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1

Improved mass multiplication of Rhodiola crenulata shoots using temporary immersion bioreactor with forced ventilation.  

PubMed

A temporary immersion bioreactor system was found to be suitable for mass shoot proliferation of Rhodiola crenulata. The shoot multiplication ratio and hyperhydration rate reached 46.8 and 35.4%, respectively, at a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 300 min. Forced ventilation was employed in the temporary immersion bioreactor culture in order to decrease the hyperhydration rate, improve shoot quality and enhance the multiplication ratio. The highest multiplication ratio of 55.7 was obtained under a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 180 min with the forced ventilation at an air flow rate of 40 l/h, and the hyperhydration rate was reduced to 26.1%. Forced ventilation also improved the subsequent elongation and rooting rate of these proliferated shoots, and the shoot cultures from the temporary immersion bioreactor formed complete plantlets when subcultured onto a rooting medium containing 5 ?mol/l indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22238017

Zhao, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ying; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

2012-01-12

2

Production of laccase and decolouration of the textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R in temporary immersion bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on sunflower-seed shells (SS) under solid-state fermentation (SFF) conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors was studied. Three immersion cycles were considered: 1min immersed and 9min non-immersed, 1min immersed and 30min non-immersed and 1min immersed and 60min non-immersed. The latter led to the highest laccase activities (4000–6000Ul?1). Also, the in vitro and in vivo decolouration of

Susana Rodríguez-Couto

2011-01-01

3

Use of the temporary immersion bioreactor system (RITA ® ) for production of commercial Eucalyptus clones in Mondi Forests (SA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to optimise tissue culture systems and to meet production targets, Mondi Forests’ biotechnology programme has in the last 2?years concentrated efforts on the use of the RITA® temporary immersion bioreactor system. Protocols have been established for six Eucalyptus clones. Results indicate a four- to six-fold increase in yield, in half the time, with the RITA® system when compared

B. McAlister; J. Finnie; M. P Watt; F Blakeway

2005-01-01

4

Production of laccase and decolouration of the textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R in temporary immersion bioreactors.  

PubMed

Laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on sunflower-seed shells (SS) under solid-state fermentation (SFF) conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors was studied. Three immersion cycles were considered: 1 min immersed and 9 min non-immersed, 1 min immersed and 30 min non-immersed and 1 min immersed and 60 min non-immersed. The latter led to the highest laccase activities (4000-6000 Ul(-1)). Also, the in vitro and in vivo decolouration of the recalcitrant textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was assessed. It was found that RBBR (133.33 mg l(-1)) was efficiently decolourised by T. pubencens grown on SS under SSF conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors in five successive batches. The percentage of RBBR decolouration was higher than 55% in 4h and around 70% in 24h in all the batches. However, it was found that RBBR decolouration by the crude culture filtrates was more advantageous. Thus, an RBBR decolouration percentage of nearly 80% in 2h was obtained. PMID:21868156

Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

2011-08-05

5

Production of leafy biomass using temporary immersion bioreactors: an alternative platform to express proteins in transplastomic plants with drastic phenotypes.  

PubMed

Chloroplast transformation technology is a promising approach for the production of foreign proteins in plants with expression levels of up to 70 % of total soluble protein (TSP) achieved in tobacco. However, expression of foreign protein in the chloroplast can lead to drastic or even lethal effects in transplastomic plants grown in soil, thereby potentially limiting the applicability of this technology. For instance, previous attempts to express the outer surface protein A (OspA) from Borrelia burgdorferi in tobacco chloroplasts led to plant death when expressed at 10 % TSP. We show here that this earlier transplastomic line, as well as a new plant line, OspA:YFP, expressing OspA fused to the yellow fluorescent protein, can be propagated in temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs) using AlkaBurst™ technology to produce leafy biomass that expressed OspA at levels of up to 7.6 % TSP, to give a maximum yield of OspA of about 108 mg/L. Our results show that TIBs provide an alternative method for the production of transplastomic biomass expressing proteins toxic for plants and is a particularly useful approach when 'absolute' containment is required. PMID:23262582

Michoux, Franck; Ahmad, Niaz; Hennig, Anna; Nixon, Peter J; Warzecha, Heribert

2012-12-22

6

Hydrogen peroxide induced phenylpropanoids pathway eliciting a defensive response in plants micropropagated in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs).  

PubMed

The relation between the oxidative burst and phenylpropanoid pathways has been studied using the sugarcane cultivar C86-56, which does not release phenolics in agar-base micropropagation systems. In stationary liquid culture, a significant production of phenolic compounds and plant survival were determined in sugarcane plants treated with 5mM H(2)O(2). The spectrophotometer determinations and the gene expression analysis corroborated that releasing of phenolics and soluble ?-quinones was induced during the first 24h of treatment. In comparison with the control treatments, sugarcane plants treated with H(2)O(2) demonstrated differences in the micropropagation-related variables when multiplied in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs) supplemented with polyethyleneglycol (PEG 20%). Expression of selected genes related to photosynthesis, ethylene, auxins, oxidative burst, and defense pathways were confirmed during the entire PEG 20% stress in the plants coming from the 5mM H(2)O(2) treatment; whereas, much more heterogeneous expression patterns were evidenced in plants stressed with PEG but not previously treated with H(2)O(2). RT-PCR expression analysis supports the hypothesis that while H(2)O(2) induces the oxidative burst, the phenylpropanoids pathways elicit and maintain the defensive response mechanism in micropropagated sugarcane plants. PMID:22921000

Arencibia, Ariel D; Bernal, Aydiloide; Zayas, Carlos; Carmona, Elva; Cordero, Cecilia; González, Gloria; García, Rolando; Santana, Ignacio

2012-07-02

7

Experimental use of a novel temporary immersion system for liquid culture of olive microshoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel temporary immersion system (TIS), designed at the laboratory of VITRO HELLAS S.A., was used for the liquid culture of olive microshoots during their proliferation phase. The results were compared with those obtained in agar solidified medium, which was used as control, and with other bioreactor systems including the LifeReactor ©, liquid culture in Erlenmeyer flasks under agitation and

Katerina Grigoriadou; Miltiadis Vasilakakis; Theofilos Tzoulis; Eleftherios P. Eleftheriou

8

Optimisation of growing conditions for the apple rootstock M26 grown in RITA containers using temporary immersion principle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of bioreactors may provide an efficient and economic tool for mass clonal propagation of plants if technical problems can be solved. In this paper, we report the results of experiments aimed at optimising conditions for apple rootstock M26 growth in RITA containers using the temporary immersion principle. We tested different types and sizes of explants, different concentrations of

Li-Hua Zhu; Xue-Yuan Li; Margareta Welander

9

Application of a temporary immersion system in mass propagation of Phalaenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A temporary immersion system consisting of a series of five-litre twin glass vessels was successfully used for in vitro adventitious shoot multiplication and rooting of Phalaenopsis. Highest shoot multiplication rate of 25.4 was achieved after twelve weeks when eight immersions per day, of ten minutes each, were used. Fresh medium containing 0.5 mg l?1 TDZ was supplemented every two weeks.

Tino Hempfling; Walter Preil

10

Mass multiplication of protocorm-like bodies using bioreactor system and subsequent plant regeneration in Phalaenopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) formed on leaf segmentsin vitro were used as explants for bioreactor cultures. Continuous immersion cultures (air lift column and air lift-balloon bioreactor),\\u000a and temporary immersion cultures (with or without charcoal filter attached) were used for the culture of PLB sections. A temporary\\u000a immersion culture with charcoal filter attached was most suitable for PLB culture. About 18,000 PLBs

Park So Young; H. N. Murthy; Paek Kee Yoeup

2000-01-01

11

Elicitation of galanthamine production by Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in temporary immersion system.  

PubMed

The influence of different elicitors (copper sulfate, silver nitrate, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate), on both the growth and alkaloid production of Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in a temporary immersion system was studied. Seven Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and three protoalkaloids were quantitatively determined by GC-MS analysis in leaves and bulblets, separately. Methyl jasmonate was found to significantly improve the production of galanthamine (GAL) in both leaves and bulblets. The content of GAL released to the liquid nutrient medium was also measured. The release of GAL into the liquid medium took place mainly in the first 2 weeks determined by harvesting the liquid nutrient medium after 2 weeks and measuring the GAL content (1st subculturing step). PMID:23225790

Schumann, Anika; Torras-Claveria, Laura; Berkov, Strahil; Claus, Diana; Gerth, André; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

2013-01-17

12

Retention of granular sludge at high hydraulic loading rates in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor with immersed filtration.  

PubMed

This study shows the results of an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor with immersed filtration cartridges for granular biomass retention working at high hydraulic loading rates. Biomass retention capabilities, granular biomass structure and activity, filtration cartridges flux and organic material degradation performance were evaluated. Four reactors with a volume of 0.005 m3 were tested. Two different filtration cartridges were used (10 and 100 microm) with effective surface area of 0.05 m2. The filtration cartridges were submerged in the reactors for suction type filtration. Three organic loading rates were tested in the first two reactors and seven in the other two. Selective biomass washout and an increment in the biomass methanogenic activity was observed in the reactors at hydraulic loading rates between 1.2 and 4.5 m/h. Analyses of biomass granulometry showed an increase of larger size granular biomass. The immersed membrane anaerobic bioreactor maintain most of the advantages without biomass activity loss. PMID:12188539

Hernández, A E; Belalcazar, L C; Rodríguez, M S; Giraldo, E

2002-01-01

13

New role of phenylpropanoid compounds during sugarcane micropropagation in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genomic characterization of sugarcane plants has been achieved by suppressing key genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway; as a result, a new function of phenolic metabolites has been characterized during micropropagation in TIBs. Genes related to cell metabolism and development (10), plant defenses (9), phenylpropanoids (7), methyl jasmonate response (5), ethylene (5), oxidative burst (3) and, auxins (3) pathways, among

Ariel D. Arencibia; Aydiloide Bernal; Liu Yang; Leidy Cortegaza; Elva R. Carmona; Alicia Pérez; Chun-Jin Hu; Yang-Rui Li; Carlos M. Zayas; Ignacio Santana

2008-01-01

14

Cultivation of root cultures of Panax ginseng in different bioreactors and in temporary immersion — Comparison of growth and saponin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different systems of large-scale cultivation of multiple adventitious roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer were compared to cultivation in Erlenmeyer flasks. Adventitious roots were isolated from plantlets regenerated from somatic embryos and cultivated separately in liquid media. Multiplication of adventitious roots was performed in liquid Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) medium containing 3% sucrose, and 24.6 µmol indole-3-butyric acid. The

Tomáš Van?k; Lenka Langhansová; Petr MaršÍk

15

Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

16

In vitro-grown roots: a superior explant for prolific shoot regeneration of St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum L. cv ‘New Stem’) in a temporary immersion bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a traditional medicinal plant, which has been used for the treatment of neurological disorders and depression. In vitro regeneration of St. John's wort provides one approach for mass clonal propagation of this facultative apomictic species. The current study was designed (i) to compare the regeneration potential of several explant types and (ii) to

S. M. A. Zobayed; P. K. Saxena

2003-01-01

17

Innovative bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent papers have described new bioreactor designs. Most innovations addressed either oxygen transfer, shear induced by stirring, control of water activity in organic phase systems or waste biotreatment. Innovations made during the past year were reported in mainly three areas: bioreactor designs for increases in oxygen transfer and decreases in shear stress; bioreactors for two-phases reactions with water activity control;

Marc A. Deshusses; Wilfred Chen; Ashok Mulchandani; Irving J. Dunn

1997-01-01

18

Fouling characterisation in membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with conventional wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactors offer several advantages, e.g. high biodegradation efficiency, smaller sludge production and compactness. However, membrane fouling is the main limitation to faster development of this process. An experimental study has been performed using hollow fibers (pore size 0.1 ?m) immersed in an aerated tank for treating synthetic wastewater representative of dairy effluent. For

El Hani Bouhabila; Hervé Buisson

2001-01-01

19

Immersive video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to

Saied Moezzi; Arun L. Katkere; Ramesh C. Jain

1996-01-01

20

Immersive video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To realize this, we introduce the concept of immersive video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide viewers of live events a sense of total immersion by providing the viewer with a “virtual camera”. Immersive video uses multiple videos of an event, captured

Saied Moezzi; Arun Katkere; D. Y. Kuramura; Ramesh Jain

1996-01-01

21

Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were fi lled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non- immersed end and the set area

Yoko OGURA; Ichiroh KATSUUMI

2008-01-01

22

Temporary Trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most trade theories assume bilateral trade relationships are forged on the basis of some comparative advantages, scale considerations, market structure or some productivity advantage of firms. Since these factors change slowly, bilateral trade relationships should be stable. However, we argue that over half of the non-zero bilateral trade relationships are of temporary nature: they last for a short period only

Balazs Murakozy; Gabor Bekes

2009-01-01

23

Immersion Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four classroom activities useful for language immersion instruction are described and specific applications and extensions are noted. All are best used to teach content and language at the same time. The first, entitled "Think-Pair-Share," is a cooperative learning technique that increases student participation in classroom experiences and…

Lorenz, Eileen B.

24

Bioreactors with Substance Injection Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioreactor with substance injection capability. In one embodiment, the bioreactor includes a first substrate having a first surface, an opposite second surface and edges. The bioreactor further includes a second substrate having a first surface and an o...

C. P. Lin F. Haselton F. J. Baudenbacher J. P. Wikswo

2003-01-01

25

Bioreactors for Bioartificial Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the design of bioreactors constituting the core of some bioartificial organs is discussed. Initially, the\\u000a problem of cell sourcing is shortly addressed. Then, criteria and limitations to current bioreactor design for bioartificial\\u000a organs are presented. Design equations are separately obtained and discussed for bioreactors implanted in extravascular body\\u000a compartments or connected to the blood circulation of the

G. Catapano

26

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bioreactor designs exist today as a result of previous efforts by engineers and researchers to construct optimal\\u000a systems for a particular tissue engineering application. The primary purpose of any bioreactor is to provide a sterile cell\\u000a culture environment that can be tightly controlled. A bioreactor can be as simple as a petri dish and as complex as

Scott Maxson; David Orr; Karen J. L. Burg

27

Bioreactors and Bioseparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.

Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

28

Hybrid Immersive/Non-Immersive Virtual Environment Workstation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hybrid Immersive/Non-Immersive Virtual Environment workstation integrates two different approaches to the presentation and exploration of virtual spaces. The Immersive and Non-Immersive components of the system are complimentary in that each approach ...

1997-01-01

29

Hybrid Immersive/Non-Immersive Virtual Environment Workstation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hybrid Immersive / Non-Immersive Virtual Environment workstation combines two technologies for the presentation and exploration of virtual spaces. The Immersive and Non-Immersive components of the system are complimentary in that each approach provide...

1997-01-01

30

In vitro evaluation of a novel bioreactor based on an integral oxygenator and a spirally wound nonwoven polyester matrix for hepatocyte culture as small aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The development of custom-made bioreactors for use as a bioartificial liver (BAL) is considered to be one of the last challenges on the road to successful temporary extracorporeal liver support therapy. We devised a novel bioreactor (patent pending) which allows individual perfusion of high density cultured hepatocytes with low diffusional gradients, thereby more closely resembling the conditions in the

Leonard M. Flendrig; John W. la Soe; George G. A. Jörning; Arie Steenbeek; Ole T. Karlsen; Wim M. M. J. Bovée; Nita C. J. J. Ladiges; Anje A. te Velde; Robert A. F. M. Chamuleau

1997-01-01

31

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

Charles L. Cooney

1983-01-01

32

Bioreactors: design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

C. L. Cooney

1983-01-01

33

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

34

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

35

Application of bioreactors for large-scale micropropagation systems of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The application of bioreactor culture techniques for plant micropropagation is regarded as one of the ways to reduce production\\u000a cost by scaling-up and automation. Recent experiments are restricted to a small number of species that, however, demonstrate\\u000a the feasibility of this technology. Periodic immersion liquid culture using ebb and flood system and column-type bubble bioreactors\\u000a equipped with a raft support

Kee-Yoeup Paek; Eun-Joo Hahn; Sung-Ho Son

2001-01-01

36

Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction,…

Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

1998-01-01

37

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

38

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry.

Cooney, Charles L.

1983-02-01

39

Essays on temporary migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption

J. Mestres Domenech

2012-01-01

40

Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry.  

PubMed

A novel technique for label-free imaging of live biological cells in aqueous medium that is insensitive to ambient vibrations is presented. This technique is a spin-off from previously developed immersion Mirau interferometry. Both approaches utilize a modified Mirau interferometric attachment for a microscope objective that can be used both in air and in immersion mode, when the device is submerged in cell medium and has its internal space filled with liquid. While immersion Mirau interferometry involves first capturing a series of images, the resulting images are potentially distorted by ambient vibrations. Overcoming these serial-acquisition challenges, simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry incorporates polarizing elements into the optics to allow simultaneous acquisition of two interferograms. The system design and production are described and images produced with the developed techniques are presented. PMID:23742552

Lyulko, Oleksandra V; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J

2013-05-01

41

Drowning and immersion injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drowning is the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion or immersion in liquid. The primary determinant of outcome is the occurrence of circulatory arrest, indicative of prolonged asphyxia. Immediate (bystander) cardiopulmonary resuscitation efforts are crucial to outcome. If a victim is retrieved from the water and resuscitated, widespread organ dysfunction can be expected. The pathophysiology is intimately related to

Gary Minto; Will Woodward

2005-01-01

42

Temporary Work. Background Paper No. 29b.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The policy options offered in the literature concerning temporary work address two major concerns: (1) the conditions of temporary work itself; and (2) the elimination of fulltime jobs, or lack of growth, and their replacement by temporary work. Both temporary help firms and the organizations that use temporary help should be required to report…

Hartmann, Heidi; Lapidus, June

43

Early French Immersion Later On.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes an evaluation of an early French immersion program at grades 6 and 8. In English language skills, immersion students performed as well as, or better than, English-only program groups; in mathematics and sciences, immersion students did as well as their comparison group. Other findings are discussed. (PJM)|

Swain, Merrill; And Others

1981-01-01

44

Design of Vascular Graft Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall aim of vascular bioreactor design and operation is the use of a perfusion system to allow adhesion, growth and proliferation of vascular cells under in vitro conditions that emulate the in vivo physiological environment. There are three key factors to be considered: design of a bioreactor that allows the uniform in situ seeding of specific cells to the

P. S. Mcfetridge; J. B. Chaudhuri

45

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scientific paper provides a brief introduction into the use and development of industrial mineral-processing bioreactors and reviews the variety of microfloral species used in bioreactors. Additionally, the authors discuss recent microbiological and process developments with thermoacidophiles that could expand the range of mineral sulfides processed commercially using microorganisms. A subscription to Extremophiles is required to access this article electronically.

Norris, P. R.; Burton, N. P.; Foulis, N. A.; Inc., Springer-Verlag T.

46

Landfill bioreactor design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

Reinhart, D.R. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Townsend, T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

47

The effects of SRT, OLR and feed temperature on the performance of membrane bioreactor treating high strength municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects, of sludge retention time (SRT), feed temperature (T) and organic loading rate (OLR) on submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) performance were studied using hollow fibers (nominal pore size 0.4 µm) immersed in an aeration tank. A synthetic wastewater representative of high strength municipal wastewater was used in the study. Ten experimental runs were carried out using full factorial design

Ahmed H. Birima; Megat Johari Megat Mohd Noor; Thamer A. Mohammed; Azni Idris; Suleyman A. Muyibi; H. Nagaoka; J. Ahmed; L. A. Abdul Ghani

2009-01-01

48

Sensing in tissue bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

Rolfe, P.

2006-03-01

49

Stabilization of Enzymes for Bioreactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Phase I project was to develop new stabilization techniques for immobilized enzymes used in bioreactors. The rationale was to provide an environment for optimal stability surrounding the enzyme, then to bind it together by copolymeriz...

M. J. Swanson D. L. Fiedler K. A. Leitch

1989-01-01

50

Control in bioreactors showing gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large-scale bioreactors gradients often occur as a result of non-ideal mixing. This phenomenon complicates design and control of large-scale bioreactors. Gradients in the oxygen concentration can be modeled with a two-compartment model of the liquid phase. Application of this model had been suggested for the control of the dissolved oxygen concentration with a batch gluconic acid fermentation process as

S. R. Weijers; G. Honderd; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

1990-01-01

51

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application\\u000a of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has\\u000a also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale.\\u000a A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized,

P. R. Norris; N. P. Burton; N. A. M. Foulis

2000-01-01

52

Hybrid Immersive / Non-Immersive Virtual Environment Workstation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the course of this research project we have been exploring the integration of Immersive and Non-Immersive systems. This development and research has lead to a number of innovative ideas and system configurations. In particular, we have developed protot...

1997-01-01

53

Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes a novel imaging technique for label-free no-UV vibration-insensitive imaging of live cells in an epi-illumination geometry. This technique can be implemented in a variety of imaging applications. For example, it can be used for cell targeting as a part of a platform for targeted cell irradiations - single-cell microbeam. The goal of microbeam facilities is to provide biological researchers with tools to study the effects of ionizing radiation on live cells. A common way of cell labeling - fluorescent staining - may alter cellular metabolism and UV illumination presents potential damage for the genetic material. The new imaging technique will allow the researchers to separate radiation-induced effects from the effects caused by confounding factors like fluorescent staining or UV light. Geometry of irradiation endstations at some microbeam facilities precludes the use of transmitted light, e.g. in the Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility microbeam endstation, where the ion beam exit window is located just below the sample. Imaging techniques used at such endstations must use epi-illumination. Mirau Interferometry is an epi-illumination, non-stain imaging modality suitable for implementation at a microbeam endstation. To facilitate interferometry and to maintain cell viability, it is desirable that cells stay in cell growth medium during the course of an experiment. To accommodate the use of medium, Immersion Mirau Interferometry has been developed. A custom attachment for a microscope objective has been designed and built for interferometric imaging with the possibility of immersion of the apparatus into cell medium. The implemented data collection algorithm is based on the principles of Phase-Shifting Interferometry. The largest limitation of Phase-Shifting Interferometry is its sensitivity to the vertical position of the sample. In environments where vibration isolation is difficult, this makes image acquisition challenging. This problem was resolved by integration of polarization optics into the optics of the attachment to enable simultaneous creation and spatial separation of two interferograms, which, combined with the background image, are used to reconstruct the intensity map of the specimen. Giving the name Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry to this approach, simultaneous acquisition of all interferograms per image has eliminated the issue of vibrations. The designed compound microscope attachment has been manufactured and tested; the system produces images of quality, sufficient to perform targeted cellular irradiation experiments.

Lyulko, Oleksandra

54

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

55

Adding immersion to collaborative tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

While three dimensional collaborative environments have been used for industrial design or interactive games, workgroup collaboration has largely remained in the two-dimensional realm. In this paper, we examine the collaborative capabilities of the Collaborative Virtual Workspace, and how it is used. We then describe our effort to augment this system with an immersive display. By developing an immersive interface to

Edward Swing

2000-01-01

56

Immersed interface methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1996-11-01

57

Effect of membrane bioreactor configurations on sludge structure and microbial activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to determine the effect of two different membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations (external/immersed) on sludge structure and microbial activity. Sludge structure was deduced from rheological measurements. The high shear stress induced by the recirculation pump in the external MBR was shown to result in decreasing viscosity due to activated sludge (AS) deflocculation. Besides, soluble microbial products (SMP) release was higher in the external MBR (5 mgCOD gMLVSS(-1)) than in the immersed configuration (2 mgCOD gMLVSS(-1)). Microbial activity was followed from respirometry tests by focusing on the distinction between heterotrophs and autotrophs. An easier autotrophic microbe development was then observed in the immersed MBR compared to the external one. However, the external MBR was shown to allow better heterotrophic microbe development. PMID:20947340

Clouzot, L; Roche, N; Marrot, B

2010-09-21

58

Temporary tendon strengthening by preconditioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTendon is frequently injured structure in sports activities. Stretching before activities has been recommended to prevent athletes from injuries. Clinical studies reported that stretching had effects to reduce passive muscle stiffness and leads to an increased range of motion. Recent biomechanical studies suggested that stretching might also temporary affect tensile property of tendon. However, the detailed information regarding optimizing this

Atsushi Teramoto; Zong-Ping Luo

2008-01-01

59

Using temporary cryostat support structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a simple portable mechanical structure to support a medium size cryostat. The structure can provide adequate support for an helium-3 cryostat with an 8 T magnet while the Dewar can be stored between experiment in a pit hole area below the temporary structure.

F. Guillon

1994-01-01

60

47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74...temporary authority for the operation of a television broadcast auxiliary station must be...for special temporary authority of a television broadcast auxiliary station must...

2011-10-01

61

47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74...temporary authority for the operation of a television broadcast auxiliary station must be...for special temporary authority of a television broadcast auxiliary station must...

2012-10-01

62

Temporary Tattoos and Henna/Mehndi  

MedlinePLUS

... type temporary tattoos. An Import Alert is in effect for several foreign-made temporary tattoos . The temporary tattoos subject to the import alert are not allowed into the United States because they contain colors not permitted for use in cosmetics applied to ...

63

WHY STUDY ECOLOGY IN TEMPORARY POOLS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary pools, loosely and broadly defined in this journal issue to include all standing water bodies that intermittently dry, are collectively very com- mon worldwide and diverse in physical and biological characteristics. We outline four fundamental reasons to study ecology in temporary pools. First, lessons learned about the effects of ephemerality on biotic processes in temporary pools are not necessarily

LEON BLAUSTEIN; STEVEN S. SCHWARTZ

2001-01-01

64

Bioreactor applications in waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of bioreactor applications in treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes is presented with emphasis on newer technologies. Waste treatment is considered in a broad context including concentration by bioaccumulation, degradation to substances with reduced environmental impact and upgrading to such useful products as feeds, foods and fuels. Biofilters and bioscrubbers for gas- eous pollutants, high-rate municipal and

Murray Moo-Young; Yusuf Chisti

1994-01-01

65

Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

2003-01-01

66

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

67

MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

68

[Temporary accommodations: respite for caregivers].  

