to 6 mol kg-1 NaCl(aq) for the CO2-NaCl-H2O system. A ? - ? (activity coefficient - fugacity coefficient) type thermodynamic model is presented for the calculation of both the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase and the solubility of H2O in the CO2-rich phase for the CO2-NaCl-H2O system. Validation of the model calculations against literature data and other models (MZLL2013, AD2010, SP2010, DS2006, and OLI) show that the proposed model is capable of predicting the solubility of CO2 in the aqueous phase for the CO2-H2O and CO2-NaCl-H2O systems with a high degree of accuracy (AAD <3.9%) at temperatures from 273.15 to 573.15 K and pressures up to 2000 bar. A comparison of modeling results with experimental values revealed a pressure-bounded transition zone in which the CO2 solubility decreases to a minimum then increases as the temperature increases. CO2 solubility is not a monotonic function of temperature in the transition zone but outside of that transition zone, the CO2 solubility is decrease or increase monotonically in response to increased temperature. A link of web-based CO2 solubility computational tool can be provided by sending a message to Haining Zhao at hzz5047@gmail.com.

Zhao, Haining; Fedkin, Mark V.; Dilmore, Robert M.; Lvov, Serguei N.

2015-01-01

376

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

2011-11-01

377

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

CALCIUM CHLORIDE PLANT LOOKING EAST. CALCIUM CHLORIDE BUILDING ON LEFT, CALCIUM CHLORIDE STORAGE BUILDING ON RIGHT OF CENTER WITH TOP OF SA (SODA ASH) BUILDING IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - Solvay Process Company, Calcium Chloride Plant, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

378

Congenital chloride diarrhoea in Kuwaiti children.  

PubMed

Congenital chloride diarrhoea was diagnosed in 16 Kuwaiti children over a 7 year period (1980-1986) with an estimated incidence of 7.6 per 100,000 live births. The mean age at diagnosis was 3.2 months (range 1 week to 5 months). There were 9 boys and 7 girls with a mean age of 3 years 10 months (range 10 months to 7 years). All children had a shortened gestational period, abdominal distension and chronic diarrhoea. The serum electrolytes in all patients prior to treatment showed hyponatraemia, hypokalaemia, hypochloraemia and metabolic alkalosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by a stool chloride content that exceeded the sum of faecal sodium and potassium. Fifteen patients survived and showed catch-up growth with adequate replacement therapy and 1 died with renal failure. PMID:2651131

Lubani, M M; Doudin, K I; Sharda, D C; Shaltout, A A; al-Shab, T S; Abdul Al, Y K; Said, M A; Salhi, M M; Ahmed, S A

1989-01-01

379

Bromide, Chloride, and Sulfate Concentrations, and Specific Conductance, Lake Texoma, Texas and Oklahoma, 2007-08  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Dallas Water Utilities Division, collected water-quality data from 11 sites on Lake Texoma, a reservoir on the Texas-Oklahoma border, during April 2007-September 2008. At 10 of the sites, physical properties (depth, specific conductance, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity) were measured and samples were collected for analysis of selected dissolved constituents (bromide, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate); at one site, only physical properties were measured. The primary constituent of interest was bromide. Bromate can form when ozone is used to disinfect raw water containing bromide, and bromate is a suspected human carcinogen. Chloride and sulfate were of secondary interest. Only the analytical results for bromide, chloride, sulfate, and measured specific conductance are discussed in this report. Median dissolved bromide concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 0.60 milligrams per liter. The largest median dissolved bromide concentration (0.60 milligram per liter at site 11) was from the Red River arm of Lake Texoma. Dissolved bromide concentrations generally were larger in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma than in the Washita arm of the lake. Median dissolved chloride concentrations were largest in the Red River arm of Lake Texoma at site 11 (431 milligrams per liter) and smallest at site 8 (122 milligrams per liter) in the Washita arm. At site 11 in the Red River arm, the mean and median chloride concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter for chloride established by the 'Texas Surface Water Quality Standards' for surface-water bodies designated for the public water supply use. Median dissolved sulfate concentrations ranged from 182 milligrams per liter at site 4 in the Big Mineral arm to 246 milligrams per liter at site 11 in the Red River arm. None of the mean or median sulfate concentrations exceeded the secondary maximum contaminant level of 300 milligrams per liter. Median specific conductance measurements at sites ranged from 1,120 microsiemens per centimeter at site 8 in the Washita arm to 2,100 microsiemens per centimeter in the Red River arm. The spatial distribution of specific conductance in Lake Texoma was similar to that of bromide and chloride, with larger specific conductance values in the Red River arm compared to those in the Washita arm.

