Note: This page contains sample records for the topic temporary immersion bioreactor from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Influence of solid retention time on sludge characteristics and effluent quality in immersed membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here the effect of solid retention time (SRT) on the concentration of the mixed liquor suspend solid (MLSS), the sludge characteristics,\\u000a the content of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), the viscosity of mixed liquor and effluent quality in the immersed\\u000a membrane bioreactor (IMBR) was investigated. The results indicate that the increase of the EPS content is the main reason\\u000a for the

ZhanPing Cao; JingLi Zhang; HongWei Zhang

2008-01-01

2

Optimal performance of an immersed membrane bioreactor equipped with a draft tube for domestic wastewater reclamation.  

PubMed

One of the options to prevent membrane fouling is to implement air lifting that can improve the cake removal from the membrane surface. This study presents the results of tests that were carried out at the Institutes for Desert Research, Kiryat Sde-Boker, Israel, and focused on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on fouling in a pilot-scale immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 (Zenon Environmental, Canada) under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by one conical and four cylindrical draft-tubes. The relationship between the crossflow velocity and the aeration intensity, the influence of the crossflow on fouling rate under various hydrodynamic conditions were investigated and optimal operating conditions were obtained. Optimal operating conditions were reached during the long-term experiment period (70 days) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was stable without external chemical cleaning. The results showed that the permeate was of high quality, and the removal of COD and BOD was 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The crossflow near the membrane surface reveals a major contribution for minimizing membrane fouling, and could offer guidelines for future design of similar systems. PMID:17165458

Yang, F; Bick, A; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

2006-01-01

3

A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts, large nuclei and nucleoli, and numerous plasmodesmata. Plantlets were obtained and after 3 months in culture their growth was significantly better in TIS than on solid culture medium. However, during acclimatization the survival rate of TIS-grown plantlets was lower. Conclusions The present study confirms the occurrence of secondary somatic embryos in peach palm and describes a feasible protocol for regeneration of peach palm in vitro. Further optimizations include the use of explants obtained from adult palms and improvement of somatic embryo conversion rates.

Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

2011-01-01

4

Application of bioreactor systems for large scale production of horticultural and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of micropropagation via organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in a bioreactor has been advanced as a possible way of reducing costs. Micropropagation by conventional techniques is typically a labour-intensive means of clonal propagation. The paper describes lower cost and less labour-intensive clonal propagation through the use of modified air-lift, bubble column, bioreactors (a balloon-type bubble bioreactor), together with temporary immersion

K. Y. Paek; D. Chakrabarty; E. J. Hahn

2005-01-01

5

Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

1996-01-01

6

Innovative bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent papers have described new bioreactor designs. Most innovations addressed either oxygen transfer, shear induced by stirring, control of water activity in organic phase systems or waste biotreatment. Innovations made during the past year were reported in mainly three areas: bioreactor designs for increases in oxygen transfer and decreases in shear stress; bioreactors for two-phases reactions with water activity control;

Marc A. Deshusses; Wilfred Chen; Ashok Mulchandani; Irving J. Dunn

1997-01-01

7

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

8

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

9

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

10

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

11

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

12

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

13

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

14

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

15

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

16

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

17

Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212L (16L/kgwaste). PMID:24713237

Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

2014-09-01

18

Temporary tracheostomy.  

PubMed

Upper airway obstruction can be due to a variety of causes in small animal patients and is often life threatening if left untreated. Placement of a temporary tracheostomy tube may be necessary in the most severe cases of upper airway obstruction until definitive therapy can be implemented. This paper discusses the indications, technique for placement, maintenance, and complications associated with temporary tracheostomy in dogs and cats. PMID:24182993

Mazzaferro, Elisa M

2013-08-01

19

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

20

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

21

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

22

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

23

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

24

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

25

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

26

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

27

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

28

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

29

Bio-reactor chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

Chandler, Joseph A. (inventor)

1989-01-01

30

Wedge immersed thermistor bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An immersed thermistor bolometer for the detection of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation is described. Two types of immersed bolometers are discussed. The immersion of thermistor flakes in a lens, or half immersed by optical contact on a lens, is examined. Lens materials are evaluated for optimum immersion including fused aluminum oxide, beryllium oxide, and germanium. The application of the bolometer to instruments in which the entrance pupil of the immersion optics has a high aspect ratio is considered.

Dreyfus, M. G. (inventor)

1964-01-01

31

Bioreactors with Substance Injection Capacity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioreactor with substance injection capability. In one embodiment, the bioreactor includes a first substrate having a first surface, an opposite second surface and edges. The bioreactor further includes a second substrate having a first surface and an o...

C. P. Lin F. Haselton F. J. Baudenbacher J. P. Wikswo

2003-01-01

32

Bioreactors for Bioartificial Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the design of bioreactors constituting the core of some bioartificial organs is discussed. Initially, the\\u000a problem of cell sourcing is shortly addressed. Then, criteria and limitations to current bioreactor design for bioartificial\\u000a organs are presented. Design equations are separately obtained and discussed for bioreactors implanted in extravascular body\\u000a compartments or connected to the blood circulation of the

G. Catapano

33

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bioreactor designs exist today as a result of previous efforts by engineers and researchers to construct optimal\\u000a systems for a particular tissue engineering application. The primary purpose of any bioreactor is to provide a sterile cell\\u000a culture environment that can be tightly controlled. A bioreactor can be as simple as a petri dish and as complex as

Scott Maxson; David Orr; Karen J. L. Burg

34

In vitro evaluation of a novel bioreactor based on an integral oxygenator and a spirally wound nonwoven polyester matrix for hepatocyte culture as small aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The development of custom-made bioreactors for use as a bioartificial liver (BAL) is considered to be one of the last challenges on the road to successful temporary extracorporeal liver support therapy. We devised a novel bioreactor (patent pending) which allows individual perfusion of high density cultured hepatocytes with low diffusional gradients, thereby more closely resembling the conditions in the

Leonard M. Flendrig; John W. la Soe; George G. A. Jörning; Arie Steenbeek; Ole T. Karlsen; Wim M. M. J. Bovée; Nita C. J. J. Ladiges; Anje A. te Velde; Robert A. F. M. Chamuleau

1997-01-01

35

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

36

Bioreactors: design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

C. L. Cooney

1983-01-01

37

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process

Charles L. Cooney

1983-01-01

38

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

39

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

40

Voxel-based Immersive Environments Immersive Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the Phase 1 developments of Zaxel Systems, Inc. on award DAAH01-00-C-R058, Voxel-based Immersive Environments. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time voxel-based immersive visualization by a...

P. W. Rander N. Suzuki T. Williamson

2000-01-01

41

Deployable Temporary Shelter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact storable components expand to create large shelter. Fully deployed structure provides large, unobstructed bay. Deployed trusses support wall and roof blankets. Provides temporary cover for vehicles, people, and materials. Terrestrial version used as garage, hangar, or large tent.

Shaffer, Joe R.; Headley, David E.

1993-01-01

42

Bioreactor rotating wall vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

2001-01-01

43

Components for immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A person is immersed when they feel part of an environment they experience and influence. While virtual immersion systems are usually designed on a case by case basis, and are not easily reusable or scalable, our goal is to specify and develop a framework for the design and integration of immersive systems. We address the issues raised in the design

Alexandre R. J. François

2002-01-01

44

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

45

Space Bioreactor Science Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

1987-01-01

46

Bioreactor design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

Bowie, William

1987-01-01

47

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

48

Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction,…

Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

1998-01-01

49

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry.

Cooney, Charles L.

1983-02-01

50

On conformal biharmonic immersions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies conformal biharmonic immersions. We first study the transformations of Jacobi operator and the bitension\\u000a field under conformal change of metrics. We then obtain an invariant equation for a conformal biharmonic immersion of a surface\\u000a into Euclidean 3-space. As applications, we construct a two-parameter family of non-minimal conformal biharmonic immersions\\u000a of cylinder into $${\\\\mathbb{R}^3}$$ and some examples of

Ye-Lin Ou

2009-01-01

51

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

52

NASA Classroom Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

Scully, Robert

2004-01-01

53

NASA Bioreactor Schematic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

54

Biofouling in Membrane Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) combines membrane separation and biological treatment, normally involving the activated sludge process, in municipal wastewater treatment. Despite excellent performance over years of full?scale operation, the interactions between microbes and the membrane in the MBR process, which determine its design and operational criteria, remain unclear. This report reviewed research regarding how numerous process parameters impact biofouling rates

A. Ramesh; D. J. Lee; M. L. Wang; J. P. Hsu; R. S. Juang; K. J. Hwang; J. C. Liu; S. J. Tseng

2006-01-01

55

NASA Bioreactor tissue culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

56

Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry  

PubMed Central

A novel technique for label-free imaging of live biological cells in aqueous medium that is insensitive to ambient vibrations is presented. This technique is a spin-off from previously developed immersion Mirau interferometry. Both approaches utilize a modified Mirau interferometric attachment for a microscope objective that can be used both in air and in immersion mode, when the device is submerged in cell medium and has its internal space filled with liquid. While immersion Mirau interferometry involves first capturing a series of images, the resulting images are potentially distorted by ambient vibrations. Overcoming these serial-acquisition challenges, simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry incorporates polarizing elements into the optics to allow simultaneous acquisition of two interferograms. The system design and production are described and images produced with the developed techniques are presented.

Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

2013-01-01

57

Immersive Learning Technologies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Why immersive learning technologies provide engaging opportunities for authentic practice with measurable results * Provide opportunities for educators and learners to better identify performance gaps * Provide instant feedback that help learners self reg...

P. Smith

2009-01-01

58

Bubble column bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article investigates the behavior of bubble column bioreactors with yeast culture media in the absence of cells.\\u000a To aid in the assessment of these reactors the following properties were estimated and partly theoretically treated: relative\\u000a mean gas hold-up, bubble swarm velocity, bubble size, gas\\/liquid interfacial area, energy requirement for aeration, oxygen\\u000a transfer coefficient across the gas\\/liquid interface and

K. Schügerl; J. Lücke; U. Oels

59

Immersive cyberspace system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

60

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

61

Design challenges for space bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

1989-01-01

62

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scientific paper provides a brief introduction into the use and development of industrial mineral-processing bioreactors and reviews the variety of microfloral species used in bioreactors. Additionally, the authors discuss recent microbiological and process developments with thermoacidophiles that could expand the range of mineral sulfides processed commercially using microorganisms. A subscription to Extremophiles is required to access this article electronically.

Norris, P. R.; Burton, N. P.; Foulis, N. A.; Inc., Springer-Verlag T.

63

Landfill bioreactor design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

Reinhart, D.R. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Townsend, T. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-12-31

64

Design of Vascular Graft Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall aim of vascular bioreactor design and operation is the use of a perfusion system to allow adhesion, growth and proliferation of vascular cells under in vitro conditions that emulate the in vivo physiological environment. There are three key factors to be considered: design of a bioreactor that allows the uniform in situ seeding of specific cells to the

P. S. Mcfetridge; J. B. Chaudhuri

65

Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of bioreactors for waste gas treatment, such as compost biofilters and bioscrubbers. Propene was used as a model pollutant

M. W. Reij

1997-01-01

66

Perfusion Bioreactor Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1990-01-01

67

25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...orders and temporary injunctions. (a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may...when the final decree is entered or when the petition for dissolution or legal separation is voluntarily...

2011-04-01

68

Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

69

Solvent immersion imprint lithography.  

PubMed

We present Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a technique for polymer functionalization and microsystem prototyping. SIIL is based on polymer immersion in commonly available solvents. This was experimentally and computationally analyzed, uniquely enabling two practical aspects. The first is imprinting and bonding deep features that span the 1 to 100 ?m range, which are unattainable with existing solvent-based methods. The second is a functionalization scheme characterized by a well-controlled, 3D distribution of chemical moieties. SIIL is validated by developing microfluidics with embedded 3D oxygen sensors and microbioreactors for quantitative metabolic studies of a thermophile anaerobe microbial culture. Polystyrene (PS) was employed in the aforementioned applications; however all soluble polymers - including inorganic ones - can be employed with SIIL under no instrumentation requirements and typical processing times of less than two minutes. PMID:24789571

Vasdekis, A E; Wilkins, M J; Grate, J W; Kelly, R T; Konopka, A E; Xantheas, S S; Chang, T-M

2014-06-21

70

TOWARDS IMMERSIVE MULTIMODAL GAMEPLAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a computer game design that employs in- terface mechanisms fostering a greater sense of player immersion than is typically present in other games. The system uses a large-scale projection display, video-based body position tracking, and bimanual gestural input for interaction. We describe these mechanisms and their implementation in detail, highlighting our user-centered design process. Finally, we describe an

Mitchel Benovoy; Mark Zadel; Rafa Absar; Mike Wozniewski; Jeremy R. Cooperstock

71

Animal imaging using immersion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are using rodent animal models to study and compare contrast mechanisms for detection of breast cancer. These measurements are performed with the animals immersed in a matching scattering medium. The matching scattering medium or liquid tissue phantom comprises a mixture of Ropaque (hollow acrylic/styrene microspheres) and ink. We have previously applied matched imaging to imaging in humans. Surrounding the imaged region with a matched tissue phantom compensates for variations in tissue thickness and geometry, provides more uniform illumination, and allows better use of the dynamic range of the imaging system. If the match is good, the boundaries of the imaged region should almost vanish, enhancing the contrast from internal structure as compared to contrast from the boundaries and surface topography. For our measurements in animals, the immersion plays two additional roles. First, we can readily study tumors through tissue thickness similar to that of a human breast. Although the heterogeneity of the breast is lost, this is a practical method to study the detection of small tumors and monitor changes as they grow. Second, the immersion enhances our ability to quantify the contrast mechanisms for peripheral tumors on the animal because the boundary effects on photon migration are eliminated. We are currently developing two systems for these measurements. One is a continuous-wave (CW) system based on near-infrared LED illumination and a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera. The second system, a frequency domain system, can help quantify the changes observed with the CW system.