PubMed

Many elderly dependent people live at home thanks to outside assistance and thanks to a member of their family who becomes a carer. Looking after a dependent person can take its toll on the carer's health and their family balance. Temporary accommodation meets the needs of the elderly person as well as the carer's need for respite. It forms an important link in enabling elderly people to continue living at home. An example with a nursing home in the Creuse region. PMID:23301301

Bourzeau, Madeleine

69

Time dependence of immersion freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC) and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA). We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of -1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

Welti, A.; Lüönd, F.; Kanji, Z. A.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

2012-05-01

70

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

71

PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

72

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

73

Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to…

Burt, Andy; And Others

74

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 7 (Early French Immersion: French 7)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for seventh grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives and addresses the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four…

Burt, Andy; And Others

75

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 6 (Early French Immersion: French 6)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for sixth grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives and addresses the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four…

Burt, Andy; And Others

76

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 2 (Early French Immersion: French 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for second grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the primary grades and learning objectives for the four language…

Burt, Andy; And Others

77

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais I (Early French Immersion: French I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for first grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the primary grades and…

Burt, Andy; And Others

78

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 4 (Early French Immersion: French 4).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for fourth grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four language…

Burt, Andy; And Others

79

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 5 (Early French Immersion: French 5).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for fifth grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives and addresses the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four…

Burt, Andy; And Others

80

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 3 (Early French Immersion: French 3).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for third grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the primary grades and learning objectives for the four language…

Burt, Andy; And Others

81

Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology  

SciTech Connect

Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

1993-09-01

82

Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality…

Pricer, Wayne F.

2011-01-01

83

Learning immersion without getting wet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

Aguilera, Julieta C.

2012-02-01

84

Communication Skills in Immersion Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive, behavior, achievement, and English/French speaking skills were correlated with ratings of oral French ability for third-grade francophone and anglophone immersion students. Teacher ratings correlated with achievement and cooperativeness, but independent ratings didn't. Objective evaluation procedures should be developed to minimize the…

Carey, Stephen T.; Cummins, James

1984-01-01

85

Two-liquid-phase bioreactors.  

PubMed

The application of two liquid phases that are poorly miscible is a fascinating research topic for biocatalytical conversions because of the promising results. Motives for application include an increase of productivity and achievement of continuous processing, but new limitations arise, e.g., interfacial effects such as biocatalyst accumulation and loss of activity, medium component accumulation, and slow coalescence. Centrifuges, membranes, and immobilization are tools that can overcome part of the problems, but more fundamental knowledge about interfaces and coalescence is still necessary for successful application. For scaleup and further development of processes based on the obtained results, a choice must be made for the configuration of the experimental setup of a bioreactor. Aspects like aeration, shear stress, batch or continuous processing, and immobilization can play an important role. This review article describes these aspects and the proposals that have been made in recent years concerning two-liquid-phase bioreactors. It shows some adaptations to existing bioreactors, such as loop reactors and stirred-tank reactors. PMID:7764006

Van Sonsbeek, H M; Beeftink, H H; Tramper, J

1993-09-01

86

Plant Safety and Risk with Temporary Equipment  

SciTech Connect

Temporary equipment may be brought onto a plant site for a variety of process needs. The risk profile of the facility is altered by use of such temporary equipment, but since the time durations of temporary equipment usage are generally small, usually fewer than 90 days per year, the risk increase is also small and is typically not modeled in a probabilistic risk assessment. This article describes some risk issues with temporary equipment in long-term use, gives a case study of a temporary, diesel-driven air compressor under extended use at the Idaho National Laboratory, and suggests the need to model temporary equipment in the facility risk assessment if the equipment is used more than a few months.

L. C. Cadwallader

2006-12-01

87

Temporary workers: Employee rights and employer responsibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of temporary workers in the U.S. has increased dramatically over the past ten years, so, too, has social policy\\u000a concent over the rights of temporary employees in the workplace and the responsibilities of employing organizations to them.\\u000a This article first reviews the extent to which temporary workers can be considered “employees” of organizations and thereby\\u000a be extended

Daniel C. Feldman; Brian S. Klaas

1996-01-01

88

7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary variances....

2013-01-01

89

Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study  

PubMed Central

Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the effects of bleaching agent compared to other temporary restorative materials used in the study.

Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

2012-01-01

90

Morality in Tele-immersive Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are spending an increasing amount of time in tele- immersive environments interacting with avatars or virtual human bodies. Additionally, human behavior and cognition are affected by experiences in tele-immersive environments. Although there is substantial psychological work surrounding the notion of morality, there is little work that examines the interplay of immersive digital environments and the moral identity of the

Kathryn Y. Segovia; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Benoit Monin

91

Stability Analysis for the Immersed Boundary Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyse the stablity of the Immersed Boundary Method applied to a membrane-fluid system with a plasma membrane immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. For small deformations, the immersed boundary method, using a standard regularization technique for the singular force, is shown to be linearly stable.

Gong, Z. X.; Huang, H. X.; Lu, C. J.

92

Bioreactor design for propagation of somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six identical bioreactors were constructed and built at the Agricultural University of Norway to provide optimal conditions for plant cell regeneration from cells into somatic embryos (‘clonal or somatic seeds’). This was made possible through cooperation in COST87 by a European network in a working group on regeneration from plant cell cultures. The bioreactor design provides gentle stirring through a

Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide; Odd Arild S. Olsen; Ragnhild Lyngved; Cristel Munster; Petter H. Heyerdahl

2005-01-01

93

Bioreactor design for propagation of somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six identical bioreactors were constructed and built at the Agricultural University of Norway to provide optimal conditions for plant cell regeneration from cells into somatic embryos (“clonal or somatic seeds”). This was made possible through cooperation in COST87 by a European network in a working group on regeneration from plant cell cultures. The bioreactor design provides gentle stirring through a

Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide; Odd Olsen; Ragnhild Lyngved; Cristel Munster; Petter Heyerdahl

94

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

95

BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

96

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11

97

Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

98

Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

99

Providing Circulation Services in a Temporary Location  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents the experience of Circulation Services at Booth Library, Eastern Illinois University, during a 31-month relocation to temporary facilities while the building was undergoing renovation. The move to temporary locations presented new challenges and required unique solutions. Issues such as the rationale for the move to the…

Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Slough, Marlene

2003-01-01

100

TEMPORARY STORAGE OF POULTRY BROILER LITTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Temporary storage of poultry broiler litter in fields where it is to be spread is an obstacle in implementing nutrient management plans in poultry producing states. Current USDA-NRCS temporary storage practices discourage some row crop producers from using broiler litter as a source of nutrients. ...

101

Two-Sided Search and Temporary Employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to model explicitly the possibility to form temporary matching in a model of two-sided search. The agents (workers and employers) differ by their human quality endowment. In a search equilibrium agents form subintervals and are only matched to agents within their class. The introduction of a temporary market can have a positive impact on

Dimitri Paolini

2000-01-01

102

Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses gender differences in fixed term contracts in 19 European countries, using micro data from the European Social Survey. Our estimates show that temporary employment appears to be more feminized and that gender differences in temporary employment can arise from a female specific behaviour where young women often appear more concerned with atypical jobs. Moreover, the marital status

Frederic Salladarre; Boubaker Hlaimi

2007-01-01

103

Modelling Dissolution in a Temporary Network Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution and termination of business relationships attract a growing number of studies. The dominant focus has been on the breakdown of ongoing relationships while temporary networks have been not been adequately studied within the emerging research into relationship dissolution. The two types of temporary network dissolution - abrupt dissolution due to critical events or the failure of relationship management,

OWUSU Richard; HOLMLUND-RYTKÖNEN Maria

104

THE LIBERALIZATION OF TEMPORARY MIGRATION: INDIA'S STORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the potential gains for India from increased temporary migration of skilled worker between India and its major labor importing partners, in light of potential productivity gains from return migration. The paper uses the GMig2 Global Bilateral Labor Migration Model and its supporting database. The paper explores the impact of liberalizing the temporary movement of skilled workers on the

S. Amer Ahmed; Terrie L. Walmsley

2008-01-01

105

Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant. PMID:23505813

John, Siby; Tare, Vinod

2011-10-01

106

8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9 Section 215...STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted...participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program must also depart...

2010-01-01

107

8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9 Section 215...STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted...participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program must also depart...

2013-01-01

108

Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities of Euphorbia millii hyperhydric shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of micropropagated Euphorbia millii shoots from temporary immersion bioreactor showed thick broad leaves that were translucent, wrinkled and\\/or curled and brittle, symptoms of hyperhydricity. The environment inside bioreactor normally used in plant micropropagation is characterised by high relative humidity, poor gaseous exchange between the internal atmosphere of the bioreactor and its surrounding environment, and the accumulation of

Y. H. Dewir; D. Chakrabarty; M. B. Ali; E. J. Hahn; K. Y. Paek

2006-01-01

109

Comparison of halogen versus led light-cured temporary endodontic filling materials for sealing.  

PubMed

Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of the three light-cured temporary restorative materials curing with two different light curing devices; halogen and LED. Methods: After the preparation of standard endodontic access cavities, the canal systems were instrumented by using a step-back technique irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. Light-cured temporary restorative materials; First fill, Bioplic, and Diatemp were applied and polymerized with either of the LED or Halogen light-curing devices. The specimens were immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for four days in an incubator for the leakage assessment. Results: The first fill presented the least microleakage values for both the LED (2.54±0.53) and halogen (2.84±0.48) treated groups whereas; Diatemp presented the highest microleakage values for both the LED (2.83±0.59) and halogen (3.28±0.56) groups. The leakage values of all light-cured temporary filling materials for the LED-treated groups were lower than the halogen treated ones. However, there were statistically no significant differences among the three groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: It is concluded that light curing temporary filling materials can achieve a good and comparable sealing capacity when cured by both LED and halogen LCUs. PMID:23828256

Bodrumlu, E; Topuz, O; Uzun, O

2013-06-01

110

Tubular bioreactors: case study of bioreactor performance for industrial production and scientific research.  

PubMed

Application of bioreactors is dominated by industrial production with the consequence that bioreactors also for scientific purposes are mainly used following an empiric pragmatic approach. For the sake of a breakthrough in biotechnology in general, and especially for advanced process development, a more systematic approach is emphasized here. This methodology in bioreactor performance studies is explained and the meaning clarified in a case study of a new type of tubular bioreactor. The central role of so-called "model bioreactors" in bench-scale applications is illustrated as a powerful contribution to the optimal design of bioreactors in technical scale. Pilot plant data in case of a tubular reactor for the production of ethanol with Zymomonas and biopesticides with Bacillus thuringiensis are presented. PMID:18597337

Moser, A

1991-05-01

111

Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

Scott, C.D.

1988-01-01

112

Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

113

Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

114

Immersed interface methods. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made on several problems mentioned in the original proposal and in last year`s progress report. Our work is also going in some new directions. The primary focus is still on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM`s) for high order accuracy of interface problems on Cartesian grids, but the investigators have also been involved in other projects. In particular, LeVeque`s work on clawpack described below has been supported in part by these grants and has been used in direct connection with IIM`s in projects in both groundwater flow and acoustics.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1995-04-01

115

Biodegradation of Synthetic High Phenol Contamination Wastewater by an Immersed Membrane Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenol is a highly toxic and carcinogenic compound and its biological treatment has been broadly agreed that it is economical, practical and it leads to a complete removal of phenol (degraded to inorganic, CO2 H2O etc.). The effect of acclimated activated sludge in the phenol biodegradation has been studied. First, the batch acclimated period have been performed gradually by elevated

Yun Wu; Hongwei Zhang

2009-01-01

116

Modeling and simulation of bioreactor process dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief overview on biochemical reactors and associated processes, relevant model types and modeling approaches are discussed. In addition, a number of simple modeling applications focusing on bioreactor design, interfacial mass transfer and reactor control are reviewed.

C. Kleinstreuer; T. Poweigha

117

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there ...

B. H. Davison C. D. Scott

1993-01-01

118

Design Concepts for Bioreactors in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two ...

P. K. Seshan G. R. Peterson B. Beard C. Boshe E. H. Dunlop

1987-01-01

119

78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Order No. 1702] Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission...associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the...associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to...

2013-04-24

120

Deflection Limits for Temporary Concrete Barriers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whenever a traffic control plan is developed that utilizes temporary barriers, it is important to define acceptable barrier deflection criteria. However, the acceptable deflection criteria can be expected to vary, depending on the application. When tempor...

D. L. Sicking J. D. Reid K. A. Polivka

2002-01-01

121

Production of Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell culture provides a viable alternative over whole plant cultivation for the production of useful phytochemicals.\\u000a In order to successfully cultivate the plant cells at large scale, some engineering parameters such as cell aggregation, mixing,\\u000a aeration and shear sensitivity are taken into account for selection of a suitable bioreactor. Increased productivity in a\\u000a bioreactor can be achieved by selection

Saurabh Chattopadhyay; A. K. Srivastava; V. S. Bisaria

122

Biohydrogen production with fixed-bed bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on anaerobic hydrogen production was conducted in fixed-bed bioreactors containing hydrogen-producing bacteria originated from domestic sewage sludge. Three porous materials, loofah sponge (LS), expanded clay (EC) and activated carbon (AC), were used as the support matrix to allow retention of the hydrogen-producing bacteria within the fixed-bed bioreactors. The carriers were assessed for their effectiveness in biofilm formation and

Jo-Shu Chang; Kuo-Shing Lee; Pin-Jei Lin

2002-01-01

123

Thin film bioreactors in space.  

PubMed

Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology. PMID:11537324

Hughes-Fulford, M; Scheld, H W

1989-01-01

124

Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts. PMID:23787304

Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

2013-01-01

125

Prediction and simulation on the shear stress and mass transfer in perfused bioreactors I: Circular bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors have been widely used in tissue engineering because of their controllability in environments and operating conditions. But bioreactor design is very complex and still at an early stage of development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is commonly used for the design and manufacture of devices with fluid flow as a powerful computer ldquoexperimentsrdquo modelling and simulation tool. In our work,

Xia Dong; Kedian Wang

2008-01-01

126

Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

127

Le Point sur L'immersion au Canada (The Argument for...Immersion in Canada).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A discussion of French immersion education in Canada begins with a general examination of language immersion, including the historical context and social climate from which the immersion approach has grown in Canada, its beginnings in Quebec and spread throughout Canada, and the status of the approach in the United States, a number of European…

Rebuffot, Jacques

128

Apparatus for total immersion photography  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Total Immersion Photography (TIP) is disclosed, preferably for the use of screening for various medical and cosmetic conditions. TIP, in a preferred embodiment, comprises an enclosed structure that may be sized in accordance with an entire person, or individual body parts. Disposed therein are a plurality of imaging means which may gather a variety of information, e.g., chemical, light, temperature, etc. In a preferred embodiment, a computer and plurality of USB hubs are used to remotely operate and control digital cameras. The photo information is then transferred via the USB to the computer for processing and aggregation. Subject information is gathered to configure the operation of the various parameters of the device.

2008-04-15

129

From immersion to addiction in videogames  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion is commonly described by gamers and game- reviewers as an important aspect of a videogame. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the immersive experience of videogames and the addictive nature of games. Building on Charlton's (2002) study of addiction and engagement in computing, we conducted a questionnaire study of people who play videogames. It seems that videogames

May-li Seah; Paul A. Cairns

2008-01-01

130

Immersive Visualization to Help Image Classification Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a virtual reality system to digital image processing education. We developed two versions of an immersive and interactive tool to teach image classification subject. The first one run on PC\\/Linux platform and was designed for individual studies. The second version was developed to run in a Digital CAVE like \\/Unix platform allowing full immersion and collective observation.

Ronei M. de Moraes; Liliane S. Machado; Bruno B. Gnecco; Marcio C. Cabral

131

The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a…

Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

2005-01-01

132

Immersion Education in China: Teachers' Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the views of immersion teachers in Hong Kong and Xi'an towards the immersion curriculum they are teaching. Teachers are important stakeholders in any curriculum implementation and their views are significant in both evaluating progress and determining future directions. The teachers' views were gathered from questionnaires…

Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip; Chi, Yanping

2011-01-01

133

Investigation on immersion defectivity root cause  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The introduction of immersion lithography in the production phase has been accompanied with high level of defects compared to standard process on dry lithography. Continuous process optimization allowed us to reduce the defectivity to dry lithography level. This learning cycle also permitted to improve our knowledge on immersion defectivity formation. Immersion lithography process cause specific defects type as watermarks, bubbles, extra pattern and swelling of lines. We will report in this article on our latest experiment on the understanding of defects formation during immersion process. The influence of the track and scanner parameters has been investigated as well as materials issue (resist, topcoat). Measurements of leaching, receding contact angle and water uptake have been performed in order to correlate with defect formation. It appears that material, track and scanner parameters play different role on the formation of specific immersion defects.

Farys, V.; Gaugiran, S.; Cruau, D.; Mestadi, K.; Warrick, S.; Benndorf, M.; Feilleux, R.; Sourd, C.

2007-05-01

134

Temporary Worker, Permanent Loser?”A Model of the Stigmatization of Temporary Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As organizations seek to increase flexibility and reduce costs, temporary work arrangements have increased. In this article, the authors argue that these workers can be the targets of devalued treatment. They develop a model of the individual and organizational antecedents and consequences of temporary worker stigmatization. Then, they articulate the implications of this model for research on workplace stigma and

Anthony S. Boyce; Ann Marie Ryan; Anna L. Imus; Frederick P. Morgeson

2007-01-01

135

40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects...WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects...Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill...or operator shall control any liquids to...of the landfill design in the...

2010-07-01

136

40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects...WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects...Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill...or operator shall control any liquids to...of the landfill design in the...

2009-07-01

137

FULL-SCALE EVALUATION OF BIOREACTOR LANDFILL TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of landfills or portions of landfills have been operated as bioreactor landfills, but only limited scientific data is available for their optimal design and operation. In this research, a two-acre anaerobic bioreactor landfill cell was designed and constructed to extensively evaluate the basic chemical, biological and physical processes occurring within a bioreactor cell containing municipal solid waste (MSW)

Xianda Zhao; Thomas C. Voice; Milind Khire; Seth Maher; Reem Musleh; Priya Heerwani; Syed Hashsham

138

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation improvement via a novel capsule bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study developed a capsule bioreactor made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to entrap anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria for the removal of nitrogen from synthetic wastewater. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANAMMOX bacteria were entrapped inside the capsule and not washed out from the bioreactor. This method also avoids damaging the ANAMMOX bacteria during immobilization. The proposed bioreactor also has

W. P. Chou; S. K. Tseng; C. M. Ho

2012-01-01

139

Facultative Bioreactor Landfill: An Environmental and Geotechnical Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relatively new concept of Municipal Solid Waste treatment is known as bioreactor landfill technology. Bioreactor landfills are sanitary landfills that use microbiological processes purposefully to transform and stabilize the biodegradable organic waste constituents in a shorter period of time. One of the most popular types of bioreactor landfills is the landfill with leachate recirculation. However, it is observed that

Ricardo DeAbreu

2003-01-01

140

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22...Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d...water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank certified by...

2009-01-01

141

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22...Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d...water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank certified by...

2010-01-01

142

Future perspectives in bioreactor development.  

PubMed

The paper discusses conversion capacities of both anaerobic and aerobic wastewater treatment systems in relation to growth kinetics, hydrodynamics and biomass concentration. In the current modern anaerobic high-rate reactors the conversion potentials are optimally exploited. This is not yet true for aerobic systems since operation of aerobic systems under conditions of low biomass growth reduces the maximum applicable loading rates significantly. Both the concept of granulation and the introduction of fluidised bed systems have increased conversion capacities for both anaerobic and aerobic systems significantly. One of the latest development concerns the SBR with granular biomass. The grazing concept, in which ciliates convert aerobically grown dispersed cells, offers a possibility for significant improvement of aerobic systems. In the fields of psychrophilic and thermophilic anaerobic treatment, specific reactor development may contribute to further enhance volumetric conversion capacities. Due to reduced water usage, both COD and salt concentrations tend to increase for industrial effluents. As a consequence, there is a need for the development of anaerobic reactors retaining flocculant biomass. The membrane bioreactors offer a solution for certain niches in wastewater treatment. However the oxygen transfer economy is poor. There is a need for fundamental knowledge development to obtain a realistic image of this technology. PMID:11730133

Mulder, R; Vereijken, T L; Frijters, C T; Vellinga, S H

2001-01-01

143

[Temporary tatooing: black henna or harkous?].  

PubMed

Contact sensitization to natural henna (Lawsonia inermis) long used as a skin dye in powder or paste form has rarely, if ever, been observed. Recently a number of anaphylactoid reactions to PPD contained in paints used for temporary tattoos have been described. The purpose of this article is to present 8 cases involving 4 children and 4 adults who developed contact dermatitis after temporary tattoo using "harkous" that contains no henna. The authors review the literature about temporary tattooing. "Harkous" is a mixture of nut gall and clove to which PPD is sometimes added. Many reports have described cases of contact dermatitis due to "black henna". Most of these cases have involved tourists returning from trips. PMID:20025192

Kharfi, M; El Fekih, N; Zayan, F; Mrad, S; Kamoun, M R

2009-10-01

144

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-10-26

145

Fluid mechanics of spinner-flask bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic environment within bioreactors used for in vitro tissue growth has been observed to affect the development of mammalian cells. Many studies have shown that moderate mechanical stress enhances growth of some tissues whereas high shear levels and turbulence seem to damage cells. In order to optimize the design and the operating conditions of bioreactors, it is important to understand the fluid-dynamic characteristics and to control the stress levels within these devices. The present research focuses on the characterization of the flow field within a spinner-flask bioreactor. The dynamic properties of the flow are investigated experimentally using particle-image velocimetry with a refractive-index-matched model. Phase-locked ensemble-averaging is employed to provide some information on the turbulence characteristics of the model culture medium in the vicinity of a model tissue construct.

Sucosky, Philippe; Neitzel, G. Paul

2000-11-01

146

Bioreactor for solid-state cultivation of Phlebiopsis gigantea.  

PubMed

Phlebiopsis gigantea fungus used in biological control of root rot is currently cultivated commercially in disposable, sterilizable plastic bags. A novel packed bed bioreactor was designed for cultivating P. gigantea and compared to the plastic bag method and to a tray bioreactor. The spore viability of 5.4 x 10(6) c.f.u./g obtained with the packed bed bioreactor was of the same order of magnitude as the viabilities obtained with the other cultivation methods. Furthermore, the packed bed bioreactor was less time and space consuming and easier to operate than the tray bioreactor. PMID:17891458

Virtanen, Veera; Nyyssölä, Antti; Vuolanto, Antti; Leisola, Matti; Seiskari, Pekka

2007-09-22

147

Periodic operation of immobilized live cell bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

A complete system for computer-assisted fermentation research was set up. The system consisted of a 16 liter laboratory fermentor connected to a mass spectrometer for off-gas analysis, a flow injection analyzer for on-line enzymatic and colorimetric analysis, and an on-line HPLC. This system was interfaced to a Micro VAX II computer. The kinetics of growth and candicidin production by S. griseus in complex and in synthetic media were investigated. On-line glucose analysis of the fermentation was used to identify nutrient limitation by multiple substrates during the fermentation. The growth kinetics of S. griseus under limitation by two nutrients were studied. The Monod type of model was used to analyze cell growth under multiple substrate limitation. Regions of phosphate limitation were identified by analysis of the environmental state space. Based on this analysis the nutrient medium for the forced periodic operation of the immobilized bioreactor was developed. A lumped model for cell growth and candicidin production in an immobilized live cell bioreactor was developed. The model was used to perform a simulation study of the periodic operation of an immobilized bioreactor. Finally, an immobilzed bioreactor with forced periodic operation was used to study the effect of cycling frequency on reactor performance. The results of the studies on the periodic operation suggest that periodically operated immobilized live cell bioreactors can provide a potent alternative for the production of non-growth associated biochemicals, as compared to free cell fermentations, pulsed fermentations with process cycle regeneration, and non-regenerated bioreactors. This work has demonstrated that by frequent pulsing of growth limiting nutrient, stable extended production can be obtained at high specific cellular productivities.

Mehta, N.

1988-01-01

148

75 FR 77753 - Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel AGENCY: Department...the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology (IT) Personnel. This...the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel,'' to...

2010-12-14

149

Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

150

Neurological Findings after 72 Hours Water Immersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neurological changes caused by water immersion simulated microgravity were investigated in four male volunteers. All the investigations were performed in the space laboratories for ground based experiments of the Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow ...

F. Gerstenbrand I. B. Kozlovskaya M. Berger M. Marosi N. Burlacskova

1990-01-01

151

Membrane bioreactors for water reclamation.  