Baldys, Stanley

2009-01-01

380

THE REACTION OF ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE WITH LITHIUM BOROHYDRIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of aluminum borohydride by the reaction between lithium ; borohydride and aluminum chloride seems to occur, ai least in pant, through the ; decomposition of very unstable, volatile intermediates. Attempts to isolate ; these intermediates in pure state were unsuccessful but by trapping intermediate ; fractions at low temperatures and destroying them with excess hydrogen chloride, ; it

W. M. Olson; R. T. Sanderson

1958-01-01

381

Sodium bicarbonate, N-acetylcysteine, and saline for prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy. A comparison of 3 regimens for protecting contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary procedures. A single-center prospective controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Several protective therapies have been developed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate by comparing 2 other regimens, including combination of N- acetylcysteine (NAC) plus sodium chloride and sodium chloride alone, to prevent CIN in patients undergoing cardiovascular procedures. Methods We prospectively enrolled 264 patients who were scheduled for cardiovascular procedures and

Emin E. Ozcan; Sema Guneri; Bahri Akdeniz; Z. Akylldlz; Omer Senaslan; Nezihi Baris; Ozgur Aslan; Ozer Badak

2007-01-01

382

Chloride Fluxes in Isolated Dialyzed Barnacle Muscle Fibers  

PubMed Central

Chloride outflux and influx has been studied in single isolated muscle fibers from the giant barnacle under constant internal composition by means of a dialysis perfusion technique. Membrane potential was continually recorded. The chloride outfluxes and influxes were 143 and 144 pmoles/cm2-sec (mean resting potential: 58 mv, temperature: 2224C) with internal and external chloride concentrations of 30 and 541 mM, respectively. The chloride conductance calculated from tracer measurements using constant field assumptions is about fourfold greater than that calculated from published electrical data. Replacing 97% of the external chloride ions by propionate reduces the chloride efflux by 51%. Nitrate ions applied either to the internal or external surface of the membrane slows the chloride efflux. The external pH dependence of the chloride efflux follows the external pH dependence of the membrane conductance, in the range pH 3.94.7, increasing with decreasing pH. In the range pH 59, the chloride efflux increased with increasing pH, in a manner similar to that observed in frog muscle fibers. The titration curve for internal pH changes in the range 4.07.0 was quantitatively much different from that for external pH change, indicating significant asymmetry in the internal and external pH dependence of the chloride efflux. PMID:5074810

DiPolo, R.

1972-01-01

383

Conversion reactions for sodium-ion batteries.  

PubMed

Research on sodium-ion batteries has recently been rediscovered and is currently mainly focused on finding suitable electrode materials that enable cell reactions of high energy densities combined with low cost. Naturally, an assessment of potential electrode materials requires a rational comparison with the analogue reaction in lithium-ion batteries. In this paper, we systematically discuss the broad range of different conversion reactions for sodium-ion batteries based on their basic thermodynamic properties and compare them with their lithium analogues. Capacities, voltages, energy densities and volume expansions are summarized to sketch out the scope for future studies in this research field. We show that for a given conversion electrode material, replacing lithium by sodium leads to a constant shift in cell potential ?E(Li-Na) depending on the material class. For chlorides ?E(Li-Na) equals nearly zero. The theoretical energy densities of conversion reactions of sodium with fluorides or chlorides as positive electrode materials typically reach values between 700 W h kg(-1) and 1000 W h kg(-1). Next to the thermodynamic assessment, results on several conversion reactions between copper compounds (CuS, CuO, CuCl, CuCl2) and sodium are being discussed. Reactions with CuS and CuO were chosen because these compounds are frequently studied for conversion reactions with lithium. Chlorides are interesting because of ?E(Li-Na)? 0 V. As a result of chloride solubility in the electrolyte, the conversion process proceeds at defined potentials under rather small kinetic limitations. PMID:23936905

Klein, Franziska; Jache, Birte; Bhide, Amrtha; Adelhelm, Philipp

2013-10-14

384

Method for the production of uranium chloride salt  

DOEpatents

A method for the production of UCl.sub.3 salt without the use of hazardous chemicals or multiple apparatuses for synthesis and purification is provided. Uranium metal is combined in a reaction vessel with a metal chloride and a eutectic salt- and heated to a first temperature under vacuum conditions to promote reaction of the uranium metal with the metal chloride for the production of a UCl.sub.3 salt. After the reaction has run substantially to completion, the furnace is heated to a second temperature under vacuum conditions. The second temperature is sufficiently high to selectively vaporize the chloride salts and distill them into a condenser region.

Westphal, Brian R.; Mariani, Robert D.