Kalogerakis, Konstantinos S.; Kotz, Kenneth T.; Rand, Kendra; Faris, Gregory W.

2003-07-01

72

Antecedents to Temporary Employee's Turnover Intention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an exploratory study using temporary workers, a model based on social exchange and social identity theories was developed and tested. Results revealed that, for both the temporary employee attitudes toward the client organization and the temporary employee attitudes toward the temporary agency, there was a positive association between job satisfaction and organization commitment and negative associations between job satisfaction

Jeffrey P. Slattery; T. T. Rajan Selvarajan

2005-01-01

73

Fuzzy control with genetic algorithm in a batch bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, the growth medium temperature in a batch bioreactor was controlled at the set point by using fuzzy model-based control method. Fuzzy control parameters which are membership functions and relation matrix were found using genetic algorithm. Heat input given from the immersed heater and the cooling water flow rate were selected as the manipulated variables in order to control the growth medium temperature in the bioreactor. Controller performance was tested in the face of different types of input variables. To eliminate the noise on the temperature measurements, first-order filter was used in the control algorithm. The achievement of the temperature control was analyzed in terms of both microorganism concentration which was reached at the end of the stationary phase and the performance criteria of Integral of the Absolute Error. It was concluded that the cooling flow rate was suitable as manipulated variable with regard to microorganism concentration. On the other hand, performance of the controller was satisfactory when the heat input given from the immersed heater was manipulated variable. PMID:24037514

Ahio?lu, Suna; Altinten, Ayla; Ertunç, Suna; Erdo?an, Sebahat; Hapo?lu, Hale

2013-12-01

74

Solid Immersion Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solid Immersion Microscope (SIM) is a new type of optical microscope that is built as an add-on to an existing microscope. By adding a single glass element, the "Solid Immersion Lens," to a standard or confocal optical microscope, transverse resolution improvements by a factor of two or more can be achieved. The SIM can be operated as a real-time near-field optical microscope and has demonstrated a transverse resolution of less than 100 nm using visible light. It can also be used to image inside transparent materials without aberration and with a numerical aperture (N.A.) of greater than 1. In this dissertation, the general principles of the solid immersion microscope and the experimental apparatus in our laboratory will be described. The theory for the microscope's transverse and depth responses will then be studied in more detail and experimental results will be shown to support this theory. The theoretical development will be general enough to predict the resolution of standard confocal microscopes, and to include the effects of thin transparent films on the object and aberrations in the optics. The theory will also show the effects of the air gap between the SIL and the object. The dissertation will conclude with a discussion of the potential applications of solid immersion techniques. These applications include semiconductor inspection and photolithography, in both cases using an N.A. of 1.6 or higher and with no need to immerse the sample in oil. The SIM could also be used in biology, and we have proposed a method to achieve an N.A. of 2.1, that would allow structures down to about 50 nm in size to be observed in their native environments. Finally, the SIM could also be used to inspect optical disks through the substrate with an N.A. of 1.2. These techniques could be used to make an optical head with an N.A. of 1.5 times the presently used heads and better tolerance to aberrations. This could result in an increase in storage density by more than a factor of 2.

Mansfield, Scott Marshall

1992-01-01

75

Measurement and Estimation in Bioreactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with measurement problems in bioreactors and how on-line estimation methods can be applied to help solve them by using indirect measurements and algorithmic techniques. An adaptive filter based method that provides a simultaneous state and...

A. Halme

1987-01-01

76

Bioreactor Systems in Regenerative Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the functions and potential applicability of bioreactors from a technical, scientific and clinical perspective\\u000a will be reviewed in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In particular, examples will be given to\\u000a illustrate the role of bioreactors in (a) establishing and maintaining 3D cell cultures, (b) standardizing physicochemical\\u000a culture parameters, (c) physically conditioning engineered grafts, (d)

Ivan Martin; Stefania A. Riboldi; David Wendt

77

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application\\u000a of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has\\u000a also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale.\\u000a A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized,

P. R. Norris; N. P. Burton; N. A. M. Foulis

2000-01-01

78

Control in bioreactors showing gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In large-scale bioreactors gradients often occur as a result of non-ideal mixing. This phenomenon complicates design and control of large-scale bioreactors. Gradients in the oxygen concentration can be modeled with a two-compartment model of the liquid phase. Application of this model had been suggested for the control of the dissolved oxygen concentration with a batch gluconic acid fermentation process as

S. R. Weijers; G. Honderd; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

1990-01-01

79

Spiral vane bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

Morrison, Dennis R. (inventor)

1991-01-01

80

Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

1997-01-01

81

Cloning of Hybrid Celery Using Bioreactor Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the Phase I research was to scale-up production of hybrid celery somatic embryos in one to four liter bioreactors. researchers established the physical and nutritional conditions necessary for celery embryo acclimation in a bioreactor. Th...

D. A. Stuart S. Cooper-Smith

1988-01-01

82

Enabling immersive simulation.  

SciTech Connect

The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

2009-02-01

83

[Occupational accidents in temporary work].  

PubMed

In 2000 in Italy about 470,000 workers found jobs provided by Temporary Work Agencies, i.e., more than twice the number in 1999. Temporary Work is an expanding phenomenon since it well suits the flexibility requirements of business: 77% of Temporary Work is in the manufacturing industry, involving mostly unskilled workers. The young age, low level of qualification, poor training, and lack of knowledge of the working environment are factors that can favour occupational accidents. There are studies that relate the frequency of labour accidents to the level of training and job experience. There are no data in the literature about occupational accidents during temporary work. Our study concerns sixteen temporary work Agencies that employed more than 250,000 manual workers in 2000. From the occupational accident registers of these agencies, we analysed all accidents concerning manual workers employed during 2000, with reference to: the number of accidents with up to three days prognosis, age, sex, nationality, prognosis pattern and cause. The agencies supplied data regarding the number of hours worked during 2000. We considered 5259 accidents: the overall frequency index (FI) was 92.1, with a considerable difference between the three main agencies (87.5) and the others. The mean age accident was 27.8 years, mean duration of sick leave 13.7 days, and the main causes were work tools (51.5%); 76% of the accidents concerned unskilled manual workers. The above indexes are definitely higher than those provided by INAIL (italian compulsory insurances) for the metalworking (38.1), construction (47.7) and mining (58.8) sectors during 1997. There is evidence that temporary work is related to an increased risk of occupational accidents. Further studies are required to confirm this evidence. PMID:11676190

Nola, A; Cattaneo, G; Maiocchi, A; Gariboldi, C; Rocchi, R; Cavallaro, S; Loreto, B; Lanfredini, L; Bassino, P

2001-01-01

84

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

85

A temperature control algorithm of immersion liquid for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography is one of the main technologies used to manufacture integrated circuits with the shortest feature size. In immersion lithography, temperature of immersion liquid is strictly constrained and its allowable range is less than +/-0.01°C at 22°C. To meet this requirement, a temperature control algorithm adopted by the test rig which controls the temperature of the immersion liquid with process cooling water (PCW) via heat exchangers is proposed. By adjusting the flow rate of PCW through the heat exchangers, the control system varies the amount of heat exchanged, and the temperature of the immersion liquid can be properly controlled. The temperature control rig is a multi-disturbed, timevariant, non-linear and time-delayed system and its transfer function varies with the inlet temperature and flow rates of the streams through the heat exchangers. Considering the characteristics of the system, a cascade-connected fuzzy PID feedback algorithm is designed.

He, Junwei; Li, Xiaoping; Lei, Min; Chen, Bing; Wang, Jinchun

2014-03-01

86

Solid immersion lens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diffraction-limited spot size in optical imaging, recording and lithography can be decreased by use of the solid immersion lens (SIL). The simplest form of the SIL utilizes a hemispherical lens with the rays of a focused beam entering along its radii to form a spot at the flat surface of the hemisphere. The spot size is decreased from that in free space by a factor 1/n, where n is the refractive index. If an object to be imaged is placed close enough to the SIL, this reduced spot size is obtained at the disk. In this case the effective numerical aperture of the lens can be greater than one. Applications of the SIL to microscopy, lithography, and optical storage are discussed.

Kino, Gordon S.

1999-05-01

87

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

88

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

DOEpatents

A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

89

Geographies of Temporary Staffing Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Temporary staffing has joined the ranks ofthe globalising service industries. The largest agencies have now established a presence inover sixty nations, where they are placing employees intemporary positions across a range of occupations,from clerical, cleaning and light industrial work through to accountancy, law and IT. The opening up of new occupationaland geographical marketsaround,the world has been driven by the

Kevin Ward

90

Immersed gratings and associated phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectral resolution of an immersed diffraction grating is discussed. The main focus of the study is for astronomical spectroscopy, in which a substantial angular separation is generally required between the incident and diffracted collimated beams to accommodate a collimator and camera with different relative apertures. It is shown that when a grating immersed on one face of an entry

C. G. Lynne

1989-01-01

91

47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74...temporary authority for the operation of a television broadcast auxiliary station must be...for special temporary authority of a television broadcast auxiliary station must...

2013-10-01

92

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

SciTech Connect

A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

2000-06-20

93

Bioreactor applications in waste treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of bioreactor applications in treatment of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes is presented with emphasis on newer technologies. Waste treatment is considered in a broad context including concentration by bioaccumulation, degradation to substances with reduced environmental impact and upgrading to such useful products as feeds, foods and fuels. Biofilters and bioscrubbers for gas- eous pollutants, high-rate municipal and

Murray Moo-Young; Yusuf Chisti

1994-01-01

94

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished

B. Han; V. N. Gallagher; P. T. Imhoff; R. Yazdani; P. Chiu

2004-01-01

95

Pathogenesis of Sudden Death Following Water Immersion (Immersion Syndrome).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well ...

M. Buhring H. F. Spies

1981-01-01

96

Immersed interface methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1996-11-01

97

40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. 258... § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a...North Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Requirements...30-millimeter (âmilâ) flexible membrane liner (FML) or 60-mil if...

2010-07-01

98

40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. 258... § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a...North Carolina Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Requirements...30-millimeter (âmilâ) flexible membrane liner (FML) or 60-mil if...

2009-07-01

99

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

100

High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultraprecision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction effici...

J. V. Bixler L. M. Little P. J. Davis P. J. Kuzmenko S. L. Little

2006-01-01

101

Temporary risk identification in urolithiasis.  

PubMed

We have been using a risk index calculation for urolithiasis, which included most of the identifiable factors promoting calculogenesis. However, it was observed that the frequency of a patient getting stone problem was not uniform in spite of similarity of the risk index in the permanent setting. Also, many of the risk indices could be changed by dietary or lifestyle modifications. The objective of this paper was to calculate the temporary risk index of a patient at the time of each visit and correlate with stone activity during such periods, so that appropriate advice could be given on drugs, diet and lifestyle changes. The temporary risk index score was based on four symptoms, namely pain (0, nil; 1, vague pain; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe; 5, excruciating), haematuria (0, nil; 1, turbid; 2, cloudy; 3, reddish; 4, occasional frank blood; 5, continuous frank blood), burning sensation (0, nil; 1, minimal; 2, moderate; 3, terminal severe; 4, occasional excruciating; 5, continuous excruciating), and dysuria (0, nil; 1, minimal; 2, moderate; 3, terminal severe; 4, occasional excruciating, 5, continuous excruciating), ultrasonography for back pressure (0, nil; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe kidney and ureter; 4, unilateral total; 5, bilateral total anuria) and eight urine deposit findings (0, nil; 1, +; 2, 2+; 3, 3+; 4, 4+; 5, plenty), red blood cells, pus cells, whewellite crystals, weddellite crystals, phosphate crystals, uric acid/ammonium urate crystals, crystal clumping and crystal aggregation making a total of 13 parameters. Each parameter was given values ranging from 0 to 5. The total score was calculated and chemotherapeutic regimes were decided base on the score, which varied from 0 to 65. Hundred randomly selected patients who had been visiting the stone clinic for a minimum of five occasions were included in the study. The total scores of temporary risk were correlated with the permanent clinical risk score mentioned earlier. The temporary risk of the 100 patients during the total of 500 visits ranged from 0 to 43 out of 65. The risk score reduced significantly from visit 1 to 5 in all the patients. On correlating the mean index of the five visits with the permanent risk index, the correlation coefficient r value was +0.39 (P < 0.01). It was observed that patients go through periods of hyperactivity of stone metabolism and present with symptoms, producing temporary phases of overactivity. It is concluded that temporary risk index is correlatable with the permanent risk index of the patients forming urinary stones. It can be used as a method for scientific prediction regarding future stone formation in any individual. The dose of drugs and need for continuing chemotherapy for patients should be based on the temporary risk index. The blind prescription of drugs should be discouraged. PMID:19830414

Marickar, Y M Fazil; Salim, Abiya

2009-12-01

102

High efficiency germanium immersion gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms

Paul J. Kuzmenko; Pete J. Davis; Steve L. Little; Liesl M. Little; Jay V. Bixler

2006-01-01

103

Comparison between a moving bed membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor on membrane fouling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor filled with carriers instead of activated sludge named a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) was investigated to minimize the effect of suspended solids on membrane fouling. The MBMBR and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) were operated in parallel for about two months. Unexpectedly, the rate of membrane fouling in MBMBR was about three times of that in

Shuai Yang; Fenglin Yang; Zhimin Fu; Ruibo Lei

2009-01-01

104

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

105

Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology  

SciTech Connect

Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

1993-09-01

106

Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

1993-01-01

107

Marginal accuracy of temporary composite crowns.  