PubMed

Singapore has been using dual membrane technology (MF/UF RO) to produce high-grade water (NEWater) from secondary treated sewage. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) has very high potential and will lead to the further improvement of the productivity and quality of high-grade water. This study was focused on the technical feasibility of MBR system for water reclamation in Singapore, making a comparison between various membrane systems available and to get operational experience in terms of membrane cleaning and other issues. Three MBR plants were built at Bedok Water Reclamation Plant with a design flow of 300 m3/day each. They were commissioned in March 2003. Three different types of submerged membranes were tested. They are Membrane A, plate sheet membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; Membrane B, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; and Membrane C, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.035 microm. The permeate quality of all the three MBR Systems were found equivalent to or better than that of the conventional tertiary treatment by ultrafiltration. MBR permeate TOC was about 2 mg/l lower than UF permeate TOC. GC-MS, GC-ECD and HPLC scan results show that trace organic contaminants in MBR permeate and UF permeate were in the same range. MBR power consumption can be less than 1 kwh/m3. Gel layer or dynamic membrane generated on the submerged membrane surface played an important role for the lower MBR permeate TOC than the supernatant TOC in the membrane tank. Intensive chemical cleaning can temporarily remove this layer. During normal operation conditions, the formation of dynamic membrane may need one day to obtain the steady low TOC levels in MBR permeate. PMID:16004005

Tao, G; Kekre, K; Wei, Z; Lee, T C; Viswanath, B; Seah, H

2005-01-01

152

Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from

Stephen L. Bogner; David T. Southwell; Steven Penzes; Chris A. Brosinsky; Ron Anderson; Doug M. Hanna

1998-01-01

153

Multiway tele-immersion at Supercomputing 97  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tele-immersion-the union of networked virtual reality (VR) and video to support collaboration among scientists, engineers, and educators-is an important element in the computing information infrastructure envisioned by the National Computational Science Alliance. Tele-immersion will let people from around the world casually enter a shared virtual environment (VE), manipulate that environment-whether a scientific simulation or a design space-and engage in discourse

Andrew Johnson; Jason Leigh; James Costigan

1998-01-01

154

Hemodynamic response to graded water immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Hemodynamic response to graded immersion was studied in healthy male subjects in a thermoneutral bath in the sitting position.\\u000a Pressures in the right heart and cardiac output were determined by means of a semifloating catheter with a thermistor probe.\\u000a Pressures in the right atrium, pulmonary artery and in pulmonary wedge position increased with increasing depth of immersion,\\u000a cardiac output was

H. Löllgen; G. v. Nieding; K. Koppenhagen; F. Kersting; H. Just

1981-01-01

155

49 CFR 1034.1 - Temporary authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS ROUTING OF TRAFFIC § 1034.1 Temporary authority...10501 may reasonably divert or reroute traffic to other carriers, if it is unable due...beyond its control promptly to transport traffic over a portion of its...

2012-10-01

156

49 CFR 1034.1 - Temporary authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS ROUTING OF TRAFFIC § 1034.1 Temporary authority...10501 may reasonably divert or reroute traffic to other carriers, if it is unable due...beyond its control promptly to transport traffic over a portion of its...

2011-10-01

157

Temporary bulbar palsy following lightning strike.  

PubMed

Lightning is a significant cause of mortality in Zimbabwe. The same study showed that 21 per cent of fatal lightning strikes occurred with victims inside a hut. We report a case who survived a severe lightning strike with unusual features of a temporary bulbar palsy. PMID:2124515

Saddler, M C; Thomas, J E

1990-06-01

158

Broadscale mappingof temporary wetlands in arid Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a robust methodology to detect and estimate the size of temporary wetlands usingAVHRR satellite data within larg e areas (10 6 km2) of the arid zone. The methodology uses spectral matchingand exclusion of salt surfaces to discriminate between water and non- water surfaces. The status of 115 lakes was used to evaluate the methodology. A classification accuracy of

D. A. Roshier; R. M. Rumbachs

159

Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

Wilemon, David L.

1973-01-01

160

Risk acceptance criteria for temporary phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The full life cycle approach to risk acceptance is proposed as the basis for establishing of acceptance criteria for the temporary phases, i.e., onshore and offshore construction as well as installation. The background for such criteria is discussed, as well as evaluations that may be used to formulate risk acceptance criteria in the construction and installation phases. The criteria are

J. E. Vinnem

1996-01-01

161

Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones Or Dead Ends?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Britain about 7% of male employees and 10% of female employees are in temporary jobs. In contrast to much of continental Europe - with stricter employment protection provisions - this proportion has been relatively stable over the 1990s. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, and informed by relevant theory relating to probation, sorting and human capital investment,

Alison L; Marco Francesconi; Jeff Frank

2002-01-01

162

Temporary satellite captures of comets by Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent numerical researches on the dynamics of close approaches of short period comets to Jupiter have confirmed that in several cases objects of this kind can be captured by the planet as temporary satellites. This phenomenon seems to occur rather frequently and provides new insights on the orbital evolutionary patterns of short period comets.

Carusi, A.; Valsecchi, G. B.

1981-02-01

163

Human adaptation to repeated cold immersions.  

PubMed Central

1. The present investigation was designed to examine human adaptation to intermittent severe cold exposure and to assess the effect of exercise on any adaptation obtained. 2. Sixteen subjects were divided into two equal groups. Each subject performed ten head-out immersions; two into thermoneutral water which was then cooled until they shivered vigorously, and eight into water at 15 degrees C for 40 min. During the majority of the 15 degrees C immersions, one group (dynamic group) exercised whilst the other (static group) rested. 3. Results showed that both groups responded to repeated cold immersions with a reduction in their initial responses to cold. The time course of these reductions varied, however, between responses. 4. Only the static group developed a reduced metabolic response to prolonged resting immersion. 5. It is concluded that repeated resting exposure to cold was the more effective way of producing an adaptation. The performance of exercise during repeated exposure to cold prevented the development of an adaptive reduction in the metabolic response to cold during a subsequent resting immersion. In addition, many of the adaptations obtained during repeated resting exposure were overridden or masked during a subsequent exercising immersion.

Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

1988-01-01

164

Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

2008-04-01

165

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Temporary services are services incidental to the performance of work which are required in the schedule or specifications to be...contractor. Temporary services may include the furnishing of water, electricity, telephone service, toilet facilities, garbage...

2012-10-01

166

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

167

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section 101...Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

2011-10-01

168

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section 101...Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

2012-10-01

169

20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) Assurances and Obligations § 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary...

2012-04-01

170

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary...

2012-10-01

171

Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. Design and Setting: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 2 cm, weight = 68.5 ± 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 ± 1.3%, training volume = 89 ± 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 ± 1°C) at an individually selected “comfortable” pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 ± 0.20°C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 ± 0.28°C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 ± 0.76°C). Measurements: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. Results: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P > .05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P > .05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P > .05) to each other and greater (P < .05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P > .05) between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion at the completion of immersion and 15 minutes postimmersion, but ice-water immersion rectal temperatures were less (P < .05) than cold-water immersion at 6 and 10 minutes postimmersion. Conclusions: Cooling rates were nearly identical between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion, while both were 38% more effective in cooling after 12 minutes of immersion than the mock-immersion trial. Given the similarities in cooling rates and rectal temperatures between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion, either mode of cooling is recommended for treating the hyperthermic individual.

Clements, Julie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Knight, J. Chad; McClung, Joseph M.; Blake, Alan S.; Meenen, Paula M.; Gilmer, Allison M.; Caldwell, Kellie A.

2002-01-01

172

Adaptive Receding Horizon Control of Tubular Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of application of an adaptive nonlinear predictive control algorithm to tubular bioreactors. According to the control strategy proposed, the system of PDEs describing the reactor is approximated by a lumped parameter model obtained using the Orthogonal Collocation Method. An adaptive receding horizon controller is then designed using Control Lyapunov Function methods. The design procedure

J. M. Igreja; J. M. Lemos; R. N. Silva

2005-01-01

173

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

174

LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

175

SEMINAR PUBLICATION: LANDFILL BIOREACTOR DESIGN AND OPERATION  

EPA Science Inventory

These proceedings are from a conference on the subject of municipal waste landfill (MSWLF) bioreactors that was held in Wilmington, Delaware on March 23-24, 199-5. iologically active landfill operation represents a fundamentally different operational technique foro MSWLFs because...

176

Antimicrobial effect of chitooligosaccharides produced by bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of three kinds of chitooligosaccharides with relatively higher molecular weights (HMWCOS), medium molecular weight (MMWCOS), and lower molecular weight (LMWCOS), respectively, was evaluated against various microorganisms. The oligosaccharides were prepared from chitosan and fractionated using ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in conjunction with an enzymatic bioreactor. The growth of most bacteria tested was inhibited by chitooligosaccharide treatments, in particular

You-Jin Jeon; Pyo-Jam Park; Se-Kwon Kim

2001-01-01

177

Filterability of activated sludge in membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filterability of activated sludge is an important factor for the economical operation of membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the literature mainly investigations on sludge dewaterability in respect to further disposal are published. In this study, a procedure for determining filterability in a crossflow test cell is introduced. Its features are: no increase in sludge concentration during batch trials, crossflow conditions,

Sandra Rosenberger; Matthias Kraume

2002-01-01

178

Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.

Singh, H.; Hutmacher, D. W.

179

Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to determine the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation and nutrient balance on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation. Higher rates of MSW biodegradation eventually

Mostafa Warith

2002-01-01

180

Bioreactor and ex situ biological treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in situ approaches have been the focus of much of current bioremediation practice, many site- and waste stream-remediation challenges are best met by applying bioreactors and other ex-situ treatment technologies, either singly or sometimes in combination with other technologies. Such engineered systems for the treatment of vapor, water, slurries, and soils are the focus of this volume, which covers

B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson

1999-01-01

181

Bioreactor and ex situ biological treatment technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in situ approaches have been the focus of much of current bioremediation practice, many site- and wastestream-remediation challenges are best met by applying bioreactors and other ex-situ treatment technologies, either singly or sometimes in combination with other technologies. Such engineered systems for the treatment of vapor, water, slurries, and soils are the focus of this volume, which covers a

B. C. Alleman; A. Leeson

1999-01-01

182

Bisphenol A removal by a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are potentially harmful chemicals during wastewater reclamation. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a typical EDC, and its removal using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. For comparison, a conventional activated sludge reactor (CASR) was simultaneously tested using the same BPA sludge loadings as the MBR. The results showed that MBR could remove BPA a little more

Jianhua Chen; Xia Huang; Duujong Lee

2008-01-01

183

Construction of a multicoaxial hollow fiber bioreactor.  

PubMed

Bioreactors are assembled tools conceived to exploit engineering principles with inbuilt biological -relevance. Such reactors are created as in vitro models to better replicate natural in vivo organs. These biotools are subsets within the interdisciplinary tissue engineering field and are established as inert devices to improve upon biological stimuli while simultaneously allowing tissue functional properties to be nondestructively measured. Design and fabrication efforts are focused on two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) physical constructs while linking environment-cell relations, the microenvironment. Product proficiencies generally involve material scaffolds, nutrient dispersion, compartmentalized units, passive and kinetic flow channels, temperature regulation, pressure management, and cell line or primary cells from assorted organs as tissues. Bioreactor advancements continue with interdisciplinary principles such as energy conservation, cell ecosystems, system-biological approaches, and viable-cell design innovation. Herein, we describe the design and construction of a hollow fiber multicoaxial bioreactor with integral oxygenation (i.e., oxygenation within the bioreactor proper) for use with liver cells, but it could be used with any anchorage-dependent cell type. PMID:23494433

McClelland, Randall; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M

2013-01-01

184

Retention of Counterions in the Separative Bioreactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioreactor with an anode and a cathode, and a plurality of reaction chambers each having an inlet and an outlet and each including a porous solid ion exchange wafer having ion-exchange resins. Each of the reaction chambers is interleaved between a catio...

E. J. St. Martin S. W. Snyder Y. J. Lin

2004-01-01

185

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

186

Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering.

Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-01-01

187

Water immersion optical lithography for 45-nm node  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible to extend optical lithography by using immersion imaging methods. Historically, the application of immersion optics to microlithography has not been seriously pursued because of the alternative solutions available. As the challenges of shorter wavelength become increasingly difficult, immersion imaging becomes more feasible. We present results from research into 193nm excimer laser immersion lithography at extreme propagation angles

Bruce W. Smith; Hoyoung Kang; Anatoly Bourov; Frank Cropanese; Yongfa Fan

2003-01-01

188

A sharp interface immersed boundary method for compressible viscous flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immersed boundary method for computing viscous, subsonic compressible flows with complex shaped stationary immersed boundaries is presented. The method employs a ghost-cell technique for imposing the boundary conditions on the immersed boundaries. The current approach leads to a sharp representation of the immersed boundaries, a property that is especially useful for flow simulations at high Reynolds numbers. Another unique

R. Ghias; R. Mittal; H. Dong

2007-01-01

189

Temporary Agency Workers' Human Resource Management and Willingness to Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I conduct exploratory examinations on the factor of human re- source management which has an impact on temporary agency workers' will- ingness to work. Based on the characteristics of temporary agency work's em- ployment structure, I sort out human resource management functions by client firms and temporary agencies and statistically analyze the impact of these hu- man

Tomoyuki Shimanuki

190

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

191

Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external…

De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

2010-01-01

192

Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

2010-01-01

193

Temporary and permanent wetland macroinvertebrate communities: Phylogenetic structure through time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water permanence has been previously identified as an important factor affecting macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance in wetlands. Here, we repeatedly sampled the macroinvertebrate communities in 16 permanent and 14 temporary wetlands in Alberta, Canada. Temporary wetlands were predicted to have more closely related taxa and reduced species richness due to the specialized adaptations required to survive in a temporary habitat.

Carly A. Silver; Steven M. Vamosi; Suzanne E. Bayley

194

8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9 Section 215...STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on...participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program must also depart...

2009-01-01

195

Evaluation of Temporary Pavement Marking Systems for Resurfacing Zones. Appendix B. Driver Comprehension of Temporary Pavement Marking Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains the results of the driver comprehension experiment of the selected temporary pavement marking systems, including the comprehension of selected traffic signs. The following temporary pavement marking systems were included in this stu...

H. T. Zwahlen T. Schnell

1996-01-01

196

Liquid immersion lithography at 157 nm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed an initial evaluation of 157-nm immersion lithography. The 157-nm immersion fluid needs to have both a high refractive index and high transmittance at a wavelength of 157 nm. This paper focuses on the transparency of the fluid. We evaluated the transparency of straight-chain perfluoroalkane and perfluoroether using a semi-empirical molecular orbital method. We found that perfluoroether has lower absorption at 157 nm than perfluoroalkane, and increasing the amount of ether bonds in perfluoroether can further reduce the absorption. Moreover, we found that designing the molecular structure with ether bonds so that the number of successive CFx is balanced should further improve transparency. Although the commercial perfluoropolyether BARRIERTA® J25V contains a trifluoromethyl group in one of its side-chains, it satisfied the above conditions and achieved high transmittance of 1.0 cm-1 at 157 nm. The sensitivity characteristics of the XP2332C and F-SSQ resists were evaluated by dry and immersion exposure using BARRIERTA® J25V immersion fluid, and no noticeable changes were seen in the development contrast for either exposure condition for either of these two resists. To perform 157-nm immersion exposures, we constructed a Michelson interferometric exposure tool, which let us create an interference pattern with sufficient optical contrast. We obtained a resolution of 60-nm line-and-space pattern having a good rectangular shape by immersion exposure using this interferometric exposure tool, F-SSQ resist, and BARRIERTA® J25V immersion fluid without using a top-coat.

Hagiwara, Takuya; Ishimaru, Toshiyuki; Tsuji, Shou; Fujii, Kiyoshi; Itakura, Yasuo; Wakabayashi, Osamu; Kawasa, Youichi; Egawa, Keiji; Uchino, Ikuo; Sumitani, Akira; Saito, Yusuke; Maeda, Kazuhiko

2005-05-01

197

Immersive ParaView: A community-based, immersive, universal scientific visualization application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of low-cost virtual reality (VR) systems coupled with a growing population of researchers accustomed to newer interface styles makes this a ripe time to help domain science researchers cross the bridge to utilizing immersive interfaces. The logical next step is for scientists, engineers, doctors, etc. to incorporate immersive visualization into their exploration and analysis workflows. However, from past

Nikhil Shetty; Aashish Chaudhary; Daniel Coming; William R. Sherman; Patrick O'Leary; Eric T. Whiting; Simon Su

2011-01-01

198

Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

1998-09-01

199

Latest developments on immersion exposure systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography has been developed in a tremendous pace. Starting in late 2001, the technology now has moved to volume production of advanced flash memories. The immersion exposure system has been the key enabler in this progress. In this paper we discuss the evolution of the TWINSCAN immersion scanning exposure tools, and present an overview of its performance on imaging, lens heating control, overlay, focus and defects. It is shown that stable performance assures 45-nm device volume manufacturing. Extendibility of immersion towards 38-nm and 32-nm is discussed. For NAND the next device half pitch will be around 38-nm and it is shown that with 1.35 NA and low k1 dipole or CQUAD illumination a final extension with single exposure is possible. For the 32-nm node and beyond double patterning methods are required till EUV lithography is ready to be used in volume production. To secure tight CD tolerance the overlay performance of the immersion tools need to be tightened to numbers well below 3-nm. The paper presents overlay improvements towards the requirements for double patterning.

Mulkens, Jan; de Klerk, Jos; Leenders, Martijn; de Jong, Fred; Cromwijk, Jan W.

2008-03-01

200

Allergic contact dermatitis from temporary henna tattoo.  

PubMed

Temporary henna tattooing has been very popular during recent years. Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is a plant from the Lythraceae family. For henna tattooing, henna dye is used. It is a dark green powder, made from the leaves of the plant, used for hair dyeing and body tattooing. Very often, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is added to henna dye to make color blacker and to speed up dyeing. PPD may be a very potent contact sensitizer. We report a 9-year-old boy with allergic contact dermatitis due to temporary henna tattooing. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to PPD. After the treatment with topical corticosteroid and oral antihistamines, the lesion cleared with discrete residual hypopigmentation. PMID:19207440

Jovanovic, Dragan L; Slavkovic-Jovanovic, Maja R

2009-01-01

201

Understanding Immersivity: Image Generation and Transformation Processes in 3D Immersive Environments.  

PubMed

Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive (3DI) virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants' performance on the Shepard and Metzler (1971) mental rotation (MR) task across the following three types of visual presentation environments; traditional 2D non-immersive (2DNI), 3D non-immersive (3DNI - anaglyphic glasses), and 3DI (head mounted display with position and head orientation tracking). In Experiment 2, we examined how the use of different backgrounds affected MR processes within the 3DI environment. In Experiment 3, we compared electroencephalogram data recorded while participants were mentally rotating visual-spatial images presented in 3DI vs. 2DNI environments. Overall, the findings of the three experiments suggest that visual-spatial processing is different in immersive and non-immersive environments, and that immersive environments may require different image encoding and transformation strategies than the two other non-immersive environments. Specifically, in a non-immersive environment, participants may utilize a scene-based frame of reference and allocentric encoding whereas immersive environments may encourage the use of a viewer-centered frame of reference and egocentric encoding. These findings also suggest that MR performed in laboratory conditions using a traditional 2D computer screen may not reflect spatial processing as it would occur in the real world. PMID:22908003

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Dhond, Rupali P

2012-08-10

202

Dedicated oscillator for immersed crystal sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study performed with the circuit simulation software PSPICE on the design of an oscillator is presented. For chemical applications a quartz oscillator may be successfully implemented. For these applications, the quartz crystal is generally immersed in liquid medium. Therefore, the quality factor and the motional resistance are very different compared to usual cases. The oscillator circuit must therefore be strongly modified in order to obtain oscillation of the immersed crystal. The characteristics of an immersed quartz crystal are determined, and, from the measured values, an electronic design is proposed. The quartz crystal works in series resonance with a grounded electrode. This circuit can be considered like an approximation of the optimal curcuit where the resonant element is loaded by the zero impedance of a current controlled voltage source.

Bardeche, G.; Filiatre, C.; Valentin, J.-P.

1992-06-01

203

Issues in defense training systems immersive displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for resolution, system performance and reliability, Obtaining maintainability and self-calibration in multi-channel arrays, Reducing screen cross-reflection in wrap-around immersive display arrays. Laser, DLP, and LCOS projector systems are compared for their current acceptance and problems in defense flight training systems. General requirements of visual display systems are discussed and contrasted for flight trainers for low flyers (helicopters) high flyers (tactical aircraft) in real-time immersive, networked systems. FLIR and NVG simulation techniques are described.

Gaylord, Philip

2006-06-01

204

Bioreactor-on-a-chip: application to baker's yeast fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a miniaturized bioreactor (bioreactor-on-a-chip) applied to baker's yeast fermentation. The bioreactor-on-a-chip is fabricated using silicon and glass wafers applying micromachining technology (wet-etching techniques) in order to create microchannels, mixerchannels, and microvalves. The miniaturization and integration allows smaller volumes to be used, which can be often rather challenging from the analytical point of view. Also, optical detection by absorption, electrochemical

Filomena O. Soares; J. H. Correia

2000-01-01

205

Squeeze pressure bioreactor: a hydrodynamic bioreactor for noncontact stimulation of cartilage constructs.  

PubMed

A novel squeeze pressure bioreactor for noncontact hydrodynamic stimulation of cartilage is described. The bioreactor is based on a small piston that moves up and down, perpendicular to a tissue construct, in a fluid-filled chamber. Fluid displaced by the piston generates a pressure wave and shear stress as it moves across the sample, simulating the dynamic environment of a mobile joint. The fluid dynamics inside the squeeze pressure bioreactor was modeled using analytical and computational methods to simulate the mechanical stimuli imposed on a construct. In particular, the pressure, velocity field, and wall shear stress generated on the surface of the construct were analyzed using the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, which describes the flow of an incompressible fluid between two surfaces in relative motion. Both the models and in-situ pressure measurements in the bioreactor demonstrate that controlled cyclic stresses of up to 10?kPa can be applied to tissue constructs. Initial tests on three-dimensional scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes show that glycosaminoglycan production is increased with regard to controls after 24 and 48?h of cyclic noncontact stimulation in the bioreactor. PMID:21410315

De Maria, Carmelo; Giusti, Serena; Mazzei, Daniele; Crawford, Aileen; Ahluwalia, Arti

2011-05-04

206

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

1993-06-01

207

Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor sufficiently purified simulated municipal wastewater for indirect recharge to groundwater or nonpotable uses. Throughout more than 500 days of steady-state operation, total organic carbon concentrations of <1.1 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand of <3.5 mg/L were consistently achieved. No suspended solids were detected in the effluent during this period. The treated water was fully nitrified, resulting in low ammonia and organic nitrogen concentrations but high nitrate concentrations. Cyclic oxic-anoxic operation of an additional denitrification process would be necessary to meet potable water reuse standards. Phosphorus was fully used in the bioreactor for biological growth. Heterotrophic bacteria and MS-2 viruses were completely retained by the membrane system, reducing the extent of final disinfection required.

Cicek, N.; Franco, J.P.; Suidan, M.T. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Urbain, V. [Centre International de Recherche Sur l`Eau et l`Environnement, Le Pecq (France)

1998-11-01

208

Long vertical shaft bioreactor of simplified design  

SciTech Connect

An improved long vertical shaft bioreactor for the treatment of degradable waste is provided wherein the head tank or basin surmounting the vertical downcomer and riser chambers is surrounded by a foam oxidation vessel. Conduits are provided between the head tank and the foam vessel through which (A) foam accumulated in the head tank is passed to the foam vessel and (B) through which excess fluid in the head tank may be vented.

Pollock, D.C.

1981-06-09

209

Experimental investigation of orbitally shaken bioreactor hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing interest in the use of orbitally shaken bioreactors for mammalian cells cultivation raises challenging hydrodynamic issues. Optimizations of mixing and oxygenation, as well as similarity relations between different culture scales are still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relation between the shape of the free surface, the mixing process and the velocity fields, using specific image processing of high speed visualization and Laser Doppler velocimetry. Moreover, similarity parameters were identified for scale-up purposes.

Reclari, Martino; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

2010-11-01

210

Sensors in Disposable Bioreactors Status and Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For better control of productivity and product quality, detailed monitoring of various parameters is required. Since disposable bioreactors become more and more important for biotechnological applications, adequate sensors for this type of reactor are necessary. The required properties of sensors used in disposable reactors differ from those of sensors for multiuse reactors. For example, sensors which are in direct contact with the medium must be inexpensive, but do not need a long life-time, since they can be used only once.

Glindkamp, Anne; Riechers, Daniel; Rehbock, Christoph; Hitzmann, Bernd; Scheper, Thomas; Reardon, Kenneth F.

211

Enzymatic synthesis of estolides by a bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to synthesize ricinoleic acid estolides effectively with a bioreactor system containing immobilized lipase.\\u000a The optimal water content for reaction changed during synthesis of estolide from ricinoleic acid. The water content needs\\u000a to be controlled to optimize conditions for each reaction stage and to prepare estolide with a high degree of condensation.\\u000a The estolide synthesis was attempted

Yasuko Yoshida; Mitsuo Kawase; Chozo Yamaguchi; Tsuneo Yamane

1997-01-01

212

Interpersonal Distance in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) enables behavioral scientists to conduct ecologically realistic experiments with near-perfect experimental control. The authors employed IVET to study the interpersonal distance maintained between participants and virtual humans. In Study 1, partici- pants traversed a three-dimensional virtual room in which a vir- tual human stood. In Study 2, a virtual human approached participants. In both

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Jim Blascovich; Andrew C. Beall; Jack M. Loomis

2003-01-01

213

Miniature optically immersed thermistor bolometer arrays.  

PubMed

Immersed thermistor bolometers have been in use since 1958 as sensors for ir horizon scanners employed in attitude control of earth-orbiting vehicles.(1) These detectors usually use a single small thermistor flake optically immersed in an antireflection coated pure germanium or silicon hemisphere or hyperhemisphere.(2) Studies of the earth's atmospheric horizon from orbiting vehicles indicate that the most useful radiant power lies in the carbon dioxide spectrum near 15 micro and in the rotational water bands of atmospheric moisture in the spectrum beyond 20 micro.(3) These atmospheric constituents produce high ir optical density and hence provide small angle horizon resolution. Carbon dioxide has the additional advantage, by being uniformly distributed in the atmosphere, of providing a stable horizon. The purpose of this paper is to describe briefly two types of five-element linear arrays of thermistor flakes optically immersed in germanium and silicon lenses (Fig. 1). These detecrs were designed for an advanced horizon definition study program at NASA-Langley Research Center.(4) Germanium immersion is employed for best detectivity in the carbon dioxide spectrum from 14 micro to 16 micro and silicon for the spectrum beyond 20 micro. PMID:20062200

De Waard, R; Weiner, S

1967-08-01

214

Teaching and Learning Immersion and Presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known since Socrates that people learn better by experiencing a problem by themselves and by finding a (the) solution(s) by their own. It is however not always possible to offer such freedom to students when teaching the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments due to the technological complexity and the intrinsically subjective nature of these concepts.