2013-07-02

385

Moderate temperature rechargeable sodium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells utilizing the organic electrolyte, NaI in triglyme, operated at approx. 130 C with Na(+) - intercalating cathodes. However, their rate and stability were inadequate. NaAlCl4 was found to be a highly useful electrolyte for cell operation at 165-190 C. Na(+) intercalating chalcogenides reacted with NaAlCl4 during cycling to form stable phases. Thus, VS2 became essentially VS2Cl, with reversible capacity of approx 2.8 e(-)/V, and a mid-discharge voltage of approx 2.5V and 100 deep discharge cycles were readily achieved. A positive electrode consisting of VCl3 and S plus NaAlCl4 was subjected to deep-discharge cycles 300 times and it demonstrated identity with the in-situ-formed BSxCly cathode. NiS2 and NiS which are not Na(+)-intercalating structures formed highly reversible electrodes in NaAlCl4. The indicated discharge mechanism implies a theoretical capacity 4e(-)/Ni for NiS2 and 2e(-)/Ni for NiS. The mid-discharge potentials are, respectively, 2.4V and 2.1V. A Na/NiS2 cell cycling at a C/5 rate has exceeded 500 deep discharge cycles with 2.5e(-)/Ni average utilization. A 4 A-hr nominal capacity prototype Na/NiS2 cell was tested at 190 C. It was voluntarily terminated after 80 cycles. Further development, particularly of cathode structure and hardware should produce a battery capable of at least 50-W-hr/lb and more than 1000 cycles.

Abraham, K. M.; Rupich, M. W.; Pitts, L.; Elliott, J. E.

1983-01-01

386

Solubility of sodium salts in ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium bromide (NaBr), and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) was measured in nine ammonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs). The aim of the study is to assess the potential use of these DESs as solvents and electrolytes for the separation of sodium metal from its salts. The studied DESs were prepared by combining ammonium salts with various

F. S. Ghareh Bagh; F. S. Mjalli; M. A. Hashim; M. K. O. Hadj-Kali; I. M. Alnashef

2013-01-01

387

Molecular Structure of Sodium acetate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sodium acetate is known for its ability to supercool. It freezes at 130 degrees, but can exist as a liquid at a much lower temperature. In order to melt solidified sodium acetate, however, every single crystal must liquify, otherwise the material will recrystallize. Sodium acetate has been used as a deicer for roads and runways. It is also used a component of buffer systems and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and heat pads. The compound is quite stable. It may act as an irritant and be harmful if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.

2002-08-26

388

A glass-encapsulated calcium phosphate wasteform for the immobilization of actinide-, fluoride-, and chloride-containing radioactive wastes from the pyrochemical reprocessing of plutonium metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloride-containing radioactive wastes are generated during the pyrochemical reprocessing of Pu metal. Immobilization of these wastes in borosilicate glass or Synroc-type ceramics is not feasible due to the very low solubility of chlorides in these hosts. Alternative candidates have therefore been sought including phosphate-based glasses, crystalline ceramics and hybrid glass/ceramic systems. These studies have shown that high losses of chloride or evolution of chlorine gas from the melt make vitrification an unacceptable solution unless suitable off-gas treatment facilities capable of dealing with these corrosive by-products are available. On the other hand, both sodium aluminosilicate and calcium phosphate ceramics are capable of retaining chloride in stable mineral phases, which include sodalite, Na 8(AlSiO 4) 6Cl 2, chlorapatite, Ca 5(PO 4) 3Cl, and spodiosite, Ca 2(PO 4)Cl. The immobilization process developed in this study involves a solid state process in which waste and precursor powders are mixed and reacted in air at temperatures in the range 700-800 C. The ceramic products are non-hygroscopic free-flowing powders that only require encapsulation in a relatively low melting temperature phosphate-based glass to produce a monolithic wasteform suitable for storage and ultimate disposal.

Donald, I. W.; Metcalfe, B. L.; Fong, S. K.; Gerrard, L. A.; Strachan, D. M.; Scheele, R. D.

2007-03-01

389

Improvement of water vapor adsorption ability of natural mesoporous material by impregnating with chloride salts for development of a new desiccant filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is the development of a new adsorbent for the desiccant material which can be regenerated by the domestic\\u000a exhaust heat by using natural mesoporous material, Wakkanai siliceous shale. To improve this shales performance to adsorb\\/desorb\\u000a the water vapor, lithium chloride, calcium chloride or sodium chloride was supported into the mesopores by impregnating with\\u000a each chloride

Saya Nakabayashi; Katsunori Nagano; Makoto Nakamura; Junya Togawa; Asami Kurokawa

390

Osmotic dehydration of bell peppers: influence of high intensity electric field pulses and elevated temperature treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotic dehydration of bell peppers using sucrose and sodium chloride as osmotic agents as influenced by moderate thermal treatment (2555 C) and high intensity electric field pulses at varying field strengths (E=0.52.5 kV\\/cm) was studied. Two product quality indicators (vitamin C and carotenoids) were evaluated. Increasing temperature resulted in water loss from 32% to 48% and increasing field strength resulted

B. I. O Ade-Omowaye; N. K Rastogi; A Angersbach; D Knorr

2002-01-01

391

Molecular Structure of Barium Chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Barium Chloride was the byproduct of the discovery of radium by Madame Curie. When refining radium, the final separation resulted in barium chloride and radium chloride. Electrophoresis of barium chloride produces small-scale amounts of barium atom. This can be used for obtaining barium for commercial uses. Applications of barium chloride include stimulating the heart and other muscles for medicinal purposes, and also for softening water. Other uses of barium chloride include the manufacturing of barium salts, as pesticide, pigments, boiler detergent, in purifying sugar, as mordant in dyeing and printing textiles, and in the manufacture of caustic soda, polymers, and stabilizers.