PubMed

An in vitro study was conducted to quantitatively compare the marginal adaptation of temporary crowns made from Protemp material with those made from Scutan, Provisional, and Trim materials. A direct technique was used to make temporary restorations on prepared teeth with an impression as a matrix. Protem, Trim, and Provisional materials produced temporary crowns of comparable accuracy. Crowns made from Scutan material had open margins. PMID:2959770

Tjan, A H; Tjan, A H; Grant, B E

1987-10-01

108

Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

Ellis, Ronald II

2013-01-01

109

Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study  

PubMed Central

Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the effects of bleaching agent compared to other temporary restorative materials used in the study.

Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

2012-01-01

110

Methanogenesis in solid-waste landfill bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfills are viewed as solid-substrate batch bioreactors generating biogas (methane and carbon dioxide). Designing landfill bioreactors with the objective of maximizing energy recovery requires predictive knowledge of two fundamental variables: the ultimate quantity of potentially recoverable methane (yield) and the time rate of production. In assessing the above two variables, this dissertation reviews existing information, outlines the needed theoretical framework

Halvadakis

1983-01-01

111

BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

112

Membrane bioreactor: a new treatment tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process that combines membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been developed at industrial scale. This process denitrifies, removes natural organic matter (NOM) and pesticides, and disinfects. Denitrification is carried out by heterotrophic bacteria using ethanol as a carbon source. PAC added to the bioreactor adsorbs pesticides and a fraction of NOM. The membrane keeps

Vincent Urbain; Raymond Benoit; Jacques Manem

1996-01-01

113

Global sensitivity analysis in bioreactor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global sensitivity analysis applying variance-based techniques is implemented for a bioreactors network used in the production of ethanol from molasses sugar and vinases distillates. Two types of bioreactors are considered, an aerobic for biomass production and an anaerobic for ethanol production. Probability distributions are assigned to each uncertain parameter, thus temporal profiles for the sensitivity indices are obtained for

Maria Paz Ochoa; Patricia M. Hoch

2011-01-01

114

Bioreactor design for propagation of somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six identical bioreactors were constructed and built at the Agricultural University of Norway to provide optimal conditions for plant cell regeneration from cells into somatic embryos (‘clonal or somatic seeds’). This was made possible through cooperation in COST87 by a European network in a working group on regeneration from plant cell cultures. The bioreactor design provides gentle stirring through a

Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide; Odd Arild S. Olsen; Ragnhild Lyngved; Cristel Munster; Petter H. Heyerdahl

2005-01-01

115

Bioreactor design for propagation of somatic embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six identical bioreactors were constructed and built at the Agricultural University of Norway to provide optimal conditions for plant cell regeneration from cells into somatic embryos (“clonal or somatic seeds”). This was made possible through cooperation in COST87 by a European network in a working group on regeneration from plant cell cultures. The bioreactor design provides gentle stirring through a

Anne Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide; Odd Olsen; Ragnhild Lyngved; Cristel Munster; Petter Heyerdahl

116

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

117

Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that…

Burt, Andy; And Others

118

From remote media immersion to Distributed Immersive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the architecture, technology and experimental applications of a real-time, multi-site, interactive and collaborative environment called Distributed Immersive Performance (DIP). The objective of DIP is to develop the technology for live, interactive musical performances in which the participants - subsets of musicians, the conductor and the audience - are in different physical locations and are interconnected by very high

A. A. Sawchuk; E. Chew; R. Zimmermann; C. Papadopoulos; C. Kyriakakis

2003-01-01

119

[Temporary vascular access in Reunion].  

PubMed

The high proportion of diabetic patients is partly responsible for the high frequency of chronic renal failure in Reunion. The confection and maintenance of an arterio-venous fistule is a major problem in those patients. We report herein our experience with temporary vascular access by internal jugular vein catherization with subcutaneous tunnelization using silastic catheters. The mean duration of utilisation of these accesses is 107 days for diabetic patients and 98 days for nondiabetic patients. The major complication observed is sepsis (18.36%). Diabetes mellitus which represent a traditional risk factor does not seem to be responsible here, the climatic and hygienic conditions prevailing in this part of the world could be a contributing factor. Nevertheless, we find the utilisation of these catheters a suitable solution during the waiting period because it is an easy operation, of the good quality of the material used and the comfort brought to the patient. PMID:8047207

Finielz, P; Chuet, C; Gendoo, Z; Guiserix, J

1994-01-01

120

The Immersion Grating: Practical Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical questions concerning the immersion grating, such as constructional details and maintenance, are considered. The sensitivity of the apparatus to changes in temperature is discussed and it is concluded that it is not more sensitive than any large glass prism spectrograph.

T. Larsson; H. Neuhaus

1970-01-01

121

Extending Immersion in Video Conferencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present MatrixView (MV) - a setup to increase immersion in video conferencing systems. MV consists of a pan-tilt video camera mounted on a car which moves along a horizontal track. The car moves in such a way, that the user is kept in the center of the image (\\

Ramon Hofer; Christoph Ganser; Andreas Kunz

122

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

123

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2014-04-01

124

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2012-04-01

125

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2011-04-01

126

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2009-07-01

127

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2010-07-01

128

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

2004-12-01

129

Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

Scott, C.D.

1988-01-01

130

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

131

Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

2014-08-01

132

Microleakage of different types of temporary restorative materials used in endodontics.  

PubMed

A temporary filling should seal the endodontic access cavity to avoid reinfection of the root canal system during endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal seal of four temporary filling materials in endodontic access cavities in vitro, using the dye penetration method. Endodontic access cavity preparations were in 50 incisor and 50 molar noncarious nonrestored crowns of extracted human teeth. The coronal access of 10 teeth per group were filled with Coltosol, Algenol, IRM, Fermit or Fermit-N. After storing the teeth in demineralized water for 48 hours, they were immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours. All the teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the linear depth of dye penetration was evaluated under a stereomicroscope. There was no significant difference in the microleakage observed in the high elasticity light-cured resin composite (Fermit) versus the low elasticity light-cured resin composite (Fermit-N) groups (p > 0.05). PMID:10989586

Uçta?li, M B; Tinaz, A C

2000-06-01

133

Bioreactor maintained living skin matrix.  

PubMed

Numerous reconstructive procedures result in wounds that require skin grafting. Often, the amount of tissue available from donor sites is limited. In vivo tissue expanders have been used clinically to generate larger sections of skin, and other methods exist to cover large wounds, but all have significant limitations. We investigated whether these difficulties could be overcome by increasing the surface area of skin in vitro while maintaining tissue viability. Human foreskin was incrementally expanded in a computer-controlled bioreactor system over 6 days to increase its surface dimensions under culture conditions. Morphological, ultrastructural, and mechanical properties of the foreskin were evaluated before and after expansion using histology, scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, and tensile testing. The surface area of the tissue was 110.7% +/- 12.2% greater, with maintenance of cell viability and proliferative potential. Histomorphological and ultrastructural analyses showed that dermal structural integrity was preserved. The pore diameter of the expanded skin was 64.49% +/- 32.8% greater. The mechanical properties were not adversely affected. These findings show that expansion of living skin matrices can be achieved using a computer-controlled bioreactor system. This technique provides an opportunity to generate large amounts of skin for reconstructive procedures. PMID:18821843

Ladd, Mitchell R; Lee, Sang Jin; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

2009-04-01

134

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance

Michael P. Chrisp; Scott A. Lerner; Paul J. Kuzmenko; Charles L. Bennett

2007-01-01

135

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the

Michael P. Chrisp; Scott A. Lerner; Paul J. Kuzmenko; Charles L. Bennett

2006-01-01

136

Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

137

Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here. PMID:23224587

Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

2013-02-01

138

Expendable immersion device for combining an expendable immersion sensor and molten metal sampler  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes an expendable device for holding an insertable immersion sensor and an insertable immersion sampler to a lance having a manipulator section carrying electrical leads which must be connected to the sensor when the sensor and sampler are immersed into a bath of molten metal, comprising: an immersion sensor for measuring a characteristic of the bath; an end

E. E. Kaufman; W. E. Shuttleworth; J. R. Wiese

1988-01-01

139

Immersive well-path editing: investigating the added value of immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of immersive visualization are primarily anecdotal; there have been few controlled user studies that have attempted to quantify the added value of immersion for problems requiring the manipulation of virtual objects. This research quantifies the added value of immersion for a real-world industrial problem: oil well-path planning. An experiment was designed to compare human performance between an immersive

Kenny Gruchalla

2004-01-01

140

Immersion/two phase cooling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to increasing heat dissipation requirements, the need for an advanced cooling technique in current military avionics has been recognized. Immersion cooling with phase change has been demonstrated in a Format E clamshell module as an alternative. This module is capable of dissipating more than 700 Watts. From the development of the Format E clamshell module the AAS&T (Advanced Avionics Subsystems and Technology) Program has begun an effort to utilize the clamshell module in the development of a 3/4 ATR Format E Standard Avionics Enclosure utilizing immersion/change of phase cooling. The power dissipation requirement for the enclosure is 6500 Watts minimum. The cooling medium for both efforts is a Fluorinert (FS-72). The FS-72 is an environmentally safe coolant. As the need for greater heat removal and reliability increases, cooling technology must become more advanced to meet the needs of next generation aircraft.

Jones, Jack; Perkoski, Emmett

1994-10-01

141

High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

2006-05-01

142

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01

143

Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

144

Deep UV immersion interferometric lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit of optical lithography is the minimum pitch between features. This pitch limit is given by ?=?/2nNA), where ? is the optical wavelength, n is the refractive index of the final medium of the optical system which is typically air (n = 1), and NA is the numerical aperture of the exposure device. A great deal of work has been done to decrease exposure wavelengths and increase the NA of exposure tools, however, until recently very little effort has been applied towards an immersion medium with n > 1. This paper examines extending minimum pitches through the use of such media. Exposures are at a wavelength of 213 nm, close to the current state-of-the-art 193-nm lithography node. The possible limits of lithography are examined using 193-nm resists exposed in air and comparing these limits to those possible when implementing liquid immersion lithography (LIL) exposures. Two immersion liquids were examined: deionized water, and Krytox a Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) oil. These liquids were compatible with 193-nm resist. A resolution enhancement factor of 28% for Krytox and of 41% for DI water was demonstrated. Images of good dense lines with a half pitch of 54 nm are presented.

Raub, Alex K.; Brueck, Steven R. J.

2003-06-01

145

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-21

146

Temporary Tattoos and Henna/Mehndi  

MedlinePLUS

... and Cosmetics Color Additive Petitions: Information on How Color Additives Are Approved Bad Reaction to Cosmetics? Tell FDA Temporary Tattoos, Henna/Mehndi, and "Black Henna" Safety and Regulatory Information FDA has received reports of ...

147

Temporary Tattoos May Put You at Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... H., director of FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors. Some consumers report reactions that may be severe and long outlast the temporary tattoos themselves. MedWatch, FDA's safety information and adverse event (bad side effects) reporting ...

148

Use and Fabrication of Temporary Orthotics  

PubMed Central

Orthotics are effective for altering compensatory motions which result from abnormalities in the foot and lower extremity. In specific cases, temporary use of an orthosis is beneficial for reducing abnormal stresses while allowing involved structures to heal. Additionally, a temporary orthotic may provide a trial period to determine if the athlete would benefit from a permanent orthosis. A step-by-step procedure is presented for the fabrication of a temporary semirigid orthotic. Used as an adjunct to the treatment and rehabilitation program, temporary orthotics are effective in encouraging early weight-bearing tolerance, while placing the foot near the subtalar joint neutral position. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8.

Massie, Denise L.

1994-01-01

149

22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...is in transit to another foreign destination. Temporary import includes withdrawal of a defense article from a customs bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone for the purpose of returning it to the country of origin or country from which it...

2013-04-01

150

Investigating Pedestrian Components in Temporary Traffic Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report documents the research activities completed during the two years of this research project. The objectives of this research were: To examine how pedestrians with disabilities are being handled in temporary traffic control situations and identify...

B. R. Ullman G. L. Ullman K. Fitzpatrick M. A. Brewer

2008-01-01

151

Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments.

Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

2013-01-01

152

Modeling and simulation of bioreactor process dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a brief overview on biochemical reactors and associated processes, relevant model types and modeling approaches are discussed. In addition, a number of simple modeling applications focusing on bioreactor design, interfacial mass transfer and reactor control are reviewed.

C. Kleinstreuer; T. Poweigha

153

Human Cell Culture in a Space Bioreactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The rea...

D. R. Morrison

1988-01-01

154

Enclosed bioreactor system and methods associated therewith  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A bioreactor production system for growing commercial volumes of algae or other biomass in a uniquely configured, enclosed, biosecure, photo-type reactor vessel, having internal artificial growth light production as well as exterior solar energy capturing devices or the like designed to facilitate enhanced sunlight exposure for photosynthesis organism production. A unique electromagnetic field generation system is integrated with the bioreactor and its operation to substantially enhance growth rate and overall productivity.

2013-10-29

155

Simple bioreactors for mass propagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors provide a rapid and efficient plant propagation system for many agricultural and forestry species, utilizing liquid media to avoid intensive manual handling. Large-scale liquid cultures have been used for micropropagation through organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis pathways. Various types of bioreactors with gas-sparged mixing are suitable for the production of clusters of buds, meristems or protocorms. A simple glass bubble-column

Meira Ziv

2005-01-01

156

Simple bioreactors for mass propagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors provide a rapid and efficient plant propagation system for many agricultural and forestry species, utilizing liquid media to avoid intensive manual handling. Large-scale liquid cultures have been used for micropropagation through organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis pathways. Various types of bioreactors with gas-sparged mixing are suitable for the production of clusters of buds, meristems or protocorms. A simple glass bubble-column

Meira Ziv

157

The development of a biofilm membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are commonly understood as the combination of membrane filtration and biological treatment using activated sludge. Development of a biofilm-MBR has been investigated combining a moving-bed-biofilm reactor with a submerged membrane biomass separation reactor. Treatment efficiencies were found to be high with the production of a consistent high-quality effluent, irrespective of loading rates on the bioreactor or membrane

TorOve Leiknes; Hallvard Ødegaard

2007-01-01

158

Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

Spaulding, Glenn F.

1995-01-01

159

Biohydrogen production with fixed-bed bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation on anaerobic hydrogen production was conducted in fixed-bed bioreactors containing hydrogen-producing bacteria originated from domestic sewage sludge. Three porous materials, loofah sponge (LS), expanded clay (EC) and activated carbon (AC), were used as the support matrix to allow retention of the hydrogen-producing bacteria within the fixed-bed bioreactors. The carriers were assessed for their effectiveness in biofilm formation and

Jo-Shu Chang; Kuo-Shing Lee; Pin-Jei Lin

2002-01-01

160

The Fate of Nitrogen in Bioreactor Landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bioreactor landfills have many advantages associated with them, challenges remain, including the persistence of ammonia-nitrogen in the leachate. It has been suggested that ammonia-nitrogen is one of the most significant long-term pollution problem in landfills and is likely a parameter that will determine when landfill postclosure monitoring may end. The fate of nitrogen in bioreactor landfills is not well

N. D. Berge; D. R. Reinhart; T. G. Townsend

2005-01-01

161

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

2001-01-01

162

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

163

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

2001-01-01

164

Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P. S.; Lambert, B. A.

2006-01-01

165

Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

2003-12-01

166

30 CFR 75.210 - Manual installation of temporary support.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...installing temporary supports, the first temporary support shall be set no more than 5 feet from a permanent roof support and the rib. All temporary supports shall be set so that the person installing the supports remains between the temporary support...

2013-07-01

167

47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed stations. 22.737 Section 22.737...Radiotelephone Stations § 22.737 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper...construction and operation of temporary fixed stations. Temporary fixed...

2013-10-01

168

Prediction and simulation on the shear stress and mass transfer in perfused bioreactors I: Circular bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors have been widely used in tissue engineering because of their controllability in environments and operating conditions. But bioreactor design is very complex and still at an early stage of development. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is commonly used for the design and manufacture of devices with fluid flow as a powerful computer ldquoexperimentsrdquo modelling and simulation tool. In our work,

Xia Dong; Kedian Wang

2008-01-01

169

Analysis of 193nm immersion specific defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great deal of research effort is focused on accelerating the development of 193-nm immersion lithography because it appears to be the most suitable lithographic solution available for 65-nm-and-below semiconductor devices. To realize a 193-nm immersion process, we must find ways to detect and analyze immersion specific defects, and then establish processes that let us avoid such defects. In this paper, we examine immersion specific defects and ways to detect and eliminate them in production processes. Through comparison of dry exposure and immersion exposure processes, we have found that "bridges" and "water-marks" are the most significant immersion specific defects using current developable top-coats. Although we confirmed that the current solvent-removable top-coat process is better for avoiding immersion specific defects, we also found that the defect density with a developable top-coat was still low enough for volume production. We also investigated the causes of immersion specific defects and hypothesized that DI water permeation and the local topology of the top-coat play an important role in the generation of immersion specific defects. To test whether this was so, we evaluated the change in the top-coat film thickness by the quartz crystal microbalance technique. We confirmed that top-coat swelling caused by water permeation into the top-coat film is a major cause of immersion

Otoguro, Akihiko; Lee, Jeung-Woo; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi; Funakoshi, Tomohiro; Sakai, Tsunehiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Arakawa, Mikio; Nakano, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Masamichi

2006-03-01

170

Gestural interfaces for immersive environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

Margolis, Todd

2014-02-01

171

Scattering in liquid immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the intrinsic scattering of water with an eye toward its potential impact on immersion lithography. Quantitative measurements of the elastic Rayleigh scatter agree well with theory and show a loss of 0.001 cm-1. Qualitative measurements of the inelastic Raman scattering show a strong peak at 206 nm, consistent with the O-H stretch present in water. Both are expected to contribute flare of < 10-6 of the incident intensity. We have also examined the possibility for bubbles in the immersion liquid, and in particular those which form near the resist surface. We have measured scattering from single bubbles and estimate that bubbles as small as 5 ?m should be detectable in this fashion. In addition, we have measured the potential for bubbles due to laser induced resist outgassing by direct imaging. In 2500 resist images (~235 mm2 of surface), we have seen only one bubble candidate which, due to its persistence in the water, we do not believe represents a true outgassing-induced bubble. Finally, using a technique borrowed from biology, rapid cryofixation/freeze fracture, we have examined nanobubbles which form spontaneously on hydrophobic surfaces and found that degassing the water prevents their formation.

Switkes, Michael; Bloomstein, Theodore M.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Rothschild, Mordechai; Ruberti, J. W.; Shedd, T. A.; Yeung, Michael S.

2004-05-01

172

[Temporary disability and its legal implications].  

PubMed

Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

2014-03-01

173

The immersion foot syndrome. 1946.  

PubMed

1. Prolonged exposure of the extremities to cold insufficient to cause tissue freezing produces a well-defined syndrome. 'Immersion foot' is one of the descriptive but inaccurate terms applied to this syndrome. The clinical features, aetiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of immersion foot are considered in detail. A discussion on pathogenesis is also included. 2. In the natural history of a typical case of immersion foot there are four stages: the period of exposure and the pre-hyperaemic, hyperaemic, and post-hyperaemic stages. 3. During exposure and immediately after rescue the feet are cold, numb, swollen, and pulseless. Intense vasoconstriction sufficient to arrest blood-flow is believed to be the predominant factor during this phase. 4. This is followed by a period of intense hyperaemia, increased swelling, and severe pain. Hyperaemia is due to the release in chilled and ischaemic tissues of relatively stable vasodilator metabolites; pain may be the result of relative anoxia of sensory nerve-endings. 5. Within 7-10 days of rescue the intense hyperaemia and swelling subside and pain diminishes in intensity. A lesser degree of hyperaemia may persist for several weeks. Objective disturbances of sensation and sweating and muscular atrophy and paralysis now become apparent. These findings are correlated with damage to the peripheral nerves. 6. After several weeks the feet become cold-sensitive; when exposed to low temperature they cool abnormally and may remain cold for several hours. Hyperhidrosis frequently accompanies this cold-sensitivity. The factors responsible for these phenomena are incompletely understood; several possible explanations are considered. 7. Severe cases may develop blisters and gangrene. The latter is usually superficial and massive loss of tissue is rare. 8. The hands may be affected but seldom as severely as the feet. The essential features of immersion hand are the same as those of immersion foot. 9. Prognosis depends upon severity. The extent of anaesthesia at 7-10 days has been found a useful guide to the latter, and has formed a basis of a method of classification. 10. Rapid warming of chilled tissues is condemned. Cold therapy is of value for the relief of pain in the hyperaemic stage, but should not be used in the pre-hyperaemic stage. Sympathectomy and other measures designed to increase the peripheral circulation should not be employed immediately after rescue, but may have a place in the treatment of the later cold-sensitive state. This paper records the results of observations made during 1941 and 1942. Delay in publication has been necessary because of war-time difficulties of maintaining contact between authors. In this respect we have received much help from Surgeon Rear-Admiral J. W. McNee. We wish to thank Professors R. S. Aitken and J. R. Learmonth for much helpful advice during the preparation of the paper. The charts have been prepared by the technical staff of the Wilkie Surgical Research Laboratory, University of Edinburgh. During the period of the study, one of us (R. L. R.) was in receipt of a personal grant from the Medical Research Council. PMID:12825888

Ungley, C C; Channell, G D; Richards, R L

2003-01-01

174

Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact

Daniel P. Sanders; Linda K. Sundberg; Phillip J. Brock; Hiroshi Ito; Hoa D. Truong; Robert D. Allen; Gregory R. McIntyre; Dario L. Goldfarb

2008-01-01

175

Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

1981-01-01

176

Immersion in water during labor and delivery.  

PubMed

Immersion in water has been suggested as a beneficial alternative for labor, delivery, or both and over the past decades has gained popularity in many parts of the world. Immersion in water during the first stage of labor may be associated with decreased pain or use of anesthesia and decreased duration of labor. However, there is no evidence that immersion in water during the first stage of labor otherwise improves perinatal outcomes, and it should not prevent or inhibit other elements of care. The safety and efficacy of immersion in water during the second stage of labor have not been established, and immersion in water during the second stage of labor has not been associated with maternal or fetal benefit. Given these facts and case reports of rare but serious adverse effects in the newborn, the practice of immersion in the second stage of labor (underwater delivery) should be considered an experimental procedure that only should be performed within the context of an appropriately designed clinical trial with informed consent. Facilities that plan to offer immersion in the first stage of labor need to establish rigorous protocols for candidate selection, maintenance and cleaning of tubs and immersion pools, infection control procedures, monitoring of mothers and fetuses at appropriate intervals while immersed, and immediately and safely moving women out of the tubs if maternal or fetal concerns develop. PMID:24652300

2014-04-01

177

Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW.

Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

2014-01-01

178

Modeling of cell cultures in perfusion bioreactors.  

PubMed

Cultivating cells and tissues in bioreactors is a critical step in forming artificial tissues or organs prior to transplantation. Among various bioreactors, the perfusion bioreactor is known for its enhanced convection through the cell-scaffold constructs. Knowledge of mass transfer is essential for controlling the cell culture process; however, obtaining this information remains a challenging task. In this research, a novel mathematical model is developed to represent the nutrient transport and cell growth in a 3-D scaffold cultivated in a perfusion bioreactor. Numerical methods are employed to solve the equations involved, with a focus on identifying the effect of factors such as porosity, culturing time, and flow rate, which are controllable in the scaffold fabrication and culturing process, on cell cultures. To validate the new model, the results from the model simulations were compared to the experimental results extracted from the literature. With the validated model, further simulations were carried out to investigate the glucose and oxygen distribution and the cell growth within the cell-scaffold construct in a perfusion bioreactor, thus providing insight into the cell culture process. PMID:22772976

Yan, X; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B

2012-09-01

179

Temporary stent scaffolding during aneurysm coiling.  

PubMed

We report a case of temporary Solitaire FR stent (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) scaffolding to reduce coil herniation during embolization of a large neck anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In contrast to classic stent-assisted coiling, the fully retrievable stent is recaptured prior to detachment of the last coil. The presented technical nuance hence does not require institution of prolonged antiplatelet coverage. But the door is left open for coil-repositioning in case of coil basket instability. Permanent stent redeployment remains a fall-back option if critical hardware conflict occurs. In comparison to classic balloon remodeling, the presented method may offer easier distal access, particularly in tortuous arterial anatomy. Temporary occlusion of the parent artery, side branches, and perforators is also avoided. Given its specific potential advantages, temporary stent scaffolding using the fully retrievable Solitaire FR device may find its niche as a bailout option, primarily in a very specific subset of distally located wide neck aneurysms. PMID:24331624

Zumofen, Daniel W; Sahasrabudhe, Nikhil; Riina, Howard A; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Becske, Tibor; Nelson, Peter K

2014-05-01

180

Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills  

SciTech Connect

One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO{sub 3}-N /l every 48 h for periods of 19-59 days. Up to 29 nitrate additions were either completely or largely depleted within 48 h of addition and the denitrification reactions did not adversely affect the leachate pH. Nitrate did inhibit methane production, but the reactors recovered their methane-producing activity with the termination of nitrate addition. In well decomposed refuse, the nitrate consumption rate was reduced but was easily stimulated by the addition of either acetate or an overlayer of fresh refuse. Addition of acetate at five times the amount required to reduce nitrate did not lead to the production of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by dissimilatory nitrate reduction. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria decreased by about five orders of magnitude during refuse decomposition in a reactor that did not receive nitrate. However, rapid denitrification commenced immediately with nitrate addition. This study shows that the use of a landfill as a bioreactor for the conversion of nitrate to a harmless byproduct, nitrogen gas, is technically viable.