Bruno Herbelin; Jan Cíger

2008-01-01

215

How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

Allery, Virginia

2009-01-01

216

Evolving an Immersive Medical Communication Skills Trainer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents our experiences in evolving the Virtual Objective Structured Clinical Exam (VOSCE) system. This system allows medical students to experience the interac- tion between a patient and a medical doctor using natural methods of interaction with a high level of immersion. These features enable the system to provide training on medical communication skills. We discuss the experiences of

Kyle Johnsen; Robert F. Dickerson; Andrew Raij; Cyrus Harrison; Benjamin Lok; Amy O. Stevens; D. Scott Lind

2006-01-01

217

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

218

Surface modification by plasma immersion ion processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory is actively researching a surface modification technique called plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP). PIIP is the latest innovation of the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) approach to surface modification. Like PSII, PIIP allows the modification of large areas and non-planar surface geometries, however PIIP is primarily a coating deposition technology rather than solely an ion implantation

Kevin C. Walter; D. H. Lee; X. M. He; N. P. Baker; Michael Nastasi; C. P. Munson; W. K. Scarborough; M. Tuszewski; B. P. Wood

1998-01-01

219

Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous previous studies have suggested that distances appear to be compressed in immersive virtual environments presented via head mounted display systems, relative to in the real world. However, the principal factors that are responsible for this phenomenon have remained largely unidentified. In this paper we shed some new light on this intriguing problem by reporting the results of two recent

Victoria Interrante; B. Ries; L. Anderson

2006-01-01

220

Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

221

Collaboration and learning within immersive virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying collaboration and learning within immersive virtual reality (IVR) using a head-mounted display technology. This research, supported by the College of Education and Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the University of Washington, is currently concerned with the activities of 56 ninth grade students at work in a public school environment. Subjects worked as individuals and in pairs while

Randolph L. Jackson; Eileen Fagan

2000-01-01

222

Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

1999-01-01

223

Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

224

Immersive virtual studio for architectural exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architects use a variety of analog and digital tools and media to plan and design constructions. Immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies have shown great potential for architectural design, especially for exploration and review of design proposals. In this work we propose a virtual studio system, which allows architects and clients to use arbitrary real-world tools such as maps or rulers

G. Bruder; F. Steinicke; D. Valkov; K. Hinrichs

2010-01-01

225

Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission  

SciTech Connect

The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources.

Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

1985-12-03

226

Issues in defense training systems immersive displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Display technology for DOD immersive projector-based flight training systems are at a crossroads as CRT technology slowly disappears from the market place. From the DOD perspective, emerging technologies arrive poorly matched to satisfy training needs. The DOD represents a minority voice in the marketplace. Current issues include: Satisfying requirements for black level, brightness and contrast ratio, Establishing standard metrics for

Philip Gaylord

2006-01-01

227

Alternate immersion testing of coated sheet steel  

SciTech Connect

Alternate immersion cyclic exposure of prime coated and scribed steel sheet resulted in a lifting of the coating at the edges of the scribe. A thick oxide corrosion product film grew in the scribe and under the adjacent coating. Continuous immersion did not produce thick oxide films or a lifting of the coating. A zinc phosphate pretreatment limited the growth of the oxide to an area within the scribe and prevented attack at the coating/metal interface during cyclic exposure. polarization resistance, which was measured during the immersion segment of the cycle, was greater for phosphate specimens, reflecting the lesser extent of corrosion at the scribe edges. However, sensitivity was not high enough to produce any advantage over simple visual examination and measurement. In the presence of thick oxide films in the scribe, potential changes were very slow, and a modified procedure was necessary for measuring polarization resistance. Galvanized and Zincrometal treated specimens were resistant to the lifting of the primer coat during cyclic exposure, and phosphate pretreatment had little effect. In these cases, polarization resistance measured the galvanic dissolution of zinc to some extent, and polarization resistance values were comparatively low. A mechanism is discussed to account for the aggressive nature of alternate immersion exposures.

Jones, D.A.; Blitz, R.K.; Hodjati, I.

1986-05-01

228

Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation With Lithium Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was developed to produce lithium plasma for plasma immersion ion implantation. Initially, an argon glow discharge with operation pressure ranging from 2 times 10-1 to 1 mbar is generated by negatively polarizing an electrode from -400 to -1500 V. Small pieces of metallic lithium that are 99.9% pure fill the top of a conic crucible, with a

Rogério M. Oliveira; Mário Ueda; José O. Rossi; Beatriz Diaz; Koumei Baba

2008-01-01

229

Plasma immersion ion implantation with lithium atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was developed with the aim to creating plasma of lithium for plasma immersion ion implantation. First an argon glow discharge with operation pressure ranging from 2 × 10?2 mbar to 1 mbar is generated by negatively polarizing an electrode from ?400 V to ?1500 V. Small pieces of metallic lithium, 99.9% pure; fill the top of a

R. M. Oliveira; M. Ueda; J. O. Rossi; B. Diaz

2007-01-01

230

Using Barriers in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many immersive virtual environment configurations, the user interacts with the virtual world while within a limited physical tracking range. While wearing a head mounted display, the real world is completely blocked out from the user's view, making it difficu lt for users to know where they are in relation to the tracking range. One problem with this is that

Scott Frees; Jean Nonnemaker; G. Drew Kessler

231

Hellenic Cultural Heritage through Immersive Virtual Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Reality is a novel and innovative technology which allows us, through its applications, to experience abstract concepts and ideas, visit spaces that are unreachable or no longer exist, and examine e objects from diverse and unique points of view. Virtual archaeology refers to the use of 3D computer models of ancient buildings and artifacts visualized through immersive technologies. In

Athanasios GAITATZES; Dimitrios CHRISTOPOULOS; Aimilia VOULGARI; Maria ROUSSOU

2000-01-01

232

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction to a temporary tattoo  

PubMed Central

A 6-year-old boy developed a skin eruption 10 days after application of a temporary tattoo advertised as a “natural black henna tattoo.” The eruption was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the tattoo ink. The textile dye paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common industrial allergen and can be found in some temporary tattoo inks. This case describes the reaction and reviews the international literature pertaining to PPD and temporary tattoos.

2007-01-01

233

Success factors of knowledge management in temporary organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of temporary forms of cooperation and project-based work is increasing. Likewise, the knowledge-intensity of work contents is growing. However, the unique and temporary nature of projects and programs does not support knowledge transfer from, between and within projects.This research aims at spotting success factors of knowledge management in temporary organizations. Based on a cross-industry sample with 414 organizations,

Frank Lindner; Andreas Wald

2011-01-01

234

Survey of gas-liquid mass transfer in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors are becoming more important in the production of biobased products such as proteins, medicines, and renewable fuels. The economic viability of these processes is dependent on the bioreactor's ability to aid the microorganism and provide a friendly environment. One of the important microorganism requirements is proper gas concentrations so that the microorganism has the necessary inputs for proper metabolism.

Enes Kadic

2010-01-01

235

Control of a continuous bioreactor using model predictive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor control has become very important in recent years due to the difficulty in controlling the highly non-linear behaviour associated with such systems. Model predictive control (MPC) was used to control a non-linear continuous stirred tank bioreactor to an unstable steady state, which was the desired set point. The effect of varying predictor horizon, an important MPC controller tuning parameter,

S. Ramaswamy; T. J. Cutright; H. K. Qammar

2005-01-01

236

Chapter 9 Membrane bioreactors for biotechnology and medical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we will discuss the properties and applications of bioartificial hybrid systems used in biotechnological and medical applications. In the first part we will focused on membrane bioreactors using biocatalysts such as enzymes, microganisms and cells for the production of biological molecules or for separation of pharmaceutical products. In the second part we will discuss on membrane bioreactors

L. Giorno; L. De Bartolo; E. Drioli

2003-01-01

237

Application of DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) to mixed culture bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The use of DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) as a tool for monitoring mixed microbial populations in bioreactors was evaluated. Short (8-mer or 10-mer) oligonucleotides were used to prime DNA extracts from various biological reactors during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The reactors examined in this study included two sets of anaerobic stirred tank continuous flow bioreactors. One set of

Alec Breen; Alan F. Rope; Denise Taylor; John C. Loper; P. R. Sferra

1995-01-01

238

Development of the Delft inclined plate (DIP) bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biohydrometallurgy has intrigued many researchers over the last decades, but few processes under controlled plant conditions have resulted. There are several reasons for this, but the important ones are the design limitations on both mass (02) and heat transfer in agitated bioreactors. The Delft Inclined Plate (DIP) bioreactor is being developed to overcome the current limitations of tank reactors used

G. van Weert; P. J. Kroes

1993-01-01

239

Study on hydraulic characteristics in a submerged membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic characteristics in a membrane bioreactor are of significance for retarding membrane fouling and maintaining stable operation. Cross flow velocity along the membrane surface and its effect on transmembrane pressure change were experimentally investigated using two pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactors. A simulation model for calculating cross flow velocity was then developed. Cross flow velocity was a function of aeration intensity.

Rui Liu; Xia Huang; Chengwen Wang; Lvjun Chen; Yi Qian

2000-01-01

240

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

241

LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

242

Fouling control in activated sludge submerged hollow fiber membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to determine the impact of various operating factors on membrane fouling in activated sludge membrane bioreactor (MBR) process, typically used for water reclamation. In this process, ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) hollow fiber membranes, submerged in the bioreactor, provided a solid—liquid separation by replacing gravity settling. Activated sludge from a food wastewater treatment plant

S. P. Hong; T. H. Bae; T. M. Tak; S. Hongb; A. Randallb

2002-01-01

243

Membrane fouling mechanisms in the membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the membrane fouling mechanisms during the longtime operation of a membrane-coupled anaerobic bioreactor (MCAB) system designed for the treatment of alcohol-distillery wastewater. This system provided interesting information on anaerobic digestion and membrane performance associated with the fouling mechanisms in the membrane bioreactor. Enhanced COD removal was achieved with the complete retention of biomass either inside the

Kwang-Ho Choo; Chung-Hak Lee

1996-01-01

244

OUTER LOOP BIOREACTOR PROJECT STATUS AND PRELIMINARY DATA SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluate the Performance of As-Built (Aerobic-Anaerobic) and Retrofit (Anaerobic) Landfill Bioreactors cells to that of conventional "dry tomb" landfills. Evaluate the performance of full scale bioreactor landfill on an operational level. Collect statistically sound data that wi...

245

Performance of a hybrid membrane bioreactor in municipal wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot-scale hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) was developed by introducing biofilm carriers into a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) and operated for about one year for municipal wastewater treatment. Experiments were conducted to investigate the performances of the HMBR for organic removal, nutrients removal and membrane fouling control comparing with the CMBR. The comparative study results indicated that at a constant

Qiang Liu; Xiaochang C. Wang; Yongjun Liu; Honglin Yuan; Yujiao Du

2010-01-01

246

3-D IMAGE PROCESSING IN THE FUTURE OF IMMERSIVE MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey paper discusses the 3D image processing challenges posed by present and future immersive telecommunications, especially immersive video conferencing and television. We introduce the concepts of presence, immersion and co-presence, and discuss their relation with virtual collaborative environments in the context of communications. Several examples are used to illustrate the current state of the art. We highlight the crucial

Francesco Isgrò; Emanuele Trucco; Peter Kauff; Oliver Schreer

247

Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

1983-07-18

248

Studies on Immersion Education. A Collection for United States Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection of papers on immersion programs focuses primarily on their applicability for language minority students, and addresses some common myths and misunderstandings about immersion education. In "An Overview of Issues in Immersion Education" (Wallace Lambert), major issues and misconceptions are outlined. A second group of papers includes:…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education.

249

STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

250

Hydrodynamic characteristics in an inverse internal-loop airlift-driven fibrous-bed bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inverse internal loop airlift-driven fibrous bed bioreactor (ALFBB) was designed by combining the advantages of an internal loop airlift bioreactor and packed bed bioreactor into one column. This bioreactor, with a high degree of design flexibility, is expected to handle genetically engineered cells as well as fragile cells, which are shear-sensitive. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the combined system have

Peter M. Kilonzo; Argyrios Margaritis; M. A. Bergougnou

2010-01-01

251

Performance of tapered column packed-bed bioreactor for ethanol production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tapered column type of bioreactor system packed with immobilized Saccharomcyes cerevisiae was used to study the bioreactor performance as a function of design and operating variables. The performance of tapered column bioreactor system was found to be better than that of the conventional cylindrical column reactor system for the ethanol fermentation. The new bioreactor design alleviated problems associated with

Haluk Hamamci; Dewey D. Y. Ryu

1987-01-01

252

An Immersive VR System for Sports Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

253

Cooling by immersion in liquid nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an object is cooled by immersion in a liquid, there is an unexpected increase in the violence of boiling just before the boiling stops. Most people seem fascinated by this phenomenon yet few are acquainted with its explanation in terms of a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from film boiling to nucleate boiling. We have developed two variations of an intermediate level undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure the heat-transfer rate after a sample is immersed in liquid nitrogen. The temperature of the sample, as measured by a thermocouple, is recorded as a function of time using either a potentiometer strip-chart recorder or a digital voltmeter-microcomputer combination. The heat-transfer rate as a function of sample temperature is computed from these results, and the reason for the effect is clearly seen.

Listerman, Thomas W.; Boshinski, Thomas A.; Knese, Lynn F.

1986-06-01

254

Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the Rotating Wall Vessel developed by NASA, and originally designed to protect cell culture from the

Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

255

Isometric immersions into 3-dimensional homogeneous manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a 2-dimensional Riemannian\\u000amanifold to be locally isometrically immersed into a 3-dimensional homogeneous\\u000amanifold with a 4-dimensional isometry group. The condition is expressed in\\u000aterms of the metric, the second fundamental form, and data arising from an\\u000aambient Killing field. This class of 3-manifolds includes in particular the\\u000aBerger spheres, the Heisenberg

Benoît Daniel

2007-01-01

256

Immersive Virtual Reality on commodity hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Virtual Reality (VR) is normally asso- ciated with expensive, high-performance computing and graphics systems. This is especially the case in immersive VR systems that support head-tracking, hand-tracking and stereo vision. This causes a dif- ference between the capabilities of VR facility cen- tres with their high-end equipment and small\\/medium sized businesses and research groups that use less

Robert G. Belleman; Bram Stolk; Raymond de Vries

2001-01-01

257

Tele-immersive gaming for everybody  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration, we present two 3D tele-immersive games: light-saber dual and block fencing that merge 3D video representations of participants in real-time to enable remote interactions in a virtual world. The light-saber dual arranges participants in a symmetric setup where both participants interact with each other in a virtual world with similar goals. On the other hand, the block

Ahsan Arefin; Zixia Huang; Raoul Rivas; Shu Shi; Wanmin Wu; Klara Nahrstedt

2011-01-01

258

Immersive Video Game Based on Exercise Prescription  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is increasingly desirable to have good health. And, regular exercise is the most effective way to improve fitness. But,\\u000a most people who repeat the exercise easily feel the boredom and tend to give up. This paper propose an immersive video game\\u000a based on exercise prescription. The game is designed to ensure safety and effectiveness exercise. And, exercise intensity\\u000a and

Daegun Kim; Changhoon Park

259

Development of an immersive training vest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teams of students across four semesters have serially designed subsystems to be integrated into a cohesive immersive training vest system for military applications. The vest enhances the ability to provide realistic and real-time feedback on both battlefield effects (e.g. weapons fire) as well as performance information (e.g. correct\\/incorrect cultural response). The integrated system provides improved capabilities for real time training

Andrew S. Bodenhamer; Cihan H. Dagli; Steven M. Corns; Ivan G. Guardiola

2012-01-01

260

Solid immersion lens applications for nanophotonic devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid immersion lens (SIL) microscopy combines the advantages of conventional microscopy with those of near-field te chniques, and is being increasingly adopted across a diverse range of technologies and applications. A comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art in this rapidly ex panding subject is therefore increasingly relevant. Important benefits are enabled by SIL-foc using, including an improved lateral and axial spatial

Keith A. Serrels; Euan Ramsay; Paul A. Dalgarno; Brian D. Gerardot; John A. O'Connor; Robert H. Hadfield; Derryck Reid

2008-01-01

261

Amphibian XIS: an immersion lithography microstepper platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in immersion lithography have created the need for a small field microstepper to carry out the early learning necessary for next generation device application. Combined with fluid immersion, multiple-beam lithography can provide an opportunity to explore lithographic imaging at oblique propagation angles and extreme NA imaging. Using the phase preserving properties of Smith Talbot interferometry, the Amphibian XIS immersion lithography microstepper has been created for research and development applications directed toward sub-90nm patterning. The system has been designed for use at ArF and KrF excimer laser wavelengths, based on a fused silica or sapphire prism lens with numerical aperture values up to 1.60. Combined with a chromeless phase grating mask, two and four beam imaging is made possible for feature resolution to 35nm. The approach is combined with X-Y staging to provide immersion imaging on a microstepper platform for substrates ranging up to 300mm. The Amphibian system consists of single or dual wavelength sources (193nm and 248nm), a 2mm exposure field size, stage accuracy better than 1 um, polarization control over a full range from linear polarization to unpolarized illumination, full control of exposure dose and demodulation (to synthesize defocus), and the ability to image both line patterns as well as contact features. A fluid control system allows use of water or alternative fluids, with the ability to change fluids rapidly between wafers. The Amphibian system is fully enclosed in a HEPA and amine controlled environment for use in fab or research environments.

Smith, Bruce W.; Bourov, Anatoly; Fan, Yongfa; Cropanese, Frank; Hammond, Peter

2005-05-01

262

Trench homogeneity in plasma immersion ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neon was implanted into silicon pieces mounted onto aluminium trench structures using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). The spatially resolved depth profiles, obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), were compared with two-dimensional simulation results from particle-in-cell (PIC) calculations. Good qualitative agreement was obtained, however the absolute measured doses are too high. This can be explained by the interaction of

P. Huber; G. Keller; J. W Gerlach; S. Mändl; W. Assmann; B. Rauschenbach

2000-01-01

263

First: Florida Ir Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FIRST silicon immersion grating spectrometer is being developed at UF to search for habitable Earth-like planets around M dwarfs and giant planets around young active stars. This compact cryogenic IR instrument is designed to have a spectral resolution of R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 µm with a silicon immersion grating and R=60K at 0.8-1.35 µm with an R4 echelle. The goal is to reach a long term Doppler precision of 1-3 m/s for bright M dwarfs. The FIRST silicon immersion grating, with 54.74 degree blaze angle and 16 l/mm groove density, has been fully characterized in the lab. The 50x50 mm square grating entrance pupil is coated with a single layer of anti-reflection coating resulting in a 2.1% measured reflection loss. The grating surface was coated with a gold layer to increase grating surface reflectivity. It has produced R=110,000 diffraction limited spectral resolution at 1.523 micron in a lab test spectrograph with 20 mm pupil diameter. The integrated scattered light is less than 0.2\\% and grating has no visible ghosts down to the measuring instrument noise level. The grating efficiency is 69\\% at the peak of the blaze. This silicon immersion grating is ready for scientific observations with FIRST. FIRST is scheduled to be integrated in the lab during the spring of 2012 and see the first light at an astronomical telescope (TBD) the summer of 2012.

Ge, Jian; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Wan, X.; Powell, S.

2012-01-01

264

Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation with Lithium Ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A new method was developed with the aim of creating plasma lithium for plasma immersion ion implantation. First, an argon glow discharge with operation pressures ranging from 2.0x10-2 mbar to 1.0 mbar is generated by negatively polarizing an electrode from -400 V to -1500 V. Small pieces of metallic lithium, 99.9 % pure, fill a conic

R. M. Oliveira; M. Ueda; J. O. Rossi

2007-01-01

265

Ocean Immersion in K-12 Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California COSEE is working to create regional ocean education Centers focused on increasing awareness of K-12 schools and their communities to ocean-related issues and opportunities. The Ocean Immersion Centers provide numerous benefits both in the classroom and the community. This site includes information on the Centers and commentary on the implementation of the program in a local elementary school. Workshop information is also provided.

266

Reconstruction for 3D immersive virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of tele-conferencing is towards multi-party 3D Tele-Immersion (TI) and TI environments that can support realistic inter-personal communications and virtual interaction among participants. In this paper, we address two important issues, pertinent to TI environments. The paper focuses on techniques for the real-time, 3D reconstruction of moving humans from multiple Kinect devices. The off-line generation of real-life 3D scenes

D. S. Alexiadis; G. Kordelas; K. C Apostolakis; J. D. Agapito; J. M. Vegas; E. Izquierdo; P. Daras

2012-01-01

267

Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1986-08-01

268

Temporary Worker Alienation and Job Performance: The Impact of Rating Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study extends previous research on alienation of temporary workers, by developing a measure of temporary worker alienation and examining differences in the perceptions of alienation between temporary workers, coworkers, and supervisors. This study found that supervisors’ ratings of temporary worker alienation were significantly lower than the temporary workers’ self-ratings. Moreover, the authors found that alienation was negatively associated with

Sara K. Clark; Jonathon R. B. Halbesleben; Scott W. Lester; Robert Heintz

2010-01-01

269

Bioreactor boats high BTEX removal rate  

SciTech Connect

The oil and gas industries face formidable challenges in treating process wastes to federally mandated standards. The sheer magnitude of the job is daunting: 1,200 Superfund sites and 11,000 military installations have been identified for toxic cleanup. EPA assessments place petroleum as the point source of contamination for fully 50 percent of all identified hazardous waste sites. A new treatment technolgy is a fluidized-bed bioreactor that combines the advantages of a physical carbon adsorption system with bioremediation. The system has been effective in treating tank botton wastes, brines, groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Hickey, R.

1994-04-01

270

Bioreactor engineering of stem cell environments.  

PubMed

Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by the development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to the translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2013-03-24

271

Disposable Bioreactors: Maturation into Pharmaceutical Glycoprotein Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.

Brecht, René

272

Development of bioreactor systems for decolorization of Orange II using white rot fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different reactor configurations (continuous packed-bed bioreactor, fedbatch fluidized-bed bioreactor, and continuous fluidized-bed bioreactor) were designed and tested for decolorization of an azo dye, Orange II, with white rot fungus. All the bioreactors showed high and stable decolorization activity in long-term operation. The fedbatch fluidized-bed bioreactor was particularly suitable for Orange II decolorization since it showed very high decolorization efficiency

Fu-ming Zhang; Jeremy S. Knapp; Kelvin N. Tapley

1999-01-01

273

Flexible Community Structure Correlates with Stable Community Function in Methanogenic Bioreactor Communities Perturbed by Glucose  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDRA), and partial sequencing of SSU rDNA clones. One set of replicated communities, designated the high-spirochete (HS) set, was characterized by good replicability, a high proportion of spiral and short thin rod morphotypes, a dominance of spirochete-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosarcina-related SSU rRNA. The second set of communities, designated the low-spirochete (LS) set, was characterized by incomplete replicability, higher morphotype diversity dominated by cocci, a predominance of Streptococcus-related and deeply branching Spirochaetales-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosaeta-related SSU rRNA. In the HS communities, glucose perturbation caused a dramatic shift in the relative abundance of fermentative bacteria, with temporary displacement of spirochete-related ribotypes by Eubacterium-related ribotypes, followed by a return to the preperturbation community structure. The LS communities were less perturbed, with Streptococcus-related organisms remaining prevalent after the glucose shock, although changes in the relative abundance of minor members were detected by morphotype analysis. A companion paper demonstrates that the more stable LS communities were less functionally stable than the HS communities (S. A. Hashsham, A. S. Fernandez, S. L. Dollhopf, F. B. Dazzo, R. F. Hickey, J. M. Tiedje, and C. S. Criddle, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4050–4057, 2000).

Fernandez, Ana S.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Glagoleva, Olga; Dazzo, Frank B.; Hickey, Robert F.; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M.

2000-01-01

274

Art, science, and immersion: data-driven experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This panel and dialog-paper explores the potentials at the intersection of art, science, immersion and highly dimensional, "big" data to create new forms of engagement, insight and cultural forms. We will address questions such as: "What kinds of research questions can be identified at the intersection of art + science + immersive environments that can't be expressed otherwise?" "How is art+science+immersion distinct from state-of-the art visualization?" "What does working with immersive environments and visualization offer that other approaches don't or can't?" "Where does immersion fall short?" We will also explore current trends in the application of immersion for gaming, scientific data, entertainment, simulation, social media and other new forms of big data. We ask what expressive, arts-based approaches can contribute to these forms in the broad cultural landscape of immersive technologies.

West, Ruth G.; Monroe, Laura; Ford Morie, Jacquelyn; Aguilera, Julieta

275

Resist interaction in 193-/157-nm immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the interaction of resists with water and perfluoropolyether (PFPE) as immersion fluids. We found that some unique behaviors occurred in immersion lithography. An acetal protected poly(p-hydroxystyrene) type resist in water immersion showed decreased resist thickness after exposure. The deprotection reaction during exposure appeared to be accelerated by water. A COMA (cycloolefine-mareic anhydride alt-copolymer) type resist in water immersion showed an increased dissolution rate. FT-IR measurements indicated that the hydrolysis of maleic anhydride occurred during exposure and post-exposure baking. A reduction in the dissolution rate was observed in the immersion lithography of most resists. In water immersion, the formation of a surface insoluble layer and swelling was observed. We confirmed that a photochemical acid generator (PAG) or generated acid eluted into the water by TOF-SIMS. In PFPE immersion, we think that PFPE penetrating across the resist film blocks the penetration of the alkaline aqueous developer.