2002-08-15

392

Chloride removal from vitrification offgas  

SciTech Connect

This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations.

Slaathaug, E.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-06-01

393

Chemistry of Sodium, Potassium, and Chlorine in Volcanic Gases on Io  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used thermochemical equilibrium calculations in the O-S-Na-K-Cl-H system to model the speciation of volcanic gases emitted from high-temperature (1000-2000 K) silicate magmas on Io. The effects of temperature, pressure, and bulk composition of the gases are explored. The bulk compositions are based on atomic ratios observed in Io's plasma torus and extended atmosphere, and from chondritic abundances. The results show that chlorides of Na and K are the major Cl gases, NaCl, Na, and (NaCl) 2 are the major Na gases, and KCl, (KCl) 2, and K are the major K gases for systems with (Na+K)/Cl>1. The abundances of Na, K, and Cl gases change dramatically at (Na+K)/Cl=1. As the (Na+K)/Cl ratio decreases below unity, which is possible for lower temperature volcanic vents, the major Cl gases change to Cl 2, Cl, S 2Cl, and SCl 2. The results show that abundances of H-bearing gases are insignificant for plausible hydrogen abundances in Io. Higher temperatures and lower pressures increase the abundances of monatomic Na and K. Sodium, K, and Cl compounds condense as Na 2S (at higher temperatures and lower O/S ratios), Na 2SO 4 (at lower temperatures and higher O/S ratios), and NaCl and KCl. Under some conditions, Na 2SO 4 and Na 2S condense simultaneously. These condensates can form coatings on silicate ash particles in the vicinity of volcanic vents. Condensation temperatures decrease as pressure decreases, and condensation is not favored by low-pressure volcanic vents. Silicate magmas, especially alkaline ultrabasic magmas may be important sources of S, alkalis, and Cl on Io. Our predictions agree with spectral absorption features indicating that sodium sulfate and/or sodium sulfide may be present in red deposits on Io's surface. The two major sources of Na, K, and Cl in the plasma torus are sputtering from solid Na 2S/Na 2SO 4/chloride surface condensates and ionization of alkali chloride and monatomic alkali gases that could be present in volcanic plumes and Io's volcanic atmosphere.

Fegley, Bruce; Zolotov, Mikhail Yu.

2000-11-01

394

[Mutagen activity of barium chloride in Salmonella typhimurium].  

PubMed

Barium chloride, which is an important industrial chemical used in pigments, lacquers, dyes, glass and pesticide production, leather tanning and cloth dying, was tested on Salmonella typhimurium (TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 97, TA 98, TA 100) with the reverse mutation test, with and without metabolic activation, to assess its possible genotoxic effects and any possible action with respect to standard mutagens (sodium azide, 9-aminoacridine, 2-nitrofluorene, mitomycine-C, 2 aminoacridine). Using the platelet incorporation technique, barium chloride at various progressive concentrations gave negative results under the experimental conditions of the study. PMID:2199807

Monaco, M; Dominici, R; Barisano, P; Di Palermo, G

1990-01-01

395

Recovery of soluble chloride salts from the wastewater generated during the washing process of municipal solid wastes incineration fly ash.  

PubMed

Water washing is widely used as the pretreatment method to treat municipal solid waste incineration fly ash, which facilitates the further solidification/stabilization treatment or resource recovery of the fly ash. The wastewater generated during the washing process is a kind of hydrosaline solution, usually containing high concentrations of alkali chlorides and sulphates, which cause serious pollution to environment. However, these salts can be recycled as resources instead of discharge. This paper explored an effective and practical recovery method to separate sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride salts individually from the hydrosaline water. In laboratory experiments, a simulating hydrosaline solution was prepared according to composition of the waste washing water. First, in the three-step evaporation-crystallization process, pure sodium chloride and solid mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides were obtained separately, and the remaining solution contained potassium and calcium chlorides (solution A). And then, the solid mixture was fully dissolved into water (solution B obtained). Finally, ethanol was added into solutions A and B to change the solubility of sodium, potassium, and calcium chlorides within the mixed solvent of water and ethanol. During the ethanol-adding precipitation process, each salt was separated individually, and the purity of the raw production in laboratory experiments reached about 90%. The ethanol can be recycled by distillation and reused as the solvent. Therefore, this technology may bring both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:25176491

Tang, Hailong; Erzat, Aris; Liu, Yangsheng

2014-01-01

396

A micropuncture investigation of electrolyte transport in the parotid glands of sodium-replete and sodium-depleted sheep.  