Price, G. Alexander; Barlaz, Morton A.; Hater, Gary R

2003-07-01

181

Game engines and immersive displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

2014-02-01

182

Initiation of immersed granular avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ?0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

2014-05-01

183

Fluid mechanics of spinner-flask bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic environment within bioreactors used for in vitro tissue growth has been observed to affect the development of mammalian cells. Many studies have shown that moderate mechanical stress enhances growth of some tissues whereas high shear levels and turbulence seem to damage cells. In order to optimize the design and the operating conditions of bioreactors, it is important to understand the fluid-dynamic characteristics and to control the stress levels within these devices. The present research focuses on the characterization of the flow field within a spinner-flask bioreactor. The dynamic properties of the flow are investigated experimentally using particle-image velocimetry with a refractive-index-matched model. Phase-locked ensemble-averaging is employed to provide some information on the turbulence characteristics of the model culture medium in the vicinity of a model tissue construct.

Sucosky, Philippe; Neitzel, G. Paul

2000-11-01

184

Periodic operation of immobilized live cell bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

A complete system for computer-assisted fermentation research was set up. The system consisted of a 16 liter laboratory fermentor connected to a mass spectrometer for off-gas analysis, a flow injection analyzer for on-line enzymatic and colorimetric analysis, and an on-line HPLC. This system was interfaced to a Micro VAX II computer. The kinetics of growth and candicidin production by S. griseus in complex and in synthetic media were investigated. On-line glucose analysis of the fermentation was used to identify nutrient limitation by multiple substrates during the fermentation. The growth kinetics of S. griseus under limitation by two nutrients were studied. The Monod type of model was used to analyze cell growth under multiple substrate limitation. Regions of phosphate limitation were identified by analysis of the environmental state space. Based on this analysis the nutrient medium for the forced periodic operation of the immobilized bioreactor was developed. A lumped model for cell growth and candicidin production in an immobilized live cell bioreactor was developed. The model was used to perform a simulation study of the periodic operation of an immobilized bioreactor. Finally, an immobilzed bioreactor with forced periodic operation was used to study the effect of cycling frequency on reactor performance. The results of the studies on the periodic operation suggest that periodically operated immobilized live cell bioreactors can provide a potent alternative for the production of non-growth associated biochemicals, as compared to free cell fermentations, pulsed fermentations with process cycle regeneration, and non-regenerated bioreactors. This work has demonstrated that by frequent pulsing of growth limiting nutrient, stable extended production can be obtained at high specific cellular productivities.

Mehta, N.

1988-01-01

185

Immersed gratings and associated phenomena. III  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for increasing spectral resolution in astronomical spectroscopy through the use of immersed gratings are examined. In particular, the conditions under which an increase in resolution is obtained through immersion are determined, and the limitations of this effect are discussed. It is also shown that there are various ways in which the efficiency of spectrographs can be enhanced by

C. G. Wynne

1990-01-01

186

Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

2013-03-01

187

Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

Wang, Kathleen

2009-01-01

188

Libraries of La Pocatiere: French Immersion Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many times summer language immersion administrators and instructors overlook the rich collections housed in various town libraries. Students of French immersion programs have an opportunity to utilize local libraries. This essay describes the facilities and services of five libraries in La Pocatiere, Quebec. A series of interviews of librarians…

Kuntz, Patricia, S.

2005-01-01

189

IVY: The Immersive Visual environment at York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the limitations of head mounted display systems, there has been significant interest in the development of large-scale virtual environments such as video walls, immersive project displays, and similar devices. Although these devices do provide a wide-field visual display, very few of these devices are completely immersive as the user may view the visual world or they may be tethered

M. Robinson; J. Laurence; J. Zacher; A. Hogue; R. Allison; L. R. Harris; M. Jenkin; W. Stuerzlinger

2002-01-01

190

Air-filled type Immersive Projection Display  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes an immersive projection display using air-filled tubes that allow the user to touch the large screen directly. In general immersive system, the user is restricted to use a small device to interact with the displayed image. To realize direct and intuitive interaction, we utilize air pressure to maintain the shape of screen. Several accelerometers are attached outside

Wataru HASHIMOTO

191

Realistic audio in immersive video conferencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing computation power, network bandwidth, and improvements in display and capture technologies, fully immersive conferencing and tele-immersion is becoming ever closer to reality. Outside of video, one of the key components needed is high quality spatialized audio. This paper presents an implementation of a relatively low complexity, simple solution which allows realistic audio spatialization of arbitrary positions in a

Sanjeev Mehrotra; Wei-ge Chen; Zhengyou Zhang; Philip A. Chou

2011-01-01

192

Immersive Whiteboards In a Networked Collaborative Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immersive whiteboard system is presented in a networked collaborative environment where users at multiple locations can communicate with each other. The immersive system consists of five major components: the network, the virtual environment, the avatar representation, the multimedia objects, and the shared whiteboards. The virtual environment is shared among multiple networked users and allows each user to interact independently

Belle L. Tseng; Zon-yin Shae; Wing Ho Leung; Tsuhan Chen

2001-01-01

193

75 FR 77753 - Pilot Program for the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel AGENCY: Department...the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology (IT) Personnel. This...the Temporary Exchange of Information Technology Personnel,'' to...

2010-12-14

194

Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

2005-01-01

195

Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

1995-01-01

196

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-07-03

197

Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

Wilemon, David L.

1973-01-01

198

Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones Or Dead Ends?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Britain about 7% of male employees and 10% of female employees are in temporary jobs. In contrast to much of continental Europe - with stricter employment protection provisions - this proportion has been relatively stable over the 1990s. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, and informed by relevant theory relating to probation, sorting and human capital investment,

Alison L; Marco Francesconi; Jeff Frank

2002-01-01

199

20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES...Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.6 Temporary...has agreed to provide workers as part of a signed work contract or labor services...

2009-04-01

200

20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES...Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.6 Temporary...has agreed to provide workers as part of a signed work contract or labor services...

2010-04-01

201

Guide Design Specification for Bridge Temporary Works.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the collapse of the Route 198 bridge over the Baltimore/Washington Parkway in 1989, the FHWA established the temporary works research program. The program was guided by the Scaffolding, Shoring, and Forming Task Group as formed by the FHWA. The ...

J. F. Duntemann L. E. Dunn S. Gill R. G. Lukas M. K. Kaler

1993-01-01

202

78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to 39 U.S.C. 3622 and 39 CFR part 3010, of plans to implement temporary price...adjustments. It contends that Commission rules 3010.20 et seq. do not appear to address...Service's filing for public comment. 39 CFR 3010.13(a)(5). Comments by...

2013-04-24

203

Activated sludge material, method for reducing excess sludge production in bioreactor, and method of controlling bioreactor  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Excess sludge production in a bioreactor of a wastewater treatment plant in which excess sludge is being produced is reduced by adding an activated sludge material having a chitinase specific activity of at least 150 Units/g-MLSS and a pectinase specific activity of at least 120 Units/g-MLSS to the bioreactor. After the addition of the activated sludge material, the bioreactor is controlled by adding the activated sludge material when any one of the chitinase activity, the pectinase activity, and the protease specific of the sludge in the bioreactor drops below the lower limits of 50 Units/L, 40 Units/L, and 0.3 Units/L, respectively.

2013-12-10

204

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions....

2013-10-01

205

47 CFR 101.815 - Stations at temporary fixed locations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Stations at temporary fixed locations. 101.815 Section 101... SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Local Television Transmission...Service § 101.815 Stations at temporary fixed locations. (a)...

2013-10-01

206

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2013-07-01

207

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2013-10-01

208

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

209

29 CFR 1910.142 - Temporary labor camps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Temporary labor camps. 1910.142 Section 1910.142 Labor...Environmental Controls § 1910.142 Temporary labor camps. (a) Site. (1) All sites used for camps shall be adequately drained. They...

2010-07-01

210

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01... Revegetation of temporary roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale...

2013-07-01

211

30 CFR 817.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Cessation of operations: Temporary. 817.131 Section 817.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.131 Cessation of operations: Temporary....

2013-07-01

212

30 CFR 816.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Cessation of operations: Temporary. 816.131 Section 816.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.131 Cessation of operations: Temporary....

2013-07-01

213

22 CFR 123.4 - Temporary import license exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary import license exemptions. 123.4 Section 123.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.4 Temporary import license exemptions....

2010-04-01

214

22 CFR 123.4 - Temporary import license exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Temporary import license exemptions. 123.4 Section 123.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.4 Temporary import license exemptions....

2009-04-01

215

Temporary Work and Insecurity in Britain: A Problem Solved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporary workers in Britain experience lower job quality. However, the proportion of employees on temporary contracts has fallen since a decade ago to just 5.5% in 2005. There have also been qualitative improvements. Many temporary workers now fall under the protection of the Fixed Term Employees' (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment)…

Green, Francis

2008-01-01

216

47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed stations. 22.1031 Section 22.1031...Radiotelephone Service § 22.1031 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper...construction and operation of temporary fixed stations in the Offshore...

2013-10-01

217

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

218

Welfare to Temporary Work: Implications for Labor Market Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the effects of temporary help employment on welfare recipients' subsequent employment and welfare dynamics. We find that any employment-in temporary help services or other sectors-yields substantial benefits compared to no employment. Although welfare recipients who go to work for temporary help service firms have lower initial wages than those with jobs in other sectors, they experience faster subsequent

Carolyn J. Heinrich; Peter R. Mueser; Kenneth R. Troske

2005-01-01

219

Bioavailability of PCBs in biphasic bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are xenobiotic and toxic contaminants of soil and sediment. A possible remediation scheme involves solvent extraction followed by microbial biodegradation in biphasic bioreactors. This study examined the effect of two water immiscible liquid phases on the extent and rate of aerobic Aroclor® 1242 biodegradation by Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 under controlled conditions. The immiscible phases were neither toxic

Lars Rehmann; Andrew J. Daugulis

2008-01-01

220

Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.

Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.

1994-01-01

221

Filterability of activated sludge in membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filterability of activated sludge is an important factor for the economical operation of membrane bioreactors (MBR). In the literature mainly investigations on sludge dewaterability in respect to further disposal are published. In this study, a procedure for determining filterability in a crossflow test cell is introduced. Its features are: no increase in sludge concentration during batch trials, crossflow conditions,

Sandra Rosenberger; Matthias Kraume

2002-01-01

222

Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to determine the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation and nutrient balance on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation. Higher rates of MSW biodegradation eventually

Mostafa Warith

2002-01-01

223

Retention of Counterions in the Separative Bioreactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bioreactor with an anode and a cathode, and a plurality of reaction chambers each having an inlet and an outlet and each including a porous solid ion exchange wafer having ion-exchange resins. Each of the reaction chambers is interleaved between a catio...

E. J. St. Martin S. W. Snyder Y. J. Lin

2004-01-01

224

Cultivation of mammalian cells in bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

The use of bioreactors for the cultivation of mammalian cells in vitro has the potential for systematic scale up to meet future demand. The complexity of mammalian cells in culture and their characteristics is described here as is a number of cultivation methods including simple suspension, microcarrier, hollow fiber, ceramic matrix and microencapsulation.

Hu, W.S.; Dodge, T.C.

1985-12-01

225

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

226

Antimicrobial effect of chitooligosaccharides produced by bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antibacterial effect of three kinds of chitooligosaccharides with relatively higher molecular weights (HMWCOS), medium molecular weight (MMWCOS), and lower molecular weight (LMWCOS), respectively, was evaluated against various microorganisms. The oligosaccharides were prepared from chitosan and fractionated using ultrafiltration (UF) membrane in conjunction with an enzymatic bioreactor. The growth of most bacteria tested was inhibited by chitooligosaccharide treatments, in particular

You-Jin Jeon; Pyo-Jam Park; Se-Kwon Kim

2001-01-01

227

Plant cell cultures: bioreactors for industrial production.  