Kishimura, Shinji; Endo, Masayuki; Sasago, Masaru

2004-05-01

276

Temporary anchorage devices - Mini-implants  

PubMed Central

Orthodontists are accustomed to using teeth and auxiliary appliances, both intraoral and extraoral, to control anchorage. These methods are limited in that it is often difficult to achieve results commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices—biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth, with the devices being subsequently removed after treatment. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. This article describes the development of skeletal anchorage and provides an overview of the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage.

Singh, Kamlesh; Kumar, Deepak; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Amol

2010-01-01

277

Risk acceptance criteria for temporary phases  

SciTech Connect

The full life cycle approach to risk acceptance is proposed as the basis for establishing of acceptance criteria for the temporary phases, i.e., onshore and offshore construction as well as installation. The background for such criteria is discussed, as well as evaluations that may be used to formulate risk acceptance criteria in the construction and installation phases. The criteria are focused on personnel safety. Environmental spill protection and protection of assets are also addressed, but less extensively. Fatal accident rate or average individual risk values are used to express tolerable personnel safety, whereas the acceptability of exposure of the investment is expressed in terms of acceptable probabilities of accidents with significant effect on the project time schedule, i.e., the possibility to delay significantly the start-up of the production phase. The approach is based on an ALARP principle.

Vinnem, J.E. [Elf Petroleum Norge, Stavanger (Norway)

1996-08-01

278

32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855 National Defense Department of Defense...OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Pt. 855, Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855âSample Temporary Agreement Letter of...

2010-07-01

279

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary warning lights. 17.45 Section 17.45 Telecommunication...Structures § 17.45 Temporary warning lights. During construction of an antenna...enclosed in aviation red obstruction light globes, shall be installed at...

2012-10-01

280

Application of Island Biogeography Theory to Temporary Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of island biogeography theory contends that a direct correlation exists between the size of an island and the species richness of an island. We applied this aspect of island biogeography theory to temporary pools. Six temporary pools were randomly selected and placed into three size categories based on the volume of water contained in each. The contents were

Ferrella March; David Bass

1995-01-01

281

Embedded Temporary Prop for Ballast Bed Renewal in Railways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the railroad maintenances, the ballast bed renewal with temporary wooden props is tough and troublesome work. Then, we have developed a brand-new method in which no removal of the temporary props is needed by using the water-soluble synthetic fibers.

Ise, Tomokazu

282

Temporary Employment and the Natural Rate of Unemployment (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper examines the impact that the increased use of temporary workers might have on the natural rate of unemployment. Using a combination of cross section and time series data, I find evidence that the increased use of temporary workers has lowered t...

M. W. Otoo

1999-01-01

283

32 CFR Attachment 5 to Part 855 - Sample Temporary Agreement  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sample Temporary Agreement 5 Attachment 5...Att. 5 Attachment 5 to Part 855âSample Temporary Agreement Letter of Agreement...commander will suspend or change flight plans when required to preclude...

2013-07-01

284

Report of the Task Force on Temporary Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Phase I of the Task Force on Temporary Faculty study of the utilization of full- and part-time temporary faculty in the California State University and Colleges (CSUC) is presented. The study, which involved the gathering and analysis of data, the identification of problems--many of them detrimental to faculty morale--and the development of…

California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach.

285

Evaluating temporary retail price discounts using semiparametric regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To analyze the impact of temporary retail price discount on a consumer goods product category using semiparametric regression and considering different promotional price discount characteristics as well as brand characteristics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A semiparametric regression model using Support Vector Machines, which aim to evaluate retailers' decisions about temporary price discounts, has been developed. The model is derived from

M. P. Martínez-Ruiz; A. Mollá-Descals; M. A. Gómez-Borja; J. L. Rojo-Álvarez

2006-01-01

286

47 CFR 76.1907 - Temporary bona fide trials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Temporary bona fide trials. The obligations and procedures as to encoding rules set forth in §§ 76.1904(b) and (c) and 76.1905(a) and (b) do not apply in the case of a temporary bona fide trial of a...

2012-10-01

287

47 CFR 76.1907 - Temporary bona fide trials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Temporary bona fide trials. The obligations and procedures as to encoding rules set forth in §§ 76.1904(b) and (c) and 76.1905(a) and (b) do not apply in the case of a temporary bona fide trial of a...

2011-10-01

288

26 CFR 1.469-5T - Material participation (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Material participation (temporary). 1.469-5T Section...Deductions Taken § 1.469-5T Material participation (temporary). (a) In general...such year; (2) The individual's participation in the activity for the taxable...

2013-04-01

289

Practice review of five bioreactor/recirculation landfills.  

PubMed

Five landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor and recirculation landfills in North America from conventional landfills. The bioreactor and recirculation landfills were found to function in much the same manner as conventional landfills, with designs similar to established standards for waste containment facilities. Leachate generation rates, leachate depths and temperatures, and liner temperatures were similar for landfills operated in a bioreactor/recirculation or conventional mode. Gas production data indicate accelerated waste decomposition from leachate recirculation at one landfill. Ambiguities in gas production data precluded a definitive conclusion that leachate recirculation accelerated waste decomposition at the four other landfills. Analysis of leachate quality data showed that bioreactor and recirculation landfills generally produce stronger leachate than conventional landfills during the first two to three years of recirculation. Thereafter, leachate from conventional and bioreactor landfills is similar, at least in terms of conventional indicator variables (BOD, COD, pH). While the BOD and COD decreased, the pH remained around neutral and ammonia concentrations remained elevated. Settlement data collected from two of the landfills indicate that settlements are larger and occur much faster in landfills operated as bioreactors or with leachate recirculation. The analysis also indicated that more detailed data collection over longer time periods is needed to draw definitive conclusions regarding the effects of bioreactor and recirculation operations. For each of the sites in this study, some of the analyses were limited by sparseness or ambiguity in the data sets. PMID:16766174

Benson, C H; Barlaz, M A; Lane, D T; Rawe, J M

2006-06-12

290

A Bioreactor Model of Mouse Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

The present study represents an investigation of a novel stirred bioreactor for culture of a transformed cell line under defined hydrodynamic conditions in vitro. Cell colonies of the EL-4 mouse lymphoma cell line grown for the first time in a rotating disc bioreactor (RDB), were observed to undergo changes in phenotype in comparison to standard, static flask cultures. RDB cultures, with or without agitation, promoted the formation of adherent EL-4 cell plaques that merged to form contiguous tumor-like masses in longer-term cultures, unlike the unattached spheroid aggregates of flask cultures. Plaques grown under agitated conditions were further altered in morphology and distribution in direct response to fluid mechanical stimuli. Plaque colonies growth in RDBs with or without agitation also exhibited significant increases in production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and lactate, suggesting an inducible “Warburg effect.” Increases in cell biomass in RDB cultures were no different to flask cultures, though a trend toward a marginal increase was observed at specific rotational speeds. The RDB may therefore be a suitable alternative method to study mechanisms of tumor progression and invasiveness in vitro, under more complex physicochemical conditions that may approximate natural tissue environments.

Thouas, George A.; Sheridan, John; Hourigan, Kerry

2007-01-01

291

21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. 870.3680 Section 870.3680...3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode â(1) Identification. A...

2009-04-01

292

21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. 870.3680 Section 870.3680...3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode â(1) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

293

78 FR 13544 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary Structures (DFARS Case 2012-D015) AGENCY...acquisition of tents and other temporary structures. DATES: Effective February 28, 2013...acquiring tents and other temporary structures, regardless of whether purchased...

2013-02-28

294

77 FR 38734 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary Structures (DFARS Case 2012-D015) AGENCY...acquisition of tents and other temporary structures. DATES: Effective date: June 29...acquiring tents and other temporary structures, regardless of whether purchased...

2012-06-29

295

5 CFR 890.401 - Temporary extension of coverage and conversion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Temporary extension of coverage and conversion. 890.401 Section 890.401 ...Temporary Extension of Coverage and Conversion § 890.401 Temporary extension of coverage and conversion. (a) Thirty-one day...

2013-01-01

296

77 FR 21578 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Extension of Bond for Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application for Extension of Bond for Temporary Importation AGENCY...Application for Extension of Bond for Temporary Importation...2012. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are invited to submit written...Application for Extension of Bond for Temporary...

2012-04-10

297

Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.  

PubMed

Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in vitro studies in physiologically relevant cell and tissue models. PMID:12951697

Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2002-01-01

298

Immersing carbon nanotubes in cold atomic gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the sympathetic relaxation of a free-standing, vibrating carbon nanotube that is mounted on an atom chip and is immersed in a cloud of ultracold atoms. Gas atoms colliding with the nanotube excite phonons via a Casimir-Polder potential. We use Fermi's golden rule to estimate the relaxation rates for relevant experimental parameters and develop a fully dynamic theory of relaxation for the multimode phononic field embedded in a thermal atomic reservoir. Based on currently available experimental data, we identify the relaxation rates as a function of atom density and temperature that are required for sympathetic ground-state cooling of carbon nanotubes.

Weiß, C. T.; Mironova, P. V.; Fortágh, J.; Schleich, W. P.; Walser, R.

2013-10-01

299

Development of novel immersion gold for electroless nickel immersion gold process (ENIG) in PCB applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroless nickel and immersion gold (ENIG) is one of the most common final finishes used in PCBs. ENIG surfaces exhibit excellent planarity, solderability and wire bondability and tolerate multiple lead free solder reflows during assembly processing. However, the price of gold has increased rapidly from around $400 US per troy ounce in 2004 to over $1200 US in 2010. This

C. M. Chan; K. H. Tong; S. L. Leung; P. S. Wong; K. W. Yee; M. W. Bayes

2010-01-01

300

Shadow Casting for Soft and Engaging Immersion in Augmented Virtuality Artworks (Immersive Shadow Casting)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two immersive art installations that involve virtual shadows for better engagement of the viewers are presented. One in- stallation is a stereo film enhanced with a 3D reconstructed mesh for shadow projection, and the other one is a virtual 3D model with texture compositing and transparency. The hardware and software components are chosen for an eco- nomical but efficient rendering

Christian Jacquemin; Bertrand Planes; Rami Ajaj

301

Immersion francaise precoce: Mathematique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Mathematics 1-7).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This mathematics curriculum guide is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. After an initial listing of textbooks in French for teachers and students, it presents: (1) a general overview of the theory of modern mathematics and a suggested sequence of activities; (2) some notes on the application of the theory and a…

Burt, Andy; And Others

302

Modelling of boundary conditions for fixed-bed bioreactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The working of a tubular bioreactor modelled by partial differential equations is characterized by biomass concentration and growth limiting substrate. It is studied through a comparison of two different sets of boundary conditions: the Danckwerts and the...

S. Julien J. P. Babary M. T. Nihtila

1995-01-01

303

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01

304

[Quinoline removal in fluidized-bed bioreactor using immobilized cells].  

PubMed

Burkholderia pickettii, capable of using quinoline as sole source of carbon, nitrogen and energy, was immobilized by an innovative PVA-H3BO3-gauze method. A fluidized-bed bioreactor, in which immobilized cells were added, was constructed to degrade quinoline in wastewater. When the initial concentrations of quinoline were 100, 350 and 500 mg/L, the bioreactor can remove it completely within 2.5, 6 and 12 hours respectively. A series of zero-order reaction equations were proposed to describe quinoline biodegradation process in this bioreactor kinetically. In continuous flow experiments, the performance of the bioreactor was investigated at different HRT (dilution rate) for different quinoline concentrations in wastewater and the tolerance against shock loading was determined by increasing quinoline concentration from 100 to 300 to 500 mg/L at HRT 4 hours. PMID:11382050

Han, L; Wang, J; Liu, H; Shi, H; Qian, Y

2001-01-01

305

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

306

Study on the reduction of defects in immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ArF Immersion lithography is expected to be a production-worthy technology for sub-60nm DRAM. It gives wider process window and better CD uniformity at the cost of defects and overlay accuracy. It is generally mentioned that immersion defects are generated during exposure and removed through pre-soak and post-soak process. A lot of efforts are being made towards less defect generation during exposure and more defect removal through pre-soak and postsoak process. We have experienced a variety of immersion defects and classified them into four types: bubble defect, water mark defect (T-top & Stain), swelling defect and bridge defect (Macro & Micro). We have worked very hard to reduce each immersion defects with immersion exposure and system. In this paper, we investigate method to reduce each immersion defects: bubble, water mark, swelling and bridge through our experiment.

Ban, Keundo; Park, Sarohan; Bok, Cheolkyu; Lim, Heeyoul; Heo, Junggun; Chun, Hyunsook; Kang, Junghyun; Moon, Seungchan

2007-03-01

307

Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

2012-02-01

308

Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS). For that, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different regional origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. The immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was already observed at temperatures higher than -20 °C, for both samples. Main differences between the Northern birch pollen and the Southern birch pollen were obvious in a temperature range, between -18 °C and -24 °C, where the ice fraction increased with decreasing temperature. There, the Northern birch pollen washing water featured two different slopes, with one being steeper and one being similar to the slope of the Southern birch pollen washing water. As we assume single INA macromolecules being the reason for the ice nucleation, we concluded that the Northern birch pollen are able to produce at least two different types of INA macromolecules. We were able to determine the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and so could explain the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water.

Augustin, S.; Hartmann, S.; Pummer, B.; Grothe, H.; Niedermeier, D.; Clauss, T.; Voigtländer, J.; Tomsche, L.; Wex, H.; Stratmann, F.

2012-12-01

309

Performance of fibrous bed bioreactor for treating odorous gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fibrous bed bioreactor was used for treatment of odorous volatile fatty acid (VFA). The effect of gaseous VFA (acetic, propionic,\\u000a and butyric acids) mass loading on the bioreactor performance was investigated. The VFA degrading microbial culture was selected\\u000a from activated sludge by the three VFAs using a shake-flask culture. The selected microorganisms were then immobilized in\\u000a a biofilter using

Hong Chua; Xiang Z. Li; Peter H. F. Yu; Chung Y. Tam; Yu. L. Huang; Shang T. Yang

1999-01-01

310

A Bioreactor Based on Optical Measurements for Baker's Yeast Fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents a bioreactor for baker's yeast fermentation. Small volumes are used in the bioreactor (< 100 ml) comparing with the macro setup (5 l). Biomass, ethanol and pH measurements are carried out by optical spectral analysis: the first two by optical absorption method and the last one is determined by fluorescence. HPTS (8 Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid Trisodium salt)

Filomena O. Soares; Pedro Gomes; J. H. Correia

311

Treatment of oil contaminated wastewater in a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge processes are frequently applied to treat industrial effluents. The membrane-bioreactor (MBR) is a modification of this conventional process, where the activated sludge is concentrated in a bioreactor which is connected to a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane unit. Trials in a MBR with a high activated sludge concentration of up to 48 g l?1, showed that oily wastewater also containing surfactants

W. Scholz; W. Fuchs

2000-01-01

312

Cr(VI) reduction in continuous-flow coculture bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous-flow coculture bioreactor with a phenol-degrading organism, Pseudomonas putida DMP-1, and a Cr(VI)-reducing species, Escherichia coli ATCC 33456, was developed for simultaneous removal of phenol and Cr(VI). Phenol was the sole energy and carbon source added to the coculture along with a basal medium and hexavalent chromium. The coculture bioreactor was operated under three liquid detention times (0.20, 0.31,

Yi-Tin Wang; Evans M. Chirwa; Hai Shen

2000-01-01

313

Design of bioreactors suitable for plant cell and tissue cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell suspension cultures and hairy roots are potential sources of secondary metabolites and recombinant proteins. In\\u000a contrast to traditionally grown “whole wild plants” or “whole transgenic plants”, their production in bioreactors guarantees\\u000a defined controlled process conditions and therefore minimizes or even prevents variations in product yield and quality, which\\u000a simplifies process validation and product registration. Moreover, bioreactors and their

Regine Eibl; Dieter Eibl

2008-01-01

314

Chondrogenesis in a Cell-Polymer-Bioreactor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrogenesis was studied under controlledin vitroconditions using a cell-polymer-bioreactor system. Bovine calf articular chondrocytes were seeded onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds and cultured in rotating bioreactor vessels. Concomitant increases in the amounts of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen resulted in cell-polymer constructs with continuous cartilaginous matrix over their entire cross sections (6.7 mm diameter × 5 mm thick) after 40

L. E. Freed; A. P. Hollander; I. Martin; J. R. Barry; R. Langer; G. Vunjak-Novakovic

1998-01-01

315

Heavy Metals Removal in a Horizontal Rotating Tubular Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed microbial culture was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated ground soils located inside iron, vinyl and cement factory\\u000a area. Isolated mixed microbial culture was used for the heavy metal ions (Fe2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) removal process in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In this research, the effect of bioreactor process parameters\\u000a on the bioprocess dynamics in the HRTB was studied.

Ton?i Rezi?; Michaela Zeiner; Božidar Šantek; Sr?an Novak

2011-01-01

316

Implications of immersion lithography on 193-nm photoresists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion lithography has been proposed as a technique to print sub-100nm features using 193nm lithography. The process involves filling the space between the lens fixture of an exposure tool and the photoresist-coated silicon wafer with a liquid. In the case of immersion 193nm lithography, water can serve as that liquid. The immersion option raises questions about how photoresists and water

J. Christopher Taylor; Charles R. Chambers; Ryan Deschner; Robert J. LeSuer; Willard E. Conley; Sean D. Burns; C. G. Willson

2004-01-01

317

Psychophysiological effects of temporary alternative employment.  

PubMed

Twenty-one participants in a mobilising labour market project offering temporary, alternative employment in Sweden were followed longitudinally for one year, including a six month post-participation follow-up period. Earlier analyses of self-rated psychosocial data have indicated consistent improvements in mental health and quality of life. In the present study, however, a significant rise in serum prolactin, plus decreased dehydro-epiandro-sterone sulphate levels and tendencies towards increased alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and diastolic blood pressure, seem to disconfirm the hypothesis that biological markers of psychosocial health would improve in a similar fashion. It is speculated that this apparent inconsistency could be part of a protective adaptation to long-term unemployment similar to the cocooning tendencies in maternal behaviour. Specifically, we argue that this could protect against the stress of being in an uncontrollable and 'helpless' situation by facilitating a re-focusing on more private matters as opposed to 'hopeless' job seeking. While being potentially detrimental for people with fair chances on the labour market, it is possible that such an adaptation may be helpful for more vulnerable groups. PMID:11330775

Westerlund, H; Theorell, T; Bergström, A

2001-02-01

318

Temporary voice changes after uncomplicated thyroidectomy.  

PubMed

Voice characteristics were studied before and after thyroidectomy in patients with intact vocal fold motility. The speaking voice was acoustically analysed in 47 patients and phonetograms were made in 17 patients. Eight parameters were measured and the pre- and postoperative values compared. The results show that the most affected parameter was the pitch of the speaking voice. The fourth postoperative day there was, on average, a lower SFo and a smaller Fo range during speaking. Postoperatively a progressive normalisation took place. After three months there were no more statistical differences and, looking at the individual measures, the SF0 of all patients fell within 2 semitones from their preoperative level. Vocal quality was also altered in the first postoperative examination, as shown by the higher jitter and smaller harmonics. These measures normalised after two weeks. In the same way, the evaluation of the limits of the voice by means of the phonetogram, showed that the maximal performances in the intensity and pitch domain were decreased in the earliest postoperative period. Information about temporary voice change is useful in patients undergoing thyroidectomy. PMID:9350311

Debruyne, F; Ostyn, F; Delaere, P; Wellens, W; Decoster, W

1997-01-01

319

Optical stirring in a droplet cell bioreactor.  

PubMed

In the context of a bioreactor, cells are sensitive to cues from other cells and mechanical stimuli from movement. The ability to provide the latter in a discrete fluidic system presents a significant challenge. From a prior finding that the location of the focus of a laser below particles relative to the beam axis producing a pushing effect in a predominant lateral sense, we advance an approach here that generates a gentle and tunable stirring effect. Computer simulation studies show that we are able to characterize this effect from the parameters that govern the optical forces and the movement of the particles. Experimental results with polystyrene microbeads and red blood cells confirm the notions from the simulations. PMID:23082288

Muradoglu, Murat; Le, Thuong; Lau, Chun Yat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

2012-09-12

320

A Bioreactor for In Cell Protein NMR  

PubMed Central

The inside of the cell is a complex environment that is difficult to simulate when studying proteins and other molecules in vitro. We have developed a device and system that provides a controlled environment for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments involving living cells. Our device comprises two main parts, an NMR detection region and a circulation system. The flow of medium from the bottom of the device pushes alginate encapsulated cells into the circulation chamber. In the chamber, the exchange of oxygen and nutrients occurs between the media and the encapsulated cells. When the media flow is stopped, the encapsulated cells fall back into the NMR detection region, and spectra can be acquired. We have utilized the bioreactor to study the expression of the natively disordered protein ?-synuclein, inside Escherichia coli cells.

Sharaf, Naima G.; Barnes, Christopher O.; Charlton, Lisa M.; Young, Gregory B.; Pielak, Gary J.

2009-01-01

321

Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

322

An assessment of bioreactor landfill costs and benefits.  

PubMed

Because effective operation of bioreactor landfills involves careful operation and construction of infrastructure beyond that necessary in traditional landfills, upfront capital and operating costs are greater than those associated with traditional landfills. Prior to investing in bioreactor landfills, landfill owners must be convinced that larger short-term expenses (e.g., liquid and/or air injection infrastructure) will be balanced by future economic benefits (e.g., extension of landfill life, reduced leachate treatment costs, etc.). The purpose of this paper is to describe an economic model developed to evaluate the impact of various operational (anaerobic, aerobic, or hybrid) and construction (retrofit and as-built) bioreactor landfill strategies on project economics. Model results indicate retrofit bioreactor landfills are more expensive than traditional landfills, while both the as-built and aerobic bioreactor landfills are less costly. Simulation results indicate the parameters that influence bioreactor economics most significantly are airspace recovery, gas recovery and subsequent use to generate electricity, and savings resulting from reduced leachate treatment costs. PMID:19167875

Berge, Nicole D; Reinhart, Debra R; Batarseh, Eyad S

2009-01-23

323

Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion’s role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Subjects and Methods Eighty-seven 10–12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children’s demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. Results African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants (P = 0.01). Story immersion correlated positively (P values < 0.03) with an increase in Fruit and Vegetable Preference (r = 0.27), Intrinsic Motivation for Water (r = 0.29), Vegetable Self-Efficacy (r = 0.24), and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy (r = 0.32). Conclusion Ethnic similarity between videogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors.

Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

2013-01-01

324

Steroid Shots a Temporary Fix for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Steroid Shots a Temporary Fix for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: ... 3, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Steroids TUESDAY, Sept. 3 (HealthDay News) -- Steroid shots can ...

325

26 CFR 1.150-1T - Definitions (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.150-1T Definitions (temporary). (a) through...

2013-04-01

326

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...in the schedule or specifications to be provided by the contractor. Temporary services may include the furnishing of water, electricity, telephone service, toilet facilities, garbage removal, office space, parking places or similar facilities....

2011-10-01

327

29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.154 Temporary heating...combustion, maintain the health and safety of workmen, and limit temperature rise in the area. (b) Clearance and mounting....

2013-07-01

328

23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

329

47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...interoffice, or central office stations when those stations are unavailable or when service from those stations is disrupted by storms or emergencies. (a) Six month limitation . If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the...

2011-10-01

330

47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...fixed stations in the Offshore Radiotelephone service to be used only when the service of permanent fixed stations is disrupted by storms or emergencies or is otherwise unavailable. (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed...

2011-10-01

331

47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...interoffice, or central office stations when those stations are unavailable or when service from those stations is disrupted by storms or emergencies. (a) Six month limitation . If it is necessary for a temporary fixed station to remain at the...

2012-10-01

332

47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...fixed stations in the Offshore Radiotelephone service to be used only when the service of permanent fixed stations is disrupted by storms or emergencies or is otherwise unavailable. (a) Six month limitation. If it is necessary for a temporary fixed...

2012-10-01

333

Temporary Territories?: Responses to Intrusions in a Public Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a study concerning temporary territories in public settings. Implications of the results for territorial typologies, animal-human territorial differences, and future research on human territoriality are outlined. (Author/SA)|

Brooks, Debra Kaye; Taylor, Ralph B.

1980-01-01

334

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas...guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel...

2010-10-14

335

Indications, Management, and Complications of Temporary Inferior Vena Cava Filters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis. Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis. Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Nussbaumstrasse 20, D-80336 Munich (Germany)

1998-11-15

336

18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Interpretations Under the Natural Gas Act § 2.57 Temporary certificatesâpipeline companies. The Federal...section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act to authorize in appropriate...extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not...

2013-04-01

337

10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

2013-01-01

338

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

2009-10-01

339

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

2010-10-01

340

Economic Assessment of Renovating Temporary Wood Frame Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research is intended to help installation Directorate of Engineering and Housing (DEH) personnel analyze the economic feasibility of renovating WWII era temporary wood frame buildings. A survey form and instruction guide were developed to collect inf...

J. J. Fittipaldi P. Armstrong P. V. Schaeffer

1988-01-01

341

8 CFR 210.2 - Application for temporary resident status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...resident status under section 210 of the Act. No more than 350,000 aliens may be granted temporary resident status in the Group 1 classification. If more than 350,000 aliens are determined to be eligible for Group...