PubMed Central

1. Parotid secretion has been studied by micropuncture in sodium-replete and sodium-deficient sheep. 2. The osmolality of unstimulated primary saliva was slightly higher than in plasma and fell following cholinergic nerve stimulation. In sodium-depleted animals the osmolality of final saliva was hypotonic and exhibited flow dependency, where as in sodium-replete animals it was always isotonic. 3. In sodium-replete sheep, the primary fluid sodium concentration was about 120-130 mmol l-1 but in final saliva it was about 167 mmol l-1 and showed little or no flow-dependency. In sodium-depleted sheep, the primary sodium concentration averaged only 82.2 mmol l-1 and it was concluded that sodium-depleted primary fluid contained some other unidentified solute that allowed it to remain approximately isotonic; in final saliva the unstimulated sodium concentration was about 40 mmol l-1 and it rose with increasing flow rate to a maximum of 114.9 mmol l-1. 4. The primary fluid potassium concentration in sodium-replete animals did not differ significantly from that seen in sodium-depleted animals and the values were uninfluenced by stimulation; the over-all mean value was 11.2 mmol l-1. In final saliva, in sodium-replete sheep, the potassium concentrations averaged 7.8 mmol l-1 but in sodium-depleted sheep the concentrations were between 5 and 10 times greater than in primary fluid. 5. It was calculated from the equilibrium pH that the primary bicarbonate concentration would have been about 35 mmol l-1. In final saliva, where bicarbonate was measured directly, the concentrations were much greater and increased with stimulation to about 115 mmol l-1. 6. The primary fluid phosphate and chloride concentrations were the same in both sodium-replete and sodium-depleted animals and were unchanged by stimulation; the mean concentration of phosphate was 1.30 mmol l-1 and of chloride, 53.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva the phosphate concentrations were little changed but the chloride concentrations fell to an average value of 20.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva it was found that the summed sodium and potassium concentrations exceeded the summed chloride, bicarbonate and phosphate (in mequiv l-1) concentrations, on average by 13.9 mequiv l-1, regardless of sodium status or flow rate. 7. The results indicate that secretion by the sheep parotid can be accounted for in terms of the standard two-state model. Phosphate seems to enter the saliva only in the primary fluid and potassium and bicarbonate appear to enter at both primary and secondary sites; sodium and chloride enter at the primary level and can be reabsorbed in the ducts. Salt depletion causes the primary fluid concentrations of sodium and chloride to fall and the content of an unidentified solute to rise markedly while, at the ductal level, it causes normally quiescent sodium and potassium transport processes to become activated. PMID:7252874

Compton, J S; Nelson, J; Wright, R D; Young, J A

1980-01-01

397

Leaching platinum-group metals in a sulfuric acid/chloride solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A leaching process was established based on the ability of platinum-group metals to form stable chloro-complexes in acidic chloride solutions. Industrial catalyst losses were examined for the recovery of platinum, palladium, and rhodium by leaching with a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride to avoid using aqua regia or autoclave conditions. Extraction of platinum and rhodium in 60% H2SO4 at 135C steadily increased with increasing NaCl concentrations reaching 95% and 85%, respectively, at 0.1 M NaCl after two hours. By comparison, palladium was dissolved more quickly but also reached 85% under the same conditions. Extraction of each metal increased with temperatures up to 125C but plateaued at higher temperatures. Similar behavior was observed with increasing H2SO4 concentrations up to 60%. More than 99% extraction of each metal was obtained after ten hours using 0.1 M NaCl and 60% H2SO4 at 125C.

Mahmoud, M. H. H.

2003-04-01

398

Effect of temperature on membrane potential and ionic fluxes in intact and dialysed barnacle muscle fibres  

PubMed Central

1. The temperature-dependent component of the resting potential in intact, cannulated and dialysed fibres from the muscle of the barnacle Balanus nubilus was studied under a variety of different experimental conditions. A decrease in temperature from 22 to 12 C produced a mean depolarization of 10 mV. 2. Neither addition of strophanthidin, nor replacement of external sodium by lithium affect the voltage shift induced by temperature. However, the magnitude of the voltage shift depends on the external chloride and potassium concentration. 3. The dialysis technique was applied to measure the potassium, chloride and sodium fluxes as a function of temperature. The Q10 for the passive fluxes of these ions was 19, 17, and 14 respectively. 4. The temperature-dependent changes in the passive ionic fluxes combined with the inability of inhibitors of the sodium pump to alter the temperature dependence of the resting potential suggest that the change induced by temperature on the resting potential is primarily caused by a change in the passive permeability ratios, and is not related to active ion transport. PMID:5074384