PubMed

The recent biotechnology boom has triggered increased interest in plant cell cultures, since a number of firms and academic institutions investigated intensively to rise the production of very promising bioactive compounds. In alternative to wild collection or plant cultivation, the production of useful and valuable secondary metabolites in large bioreactors is an attractive proposal; it should contribute significantly to future attempts to preserve global biodiversity and alleviate associated ecological problems. The advantages of such processes include the controlled production according to demand and a reduced man work requirement. Plant cells have been grown in different shape bioreactors, however, there are a variety of problems to be solved before this technology can be adopted on a wide scale for the production of useful plant secondary metabolites. There are different factors affecting the culture growth and secondary metabolite production in bioreactors: the gaseous atmosphere, oxygen supply and CO2 exchange, pH, minerals, carbohydrates, growth regulators, the liquid medium rheology and cell density. Moreover agitation systems and sterilization conditions may negatively influence the whole process. Many types ofbioreactors have been successfully used for cultivating transformed root cultures, depending on both different aeration system and nutrient supply. Several examples of medicinal and aromatic plant cultures were here summarized for the scale up cultivation in bioreactors. PMID:21520713

Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-01-01

228

Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrence of sulfate reduction was considered to be undesired. However, there are some recent developments in which sulfate

S. J. W. H. Oude Elferink

1998-01-01

229

Adaptive Receding Horizon Control of Tubular Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study of application of an adaptive nonlinear predictive control algorithm to tubular bioreactors. According to the control strategy proposed, the system of PDEs describing the reactor is approximated by a lumped parameter model obtained using the Orthogonal Collocation Method. An adaptive receding horizon controller is then designed using Control Lyapunov Function methods. The design procedure

J. M. Igreja; J. M. Lemos; R. N. Silva

2005-01-01

230

LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

231

Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

2014-05-01

232

Survey of projection-based immersive displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projection-based immersive displays are rapidly becoming the visualization system of choice for applications requiring the comprehension of complex datasets and the collaborative sharing of insights. The wide variety of display configurations can be grouped into five categories: benches, flat-screen walls, curved-screen theaters, concave-screen domes and spatially-immersive rooms. Each have their strengths and weaknesses with the appropriateness of each dependent on one's application and budget. The paper outlines the components common to all projection-based displays and describes the characteristics of each particular category. Key image metrics, implementation considerations and immersive display trends are also considered.

Wright, Dan

2000-05-01

233

Temporary ectopic implantation of an amputated penis.  

PubMed

A case of temporary ectopic implantation of an amputated penis to the forearm followed by subsequent return to its anatomic position is reported. The penis was amputated by a riding lawnmower, and massive contamination of the perineum and an extensive hematoma precluded immediate replantation. The penile vessels were attached to the radial artery and venae comitantes on the forearm, where it survived completely. After 4 weeks, the edema and hematoma of the perineum had resolved, and the penis was returned to its anatomic position by microsurgical technique. Arteries, veins, and nerves were repaired. The penis survived in its entirety. Return of sensation has been excellent. A urethrocutaneous fistula developed that required secondary closure with local flaps. Temporary ectopic replantation of the penis is a useful salvage procedure when the perineum is heavily contaminated or too extensively damaged for immediate replantation. PMID:8310037

Matloub, H S; Yousif, N J; Sanger, J R

1994-02-01

234

Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

235

Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

1984-01-01

236

Immersions of non-orientable surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let F be a closed non-orientable surface. We classify all finite order invariants of immersions of F into R3, with values in any Abelian group. We show they are all functions of a universal order 1 invariant which we construct as T?P?Q, where T is a Z valued invariant reflecting the number of triple points of the immersion, and P,Q

Tahl Nowik

2007-01-01

237

Survey of projection-based immersive displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection-based immersive displays are rapidly becoming the visualization system of choice for applications requiring the comprehension of complex datasets and the collaborative sharing of insights. The wide variety of display configurations can be grouped into five categories: benches, flat-screen walls, curved-screen theaters, concave-screen domes and spatially-immersive rooms. Each have their strengths and weaknesses with the appropriateness of each dependent on

Dan Wright

2000-01-01

238

BiReality: mutually-immersive telepresence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BiReality (a.k.a. Mutually-Immersive Telepresence) uses a teleoperated robotic surrogate to provide an immersive telepresence system for face-to-face interactions. Our goal is to recreate to the greatest extent practical, both for the user and the people at the remote location, the sensory experience relevant for face-to-face interactions of the user actually being in the remote location. Our system provides a 360-degree

Norman P. Jouppi; Subu Iyer; Stan Thomas; April Slayden

2004-01-01

239

Cell separations in microgravity and development of a space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor optimized for operations in space is now being developed. The current research is focused on determining the optimum cell-bead ratios, medium content and proper maintenance conditions required to keep living cell specimens alive and healthy for the entire flight. The bioreactor development project has recently added a microprocessor/computer to the JSC prototype for control and data analysis. Appropriate new technology is being combined with the current bioreactor designs and tested to determine what specific features must be included in the fabrication of a bioreactor designed to operate for STS demonstration tests. Considerations include: (1) circulation and resupply of culture media; (2) sensors required to monitor temperature, cell growth, mass transport, and oxygen consumption; and (3) inflight control of shear stress on cells, gas transfer in microgravity, diffusion, and intracellular transport. These data and results from the JSC prototype bioreactor test will be used for the design and construction of a small space bioreactor for the Orbiter middeck.

Morrison, D. R.

1985-01-01

240

Biological treatment and thickening with a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Aerobic operation of an immersed hollow fibre membrane bioreactor, treating municipal wastewater supplemented with molasses solution, has been studied across mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations between 8 and 32 g L(-1), the higher concentrations being normally associated with thickening operations. Only a marginal loss in membrane permeability was noted between 8 and 18 g L(-1) when operation was conducted without clogging. The sustainable operational flux attainable above 18 g L(-1) was highly dependent upon both the MLSS concentration and the state of the membrane. A temperature-corrected flux of 28 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH) was sustained for 18 h at an MLSS of 8 g L(-1) using membranes close to initial their virgin-state permeability. This value decreased to around 14 LMH at 20 g L(-1) and 5 LMH at 32 g L(-1) MLSS for an aged membrane whose permeability had been recovered following clogging. Below the threshold flux operation without significant clogging was possible, such that the membrane permeability could be recovered with a chemically enhanced backflush (CEB). Above this flux clogging took place at a rate of around 7-14 g solids per m(2) membrane per m(3) permeate volume passed irrespective of the MLSS concentration. The permeability of the unclogged membrane was depressed and could not be recovered using a standard CEB, indicative of irrecoverable pore clogging. The outcomes corroborated previously reported observations concerning the deleterious long-term impacts of clogging, and confirmed the critical importance of operation at a sustainable flux value. PMID:24731874

Zsirai, T; Wang, Z-Z; Gabarrón, S; Connery, K; Fabiyi, M; Larrea, A; Judd, S J

2014-07-01

241

1000 Non-instrumented Bioreactors in a Week  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing interest for disposable non-instrumented bioreactors is due to the possibilities these systems offer to increase\\u000a assay capacity for multi-parameter process development. A system based on disposable 50 ml shaken bioreactors is presented\\u000a in this report. Up to 1000 bioreactor units were tested within a time period of one week. The experiment allowed the simultaneous\\u000a analysis of 29 chemically defined

Matthieu Stettler; Maria De Jesus; Hajer Ouertatani-Sakouhi; Eva Engelhardt; Natalie Muller; Sébastien Chenuet; Martin Bertschinger; Lucia Baldi; David Hacker; Martin Jordan; Florian Wurm

242

Squeeze pressure bioreactor: a hydrodynamic bioreactor for noncontact stimulation of cartilage constructs.  

PubMed

A novel squeeze pressure bioreactor for noncontact hydrodynamic stimulation of cartilage is described. The bioreactor is based on a small piston that moves up and down, perpendicular to a tissue construct, in a fluid-filled chamber. Fluid displaced by the piston generates a pressure wave and shear stress as it moves across the sample, simulating the dynamic environment of a mobile joint. The fluid dynamics inside the squeeze pressure bioreactor was modeled using analytical and computational methods to simulate the mechanical stimuli imposed on a construct. In particular, the pressure, velocity field, and wall shear stress generated on the surface of the construct were analyzed using the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, which describes the flow of an incompressible fluid between two surfaces in relative motion. Both the models and in-situ pressure measurements in the bioreactor demonstrate that controlled cyclic stresses of up to 10?kPa can be applied to tissue constructs. Initial tests on three-dimensional scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes show that glycosaminoglycan production is increased with regard to controls after 24 and 48?h of cyclic noncontact stimulation in the bioreactor. PMID:21410315

De Maria, Carmelo; Giusti, Serena; Mazzei, Daniele; Crawford, Aileen; Ahluwalia, Arti

2011-07-01

243

Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.  

PubMed

Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

2011-09-01

244

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

1993-06-01

245

Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater  

SciTech Connect

A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor sufficiently purified simulated municipal wastewater for indirect recharge to groundwater or nonpotable uses. Throughout more than 500 days of steady-state operation, total organic carbon concentrations of <1.1 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand of <3.5 mg/L were consistently achieved. No suspended solids were detected in the effluent during this period. The treated water was fully nitrified, resulting in low ammonia and organic nitrogen concentrations but high nitrate concentrations. Cyclic oxic-anoxic operation of an additional denitrification process would be necessary to meet potable water reuse standards. Phosphorus was fully used in the bioreactor for biological growth. Heterotrophic bacteria and MS-2 viruses were completely retained by the membrane system, reducing the extent of final disinfection required.

Cicek, N.; Franco, J.P.; Suidan, M.T. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Urbain, V. [Centre International de Recherche Sur l`Eau et l`Environnement, Le Pecq (France)

1998-11-01

246

Comparison between a moving bed membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor on organic carbon and nitrogen removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor filled with carriers instead of activated sludge named a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MBMBR) was investigated for simultaneously removing organic carbon and nitrogen in wastewater. Its performance was compared with a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) at various influent COD\\/TN ratios of 8.9–22.1. The operational parameters were optimized to increase the treatment efficiency. COD removal efficiency averaged at

Shuai Yang; Fenglin Yang; Zhimin Fu; Ruibo Lei

2009-01-01

247

Enzymatic acylglycerol synthesis in a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipases can catalyze the esterification reaction in a two-phase system. TheCandida rugosa lipase-catalyzed esterification of decanoic acid with glycerol is described in this work for an emulsion system and for a\\u000a hydrophilic membrane bioreactor. The enzymatic activity is studied in relation to the interface area between the two phases,\\u000a the enzyme load and the reactor volume. The initial rate per

A. van der Padt; M. J. Edema; J. J. W. Sewalt; K. van't Riet

1990-01-01

248

Biological hydrogen production using a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-flow membrane was coupled to a che- mostat to create an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for biological hydrogen production. The reactor was fed glucose (10,000 mg\\/L) and inoculated with a soil inoculum heat-treated to kill non-spore-forming methanogens. Hy- drogen gas was consistently produced at a concentra- tion of 57-60% in the headspace under all conditions. When operated in chemostat

Sang-Eun Oh; Prabha Iyer; Mary Ann Bruns; Bruce E. Logan

2004-01-01

249

Long vertical shaft bioreactor of simplified design  

SciTech Connect

An improved long vertical shaft bioreactor for the treatment of degradable waste is provided wherein the head tank or basin surmounting the vertical downcomer and riser chambers is surrounded by a foam oxidation vessel. Conduits are provided between the head tank and the foam vessel through which (A) foam accumulated in the head tank is passed to the foam vessel and (B) through which excess fluid in the head tank may be vented.

Pollock, D.C.

1981-06-09

250

Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

2006-01-01

251

Empirical correlation methods for temporary anions.  

PubMed

A temporary anion is a short-lived radical anion that decays through electron autodetachment into a neutral molecule and a free electron. The energies of these metastable species are often predicted using empirical correlation methods because ab initio predictions are computationally very expensive. Empirical correlation methods can be justified in the framework of Weisskopf-Fano-Feshbach theory but tend to work well only within closely related families of molecules or within a restricted energy range. The reason for this behavior can be understood using an alternative theoretical justification in the framework of the Hazi-Taylor stabilization method, which suggests that the empirical parameters do not so much correct for the coupling of the computed state to the continuum but for electron correlation effects and that therefore empirical correlation methods can be improved by using more accurate electronic structure methods to compute the energy of the confined electron. This idea is tested by choosing a heterogeneous reference set of temporary states and comparing empirical correlation schemes based on Hartree-Fock orbital energies, Kohn-Sham orbital energies, and attachment energies computed with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. The results show that using more reliable energies for the confined electron indeed enhances the predictive power of empirical correlation schemes and that useful correlations can be established beyond closely related families of molecules. Certain types of ?* states are still problematic, and the reasons for this behavior are analyzed. On the other hand, preliminary results suggest that the new scheme can even be useful for predicting energies of bound anions at a fraction of the computational cost of reliable ab initio calculations. It is then used to make predictions for bound and temporary states of the furantrione and croconic acid radical anions. PMID:21591658

Sommerfeld, Thomas; Weber, Rebecca J

2011-06-23

252

Focus and dose characterization of immersion photoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process window for state of the art chip manufacturing continues to decrease, driven by higher NA exposure tools and lower k1 values. The benefits of immersion lithography for Depth of Focus (DoF) are well known. Yet even with this immersion boost, NA=1.35 tools can push DoF into sub-100nm territory. In addition, immersion processes are subject to new sources of dose and focus variation. In order to realize the full potential of immersion lithography, it is necessary to characterize, understand and attack all sources of process variation. Previous work has established our dose/focus metrology capability1, in which we expose Process Monitor Grating (PMG) targets with high sensitivity to focus, measure the PMGs using scatterometry, and use the Ausschnitt dose/focus deconvolution approach to determine focus errors to within a few nm and dose errors to within 0.1%. In this paper, we concentrate on applying this capability to the detailed measurements of immersion photoclusters utilizing ASML exposure tools. Results will include: • comparison of Twinscan 1700i and 1900i focus capability • effectiveness of the Reticle Shape Correction (RSC) for non-flat reticles • visualization of non-flat wafer chucks, tilted image planes, and other systematic focus error components • tracking of tool trends over time, using automated monitor wafer flows The highly systematic nature of the observed focus errors suggest potential for future improvements in focus capability.