2010-01-01

342

Temporary amniotic membrane patching for acute chemical burns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To describe the surgical technique, and its usefulness, of temporary amniotic membrane patching (AMP) in the acute phase of ocular chemical injury.Methods Temporary AMP with modification in suture placement was performed on five eyes of five consecutive patients inflicted with acute chemical injury having a greater than grade II injury by the Roper-Hall classification.Results All patients reported herein presented

A Kobayashi; Y Shirao; T Yoshita; K Yagami; Y Segawa; K Kawasaki; M Shozu; S C G Tseng

2003-01-01

343

Contingent Chicago: Restructuring the Spaces of Temporary Labor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hiring-halls, specializing in the placement of day-laborers in temporary jobs, have in recent years been proliferating along major transport arteries in Chicago's low-income neighborhoods. This article examines the phenomenon of low-wage temporary work in Chicago from the perspective of the principal institutional actors in these highly 'flexibilized' or 'contingent' labor markets - the 'temp' agencies. Particular emphasis is placed on

Jamie Peck; Nik Theodore

2001-01-01

344

TEMPORARY STORAGE BUILDING NO. 776; FLOOR PLAN, SECTION, AND ELECTRIC ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

TEMPORARY STORAGE BUILDING NO. 776; FLOOR PLAN, SECTION, AND ELECTRIC LIGHTING SERVICE (Also includes a plot plan). Navy Yard, Mare Island, California. P.W. (Public Works) drawing no. 18048-1, approved May 5, 1942; file no. 776-CR-1. Various scales. Revised May 19, 1942. 42 cm x 72 cm. Pencil on velllum. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Temporary Storage, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

345

Temporary and permanent wetland macroinvertebrate communities: Phylogenetic structure through time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water permanence has been previously identified as an important factor affecting macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance in wetlands. Here, we repeatedly sampled the macroinvertebrate communities in 16 permanent and 14 temporary wetlands in Alberta, Canada. Temporary wetlands were predicted to have more closely related taxa and reduced species richness due to the specialized adaptations required to survive in a temporary habitat. We analyzed the species richness (SR) and phylogenetic structure of communities, focusing on three measures of relatedness: Phylogenetic Distance (PD), Net Related Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI). We also examined the influence of taxonomic scale on resulting phylogenetic structure. Overall, taxa were more diverse and abundant in permanent wetlands. As expected, PD and SR were greatest in permanent wetlands. NTI and NRI metrics suggest permanent wetland communities are primarily structured by biotic interactions, such as competition and predation. Conversely, temporary wetland communities appear to be affected more by environmental filtering, with fewer groups being able to survive and reproduce in the relatively limited time that these environments contain water. Insect and dipteran assemblages differed from the patterns found when examining all taxa together for communities for both permanent and temporary wetlands, tending to become more phylogenetically clustered as the season progressed. Conversely, lophotrochozoan and gastropod assemblages closely matched the patterns observed for full communities in permanent wetlands, suggesting a role for biotic interactions. Given the contrasting patterns observed for permanent and temporary wetlands, macroinvertebrate diversity at the landscape level may be best conserved by maintaining both habitat types.

Silver, Carly A.; Vamosi, Steven M.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

2012-02-01

346

196 Million Pixels: An Immersive Visualization Experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Georgia State University (GSU) has recently implemented one of the world's largest high-resolution, tiled visualization walls specifically designed for researcher accessibility and display of data in an interactive, immersive, exploratory and collaborative experience. The Visualization Wall, comprised of 48 individual high-resolution monitors, is able to analyze, evaluate, and present data using the latest earth science research software packages. Multi-core processing and 24 graphical processing units (GPU's) allow the system to process and view data using research software applications at high resolution (+196 million pixels), while maintaining an interactive experience for the user. A Windows platform solves many application compatibility obstacles but also presents a new host of problems when scaling applications across multiple monitors. Continuous data set visualization, frame rate slowing, and graphic performance have been a challenge with the Visualization Wall. To overcome these obstacles, GSU has implemented several innovative solutions including Google Code projects, hardware accelerated browsers, and open-source software such as SAGE.

Reed, P. J.; Vandenberg, A.; Wang, G.

2011-12-01

347

Immersion interferometer for microscopic moire interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic sensitivity of moire interferometry has been increased beyond the previously conceived theoretical limit. This is accomplished by creating the virtual reference grating inside a refractive medium instead of air, thus shortening the wavelength of light. Various optical configurations of moire interferometry for operation in a refractive medium are introduced and one of them has been put into current practice. A very compact four-beam immersion interferometer has been developed for microscopic viewing, which produces a basic sensitivity of 4.8 fringes per micron displacement (contour interval of 0.208 micron per fringe order), corresponding to moire with 4800 lines per mm. Its configuration makes it inherently stable and relatively insensitive to environmental disturbances. An optical microscope is employed to obtain high spatial resolution. The method is demonstrated for deformation of a thick graphite/epoxy composite at the 0/90-deg ply interface.

Han, B.; Post, D.

1992-03-01

348

Hot water immersion for bluebottle stings.  

PubMed

Hot water immersion can be used to treat bluebottle (Physalia spp.) stings. Bluebottle stings are most common in non-tropical areas and can be very painful. After initial management, hot water (ideally at 42-45°C) applied to the site of the sting for 30-90 minutes can be used to manage pain. If hot water is unavailable, a heat pack may provide an accessible alternative. Hot water application for bluebottle stings has NHMRC Level 2 evidence of efficacy. The most common adverse effect is that the patient cannot tolerate the heat, and there has been one case of a thermal burn reported. This article forms part of a series on non-drug treatments, which summarise the indications, considerations and the evidence, and where clinicians and patients can find further information. PMID:23781548

2013-06-01

349

Grism and immersion grating for space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The grism is a versatile dispersion element for an astronomical instrument ranging from ultraviolet to infrared. Major benefit of using a grism in a space application, instead of a reflection grating, is the size reduction of optical system because collimator and following optical elements could locate near by the grism. The surface relief (SR) grism is consisted a transmission grating and a prism, vertex angle of which is adjusted to redirect the diffracted beam straight along the direct vision direction at a specific order and wavelength. The volume phase holographic (VPH) grism consists a thick VPH grating sandwiched between two prisms, as specific order and wavelength is aligned the direct vision direction. The VPH grating inheres ideal diffraction efficiency on a higher dispersion application. On the other hand, the SR grating could achieve high diffraction efficiency on a lower dispersion application. Five grisms among eleven for the Faint Object Camera And Spectrograph (FOCAS) of the 8.2m Subaru Telescope with the resolving power from 250 to 3,000 are SR grisms fabricated by a replication method. Six additional grisms of FOCAS with the resolving power from 3,000 to 7,000 are VPH grisms. We propose "Quasi-Bragg grism" for a high dispersion spectroscopy with wide wavelength range. The germanium immersion grating for instance could reduce 1/64 as the total volume of a spectrograph with a conventional reflection grating since refractive index of germanium is over 4.0 from 1.6 to 20 ?m. The prototype immersion gratings for the mid-InfraRed High dispersion Spectrograph (IRHS) are successfully fabricated by a nano-precision machine and grinding cup of cast iron with electrolytic dressing method.

Ebizuka, Noboru; Oka, Kiko; Yamada, Akiko; Ishikawa, Mami; Kashiwagi, Masako; Kodate, Kashiko; Hirahara, Yasuhiro; Sato, Shuji; Kawabata, Koji S.; Wakaki, Moriaki; Morita, Shinya; Simizu, Tomoyuki; Yin, Shaohui; Omori, Hithoshi; Iye, Masanori

2004-06-01

350

Motion parallax in immersive cylindrical display systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion parallax is a crucial visual cue produced by translations of the observer for the perception of depth and selfmotion. Therefore, tracking the observer viewpoint has become inevitable in immersive virtual (VR) reality systems (cylindrical screens, CAVE, head mounted displays) used e.g. in automotive industry (style reviews, architecture design, ergonomics studies) or in scientific studies of visual perception. The perception of a stable and rigid world requires that this visual cue be coherent with other extra-retinal (e.g. vestibular, kinesthetic) cues signaling ego-motion. Although world stability is never questioned in real world, rendering head coupled viewpoint in VR can lead to the perception of an illusory perception of unstable environments, unless a non-unity scale factor is applied on recorded head movements. Besides, cylindrical screens are usually used with static observers due to image distortions when rendering image for viewpoints different from a sweet spot. We developed a technique to compensate in real-time these non-linear visual distortions, in an industrial VR setup, based on a cylindrical screen projection system. Additionally, to evaluate the amount of discrepancies tolerated without perceptual distortions between visual and extraretinal cues, a "motion parallax gain" between the velocity of the observer's head and that of the virtual camera was introduced in this system. The influence of this artificial gain was measured on the gait stability of free-standing participants. Results indicate that, below unity, gains significantly alter postural control. Conversely, the influence of higher gains remains limited, suggesting a certain tolerance of observers to these conditions. Parallax gain amplification is therefore proposed as a possible solution to provide a wider exploration of space to users of immersive virtual reality systems.

Filliard, N.; Reymond, G.; Kemeny, A.; Berthoz, A.

2012-02-01

351

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

1998-06-30

352

Deep snow immersion suffocation--the deadly threat.  

PubMed

This report presents the case of non-avalanche-related snow immersion death in the Tatra Mountains, which meets all the criteria of this rare phenomenon. The causes and mechanism of deep snow immersion suffocation as well as prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:23572306

Kosi?ski, Sylweriusz; Jasi?ski, Jakub; Krzeptowski-Saba?a, Stanis?aw; G?sienica-Roj, Jan; Górka, Andrzej

353

IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

2010-11-01

354

Access grid: Immersive group-to-group collaborative visualization  

SciTech Connect

Immersive projection displays have played an important role in enabling large-format virtual reality systems such as the CAVE and CAVE like devices and the various immersive desks and desktop-like displays. However, these devices have played a minor role so far in advancing the sense of immersion for conferencing systems. The Access Grid project led by Argonne is exploring the use of large-scale projection based systems as the basis for building room oriented collaboration and semi-immersive visualization systems. The authors believe these multi-projector systems will become common infrastructure in the future, largely based on their value for enabling group-to-group collaboration in an environment that can also support large-format projector based visualization. Creating a strong sense of immersion is an important goal for future collaboration technologies. Immersion in conferencing applications implies that the users can rely on natural sight and audio cues to facilitate interactions with participants at remote sites. The Access Grid is a low cost environment aimed primarily at supporting conferencing applications, but it also enables semi-immersive visualization and in particular, remote visualization. In this paper, they describe the current state of the Access Grid project and how it relates and compares to other environments. They also discuss augmentations to the Access Grid that will enable it to support more immersive visualizations. These enhancements include stereo, higher performance rendering support, tracking and non-uniform projection surface.

Childers, L.; Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Papka, M. E.; Stevens, R.; Udeshi, T.

2000-07-12

355

Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

Reyhner, Jon

2010-01-01

356

Machinima Interventions: Innovative Approaches to Immersive Virtual World Curriculum Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The educational value of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs) seems to be in their social immersive qualities and as an accessible simulation technology. In contrast to these synchronous applications this paper discusses the use of educational machinima developed in IVW virtual film sets. It also introduces the concept of media intervention, proposing…

Middleton, Andrew John; Mather, Richard

2008-01-01

357

Testing for Telepathy Using an Immersive Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within this paper we report on the use immersive virtual reality (IVR) as an experimental environment and medium for the study of telepathy. Our own Telepathy Immersive Virtual Environment (TIVE) uses three-dimensional computer graphics technology to generate artificial environments that afford real-time interaction and exploration in conjunction with head mounted displays (HMDs), sound, instrumented data gloves which allow participants to

C. Murray; Jezz Fox; David J. Wilde; Christine Simmonds; T. L. J. Howard

358

Immersion Fluid Refractive Indices Using Prism Minimum Deviation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion fluids for 157 nm and 193 nm immersion lithography have been measured over the spectral range from 156 nm to 1700 nm in a nitrogen purged environment. The refractive index n and k of several candidate fluids have been measured using the prism minimum deviation technique implemented on a commercial Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE®) system. For measurement the

Roger H. French; Min K. Yang; M. F. Lemon; R. A. Synowicki; Greg K. Pribil; Gerald T. Cooney; Craig M. Herzinger; Steven E. Green; John H. Burnett; Simon Kaplan

359

'This Is Not a Game': Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing convergence and mobility of digital network technologies have given rise to new, massively-scaled modes of social interaction where the physical and virtual worlds meet. This paper explores one product of these extreme networks, the emergent genre of immersive enter- tainment, as a potential tool for harnessing collective action. Through an analysis of the structure and rhetoric of immersive

Jane McGonigal

360

The design of narrative as an immersive simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a concept of narrative as the design of an immersive simulation to be experienced by the interactor in a video game. We face this narrative status as the ongoing shift of a process faced with the nature of the video game format: in one side, the immersive nature of character-oriented games, and on the other, the simulative

Renata Gomes

2005-01-01

361

Immersive Telepresence as a New Paradigm for Mars Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersive telepresence systems allow the observer to feel immersed into a simulated environment. It offers a new near-term paradigm to how we explore, how we prepare and train, and how we share the experience of robotic and human Mars exploration.

Terrile, R. J.

2012-06-01

362

Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

Makropoulos, Josee

2010-01-01

363

Linguistic and Metalinguistic Outcomes of Intense Immersion Education: How Bilingual?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after 5 years of immersion education in French.…

Hermanto, Nicola; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

2012-01-01

364

The ABCs Of English Immersion: A Teachers' Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide, provided by a partisan education policy public interest group, seeks to answer the most frequently asked questions about teaching, designing, and evaluating an English immersion classroom and the research underpinnings in favor of English immersion. This guide aims to help teachers and policymakers better understand what English…

Clark, Kevin; Garcia, Anita; Gersten, Russell; Goldberg, Ann; Lasken, Douglas; Littlejohn, Jim; Morgan, Cynthia; Munro, Richard K.; Porter, Rosalie Pedalino; Rossell, Christine H.; Siano, Janet

365

Top coat or no top coat for immersion lithography?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the moment immersion lithography appeared in the roadmaps of IC manufacturers, the question whether to use top coats has become one of the important topics for discussions. The top coats used in immersion lithography have proved to serve as good protectors from leaching of the resist components (PAGs, bases) into the water. However their application complicates the process and

N. Stepanenko; Hyun-Woo Kim; S. Kishimura; D. Van Den Heuvel; N. Vandenbroeck; M. Kocsis; P. Foubert; M. Maenhoudt; M. Ercken; F. Van Roey; R. Gronheid; I. Pollentier; D. Vangoidsenhoven; C. Delvaux; C. Baerts; S. O'Brien; W. Fyen; G. Wells

2006-01-01

366

3D SIGN LANGUAGE MATHEMATICS IN IMMERSIVE ENVIRONMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe the development of a new immersive 3D learning environment to increase mathematical skills of deaf children. The application teaches mathematical concepts and ASL (American Sign Language) math terminology through user interaction with fantasy 3D virtual signers and environments. The program can be displayed in immersive devices and includes a gesture control system comprised of a

Nicoletta Adamo-Villani; Edward Carpenter; Laura Arns

367

Respiratory and Other Responses in Subjects Immersed in Cold Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pco2 = P(CO2)) subjects have been immersed in water at 27 C and 10 C and while immersed their respiratory rates, minute volumes, and end-tidal P(CO2) levles were measured. Measurements were made with the subjects at rest, exercising at approximately 0.8 l...

K. E. Cooper S. Martin P. Riben

1975-01-01

368

An Immersive Granular Material Visualization System with Haptic Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in distributed virtual reality systems and haptic technologies provide new opportunities to aug- ment human sense of touch into highly complex and immersive visual simulations. Haptic feedback further en- hances human immersion into virtual environments. We present techniques for portable and distributed rendering of real-time active and passive stereo views of virtual granular material that allow real-time haptic

Enkhtuvshin Dorjgotov; Bedrich Beneö; Krishna Madhavan

2007-01-01

369

Organizing a Language-Immersion Day for Middle School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the successful organization of 2 foreign language days for middle school students and provides a synopsis of why an immersion day is an important activity and what steps a teacher might take in order to attempt such an endeavor. Guidelines for planning an immersion day are included. (Author/VWL)|

Hermo, Aurora; Luna, Boni

1999-01-01

370

Experimenting with Sound Immersion in an Arts and Crafts Museum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical museums are goods targets for experimenting with sound immersion and soundscape authoring. This paper presents an immersive sound system emitting audio content. Experimentations were conducted with a wired, proof-of-concept prototype and two wireless devices. Our system takes into consideration the position of museum visitors as well as their orientation and visual vector. In contrast with oth er approaches, tracking

Fatima-zahra Kaghat; Cécile Le Prado; Areti Damala; Pierre Cubaud

2009-01-01

371

Evaluating Effectiveness of Interaction Techniques across Immersive Virtual Environmental Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a formal experiment to compare different interaction techniques across two types of immersive display: an immersive projection technology (IPT) and a head-mounted display (HMD). Our aim is to investigate the effectiveness of two widely used interaction metaphors, virtual hand and ray casting, on these two display technologies. Our motivation is that design and evaluation

Anthony Steed; Chris Parker

2005-01-01

372

"Immersed in Learning": Supporting Creative Practice in Virtual Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Immersed in Learning" project began in 2007 to evaluate the use of 3D virtual worlds as a teaching and learning tool in undergraduate programmes in digital media at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. A question that the research set out to explore was what were the benefits of integrating 3D immersive learning with face-to-face learning…

Doyle, Denise

2010-01-01

373

Status of 157 nm lithography and prospects for immersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FPA-5800FS1 157-nm scanner installed at Selete has demonstrated a minimum resolution of 55 nm for line-and-space (L/S) patterns with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.8. The scanner has been used for 65-nm-node device fabrication and will be used for 45-nm-node device development. The approximately 20% shorter wavelength in 157-nm lithography has several advantages compared to 193-nm immersion lithography. For example, assuming the same k1 value, 157-nm lithography, which has a 20% smaller NA, has a 25% larger depth of focus and better resolution in two-dimensional patterns, for which polarized illumination is not effective. This 157- nm immersion lithography has the potential to be used for 32-nm-node device fabrication with a k1 of 0.3 in combination with a high-refractive-index immersion fluid. To demonstrate the process feasibility of 157-nm immersion lithography, we developed a two-beam interferometric stepper with a high-quality F2 laser and used it and a commercial perfluoroether as an immersion fluid to print 60-nm L/S patterns with a steep cross-sectional profile. Development of an immersion fluid with a high refractive index and low optical absorption is critical issue for making 157-nm immersion lithography practical. We have identified several fluorinated polymers with high diffractive indices and will continue searching for suitable 157-nm immersion fluids.

Fujii, Kiyoshi; Hagiwara, Takuya; Matsuura, Seiji; Ishimaru, Toshiyuki; Matsubara, Yoshihisa; Wakamiya, Wataru

2005-05-01

374

English Immersion in China as a Case of Educational Transfer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The English immersion program in China is a case of educational mode transfer from foreign language immersion in North America. This article analyzes the process of the transfer from the perspective of comparative education, using the model of "four stages of educational borrowing." First, it revisits the recent research on educational transfer…

Qiang, Haiyan; Kang, Yeqin

2011-01-01

375

Immersion Marking of Juvenile Midas Cichlids with Oxytetracycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted on the use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) for marking juvenile Midas cichlids Amphilophus citrinellus. Juveniles were immersed in tris-buffered OTC solutions of 200, 400, or 600 mg\\/L for 4, 8, or 16 h. Marked juveniles were detected by the presence of a fluorescent mark on spines and rays when viewed under an ultraviolet light. Immersion in

Jennifer M. Barker; Kenneth R. McKaye

2004-01-01

376

Whole Body Cooling with Protective Clothing during Cold Water Immersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heat losses during water immersion have been evaluated for nude and clothed heated copper manikins (Goldman et al., 1966), and for nude men (Goldman and Gee 1973). Data are now presented for subjects immersed in still, cold water (28 C and 20 C), nude (.1...

G. D. Bynum R. F. Goldman J. Stewart

1980-01-01

377

Linguistic and Metalinguistic Outcomes of Intense Immersion Education: How Bilingual?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after 5 years of immersion education in French.…

Hermanto, Nicola; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

2012-01-01

378

Low emittance immersed and non-immersed foilless diodes for high current electron linacs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-emittance immersed foilless diode injector was designed and built for the upgraded RADLAC-II (Radial Line Accelerator II) accelerator. The design is for a 5-MV, 40-kA annular beam with a 9-mm outer radius. A conical cathode field shaper eliminates the previously observed large cathode shank losses. In addition, the nonimmersed foilless diode approach was utilized in the design of the

M. G. Mazarakis; J. W. Poukey; S. L. Shope; D. E. Hasit; D. L. Smith; M. D. Haworth; C. A. Frost; G. T. Leifeste; J. S. Wagner

1989-01-01

379

A positron emission tomography approach to visualize flow perfusion in hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the success of hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors in tissue engineering, few evaluations of steady- and pulsatile-flow\\u000a perfusion through these bioreactors have been made. Such evaluations are vital to the optimization of bioreactor culture\\u000a conditions. In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) was proposed and used to visualize steady- and pulsatile-flow\\u000a perfusion in hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. PET is

Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori

380

A pulsing device for packed-bed bioreactors: II. Application to alcoholic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the immobilized cells are employed in packed-bed bioreactors several problems appear. To overcome these drawbacks, a new bioreactor based on the use of pulsed systems was developed [1]. In this work, we study the glucose fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a packed-bed bioreactor. A comparative study was then carried out for continuous fermentation in two packed-bed bioreactors, one

A. Sanromán; E. Roca; M. J. Núñez; J. M. Lema

1994-01-01

381

Observations on the effect of immersion in Bath spa water.  

PubMed Central

Immersion in water in spas has been practised for centuries and has many proponents. Despite fierce debate about its efficacy there has been little scientific evaluation of the effect of immersion in mineral waters. Eight normal subjects were immersed in Bath spa water for two hours and the renal, haematological, and cardiovascular responses were compared with those in the control periods before and after immersion. Significant, twofold diuresis and natriuresis, 5% haemodilution, and a 50% increase in cardiac index were observed in subjects immersed, sitting, in Bath spa water at 35 degrees C. These changes may constitute part of the scientific rationale for spa treatment in many states of disease. Images FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5

O'Hare, J P; Heywood, A; Summerhayes, C; Lunn, G; Evans, J M; Walters, G; Corrall, R J; Dieppe, P A

1985-01-01

382

Effect of saline solution immersion on corneal scattering characteristics  

SciTech Connect

The scattering characteristics of the cornea were measured during immersion in various saline concentrations. Initially, scattering was monitored subjectively by spatial frequency thresholds and contrast thresholds on sine wave grids, and by the border enhancement method. Although all three methods responded to corneal scattering changes produced during immersion, the latter method proved to be the most sensitive. The border enhancement method was subsequently applied during immersion of the cornea in various hypotonic and hypertonic saline solutions. Scattering changes were recorded during an immersion period of 1 hr followed by a recovery period of 1/2 hr. As expected, the scattering increased with hypotonicity. However, certain features of the time characteristics of the scattering changes suggest that the effect of the immersion fluid is modified by the tear flow.

Remole, A.

1981-06-01

383

Construction of an Artificial Liver Support System Based on a Reciprocating Rotating Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel reciprocating rotating bioreactor is proposed. Through the control of the rate and direction of the reciprocating rotation of the bioreactor as well as the direction of the fluid flow, the hepatocytes are constantly maintained in a microgravity status and suffer less shearing stress. Such a bioreactor is advantageous for the 3-dimensional growth of the hepatocytes and may hold

Changzhe Wu; Xiaolin Huo; Ming Li; Xiaoqing Xiu

2010-01-01

384

COMPUTER CONTROL AND ADAPTIVE ON-LINE OPTIMIZATION OF A CONTINUOUS BIOREACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for the control and optimization of a continuous bioreactor were developed. Specifically, the maximization of cellular productivity in a continuous bakers' yeast fermentation was considered. Four problems were dealt with: bioreactor start-up; finding the point of optimum cellular productivity; tracking the optimum as changes occur in the process; and bioreactor stability.^ An adaptive on-line optimization method was developed which

MICHAEL JAMES ROLF

1984-01-01

385

The removal of alkanes in a liquid-continuous gas-phase bioreactor: Preliminary considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Columnar bioreactors are being tested for the treatment of volatile organics. The bioreactors contain microorganisms that are able to remove and degrade the dilute gaseous hydrocarbons (n-pentane and isobutane) from effluent air streams by biological action. Columnar bioreactors, including a liquid continuous packed column, were continuously operated for over 18 mo with sustained degradation of the gaseous hydrocarbons. In these

B. H. Davison; J. E. Thompson

2009-01-01

386

Improved production of ethanol and n-butanol in immobilized cell bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Department of Energy, Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology Division, includes a Biocatalysis Program which has sponsored research on a series of novel bioreactors. It was determined that high-cell density, biomass retention or cell recycle were essential factors in the successful operation and improved economics of the bioreactors. One such bioreactor system has been used for ethanol production by

L. Keay; J. J. Eberhardt; B. R. Allen; C. D. Scott; B. H. Davison

1989-01-01

387

MELISSA: a loop of interconnected bioreactors to develop life support in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a loop of interconnected continuous bioreactors, aimed to provide life support in space, is reported. The complete loop concept consists of four bioreactors and one higher plant compartment. For its realization the continuous and controlled operation of the bioreactors is characterized, up to the pilot scale level, first for each individual reactor, second for the interconnected reactor

F. Godia; J. Albiol; J. L. Montesinos; J. Perez; N. Creus; F. Cabello; X. Mengual; A. Montras; Ch. Lasseur

2002-01-01

388

Temporary Losses of Highway Capacity and Impacts on Performance  

SciTech Connect

Traffic congestion and its impacts significantly affect the nation's economic performance and the public's quality of life. In most urban areas, travel demand routinely exceeds highway capacity during peak periods. In addition, events such as crashes, vehicle breakdowns, work zones, adverse weather, and suboptimal signal timing cause temporary capacity losses, often worsening the conditions on already congested highway networks. The impacts of these temporary capacity losses include delay, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability of the highway system. They can also cause drivers to re-route or reschedule trips. Prior to this study, no nationwide estimates of temporary losses of highway capacity had been made by type of capacity-reducing event. Such information is vital to formulating sound public policies for the highway infrastructure and its operation. This study is an initial attempt to provide nationwide estimates of the capacity losses and delay caused by temporary capacity-reducing events. The objective of this study was to develop and implement methods for producing national-level estimates of the loss of capacity on the nation's highway facilities due to temporary phenomena as well as estimates of the impacts of such losses. The estimates produced by this study roughly indicate the magnitude of problems that are likely be addressed by the Congress during the next re-authorization of the Surface Transportation Programs. The scope of the study includes all urban and rural freeways and principal arterials in the nation's highway system for 1999. Specifically, this study attempts to quantify the extent of temporary capacity losses due to crashes, breakdowns, work zones, weather, and sub-optimal signal timing. These events can cause impacts such as capacity reduction, delays, trip rescheduling, rerouting, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability. This study focuses on the reduction of capacity and resulting delays caused by the temporary events mentioned above. Impacts other than capacity losses and delay, such as re-routing, rescheduling, reduced mobility, and reduced reliability, are not covered in this phase of research.