Dipolo, Reinaldo; Latorre, Ramn

1972-01-01

399

Effect of sodium chloride on bakers' yeast growing in gelatin  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, industrial fermentation researchers have shifted their attention from liquid to solid and semisolid culture conditions. We converted liquid cultures to the semisolid mode by adding high levels of gelatin. Previous studies on liquid cultures have revealed the inhibitory activity of mineral salts, such as NaCl, on the fermentation of sugars by yeasts. We made a kinetic study of the effects of 1 to 5% (wt/vol) NaCl on the alcoholic fermentations of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a growth medium containing 16% gelatin. Our results showed that the effect of high salt content on semisolid culture is essentially the same as the effect on liquid culture; i.e., as the salt content increased, the following occurred: (i) the growth of yeasts decreased, (ii) the lag period of the yeast biomass curve lengthened, (iii) the sugar intake was lowered, (iv) the yield of ethanol was reduced and (v) the production of glycerol was increased. We observed a new relationship correlating the area of kinetic hysteresis with ethanol production rate, acetaldehyde concentration, and the initial NaCl concentration. (Refs. 20).

Wei, C.J.; Tanner, R.D.; Malaney, G.W.

1982-04-01

400

Electrochemistry of metal chloride cathodes in sodium batteries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fundamental electrochemical studies on three candidate materials, i.e., FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, were carried out using various techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear polarization, potentiodynamic polarization, and ac impedance. These studies were aimed at identifying various rate processes in the reduction, elucidating the reaction mechanisms, and determining the kinetic parameters for the reduction. The limitations in the performance of these cathode materials in high power density applications were also examined. Finally, recommendations were made from these studies for the selection of a candidate system among these materials for future NASA applications.

Ratnakumar, B. V.; Di Stefano, S.; Halpert, G.

1990-01-01

401

Dual role of nickel in sodium/nickel chloride batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Corrosion of Ni metal in chloroaluminate melts containing sulfur additive was investigated in order to see whether Ni could be used not only as active material but also as current collector and cell- case material. Three layers were found after three days; they comprised NiCl2, Ni sulfide, and NaAlCl4. Ni-200 wires were also tested under tension in NaAlCl4 + 2 wt percent S at 300 C; no stress corrosion was observed. Results show that Ni metal is very stable even under severe cell conditions with respect to corrosion or electochemical dissolution. The nickel metal, therefore, can serve the dial role of active material for the positive electode and material for the current-collector and cell-case assembly in the Na/NiCl2 cell with sulfur additive in the positive electrode.

Prakash, J.; Redey, L.; Skocypec, R.; Lowrey, R.; Vissers, D.

402

The Salt or Sodium Chloride Content of Feeds  

E-print Network

feed lo%, rlce bran 15%. molasses 14% ground cottorbeed feed No. 6 8%, ground rlce hulls 8%, alfalfa 22116 Corn 20%, alfalfa meal 39%, oats lo%, molasses 30%, salt 1 % 22120 Corn 15%, oats 35% alfalfa and molasses 257 ............. meal 15 Yo...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Lomanitz, S. (Sebastian)

1920-01-01

403

Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations

Resa M. Kelly

2005-01-01

404

Electrochemical Evaluation of Stainless Steels in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an investigation in which several 300-series stainless steels (SS): AISI S30403 SS (UNS S30403), AISI 316L SS (UNS S31603), and AISI 317L SS (LINS S31703), as well as highly-alloyed: SS 254-SMO (UNS S32154), AL-6XN (N08367) and AL29-4C (UNS S44735), were evaluated using DC electrochemical techniques in three different electrolyte solutions. The solutions consisted of neutral 3.55% NaCl, 3.55% NaCl in 0.1N HCl, and 3.55% NaCl in 1.0N HCl. These solutions were chosen to simulate environments that are less, similar, and more aggressive, respectively, than the conditions at the Space Shuttle launch pads. The electrochemical test results were compared to atmospheric exposure data and evaluated for their ability to predict the long-term corrosion performance of the subject alloys. The electrochemical measurements for the six alloys indicated that the higher-alloyed SS 254-SMO, AL29-4C, and AL-6XN exhibited significantly higher resistance to localized corrosion than the 300-series SS. There was a correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys during a two-year atmospheric exposure and the corrosion rates calculated from electrochemical (polarization resistance) measurements.

Calle, L. M.; MacDowell, L. G.; Vinje, R. D.