Brunner, T. A.; Corliss, D.; Wiltshire, T.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

2009-03-01

253

Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

1998-09-01

254

Moving temporary wall in microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

This paper describes the formation of a temporary wall between two fluid streams in a microfluidic channel. Diffusion of ions from one fluid stream into a costreaming thermally responsive polymer solution is used to lower the local gelation temperature of the polymer, leading to formation of a gel wall in the center of the flow channel. The mechanisms driving either the generation or removal of the wall on its both sides are described and discussed. This wall allows well-controlled transport of particles from one stream into the other. PMID:19256941

Bazargan, Vahid; Stoeber, Boris

2008-12-01

255

Evaluation of marginal leakage of different temporary restorative materials in Endodontics  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the coronal marginal leakage of three temporary restorative materials used for root canal sealing after endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 single-rooted teeth were submitted to biomechanical preparation and filled by lateral condensation technique. After obturation process, the teeth were randomly separated into four groups, being two teeth of each group used as positive and negative control. Temporary sealing was performed as follows: GI - Clip F (VOCO); GII - Bioplic (Biodin?mica); GIII - Vitremer (3M ESPE) and GIV - Ketak N100 (3M ESPE). Next, the specimens were immersed into Indian ink for 30 and 60- days, being 10 specimens for each time interval and then submitted to diaphanization to verify the amount of coronal leakage using a measuring microscope. Results: Leakage mean values within the 30-day period were as follows: Vitremer (0.3 mm), Ketak N100 and Clip F (0.6 mm) and Bioplic (1.7 mm). Within the 60-day period, leakage means were 1.1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: None of the materials was capable of preventing marginal leakage within the 30- and 60-day period. In both time intervals, Bioplic presented the highest mean of leakage and Vitremer the lowest.

De Castro, Pedro Henrique Duarte FranCa; Pereira, Juliana Vianna; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, Andre Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas Da Fonseca Roberti

2013-01-01

256

Characterization of membrane bioreactor for dry wine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of yeast growth and ethanol fermentation were examined in membrane bioreactor using a grape juice. After inoculation, batch fermentation was carried out for 24 h. When yeast growth reached the stationary phase, continuous fermentation was initiated. In continuous fermentation, a linear relationship was observed between cell concentration and dilution rate. In single-vessel membrane bioreactor, the cell concentrations of 18.7

Masamitsu Takaya; Nobuya Matsumoto; Hideshi Yanase

2002-01-01

257

USE OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS IN ACCELERATING WASTE DEGRADATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EP A and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

258

Fouling control in activated sludge submerged hollow fiber membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study is to determine the impact of various operating factors on membrane fouling in activated sludge membrane bioreactor (MBR) process, typically used for water reclamation. In this process, ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF) hollow fiber membranes, submerged in the bioreactor, provided a solid—liquid separation by replacing gravity settling. Activated sludge from a food wastewater treatment plant

S. P. Hong; T. H. Bae; T. M. Tak; S. Hongb; A. Randallb

2002-01-01

259

Application of DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) to mixed culture bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The use of DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) as a tool for monitoring mixed microbial populations in bioreactors was evaluated. Short (8-mer or 10-mer) oligonucleotides were used to prime DNA extracts from various biological reactors during polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. The reactors examined in this study included two sets of anaerobic stirred tank continuous flow bioreactors. One set of

Alec Breen; Alan F. Rope; Denise Taylor; John C. Loper; P. R. Sferra

1995-01-01

260

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

261

Study on hydraulic characteristics in a submerged membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydraulic characteristics in a membrane bioreactor are of significance for retarding membrane fouling and maintaining stable operation. Cross flow velocity along the membrane surface and its effect on transmembrane pressure change were experimentally investigated using two pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactors. A simulation model for calculating cross flow velocity was then developed. Cross flow velocity was a function of aeration intensity.

Rui Liu; Xia Huang; Chengwen Wang; Lvjun Chen; Yi Qian

2000-01-01

262

LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

263

Design ofa prototype miniature bioreactor for high throughput automated bioprocessing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new miniature bioreactor with a diameter equal to that ofa single well ofa 24-well plate is described and its engineering performance as a fermenter assessed. Mixing in the miniature bioreactor is provided by a set of three impellers mechanically driven via a microfabricated electric motor and aeration is achieved with a single tube sparger. Parameter sensitive 3uorophors are used

S. R. Lamping; H. Zhang; B. Allen; P. Ayazi Shamlou

264

Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in an immobilized cell airlift bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An “immobilized cell airlift bioreactor”, was used for the aerobic bioremediation of simulated diesel fuel contaminated groundwater and tested with p-xylene and naphthalene in batch and continuous regimes.The innovative design of the experiments consists of two stages. At the first stage “immobilized soil bioreactor” (ISBR) was used to develop an efficient microbial consortium from the indigenous microorganisms, which exist in

A. Kermanshahi pour; D. Karamanev; A. Margaritis

2005-01-01

265

Survey of gas-liquid mass transfer in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors are becoming more important in the production of biobased products such as proteins, medicines, and renewable fuels. The economic viability of these processes is dependent on the bioreactor's ability to aid the microorganism and provide a friendly environment. One of the important microorganism requirements is proper gas concentrations so that the microorganism has the necessary inputs for proper metabolism.

Enes Kadic

2010-01-01

266

Control of a continuous bioreactor using model predictive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor control has become very important in recent years due to the difficulty in controlling the highly non-linear behaviour associated with such systems. Model predictive control (MPC) was used to control a non-linear continuous stirred tank bioreactor to an unstable steady state, which was the desired set point. The effect of varying predictor horizon, an important MPC controller tuning parameter,

S. Ramaswamy; T. J. Cutright; H. K. Qammar

2005-01-01

267

Bioreactors for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria.  

PubMed

Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H(2) production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H(2) (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubble-train bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N(2)) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1)) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) of H(2) production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days. PMID:18425614

Markov, Sergei A; Weaver, Paul F

2008-03-01

268

Bioreactors for H2 Production by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H2 (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubbletrain bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N2) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw-1 h-1 (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw-1 h-1) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw-1 h-1 of H2 production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days.

Markov, Sergei A.; Weaver, Paul F.

269

[Temporary henna tattoos: Sometimes serious side effects].  

PubMed

Temporary henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular among Western tourists during summer holidays, especially children, teenagers and young adults. Natural henna takes several hours to be absorbed into the skin, imparts a brownish-orange color, and causes very few allergic reactions. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a powerful allergen, is added to henna tattoo mixtures (black henna tattoo) to decrease application time and intensify the color. It is responsible for most of the complications reported after henna tattoos: localized or generalized contact dermatitis, hypertrophic or keloid scars, and temporary or permanent hyper- or hypopigmentation. More rarely, type I hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, angioedema, or anaphylaxis) with potentially lethal outcomes have been reported. PPD allergy can induce cross-reactivity with other substances, such as hair dyes and textile azo dyes. Patch testing for PPD must be performed at a very diluted concentration (0.01% in vaseline) to avoid unnecessarily strong reactions and sensitization to PPD. In the absence of any legal control of henna tattooing practices, prevention requires the annual provision of information to Western consumers, especially young people and their parents. PMID:18329233

Kluger, Nicolas; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Guillot, Bernard

2008-01-01

270

Treatment of urban wastewater in a membrane bioreactor at high organic loading rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactors can replace the activated sludge process and the final clarification step in municipal wastewater treatment. The combination of bioreactor and crossflow microfiltration allows for a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of synthetic wastewater. From biomass, grown at high production rates in the aerobic bioreactor, energy rich biogas can be obtained in a subsequent anaerobic bioreactor. In this

Stefan Holler; Walter Trösch

2001-01-01

271

Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

2004-01-01

272

Predictors of temporary epicardial pacing wires use after valve surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Although temporary cardiac pacing is infrequently needed, temporary epicardial pacing wires are routinely inserted after valve surgery. As they are associated with infrequent, but life threatening complications, and the decreased need for postoperative pacing in a group of low risk patients; this study aims to identify the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing after valve surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 400 consecutive valve surgery patients between May 2002 and December 2012 was performed. Patients were grouped according to avoidance or insertion of temporary pacing wires, and were further subdivided according to temporary cardiac pacing need. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing. Results 170 (42.5%) patients did not have insertion of temporary pacing wires and none of them needed temporary pacing. 230 (57.5%) patients had insertion of temporary pacing wires and among these, only 55 (23.9%) required temporary pacing who were compared with the remaining 175 (76.1%) patients in the main analysis. The determinants of temporary cardiac pacing (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence interval) were as follows: increased age (1.1; 1.1, 1.3, p?=?0.002), New York Heart Association class III- IV (5.6; 1.6, 20.2, p?=?0.008) , pulmonary artery pressure???50 mmHg (22.0; 3.4, 142.7, p?=?0.01), digoxin use (8.0; 1.3, 48.8, p?=?0.024), multiple valve surgery (13.5; 1.5, 124.0, p?=?0.021), aorta cross clamp time???60 minutes (7.8; 1.6, 37.2, p?=?0.010), and valve annulus calcification (7.9; 2.0, 31.7, p?=?0.003). Conclusion Although limited by sample size, the present results suggest that routine use of temporary epicardial pacing wires after valve surgery is only necessary for high risk patients. Preoperative identification and aggressive management of predictors of temporary cardiac pacing and the possible modulation of intraoperative techniques can decrease the need of temporary cardiac pacing. Prospective randomized controlled studies on a larger number of patients are necessary to draw solid conclusions regarding the selective use of temporary epicardial pacing wires in valve surgery.

2014-01-01

273

Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the Rotating Wall Vessel developed by NASA, and originally designed to protect cell culture from the

Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

274

Specific learning disability in primary French immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

To further Canada's transition toward greater bilingualism, schools in several provinces have extended their educational programs for teaching French. One such program is the early French immersion program in which English-speaking children beginning in the primary grades are exposed to French as the language of instruction for at least fifty percent of the school day. In most schools, Kindergarten and

R. L. Trites; M. A. Price

1978-01-01

275

AIDA: an Adaptive Immersive Data Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration, we show various query- ing capabilities of an application called AIDA. AIDA is developed to help the study of attention disorder in kids. In a dierent study (1), we collected several immresive sen- sory data streams from kids monitored in an immersive application called the virtual class- room. This dataset, termed immersidata is used to analyze the

Mehdi Sharifzadeh; Cyrus Shahabi; Bahareh Navai; Farid Parvini; Albert A. Rizzo

2004-01-01

276

Building an affordable projective, immersive display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersive, interactive virtual reality is a tool with hypothetically limitless uses. However, so far it has been put to serious use primarily in technical application areas such as computational science, automotive engineering, and chemical exploration. Groups working in these fields often have large budgets and can afford expensive, advanced displays. VR should also be of value to schools and museums,

Dave Pape; Josephine Anstey

2002-01-01

277

An Immersion Grating for an Astronomical Spectrograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an anamorphic immersion échelle for the ESO MultiMode Instrument is described. With this grating it is possible to reach a resolving power of 6×104 with a 1arcsec slit on ESO's 3.5 m NTT, using a collimated beam size of just 120 mm.

H. Dekker

1988-01-01

278

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size

Chrisp; Michael P

2006-01-01

279

An experimental investigation of immersed gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generic problem with spectrographs equipped with conventional diffraction gratings is that the maximum attainable spectral resolution scales inversely with the telescope aperture for a fixed grating dimension and angular slit width. It has long been realized that immersed gratings, where a prism is attached to the surface of a reflection grating, offer a means to bypass this limit. We

D. Lee; J. R. Allington-Smith

2000-01-01

280

Immersion: Why Not Try Free Voluntary Reading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that reading is a powerful source in acquiring language competence. The author argues that children do not enjoy grammar instruction, but love to hear stories and read books that they select on their own. Given the lack of clear evidence for focusing on form, it is concluded that free reading should be an option for immersion children.…

Krashen, Stephen

1995-01-01

281

Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

Alberta Education, 2010

2010-01-01

282

Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation With Lithium Atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method was developed to produce lithium plasma for plasma immersion ion implantation. Initially, an argon glow discharge with operation pressure ranging from 2 times 10-1 to 1 mbar is generated by negatively polarizing an electrode from -400 to -1500 V. Small pieces of metallic lithium that are 99.9% pure fill the top of a conic crucible, with a

Rogério M. Oliveira; Mário Ueda; José O. Rossi; Beatriz Diaz; Koumei Baba

2008-01-01

283

Teaching and Learning Immersion and Presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known since Socrates that people learn better by experiencing a problem by themselves and by finding a (the) solution(s) by their own. It is however not always possible to offer such freedom to students when teaching the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments due to the technological complexity and the intrinsically subjective nature of these concepts.