Chin, S.M.

2002-07-31

389

A Consideration of the Portability and Supportability of Immersion Education: A Critical Look at English Immersion in Melanesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Considers the pedagogical validity of English immersion education in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, Melanesian countries of the South Pacific. Questions the appropriateness of implementing a policy of English language immersion education in a postcolonial, multilingual Third World context where support for first language maintenance and second…

Lotherington, Heather

1996-01-01

390

Bioreactor design for clinical-grade expansion of stem cells.  

PubMed

The many clinical trials currently in progress will likely lead to the widespread use of stem cell-based therapies for an extensive variety of diseases, either in autologous or allogeneic settings. With the current pace of progress, in a few years' time, the field of stem cell-based therapy should be able to respond to the market demand for safe, robust and clinically efficient stem cell-based therapeutics. Due to the limited number of stem cells that can be obtained from a single donor, one of the major challenges on the roadmap for regulatory approval of such medicinal products is the expansion of stem cells using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)-compliant culture systems. In fact, manufacturing costs, which include production and quality control procedures, may be the main hurdle for developing cost-effective stem cell therapies. Bioreactors provide a viable alternative to the traditional static culture systems in that bioreactors provide the required scalability, incorporate monitoring and control tools, and possess the operational flexibility to be adapted to the differing requirements imposed by various clinical applications. Bioreactor systems face a number of issues when incorporated into stem cell expansion protocols, both during development at the research level and when bioreactors are used in on-going clinical trials. This review provides an overview of the issues that must be confronted during the development of GMP-compliant bioreactors systems used to support the various clinical applications employing stem cells. PMID:23625834

dos Santos, Francisco F; Andrade, Pedro Z; da Silva, Cláudia Lobato; Cabral, Joaquim M S

2013-04-26

391

Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with an internal membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment is growing very popular these days because of low sludge production compared to activated sludge processes. The drawback of the process is the risk of sludge washout, especially when the formation of granular sludge is not expected. By using an internal anaerobic bioreactor this problem can be overcome. A lab scale internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. to which brewery wastewater was fed (COD=2300 mg/l). Hollow fibres were inserted into the anaerobic bioreactor, from which the effluent was extracted by underpressure. The COD-removal was excellent and very constant at a value of 95%. No suspended solids were present in the effluent. The membrane permeability stabilised at relatively low value of 18 l/m2.h.bar due to an irreversible adhesion of constituents in the bioreactor. No growth of biomass was found during two months of operation. Inocculated granular sludge fell apart into loose flocs within several weeks of the startup, not affecting biological performance. The internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a promising new area within the field of wastewater treatment. It is expected that this process will have an important future. PMID:15954573

Cornelissen, E R; van Buggenhout, S; van Ermen, S; De Smedt, M; Van Impe, J; Koning, J

2001-01-01

392

Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

393

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on noise-induced temporary threshold shift and temporary emission shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal research has shown that antioxidants can provide significant protection to the cochlea from traumatic noise exposure with some benefit when given after the exposure. Similar results in humans would have a significant impact on both prevention and treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on temporary threshold shift (TTS) by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Sixteen healthy, normal-hearing subjects were given NAC or a placebo prior to exposure to a 10-min, 102-dB narrow-band noise, centered at 2 kHz. This exposure was designed to induce a 10-15-dB TTS. Following the noise exposure, pure-tone thresholds (Bekesy) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured for 60 min to monitor the effects of NAC on TTS recovery. Postexposure measures were compared to baseline data. [Work supported by American BioHealth Group.

Robinette, Martin

2001-05-01

394

Effect of gold immersion time on the electrochemical migration property of electroless nickel/immersion gold surface finishing.  

PubMed

In this study, the electrochemical performance of an electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) surface finish was evaluated as a function of the Au immersion time by the water immersion migration test. As the Au plating time increased, the electroless nickel phosphorous (EN-P) changed from amorphous to crystalline and then increased in crystallinity. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to evaluate the crystallinity of the plating layer. The electrical resistance of the electrodes was tracked as the sample was immersed in water with a 5 V bias. The microstructures of the electrodes after the electrochemical migration test were observed by using secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). As the Au immersion time increased, the EN-P's crystallinity and Au thickness increased. This enhanced the electrochemical migration protection of the surface finish layer. PMID:22849156

Bui, Q V; Yoon, Jeong-Won; Jung, Seung-Boo

2012-04-01

395

The organization of Human Resource Management in temporary work agencies—towards a comprehensive research agenda on temporary agency work in Germany, the Netherlands and the US  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many studies suggest that companies use temporary agency work only as a short-term instrument to adjust the workforce in line with demand, recent research has pointed to new developments in employers' use of temporary agency work. Studies have highlighted the development of increasing long-term contractual relationships between temporary work agencies and client companies in countries such as Germany, the

Lars W. Mitlacher

2006-01-01

396

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2009-10-01

397

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2010-10-01

398

The Envirostat - a new bioreactor concept.  

PubMed

One major goal of biology is to provide a quantitative description of cellular physiology. This task is complicated by population effects, which perturb culture conditions and mask the behavior of the individual cell. To overcome these limitations, the construction and operation of a microfluidic bioreactor is presented. The new reactor concept guarantees constant environmental conditions and single cell resolution, thus it was named Envirostat (environment, constant). In the Envirostat, cells are contactless trapped by negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) and cultivated in a constant medium flow. To control chip temperature, a Peltier device was constructed. Joule heating by nDEP was quantified with Rhodamine B in dependence of applied voltage, field mode, medium conductivity, and flow velocity. The integration of the Joule heating effect in the temperature control allowed setting and maintaining the cultivation temperature. For single cell cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, medium composition changes below 0.001% were estimated by computational fluid dynamic simulation. These changes were considered not to influence cell physiology. Finally, single S. cerevisiae cells were cultivated for more than four generations in the Envirostat, thus showing the applicability of the new reactor concept. The Envirostat facilitates single cell research and might simplify the investigation of hitherto difficult to access biological phenomena such as the true regulatory and physiological response to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19190793

Kortmann, Hendrik; Chasanis, Paris; Blank, Lars M; Franzke, Joachim; Kenig, Eugeny Y; Schmid, Andreas

2008-11-19

399

[Production of ligninolytic enzymes in bioreactor].  

PubMed

Production of ligninolytic enzymes under nitrogen limited conditions(C/N = 56/2.2) was studied in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor with a working volume of 2 L for obtaining higher production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and its control strategy. Results show that the manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac) reached peak at the sixth day and the seventh day, respectively, and the variation of them with time in a batch cultivation are similar to the results by agitated Erlenmeyer flasks; however higher enzyme activity was not achieved by applying a fed-batch strategy, in which nitrogen limited medium was fed to the reactor. In addition, variation of pH during cultivation was related to the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during both batch and fed-batch cultivation. The pH value of liquid medium began to decline when the enzyme activity occurred in the system, and the decline became more and more slow along with the decrease of enzyme activity at the end of fermentation. So, pH would be as a control parameter to find out the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during incubating P. chrysosporium. However, fed-batch strategy still need further study. PMID:16686200

Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Qian, Yi

2006-02-01

400

Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

2013-01-01

401

Immersed interface methods for incompressible flow with moving interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a class of immersed interface methods for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with singular forces. The algorithms are developed using a new hybrid finite volume/finite difference projection method. This projection method uses the high-resolution finite-volume method from CLAWPACK to advect the cell-centered velocity using the divergence-free edge velocity. Then a finite difference method is used for the diffusion and the projection step. This projection method is second-order accurate and is suitable for flow at high Reynolds numbers or problems containing discontinuous conserved quantities. The immersed interface method developed in this thesis is motivated by Peskin's immersed boundary (IB) method, and allows one to model the motion of flexible membranes or other structures immersed in viscous incompressible fluid using a fluid solver on a fixed Cartesian grid. The IB method uses a set of discrete delta functions to spread the entire singular force exerted by the immersed boundary to the nearby fluid grid points. Our method instead incorporates part of this force into jump conditions for the pressure, avoiding discrete dipole terms that adversely affect the accuracy near the immersed boundary. This has been implemented by imposing the correct pressure jump in the course of solving the Poisson problem in the projection step. This gives sharp resolution of the pressure across the interface and better volume conservation than the traditional IB method. A fully implicit method that allows us to model immersed elastic boundaries with mass is also presented.

Lee, Long

402

Overlay breakdown methodology on immersion scanner  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years a flourishing number of techniques such as High Order Control or mappers have been proposed to improve overlay control. However a sustainable improvement requires sometimes understanding the underlying causes of the overlay limiting factors in order to remove them when possible or at least to keep them under control. Root cause finding for overlay error is a tough task due the very high number of influencing parameters and the interaction of the usage conditions. This paper presents a breakdown methodology to deal with this complexity and to find the contributors of overlay error variation. We use a Partial Least Squares (PLS) algorithm to isolate the key contributors for correctable terms and a field-to-field linear regression technique to highlight the main causes of residuals. We present a study carried out on 45nm CMOS contact-gate overlay over 687 production wafers exposed in an ASML TWINSCAN XT:1700i Immersion scanner. We present the results of the correlations with the 180 process and equipment variables used for this study. For each isolated contributor we propose an explanation of the underlying physical phenomenon and solutions.

Lam, Auguste; Pasqualini, Francois; de Caunes, Jean; Gatefait, Maxime

2010-03-01

403

Surface modification by plasma immersion ion processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory is actively researching a surface modification technique called plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP). PIIP is the latest innovation of the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) approach to surface modification. Like PSII, PIIP allows the modification of large areas and non-planar surface geometries, however PIIP is primarily a coating deposition technology rather than solely an ion implantation technology. PIIP utilizes a pulsed-bias on a target to extract ions out of plasma for ion implantation and coating deposition. Plasmas can be made by capacitive or inductive radio frequency sources or by initiating a glow discharge during each pulse of high voltage. Plasmas of hydrocarbon gases have been used to deposit adherent diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating son a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials. Instead of sputter depositing interlayers to improve the adhesion of DLC, PIIP uses ion implantation to create a graded interface between the metallic substrate and the DLC coating. Demonstrating the scaleability of PIIP, a 3 m2 area has been simultaneously coated with an adherent DLC coating approximately 7 micrometers thick. Plasmas of diborane and acetylene mixtures are being used to develop deposition processes for boron-carbide coatings. Through the use of organometallics and inorganic gases, other coatings are possible. The PIIP deposition conditions, composition and tribological properties of DLC and boron-carbide coatings will be highlighted.

Walter, Kevin C.; Lee, D. H.; He, X. M.; Baker, N. P.; Nastasi, Michael; Munson, C. P.; Scarborough, W. K.; Tuszewski, M.; Wood, B. P.

1998-09-01

404

Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.  

PubMed

Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design. PMID:23428449

Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

2013-04-01

405

Using Immersion to teach Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are increasingly jaded to programs that preach, and museums are increasingly finding it difficult to attract students who can retrieve information quickly from the internet or cable TV. A new medium of immersive theater can now engulf the viewer in the subject, bringing a novel view to the exciting new data sets and images now available. By telling a compelling story with characters they can identify with, global climate change can be experienced and its effects brought home in a dramatic and effective way. We have developed several shows highlighting climate change (Powers of Time, Secrets of the Dead Sea), and are developing new shows (Earth's Wild Ride, Earth in the Balance) which can be used to take the visitor into the past or into the future. Clips from the shows and evidence of their effectiveness as an educational tool for Earth science will be shown. If possible, our new portable dome system will be set up in the poster hall for longer live demos of our shows.

Sumners, C. T.; Handron, K.; Reiff, P. H.; Law, C. C.

2004-12-01

406

Immersive group-to-group telepresence.  

PubMed

We present a novel immersive telepresence system that allows distributed groups of users to meet in a shared virtual 3D world. Our approach is based on two coupled projection-based multi-user setups, each providing multiple users with perspectively correct stereoscopic images. At each site the users and their local interaction space are continuously captured using a cluster of registered depth and color cameras. The captured 3D information is transferred to the respective other location, where the remote participants are virtually reconstructed. We explore the use of these virtual user representations in various interaction scenarios in which local and remote users are face-to-face, side-by-side or decoupled. Initial experiments with distributed user groups indicate the mutual understanding of pointing and tracing gestures independent of whether they were performed by local or remote participants. Our users were excited about the new possibilities of jointly exploring a virtual city, where they relied on a world-in-miniature metaphor for mutual awareness of their respective locations. PMID:23428446

Beck, Stephan; Kunert, André; Kulik, Alexander; Froehlich, Bernd

2013-04-01

407

Hosting the plant cells in vitro: recent trends in bioreactors.  

PubMed

Biotechnological production of high-value metabolites and therapeutic proteins by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an attractive alternative of classical technologies. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have illustrated the feasibility of scaling up plant in vitro system-based processes while keeping their biosynthetic potential. Moreover, several commercial processes have been established so far. Though the progress on the field is still limited, in the recent years several bioreactor configurations has been developed (e.g., so-called single-use bioreactors) and successfully adapted for growing plant cells in vitro. This review highlights recent progress and limitations in the bioreactors for plant cells and outlines future perspectives for wider industrialization of plant in vitro systems as "green cell factories" for sustainable production of value-added molecules. PMID:23504061

Georgiev, Milen I; Eibl, Regine; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2013-03-16

408

Elimination of carbamazepine in a non-sterile fungal bioreactor.  

PubMed

A properly configured bioreactor is in need to transfer the fungal biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants into real applications. In this study, a novel plate bioreactor was designed to eliminate carbamazepine (CBZ), a widely concerned pharmaceutical, with the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown on polyether foam under non-sterile conditions. The bioreactor was operated in both sequence batch and continuous modes. It was found that the sufficient supply with nutrients is crucial for an effective elimination of CBZ. Given the conditions, a high elimination of CBZ (60-80%) was achieved. The effective elimination was stable in a continuous operation for a long term (around 100 days). The high elimination of CBZ could also be achieved under real conditions with the effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. PMID:22409982

Zhang, Yongjun; Geissen, Sven-Uwe

2012-02-23

409

Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect

Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

2011-12-31

410

Study on Temporary Space Cooling System using Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a temporary space cooling system using ice was evaluated for the simple cooling of spaces, such as prefabricated buildings and tents used for events and at times of disaster, and analysis and experiments were conducted concerning the system. First, the concept of this system was established. Two types of cooling methods - natural and forced circulation - were adopted. Next, the cooling capacity was predicted by calculation. Measurement results were also presented concerning the cooling capacity of the forced circulation-type system in a temporary tent. Furthermore, this system was actually tested on a temporary tent and a prefabricated building and demonstration experiments were conducted. The operation results were indicated and the cooling capacity was evaluated.

Nagata, Tsutomu; Hamada, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Yuki; Kubota, Hideki; Ono, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki

411

[Bioreactor-landfill site for leaching solution treatment].  

PubMed

The study utilizes the system combined bioreactor with landfill site to treat leachate. The results show that the system helped the degradation of the organic pollutants in the leachate to be divided into two-phases, the hydrolytic fermentation and acid-production phases mainly occurred in the landfill site, the acidification rate was 40%-50%, the methane-production chiefly occurred in the bioreactor(UASB). It treated the leachate significantly and benefits the collection and utilization of methane gas. Also, the system accelerates the process of degrading municipal solid waste and stabilizing landfill site. PMID:11855193

He, R; Shen, D

2001-11-01

412

Optimizing of Bioreactor Heat Supply and Material Feeding by Numerical Calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell culture at large scale normally uses stirred structure. And the situation of temperature field distribution is very important to the cell culture at large scale. Some cells are very sensitive to the circumstances. The local temperature is too high or too low all influences the cell survival and low the cell quantity at unit volume. This paper simulates the temperature field under three different heating conditions. Then analysis and contrast the simulation results. The mixed situation in bioreactor is extremely significant for nutrition transmit. Usually, use ways to measure the average mixture time in bioreactor, and improve the mixture circumstance in the bioreactor through stirred impeller and bioreactor structure change. This paper adopts numerical calculation method to investigate the flow field in bioreactor. It gets the mixture time of bioreactor through virtual tracer in simulate flow field and detects the tracer density time variation curve in the bioreactor.

Zhou, Zhiwei; Song, Boyan; Zhu, Likuan; Li, Zuntao; Wang, Yang

413

[Development and research of temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display].  

PubMed

A temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display is introduced in this paper. Double way low-noise electrocardiosignal preamplifier, amplitude limiter, high and low pass filter, 50 Hz notch filter, TTL level generator and stimulating pulse formation circuit are components of the hardware electrocircuit. The demand pacing and the electrocardiosignal display are separately controlled by the software in which the double microcontrollers communications technique is used. In this study, liquid crystal display is firstly used in body surface electrocardiosignal display or intracardial electrophysiologic signal display when the temporary demand pacemaker is installed and put into use. The machine has proven clinically useful and can be of wide appliation. PMID:15357453

Fan, Shounian; Jiang, Chenxi; Cai, Yunchang; Pan, Yangzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Yaxi; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Shiying

2004-08-01

414

Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the...

K. H. McKeever L. C. Keil H. Sandler

1995-01-01

415

Impacts of cloud immersion on microclimate, photosynthesis and ...  

Treesearch

We compared the microclimate, photosynthetic gas exchange, and water relations of Fraser fir trees in open areas during cloud-immersed, low-cloud, or sunny ... of high-elevation forests in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains.

416

Strength of Adhesive Joints Immersed in Different Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymethyl methacrylate\\/epoxy\\/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA\\/epoxy\\/PMMA) and aluminium\\/ epoxy\\/aluminium joints were immersed in different reagents including saline water, distilled water, sodium hydroxide solution, and sulphur dioxide solution. The joints were immersed in the reagents with and without a constant tensile load. The joints were also tested in air. Four loading periods were selected. At the end of each loading period, the joints

N. N. S. Chen; P. I. F. Niem; H. W. So

1992-01-01

417

3-D Parachute simulation by the immersed boundary method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply the immersed boundary (IB) method to the 3-D parachute problem, which involves an interaction between the flexible, elastic, parachute canopy and the high-speed airflow (relative to the parachute) through which the parachute falls. In order to take into account the effect of mass of both parachute and payload, the penalty immersed boundary (pIB) method is used. We construct

Yongsam Kim; Charles S. Peskin

2009-01-01

418

An Awakening Through an Inner-City Immersion Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This eight-year longitudinal study deals with the effects of an intense inner-city cultural immersion experience on fifth-year secondary students. Over 250 preservice teachers were given orientations to the inner-city setting and were placed in one of one of two select inner-city high schools. Approximately 30 students took part in the one-week cultural immersion experience. Their assignment was to shadow students

Jackie Nuby

2010-01-01

419

Changes in Landing Mechanics after Cold-Water Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cold-water immersion on kinematics and kinetics during a drop-landing task. On four separate occasions, 9 men performed drop-landings from a 0.6-m platform to a force platform following 30-min immersion to the hip-joint in thermoneutral water (control; 34 [degrees]C) and in cold water…

Wang, He; Toner, Michael M.; Lemonda, Thomas J.; Zohar, Mor

2010-01-01

420

Biometric Emotion Assessment and Feedback in an Immersive Digital Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Affective computing has increased its significance both in terms of academic and industry attention and investment. Alongside,\\u000a immersive digital environments have settled as a reliable domain, with progressively inexpensive hardware solutions. Having\\u000a this in mind, the authors envisioned the automatic real-time user emotion extraction through biometric readings in an immersive\\u000a digital environment. In the running example, the environment consisted in

Daniel Castro Silva; Vasco Vinhas; Luís Paulo Reis; Eugénio C. Oliveira

2009-01-01

421

Thermal performance of an integral immersion cooled multichip module package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multichip module (MCM) package was constructed that uses integral immersion cooling to transfer heat from the chips to a final heat transfer medium outside the package. The package is a miniature immersion cooled system with a pin-fin condenser that can be operated in either the submerged or vapor-space condensing mode. Sixteen chips were bonded on a 57-mm-square alumina substrate

Richard D. Nelson; Scott Sommerfeldt; Avram Bar-Cohen

1994-01-01

422

Immersive Displays for Education Using CaveUT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educators can now build large-scale immersive virtual reality (VR) displays using common electronics and CaveUT (http:\\/\\/PublicVR.org\\/ut\\/CaveUT.html). CaveUT is an open- source freeware modification to the graphically intensive video game, Unreal Tournament. The resulting software platform can support VR applications with a wide range of visual content, animation, code modifications, and networked virtual environments for collaborative learning. An immersive display is

Jeffrey Jacobson; Mathew Kelley; Sean Ellis; Lyle Seethaller

423

Facial immersion bradycardia in teenagers and adults accustomed to swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared heart rate and breath-hold duration during facial immersion in teenagers, 11–14 years (N=6), 15–18 years (N=6) and adults, 33–48 years (N=11). The subjects were members of a competitive swimming club, and were familiar with facial immersion. In contrast to the results of a previous study (J. Appl. Physiol. 63 (1987) 665) in which na??ve subjects were used, the

N. H West; P. F McCulloch; P. M Browne

2001-01-01

424

School Program Choice and Streaming: Evidence from French Immersion Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This study uses data from Cycle 3 (1998\\/99) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to compare children and their families in French Immersion programs to those in English language programs. A model of school program,choice is presented and used to show that the existence of French Immersion programs operating in parallel with the regular English program,may

Christopher Worswick

2003-01-01

425

Human physiological responses to immersion into water of different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

To differentiate between the effect of cold and hydrostatic pressure on hormone and cardiovascular functions of man, a group\\u000a of young men was examined during 1-h head-out immersions in water of different temperatures (32°C, 20°C and 14°C). Immersion\\u000a in water at 32°C did not change rectal temperature and metabolic rate, but lowered heart rate (by 15%) and systolic and diastolic

P. Šrámek; M. Šime?ková; L. Janský; J. Šavlíková; S. Vybíral

2000-01-01

426

Thermal performance of an integral immersion cooled multichip module package  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multichip module (MCM) package which uses integral immersion cooling to transfer heat from the chips to a final heat transfer medium outside the package was constructed. The package is a miniature immersion-cooled system with a pin-fin condenser which can be operated in either the submerged or vapor-space condensing mode. Sixteen chips were bonded on a 57 mm2 alumina substrate

Richard D. Nelson; Scott Sommerfeldt; A. BarCohen

1993-01-01

427

Immersed in Learning: supporting creative practice in virtual worlds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Immersed in Learning project began in 2007 to evaluate the use of 3D virtual worlds as a teaching and learning tool in undergraduate programmes in digital media at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. A question that the research set out to explore was what were the benefits of integrating 3D immersive learning with face?to?face learning for students who were

Denise Doyle

2010-01-01

428

IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The emergence of inexpensive 3D-TVs, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty\\u000a atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive systems. A low cost system (here dubbed an IQ-station), fashioned from commercial off-the-shelf technology (COTS), coupled with targeted immersive applications can be a viable\\u000a laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use

William R. Sherman; Patrick O’Leary; Eric T. Whiting; Shane Grover; Eric A. Wernert

2010-01-01

429

Physiological response to water immersion: a method for sport recovery?  

PubMed

Recovery from exercise can be an important factor in performance during repeated bouts of exercise. In a tournament situation, where athletes may compete numerous times over a few days, enhancing recovery may provide a competitive advantage. One method that is gaining popularity as a means to enhance post-game or post-training recovery is immersion in water. Much of the literature on the ability of water immersion as a means to improve athletic recovery appears to be based on anecdotal information, with limited research on actual performance change. Water immersion may cause physiological changes within the body that could improve recovery from exercise. These physiological changes include intracellular-intravascular fluid shifts, reduction of muscle oedema and increased cardiac output (without increasing energy expenditure), which increases blood flow and possible nutrient and waste transportation through the body. Also, there may be a psychological benefit to athletes with a reduced cessation of fatigue during immersion. Water temperature alters the physiological response to immersion and cool to thermoneutral temperatures may provide the best range for recovery. Further performance-orientated research is required to determine whether water immersion is beneficial to athletes. PMID:16937951

Wilcock, Ian M; Cronin, John B; Hing, Wayne A

2006-01-01

430

Effects of immersion on visual analysis of volume data.  