2004-01-01

405

Storage stability of low-fat sodium reduced fresh merguez sausage prepared with olive oil in konjac gel matrix.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the nutritional values and stability during refrigerated storage of fresh beef merguez sausage as affected by a reformulation process which modified the fat content both by reducing fat (replacing beef fat with konjac gel) and incorporating olive oil (replacing beef fat with olive oil stabilized in a konjac matrix) and by reducing sodium content, replacing sodium chloride with a salt mixture (containing potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride). A preservative (sodium metabisulphite) was also used to extend the shelf-life of the product. The fat was reduced by 32 to 80% and sodium by over 36%. The reformulation did not negatively affect the sensory evaluation. Low microbiota growth rate and biogenic amines were attributed mainly to the presence of sodium metabisulphite. This preservative could be used in the reformulation to enhance safety and/or extend the shelf-life of this type of product. PMID:23618739

Triki, Mehdi; Herrero, Ana M; Jimnez-Colmenero, Francisco; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

2013-08-01

406

Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCl, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCl, 37% as CaCl{sub 2}, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. 25 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

Fenfen Zhu; Masaki Takaoka; Kenji Shiota; Kazuyuki Oshita; Yoshinori Kitajima [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering

2008-06-01

407

Chloride chemical form in various types of fly ash.  

PubMed

Chloride content is a critical problem for the reuse of fly ash as a raw material in cement, and the method used by recyclers to reduce the fly ash chloride content depends on the chemical form of the chlorides. However, limited information is available on the quantitative distribution of chlorides and the identity of some chlorides such as Friedel's salt. We examined chloride forms and percentages using X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray diffraction analyses, as well as corresponding washing experiments. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in raw fly ash was estimated to be in the form of NaCI, 10% in KCl, 50% in CaCl2, and the remainder in the form of Friedel's salt. Fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of calcium hydroxide for acid gas removal (CaFA) contained 35% chlorine as NaCl, 11% as KCI, 37% as CaCl2, 13% as Friedel's salt, and the remaining 4% as CaClOH. In fly ash collected in a bag filter with the injection of sodium bicarbonate for acid gas removal (NaFA), approximately 79% of chlorine was in NaCl, 12% was in KCl, and 9% was in Friedel's salt. PMID:18589947

Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Shiota, Kenji; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kitajima, Yoshinori

2008-06-01

408

Atom manipulation on an insulating surface at room temperature.  

PubMed

Atomic manipulation enables us to fabricate a unique structure at the atomic scale. So far, many atomic manipulations have been reported on conductive surfaces, mainly at low temperature with scanning tunnelling microscopy, but atomic manipulation on an insulator at room temperature is still a long-standing challenge. Here we present a systematic atomic manipulation on an insulating surface by advanced atomic force microscopy, enabling construction of complex patterns such as a 'Swiss cross' of substitutional bromine ions in the sodium chloride surface. PMID:25022312

Kawai, Shigeki; Foster, Adam S; Canova, Filippo Federici; Onodera, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Shin-ichi; Meyer, Ernst

2014-01-01

409

Molecular Structure of Thionyl chloride  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thionyl chloride is a slightly yellowish liquid with an intense odor and low viscosity. It reacts with lithium to produce lithium chloride and is a good solvent for most organic compounds. Other uses of thionyl chloride include as an intermediate for the production of pharmaceutically active ingredients, as an electrolyte in lithium batteries, and in crop protection.

2002-10-01

410

Chloride Channels of Intracellular Membranes  

PubMed Central

Proteins implicated as intracellular chloride channels include the intracellular ClC proteins, the bestrophins, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, the CLICs, and the recently described Golgi pH regulator. This paper examines current hypotheses regarding roles of intracellular chloride channels and reviews the evidence supporting a role in intracellular chloride transport for each of these proteins. PMID:20100480

Edwards, John C.; Kahl, Christina R.

2010-01-01

411

Surface characterization of polyelectrolyte complex membranes based on sodium cellulose sulfate and various cationic components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyelectrolyte complex membranes based on sodium cellulose sulfate as a polyanion and various types of cationic components - poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride), poly(ethyleneimine hydrochloride) as polycations; or (2-(N-undecylamidocarbonyl)-ethyl)-dimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride, N-dodecylpyridinium chloride as cationic surfactants - were prepared. The membrane performances and selectivities in two pervaporation processes were tested. Results are discussed with respect to the surface characteristics of membranes, obtained from

Jaromr Luk; Klaus Richau; Hans-Hartmut Schwarz; Dieter Paul

1997-01-01

412

An improved technique for high-temperature salt corrosion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for long-term corrosion tests in sodium sulfate and chloride melts is described. The method takes account of the salt amount in the bath an admissible variation of sodium chloride concentration, which is of a negligible effect on the corrosion rate. The specimen immersion depth in the bath is regularly reestablished to compensate the evaporation of the salt melt

I. V. Oryshich; A. N. Rakitskii; N. E. Poryadchenko; V. V. Bogaevskii

1994-01-01

413

Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in broth as a function of temperature, pH, and potassium lactate and sodium diacetate concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effect of a combination of potassium lactate and sodium diacetate (PURASAL P Opti.Form 4TM, 60% solution) on the survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in pH adjusted broth (5.5, 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0) stored at 4, 10, 17, 24, ...

414

Sodium and Potassium  

MedlinePLUS

... the Nutrition Facts label. Use the percent Daily Value (% DV) to help limit your sodium intake5% ... Food Amount Range of Sodium Content (mg)% Daily Value (% DV) * for Sodium Breads, all types 1 oz ...