PubMed

Volume visualization has been widely used for decades for analyzing datasets ranging from 3D medical images to seismic data to paleontological data. Many have proposed using immersive virtual reality (VR) systems to view volume visualizations, and there is anecdotal evidence of the benefits of VR for this purpose. However, there has been very little empirical research exploring the effects of higher levels of immersion for volume visualization, and it is not known how various components of immersion influence the effectiveness of visualization in VR. We conducted a controlled experiment in which we studied the independent and combined effects of three components of immersion (head tracking, field of regard, and stereoscopic rendering) on the effectiveness of visualization tasks with two x-ray microscopic computed tomography datasets. We report significant benefits of analyzing volume data in an environment involving those components of immersion. We find that the benefits do not necessarily require all three components simultaneously, and that the components have variable influence on different task categories. The results of our study improve our understanding of the effects of immersion on perceived and actual task performance, and provide guidance on the choice of display systems to designers seeking to maximize the effectiveness of volume visualization applications. PMID:22402687

Laha, Bireswar; Sensharma, Kriti; Schiffbauer, James D; Bowman, Doug A

2012-04-01

431

Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions  

SciTech Connect

A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

Ergas, S.J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McGrath, M.S. [Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States)

1997-06-01

432

Nonlinear PID controller for the regulation of fixed bed bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main issue of this paper is the synthesis of robust nonlinear PID control law for the regulation of the outlet substrate concentration in fixed bed bioreactor. The controller design is realized via a linearizing control law, which is coupled with a proportional-derivative reduced order observer to infer online the unknown kinetic terms related with the bioreaction rate. This controller

Ricardo Aguilar; Rafael Martinez-Guerra; Alexander Poznyak

2002-01-01

433

STUDY OF THE OPERABILITY OF NONIDEAL CONTINUOUS BIOREACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigates the operability of a nonideal unstructured kinetic model of continuous bioreactors. The study of operability (interactions between design and control) can help in identifying control problems that could be overcome during the design stage. The issue of operability has been studied extensively in the literature for chemically reactive systems but has not received the same attention for

A. Ajbar

2010-01-01

434

Design of a photo-bioreactor for modelling purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae have been recently recognized as tools for high value products like polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments or polysaccharides. So far however, only little modelling work has been done. Modelling of kinetics in standard photo-bioreactors is difficult because of strong light gradients and the lack of control of light flux. For the study of microalgae kinetics and for modelling purposes a

Zsuzsa Csögör; Michael Herrenbauer; Iris Perner; Karsten Schmidt; Clemens Posten

1999-01-01

435

Microbial Community Structure and Activity in a Compartmentalized, Anaerobic Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate staging and its effects on reactor performance in a compartmentalized bioreactor, designated the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR). The AMBR was operated by reversing the flow several times per day, which allowed for substantial biomass migration without biomass accumulation in the final compartment. During reactor startup, the structures of the microbial communities

Largus T. Angenent; Dandan Zheng; Shihwu Sung; Lutgarde Raskin

436

Enzymatic hollow fiber membrane bioreactor for penicilin hydrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous enzymatic reaction has been proven as an efficient technique for several industrial applications. In this study, a type of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor where penicillin acylase entrapped within membrane pores was applied to continuously hydrolyze Penicillin G. The influences of various operating conditions on immobilization and enzymatic reaction processes were assessed. A mathematical model of the reactor behaviour at

I. G. Wenten; I. N. Widiasa

2002-01-01

437

REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

438

Membrane bioreactor for utilisation of carbohydrates in waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellulose solution, as a model waste water was hydrolysed in a special, jacketed membrane bioreactor by Celluclast enzyme preparation to produce glucose. Stainless steel microfiltration tube membrane covered by a hairy pelt cloth was applied, which provided a surface for simultaneous adsorption of the substrate and the enzyme. Around 50% cellulose conversion was achieved in batch and continuous mode of

Katalin Bélafi-Bakó; N. Nemestóthy; Milisic Vladan; László Gubicza

2002-01-01

439

Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

440

A novel parallel shaken bioreactor system for continuous operation.  

PubMed

A novel continuous bioreactor system was developed as a shaken culture vessel for the investigation of the growth kinetics and product formation of microorganisms in milliscale. The novel bioreactor system mainly consists of a specially designed 250-mL shake flask with two inlets, one for gas supply and one for medium supply, and one combined outlet on the side of flask for exhaust gas and culture liquid. As a result of the circulating motion of the fermentation broth in the shake flask, the maximum liquid height reaches the edge of the outlet and the fermentation broth is accelerated into the outlet by centrifugal force. Additionally, the excess fermentation broth leaving the culture vessel is continuously driven by the exhaust gas. Because of the small scale and the simple handling it is possible to operate many of these shaken bioreactor vessels simultaneously. By using parallel vessels operated at different dilution rates on the same shaker, the data for a complete biomass over dilution rate (X-D) diagram of a biological culture can be evaluated in an efficient manner, thus saving money, materials, and time. Continuous fermentations of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1022 (ATCC 32167) in the shaken bioreactor system and in a conventional stirred tank fermentor showed very similar results. PMID:15575704

Akgün, Ali; Maier, Bernd; Preis, Diana; Roth, Birthe; Klingelhöfer, Renata; Büchs, Jochen

441

Development and characterization of a continuous centrifugal bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new continuous centrifugal bioreactor (CCBR), has been developed and characterized. A densely packed fluidized bed was maintained by balancing the drag and buoyancy forces of the incoming substrate with that of the centrifugal forces. With this approach, effluent streams were relatively free of cells and a small residence time assured the provision of adequate nutrient requirements and rapid removal

B. J. Van Wie; M. L. Elliott; J. M. Lee; C. D. Scott

1986-01-01

442

Mill Seat Landfill Bioreactor Renewable Green Power (NY), Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was implemented at the Mill Seat landfill located in the Town of Bergen, Monroe County, New York. The landfill was previously equipped with a landfill gas collection system to collect methane gas produced by the bioreactor landfill and transpo...

2010-01-01

443

Hydrogen production by immobilized cells in the nozzle loop bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous production of hydrogen in a Nozzle Loop Bioreactor was investigated using immobilized Rhodospirillum rubum KS-301 with glucose as the growth-limiting substrate. The maximum hydrogen production rate in the experimental range was 91mL\\/h at dilution rate 0.4h-1, initial glucose concentration 5.4g\\/L, and circulation rate 70h-1 .

Yong-Ho Seon; Choong-Gon Lee; Don-Hee Park; Kyung-Yub Hwang; Yung-Il Joe

1993-01-01

444

Removal of pharmaceutical compounds by submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unintentional indirect potable water reuse, where wastewater effluent is used as a part of a downstream drinking water source, has become a great concern. In this case, a variety of organic micro-pollutants contained in wastewater effluent could create problems. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) have gained significant popularity as an advanced wastewater treatment technology and might be effective in removing such organic

Katsuki Kimura; Hiroe Hara; Yoshimasa Watanabe

2005-01-01

445

Integration of Solar Photocatalysis and Membrane Bioreactor for Pesticides Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater containing recalcitrant contaminants as pesticides can be treated by a coupled system which consists of a solar photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a biological oxidation process. Membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is particularly suitable for advanced biological treatment of wastewater containing biorecalcitrant compounds and shows a variety of advantages that make it a good alternative to be coupled with photo-Fenton, especially

J. L. Casas López; A. Cabrera Reina; E. Ortega Gómez; M. M. Ballesteros Martín; S. Malato Rodríguez; J. A. Sánchez Pérez

2010-01-01

446

Computational simulation modelling of bioreactor configurations for regenerating human bladder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate a bioreactor suitable for human bladder regeneration. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic tools. The thickness of the bladder scaffold was 3 mm, similar to the human bladder, and overall hold-up volume within the spherical shape scaffold was 755 ml. All simulations were performed using (i) Brinkman equation on porous regions using

Seokwon Pok; Dhananjay V. Dhane; Sundararajan V. Madihally

2011-01-01

447

Fate of soluble residual organics in membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigated the fate of soluble residual organics during biological treatment by membrane bioreactor. Particle size distribution analysis was evaluated as the main instrument for assessing the functional relationships among COD, TOC, proteins, carbohydrates, the aromatic content and the effective filtration size of the membrane. The study was conducted on black and grey water components of the wastewater generated

Selda Murat Hocaoglu; Derin Orhon

2010-01-01

448

Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

2006-01-01

449

Application of bioreactor design principles to plant micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of oxygen consumption, oxygen transport, suspension, and mixing are discussed in the context of propagating aggregates of plant tissue in liquid suspension bioreactors. Although micropropagated plants have a relatively low biological oxygen demand (BOD), the relatively large tissue size and localization of BOD in meristematic regions will typically result in oxygen mass transfer limitations in liquid culture. In contrast

Wayne R. Curtis

2005-01-01

450

Application of bioreactor design principles to plant micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of oxygen consumption, oxygen transport, suspension, and mixing are discussed in the context of propagating aggregates of plant tissue in liquid suspension bioreactors. Although micropropagated plants have a relatively low biological oxygen demand (BOD), the relatively large tissue size and localization of BOD in meristematic regions will typically result in oxygen mass transfer limitations in liquid culture. In contrast

Wayne R. Curtis

451

Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can no longer be considered as a novel process. This reliable and efficient technology has become a legitimate alternative to conventional activated sludge processes and an option of choice for many domestic and industrial applications. However, membrane fouling and its consequences in terms of plant maintenance and operating costs limit the widespread application of MBRs. To

Pierre Le-Clech; Vicki Chen; Tony A. G. Fane

2006-01-01

452

Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in a production-scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-compartment model for the liquid flow and the oxygen transfer into the liquid phase of a large-scale bioreactor is presented. The aim of the model is to predict the following reactor operating variables: 1) the overall oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor; 2) the local liquid dissolved oxygen concentrations, for estimation of bad aerated zones which can introduce negative

N. M. G. Oosterhuis; N. W. F. Kossen

1984-01-01

453

LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

454

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: feasibility and potential applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass retention is a necessary feature for the successful application of anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment. Biofilms and granule formation are the traditional way to achieve such retention, enabling reactor operation at  high biomass concentrations, and therefore at high organic loading rates. Membrane filtration represents an alternative way to achieve biomass retention. In membrane bioreactors, complete biomass retention can be

D. A. Jeison

2007-01-01

455

Expression systems and species used for transgenic animal bioreactors.  

PubMed

Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

2013-03-17

456

Comparative Study of Immobilized Cell Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of occurrence of various pollutants from chemical process industries and there harmful effects have been highlighted. Typical composition of wastewater from various sources presented. The methods of treatment of wastewater briefly discussed. Special attention has been paid to the biological treatment mentioning the drawbacks of the traditional methods. The relative advantages of various modern bioreactors working on immobilization

H. M. Jena; G. K. Roy; B. C. Meikap

457

Selective fengycin production in a modified rotating discs bioreactor.  

PubMed

Production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in rotating discs bioreactor was studied. The effects of rotation velocity and the addition of agitators between the discs on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k L a were firstly studied in model media. Then the production of lipopeptides was also studied at different agitation conditions in the modified bioreactor (with agitators). The effect of agitation on dissolved oxygen, on submerged and immobilized biomass, on lipopeptide concentrations and yields and on the selectivity of the bioreaction was elucidated and discussed. The proposed modified rotating discs bioreactor allowed to obtain high fengycin concentrations (up to 787 mg L(-1)), but also better selectivity of the bioreaction towards fengycin (up to 88 %) and better yields of fengycin per glucose (up to 62.9 mg g(-1)), lipopeptides per glucose (up to 71.5 mg g(-1)), fengycin per biomass (up to 309 mg g(-1)) and lipopeptides per biomass (up to 396 mg g(-1)) than those reported in the literature. Highest fengycin production and selectivity were obtained at agitation velocity of 30 min(-1). The proposed non-foaming fermentation process could contribute to the scale-up of lipopeptide fermentors and promote the industrial production of fengycin. The proposed bioreactor and bioprocess could be very useful also for the production of other molecules using bioprocesses requiring bubbleless oxygen supply. PMID:23694986

Chtioui, Omar; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Gancel, Frédérique; Dhulster, Pascal; Nikov, Iordan

2013-05-22

458

Measurement of Fugitive Emissions at a Bioreactor Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data presented in this report are from three field campaigns performed during September 2002, May 2003, and September 2003 by ARCADIS and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfil...

M. Modrak R. Hashmonay R. Varma R. Kagann

2005-01-01

459

Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their inso lubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-ph ase biological treatment is one of the innovative techn ologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction

M. Arbabi; M. Sadeghi; Ch. Anyakora

2009-01-01

460

Turbulent breakage of protein precipitates in mechanically stirred bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental data relating to the breakage of isoelectric Soya protein precipitates in a mechanically agitated bioreactor are provided and examined in the light of a proposed mechanistic model which relates the size of the maximum attainable aggregate diameter to the energy dissipation rate in the vessel. The analysis suggests that protein precipitation results in the formation of scale-invariant fractal aggregates

P. Ayazi Shamlou; S. Stavrinides; N. Titchener-Hooker; M. Hoare

1996-01-01

461

Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

2003-01-01

462

MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

463

NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

464

Application of tower bioreactors in cell mass production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the applicability of tower bioreactors without mechanical agitation (bubble columns) for cell mass production on alcohol and glucose substrates. The growth of Candida boi-dinii was investigated in one-stage tower reactors for both batch and “extended culture” operations.

K. Schügerl; J. Lehmann; F. Wagner

465

Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50?kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors.

Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

2013-01-01

466

Elevated-Risk Work Zone Evaluation of Temporary Rumble Strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted on a Missouri low-volume road to examine if temporary rumble strips could improve safety in elevated-risk work zones. This study complements previous studies by addressing several new issues: vehicles that cross over a lane to bypass strips, physical displacement of strips, and deployment of strips at an angle. An objective was to measure performance in

Carlos Sun; Praveen Edaram; Kyle Ervin

2011-01-01

467

Temporary Threshold Shift Caused by Hearing Aid Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporary threshold shift over a wide range of frequencies was found after 4 hours of hearing aid use by a 15-year-old student with severe sensorineural hearing loss who was using real-ear insertion gains 10 to 20 decibels greater than those recommended by current standards. Less gain was recommended at frequencies from 500 to 1500 hertz.…

Macrae, John H.

1993-01-01

468

Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

2012-01-01

469

Difficulty Processing Temporary Syntactic Ambiguities in Lewy Body Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While grammatical aspects of language are preserved, executive deficits are prominent in Lewy body spectrum disorder (LBSD), including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We examined executive control during sentence processing in LBSD by assessing temporary structural ambiguities. Using an…

Grossman, Murray; Gross, Rachel G.; Moore, Peachie; Dreyfuss, Michael; McMillan, Corey T.; Cook, Philip A.; Ash, Sherry; Siderowf, Andrew

2012-01-01

470

Temporary territories?: Responses to intrusions in a public setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do people create temporary territories in public settings? To address this question, territorial cognitions and behaviors regarding two types of study sites in a library—tables and carrels—were investigated. In the first questionnaire experiment subjects indicated that: carrel sites were more valuable for studying than table sites; they expected they would be more likely to defend a carrel site than a

Ralph B. Taylor; Debra Kaye Brooks

1980-01-01

471

The temporary store: a new marketing tool for fashion brands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the motivations that lie behind the choice of the “temporary store” as a marketing tool, with particular reference to the fashion sector in Italy. In the UK and the USA, the more usual terminology is “pop-up store”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study adopts a qualitative approach, in the form of case

Micaela Surchi

2011-01-01

472

General view of crane with legs erected temporary erection ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

General view of crane with legs erected - temporary erection towers still in place. Taken June 20, 1940. Fourteenth Naval District Photo Collection Item No. 13779 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Bridge Gantry Crane No. 1, Welding slab along Third Street, near intersection with Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

473

Temporary Migration, Human Capital, and Language Fluency of Migrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates human capital investment of immigrants whose duration in the host country is limited, either by contract or by their own choice. The first part of the paper develops a model which distinguishes between temporary migrations where the return time is exogenous or optimally chosen. The analysis has a number of interesting implications for empirical work, some of

Christian Dustmann

1999-01-01

474

42 CFR 488.54 - Temporary waivers applicable to hospitals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...protect the health and safety of patients. A waiver...The hospital is located in a rural area. This includes...affect the health and safety of patients; and ...the statutory conditions in section 1861(e)(1...Temporary waiver of 24-hour nursing requirement of...

2012-10-01

475

42 CFR 488.54 - Temporary waivers applicable to hospitals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...protect the health and safety of patients. A waiver...The hospital is located in a rural area. This includes...affect the health and safety of patients; and ...the statutory conditions in section 1861(e)(1...Temporary waiver of 24-hour nursing requirement of...

2011-10-01

476

Regional survey of temporary transvenous pacing procedures and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A prospective regional survey was carried out to describe the current practice of temporary transvenous pacing in five hospitals in the Wessex region and identify factors that predispose to complications.Methods: Data were collected on patient characteristics, pacing indication and setting, operator grade, training, experience and supervision, venous access, procedure time, duration of pacing, complications, and eventual outcome.Results: A total

T R Betts

2003-01-01

477

Temporary Admission of Foreign Workers: Dimensions and Policies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines the policy dimensions of the H-2 Program (Temporary admission of foreign workers) in terms of legal and administrative provisions; numbers and trends of H-2 workers; functions of H-2 workers; the need for foreign workers; the capacity ...

E. P. Reubens

1979-01-01

478

Nonlinear Permanent - Temporary Decompositions in Macroeconomics and Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a method of decomposing univariate and multivariate nonlinear processes into their permanent and temporary components, extending the analysis of Beveridge and Nelson (1981) and Stock and Watson (1987). We provide applications in the univariate nonlinear case to recent work on nonlinearities in the US business cycle, and in the multivariate nonlinear case to recent work on asymmetric nonlinear

Richard H. Clarida; Mark P. Taylor

2003-01-01

479

8 CFR 1244.13 - Termination of temporary treatment benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(b) Temporary treatment benefits terminate, in any case, sixty (60) days after the date that notice is published of the termination of a foreign state's designation under section 244(b)(3) of the Act. [56 FR 619, Jan. 7, 1991. Redesignated at 62 FR 10367, 10382,...

2013-01-01

480

8 CFR 244.13 - Termination of temporary treatment benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(b) Temporary treatment benefits terminate, in any case, sixty (60) days after the date that notice is published of the termination of a foreign state's designation under section 244(b)(3) of the Act. [56 FR 619, Jan. 7, 1991. Redesignated at 62 FR 10367, 10382,...

2013-01-01

481

Large Angle Crash Test of a Temporary Precast Concrete Barrier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One vehicle crash test was conducted on a temporary precast concrete barrier. The test conditions and parameters were determined by an actual accident which resulted in a lawsuit against the State of California. The purpose of this test was to replicate t...

R. L. Stoughton G. P. Gauthier

1995-01-01

482

47 CFR 78.33 - Special temporary authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...written request shall be submitted within ten (10) days thereafter. (b...safety of life and property; (10) Plate power input to final radio frequency stage...temporary authority shall be filed at least ten (10) days prior to the date of...

2012-10-01

483

47 CFR 78.33 - Special temporary authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...written request shall be submitted within ten (10) days thereafter. (b...safety of life and property; (10) Plate power input to final radio frequency stage...temporary authority shall be filed at least ten (10) days prior to the date of...

2011-10-01

484

Permanent or Temporary Classroom Groups: A Field Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interviews of graduate and undergraduate students and faculty members at several urban universities were conducted during a 3-year period. The results suggest differences in satisfaction and performance with respect to temporary versus permanent groups and groups versus teams. Possible explanations for these differences are provided. The article…

Zeff, Lawrence E.; Higby, Mary A.; Bossman, Larry J., Jr.

2006-01-01

485

Emergent Communities of Practice in Temporary Inter-Organisational Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The paper aims to discuss the emergence of communities of practice in a temporary event organisation involving public and private partners. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs qualitative methods in the form of 31 semi-structured interviews, a five-week period of participant observations and archive research in a Swedish…

Juriado, Rein; Gustafsson, Niklas

2007-01-01

486

Inadvertent lumbosacral plexopathy due to temporary pacemaker implantation.  

PubMed Central

Reported here is a 70-year-old man who suffered from a lumbosacral plexopathy after a temporary pacemaker implantation. Drawing attention to the increased number of femoral catheterizations in cardiovascular practice, we have highlighted some neuromuscular complications pertaining to these type of interventions.

Ozcan, Firat; Guray, Yesim; Ozcakar, Levent; Korkmaz, Sule

2006-01-01

487

Drawing Lessons From The Boom Of Temporary Jobs In Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some lessons from the Spanish experience of using temporary employment contracts for regular jobs since 1984. The focus is on the role of fixed--term contracts with low severance pay, which have substituted for reform of employment protection legislation for permanent contracts. We consider the main findings about this reform on the Spanish labour market in the light of

Juan J; Carlos Garcia--Serrano; Juan F

2002-01-01

488

The Role of Wireless Communications in Temporary Team Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an exploratory study of the impact of wireless communications on temporary teams is presented. Assessed is the impact of cell phone usage on team formation. Also the flow absorption with the wireless artifact is assessed in terms of team performance. Gender differences using the cell phone to build and maintain teams are assessed. The results indi- cate

Mary R. Lind

2007-01-01

489

Temporary Buildings: Where Are They Going, Where Have They Been?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the theme of movement in human geography as it is expressed by the phenomenon of temporary buildings. Discusses the anthropological and sociological clues derived from their composition and structural appearances. Includes a simple inquiry model that can be used for structures as diverse as an aluminum espresso bar or a tepee. (MJP)

Straight, Stephen; Mustoe, Myles

1996-01-01

490

Training ‘expendable’ workers: temporary foreign workers in nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007–2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines. However, the Association of RNs required them

Alison Taylor; Jason Foster; Carolina Cambre

2012-01-01

491

Electrophysiological Correlates of Behavioral Temporary Threshold Shifts in Chinchilla.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A previous test exposed chinchillas for seven days to an octave band of noise centered at 500 Hz and at 95 dB SPL to produce temporary shifts of behavioral auditory thresholds which required 4-7 days to recover to normal. In the present study physiologica...

L. D. Benitez D. H. Eldredge J. W. Templer

1972-01-01

492

Bogota-VAC – A Newly Modified Temporary Abdominal Closure Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We present Bogota-VAC, a newly modi- fied temporary abdominal closure (TAC) technique for open abdomen condition after abdominal compart- ment syndrome (ACS). Methods: A thin isolation bag (Bogota bag) and a vacuum assisted closure (VAC) system were combined. A matching bag was tension-free fixed on the abdominal fascia by fascia suture. A ring shaped black polyurethane foam of the

Christian von Rüden; Emanuel Benninger; Dieter Mayer; Otmar Trentz; Ludwig Labler

2008-01-01

493

22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Business and Media Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees. (a...The consular officer is satisfied the alien is the spouse or child of an alien so classified and is accompanying or following...

2013-04-01

494

Migration, effort, and voter sentiment towards temporary migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sentiments felt by capital owners and local workers and consumers towards migrants may improve when temporary migration policies are adopted. The observed level of exertion of effort by migrants, which decreases during their duration in the host country, positively affects production, real wages and capital owners' profits. We show that the acceptance of job offers by migrants results in

Alessandra Venturini; Gil S. Epstein

2006-01-01

495

Immersive remote monitoring of urban sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a typical security and monitoring system a large number of networked cameras are installed at fixed positions around a site under surveillance. There is generally no global view or map that shows the guard how the views of different cameras relate to one another. Individual cameras may be equipped with pan, tilt and zoom capabilities, and the guard may be able to follow an intruder with one camera, then pick him up with another. But such tracking can be difficult, and hand off between cameras disorienting. The guard does not have the ability to continually shift his viewpoint. More over current systems do not scale up with the number of cameras. The system becomes more unwieldy as cameras are added to the system. In this paper, we will present the system and key algorithms for remote immersive monitoring of an urban site using a blanket of video cameras. The guard monitors the world using a live 3D model, which is constantly being updated from different directions using the multiple video streams. The world can be monitored remotely from any virtual viewpoint. The observer can see the entire scene from far and get a bird's eye view or can fly/zoom in and see activity of interest up close. A 3D-site model is constructed of the urban site and used as glue for combining the multiple video streams. Moreover each of the video cameras has smart image processing associated with it, which allows it to detect moving and new objects in the scene and recover their 3D geometry and pose of the camera with respect to the world model. Each video stream is overlaid on top of the video model using the recovered pose. Virtual views of the scene are generated by combining the various video streams, the background 3D model and the recovered 3D geometry of foreground objects. These moving objects are highlighted on the 3D model and used as a cue by the operator to direct his viewpoint.

Kumar, Rakesh; Sawhney, Harpreet S.; Arpa, Aydin; Samarasekera, Supun; Aggrawal, Manoj; Hsu, Stephen; Nister, D.; Hanna, Keith

2002-08-01

496

Immersion Autometallography: Histochemical In Situ Capturing of Zinc Ions in Catalytic Zinc-Sulfur Nanocrystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mid-1980s, two versions of Timm's original immersion sulfide silver method were published. The authors used immersion of tissue in a sulfide solution as opposed to Timm, who used immersion of tissue blocks in hydrogen sulfide-bubbled alcohol. The autometallography staining resulting from the “sulfide only immersion” was not particularly impressive, but the significance of this return to an old

Gorm Danscher; Meredin Stoltenberg; Mikkel Bruhn; Chris Søndergaard; Dorete Jensen

2004-01-01

497

Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N(2)O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N(2)O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N(2)O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N(2)O releases: 8.1 +/- 0.16 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 384), 4.2 +/- 0.14 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 132) and 1.9 +/- 0.10 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N(2)O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N(2)O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection. PMID:19297142

Tallec, G; Bureau, C; Peu, P; Benoist, J C; Lemunier, M; Budka, A; Presse, D; Bouchez, T

2009-03-17

498

26 CFR 1.103(n)-6T - Determinations of population (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Determinations of population (temporary). 1.103(n...103(n)-6T Determinations of population (temporary). Q-1: What is the proper method for determining population? A-1: All determinations...

2009-04-01

499

26 CFR 1.103(n)-6T - Determinations of population (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Determinations of population (temporary). 1.103(n...103(n)-6T Determinations of population (temporary). Q-1: What is the proper method for determining population? A-1: All determinations...

2013-04-01

500

26 CFR 1.103(n)-6T - Determinations of population (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Determinations of population (temporary). 1.103(n...103(n)-6T Determinations of population (temporary). Q-1: What is the proper method for determining population? A-1: All determinations...

2010-04-01