415

Effects of inhibitors on chloride outflux from CSF  

SciTech Connect

The regulation of the CSF (Cl/sup -/) plays a key role in CNS acid-base homeostasis. The authors have shown in previous studies that chloride influx from blood to CSF is largely dependent upon sodium-coupled carrier mediated movement. Therefore, the mechanism of chloride outflux from CSF to brain was evaluated in anesthetized dogs using ventricular-cisternal perfusion (VCP) with the short-lived isotope /sup 38/Cl/sup -/ and dextran. The outflux of /sup 38/Cl/sup -/ from CSF was determined from the different movements between /sup 38/Cl/sup -/ and dextran using a one compartment model. VCP was performed at a rate of 1.4 ml/min for 14 min, and then slowed to 0.28 ml/min. The /sup 38/Cl/sup -/ activity decreased to a steady state level about 12% lower than that of dextran within 40-50 minutes. Under control conditions (19 runs in 7 dogs), the rate of chloride outflux was 0.059 +/- 0.004 min/sup -1/ (mean +/- SE). It was not significantly changed after the inclusion of bumetanide (10/sup -5/ molar) in the VCP fluid (n=6), which inhibits sodium-coupled Cl/sup -/ transport, or with acetazolamide 4.5 x 10/sup -3/ molar (n=4) which inhibits carbonic anhydrase. The authors conclude that chloride outflux from CSF is not dependent upon sodium-coupled carrier mediated movement, which is in contrast with chloride influx from blood to CSF, nor is it dependent upon carbonic anhydrase activity.

Nishimura, M.; Johnson, D.C.; Pappagianopoulos, P.; Kazemi, H.

1986-03-05

416

Mass-spectrometric examination of vaporization of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaporization of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrates was examined by high-temperature mass spectrometry. The inverse\\u000a temperature dependences of the vapor pressure logarithm for these compounds were presented. Enthalpies of vaporization and\\u000a standard enthalpies of formation of gaseous NaNO2, NaNO3, and KNO3 were determined.

G. P. Dukhanin; S. I. Lopatin

2011-01-01

417

Chloride and Salinity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) will provide a good introduction for students studying chloride and salinity. A list of required materials is included as well as the step by step procedure for conducting the experiment. Student worksheets are also included. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

2011-07-15

418

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

419

Some Effects of Low pH on Chloride  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT In order to test the range of pH values over which the titratable carrier model for inorganic anion exchange is valid, chloride self-exchange across human red blood cells was examined between pH 4.75 and 5.7 at 0C. It was found that chloride self-exchange flux had a minimum near pH 5 and increased again with further increase in hydrogen ion activity. The Arrhenius activation energy for chloride exchange was greatly reduced at low pH values. The chloride flux at pH 5. l did not show the saturation kinetics reported at higher pH values but was proportional to the value of the chloride concentration squared. In addition, the extent of inhibition of chloride self-exchange flux by phlorctin was reduced at low pH. Our interpretation of these findings is that the carrier-mediated flux becomes a progressively smaller fraction of the total flux at lower pH values and that a different transport mode requiring two chloride ions to form the pcrmeant species and having a low specificity and temperature dependence becomes significant below pH 5. A possible mechanism for this transport is that chloride crosses red cell membranes as dimers of HCI at these very low pH values.

Exchange Human; Red Blood Cells; R. B. Gunn; J. O. Wieth; D. C. Tosteson

420

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium-sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 W h/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 W h/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Various new cathode materials are presently being evaluated for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far, the studies have focussed on alternative metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as TCNE.

Di Stefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1990-01-01

421

Advanced rechargeable sodium batteries with novel cathodes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various high energy density rechargeable batteries are being considered for future space applications. Of these, the sodium sulfur battery is one of the leading candidates. The primary advantage is the high energy density (760 Wh/kg theoretical). Energy densities in excess of 180 Wh/kg have been realized in practical batteries. More recently, cathodes other than sulfur are being evaluated. Researchers at JPL are evaluating various new cathode materials for use in high energy density sodium batteries for advanced space applications. The approach is to carry out basic electrochemical studies of these materials in a sodium cell configuration in order to understand their fundamental behaviors. Thus far studies have focused on alternate metal chlorides such as CuCl2 and organic cathode materials such as tetracyanoethylene (TCNE).

Distefano, S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Bankston, C. P.

1989-01-01

422

Leaching platinum-group metals in a sulfuric acid\\/chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leaching process was established based on the ability of platinum-group metals to form stable chloro-complexes in acidic\\u000a chloride solutions. Industrial catalyst losses were examined for the recovery of platinum, palladium, and rhodium by leaching\\u000a with a mixture of sulfuric acid and sodium chloride to avoid using aqua regia or autoclave conditions. Extraction of platinum\\u000a and rhodium in 60% H2SO4

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