Bruno Herbelin; Jan Cíger

2008-01-01

284

Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

Esposito, Marie-Josee

2006-01-01

285

Going beyond Words: The Arapaho Immersion Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the growth and development of the Arapaho immersion program and discusses language revitalization strategies and methods used on the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming). Following a community request for an Arapaho language and culture program in reservation public schools, a test class of kindergarten students received an hour of…

Greymorning, Steve

286

Language and Culture Immersion: A Winning Enterprise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A second language program developed at Wilson College (Chambersburg, Pennsylvania) with a federal grant uses the Rassias Method of theatrical, dramatic language saturation. In the first application of the program at the college, peer tutors (who would be assistant teachers in the subsequent immersion program) were trained in a three-day workshop.…

Cormier, Raymond

287

Integrating Live Video for Immersive Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cabin, an immersive projection display, is a room-sized, five-screen system that can display both computer graphics and video images. Several Cabins connected via a broadband network form the Cabinet system. Cabinet includes video avatars-a key new technology for sharing virtual worlds. Using video avatars, we have experimentally evaluated the ability to express positional information between distant users

Michitaka Hirose; Tetsuro Ogi; Toshio Yamada

1999-01-01

288

Interpersonal Distance in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) enables behavioral scientists to conduct ecologically realistic experiments with near-perfect experimental control. The authors employed IVET to study the interpersonal distance maintained between participants and virtual humans. In Study 1, partici- pants traversed a three-dimensional virtual room in which a vir- tual human stood. In Study 2, a virtual human approached participants. In both

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Jim Blascovich; Andrew C. Beall; Jack M. Loomis

2003-01-01

289

Surface modification by plasma immersion ion processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory is actively researching a surface modification technique called plasma immersion ion processing (PIIP). PIIP is the latest innovation of the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) approach to surface modification. Like PSII, PIIP allows the modification of large areas and non-planar surface geometries, however PIIP is primarily a coating deposition technology rather than solely an ion implantation

Kevin C. Walter; D. H. Lee; X. M. He; N. P. Baker; Michael Nastasi; C. P. Munson; W. K. Scarborough; M. Tuszewski; B. P. Wood

1998-01-01

290

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

291

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

292

How do fish exploit temporary waters throughout a flooding episode?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary waters are important habitats for many fish species. Nevertheless, determination of which species colonise these habitats, when this occurs and where fish distribute themselves within the temporary waters are rare. The fish assemblage on a temporarily flooded grassland and its adjacent permanent canal, together with environmental variables, were monitored throughout an entire flooding event from February to May 2006

J. C UCHEROUSSET; A. C ARPENTIER

293

Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

294

Temporary anchorage devices - Mini-implants  

PubMed Central

Orthodontists are accustomed to using teeth and auxiliary appliances, both intraoral and extraoral, to control anchorage. These methods are limited in that it is often difficult to achieve results commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices—biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth, with the devices being subsequently removed after treatment. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. This article describes the development of skeletal anchorage and provides an overview of the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage.

Singh, Kamlesh; Kumar, Deepak; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Amol

2010-01-01

295

An improved technique for temporary diverting ileostomy.  

PubMed

A modification of the Turnbull technique for a temporary diverting ileostomy, which may be also applied to diverting colostomies, is described herein. According to the technical modification described, a totally diverting ileostomy is performed with the help of a Foley catheter secured in the subcutaneous tissue, and pulled upward and to the right like a sling around the efferent loop. This simple modification allows for better protection of distal anastomosis and an optimal diversion of enteric transit. Furthermore, this technique also permits an easier postoperative handling of the stoma, an easier application of the stomal bags and at the same time, it also more efficiently prevents the eventual subcutaneous infiltration with enteric contaminated fluid. In the authors' preliminary experience with ten cases the procedure was shown to offer advantages in reducing local discomfort and also in achieving the objectives of a totally diverting ileostomy. PMID:10648097

Flati, G; Talarico, C; Carboni, M

2000-01-01

296

Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications.

Hondorp, H.L.

1981-02-01

297

Cognitive Factors Associated with Immersion in Virtual Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immersion into the dataspace provided by a computer, and the feeling of really being there or 'presence', are commonly acknowledged as the uniquely important features of virtual reality environments. How immersed one feels appears to be determined by a co...

J. Psotka S. Davison

1993-01-01

298

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2010-10-01

299

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2009-10-01

300

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following...An operating thermostat. (b) Heating elements that have no electrical contact with the oil. (c) A high temperature...

2013-10-01

301

Disposable polymeric cryogel bioreactor matrix for therapeutic protein production.  

PubMed

Low cost and high efficiency make disposable bioreactors feasible for small-scale therapeutic development and initial clinical trials. We have developed a cryogel-based disposable bioreactor matrix, which has been used for production of protein therapeutics such as urokinase and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The protocol discusses the application of a cryogel bioreactor for mAb production. Cryogels composed of either polyacrylamide (PAAm) coupled to gelatin or semi-interpenetrating PAAm-chitosan are synthesized by free-radical polymerization at -12 °C. Hybridoma cells are immobilized over the cryogel bioreactor and incubated for 48 h. Medium is circulated thereafter at 0.2 ml min(-1) and bioreactors can be run continuously for 60 d. The cryogel-based packed-bed bioreactor can be formulated as a monolith or as beads; it also has an efficiency four times what can be obtained using a tissue-culture flask, a high surface-to-volume ratio and effective nutrient transport. After incubation, the bioreactor setup will take about 60 min using a pre-prepared sterilized cryogel. PMID:23558783

Jain, Era; Kumar, Ashok

2013-05-01

302

21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. 870.3680 Section 870.3680...3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode â(1) Identification. A...

2009-04-01

303

21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. 870.3680 Section 870.3680...3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode â(1) Identification. A...

2010-04-01

304

Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development.

Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

2006-01-01

305

Approaching chlorpyrifos bioelimination at bench scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos (CP) is one of the most commonly applied insecticides for control of pests and insects. The inappropriate use of this kind of chemicals has caused heavy contamination of many terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems thus representing a great environmental and health risk. The main purpose of this work is to investigate novel microbial agents (Pseudomonas stutzeri and the previously obtained consortium LB2) with the ability to degrade CP from polluted effluents. This goal was achieved by operating at different lab scales (flask and bioreactor) and operation modes (batch and fed-batch). Very low degradation and biomass levels were detected in cultures performed with the consortium LB2. In contrast, near complete CP degradation was reached by P. stutzeri at the optimal conditions in less than 1 month, showing a depletion rate of 0.054 h(-1). The scale-up at bench scale stirred tank bioreactor allowed improving the specific degradation rate in ten folds and total CP degradation was obtained after 2 days. Moreover, biomass and biodegradation profiles were modelled to reach a better characterization of the bioremediation process. PMID:23277272

Moscoso, F; Teijiz, I; Deive, F J; Sanromán, M A

2013-09-01

306

Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

2014-05-01

307

The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the simulated environment.

Park, Brian

2006-01-01

308

Extended immersed boundary method using FEM and RKPM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed extended immersed boundary method (EIBM) has several distinct features in comparison with the immersed boundary (IB) method. In the IB method, the interaction between the immersed elastic boundary and the surrounding viscous fluid is replaced with an equivalent body force distribution within the fluid domain. The key ingredient of the IB method is the enforcement of the energy

Xiaodong Wang; Xiaodong Wang

2004-01-01

309

Stereo-based environment scanning for immersive telepresence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing power and network bandwidth re- quired for true immersive telepresence applications are only now beginning to be available. We draw from our experience developing stereo based tele-immersion prototypes to present the main issues arising when building these systems. Tele-immersion is a new medium that enables a user to share a virtual space with remote participants. The user is

Jane Mulligan; Xenophon Zabulis; Nikhil Kelshikar; Konstantinos Daniilidis

2004-01-01

310

Madame bovary on the holodeck: immersive interactive storytelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe a small-scale, yet complete, integration of a real-time immersive interactive storytelling system. While significant progress has been achieved in recent years on the individual component technologies of interactive storytelling, the main objective of this work is to investigate the concept of interactive storytelling in a fully immersive context. We describe each individual component of immersive

Marc Cavazza; Jean-luc Lugrin; David Pizzi; Fred Charles

2007-01-01

311

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20

312

Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

2014-01-01

313

3-D IMAGE PROCESSING IN THE FUTURE OF IMMERSIVE MEDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey paper discusses the 3D image processing challenges posed by present and future immersive telecommunications, especially immersive video conferencing and television. We introduce the concepts of presence, immersion and co-presence, and discuss their relation with virtual collaborative environments in the context of communications. Several examples are used to illustrate the current state of the art. We highlight the crucial

Francesco Isgrò; Emanuele Trucco; Peter Kauff; Oliver Schreer

314

Life in Language Immersion Classrooms. Multilingual Matters 86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to other volumes on language immersion programs that have discussed language outcomes, this book focuses on how teachers and school administrators implement and carry on the daily operations of immersion schooling. It chronicles a 2-year research project that involved the staff and principals of two immersion schools in the midwest, in…

Bernhardt, Elizabeth B., Ed.

315

An Adaptive Version of the Immersed Boundary Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational setting for the Immersed Boundary Method employing an adaptive mesh refinement is presented. Enhanced accuracy for the method is attained locally by covering an immersed boundary vicinity with a sequence of nested, progressively finer rectangular grid patches which dynamically follow the immersed boundary motion. The set of equations describing the interaction between a non-stationary, viscous incompressible fluid and

Alexandre M Roma; Charles S Peskin; Marsha J Berger

1999-01-01

316

Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.  

PubMed

Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in vitro studies in physiologically relevant cell and tissue models. PMID:12951697

Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2002-01-01

317

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

2011-04-01

318

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

2012-04-01

319

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

2014-04-01

320

75 FR 22611 - Recovery Policy RP9523.3, Provision of Temporary Relocation Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Federal Emergency Management Agency [Docket...Temporary Relocation Facilities AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS...Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA...Temporary Relocation Facilities. This is an...

2010-04-29

321

Is audio useful in immersive visualization?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article I provide from localization experiments in virtual environment. I define common tasks (orientation, localization, and navigation) in immersive visualization. The above mentioned tasks will be examined with user tests. Two localization experiments have been accomplished. In the first localization experiment the localization accuracy was significantly better (p<<0.01 in ANOVA) with loudspeaker reproduction than with headphone reproduction (nonindividualized HRTF's). The second experiment indicated, that localization accuracy is depending on signal (P<<0.01 in ANOVA). Although the absolute lower limit for auditory localization accuracy in front is one degree for the azimuth, the reality is much worse. For example the screens and room reverberation deteriorate loudspeaker reproduction accuracy. Current results suggest that at least in some tasks the audio is useful addition to immersive visualization tasks.

Groehn, Matti

2002-05-01

322

Immersion diffractometry for determining nanoscale grating pitch.  

PubMed

The laser diffractometer is an effective instrument for calibrating pitch standard of a grating structure. A conventional diffractometer based on the Littrow configuration cannot measure a grating whose pitch is less than half of the laser wavelength when the diffractometer is operated in the atmosphere. This study proposes an immersion diffractometer to raise the refractive index of the environment. Thus the new approach can overcome the limit of one-half wavelength. A 288 nm grating was measured using an immersion diffractometer with a 633 nm laser and using a conventional diffractometer with a 543 nm laser to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technology. The difference between the pitches obtained by these two methods is around 0.05 nm. PMID:19529345

Lu, Sheng-Hua; Tseng, Li-Cheng; Kao, Ching-Fen; Pan, Shang-Peng; Chang, Liang-Chih

2006-10-16

323

An Immersive VR System for Sports Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

324

Immersion in water in labour and birth  

PubMed Central

Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference ?32.4 minutes; 95% CI ?58.7 to ?6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight trials), use of oxytocin infusion (RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.28,five trials), perineal trauma or maternal infection. There were no differences for Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (RR 1.58; 95% CI 0.63 to 3.93, five trials), neonatal unit admissions (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.57, three trials), or neonatal infection rates (RR 2.00; 95% CI 0.50 to 7.94, five trials). Of the three trials that compared water immersion during the second stage with no immersion, one trial showed a significantly higher level of satisfaction with the birth experience (RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.80). A lack of data for some comparisons prevented robust conclusions. Further research is needed. Authors’ conclusions Evidence suggests that water immersion during the first stage of labour reduces the use of epidural/spinal analgesia and duration of the first stage of labour. There is limited information for other outcomes related to water use during the first and second stages of labour, due to intervention and outcome variability. There is no evidence of increased adverse effects to the fetus/neonate or woman from labouring in water or waterbirth. However, the studies are very variable and considerable heterogeneity was detected for some outcomes. Further research is needed.

Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

2014-01-01

325

Negotiation in immersion teacher–student interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the role of negotiation in teacher–student interaction and argues that the negotiation of meaning, defined as a set of conversational moves which work toward mutual comprehension, is too narrow a construct to fulfil its pedagogical potential in teacher–student interaction in communicative and content-based second language (L2) classrooms. Drawing on examples from immersion classrooms, where the overriding focus

Roy Lyster

2002-01-01

326

Immersion Property and Credit Risk Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The goal of this paper is to study the immersion property through its links with credit risk modelling. The construction of\\u000a a credit model by the enlargement of a reference filtration with the progressive knowledge of a credit event occurrence has\\u000a become a standard for reduced form modelling. It is known that such a construction rises mathematical difficulties, mainly\\u000a relied

Monique Jeanblanc

327

Mutual Attractions of Partially Immersed Parallel Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We complete a study initiated in an earlier paper, on the horizontal attracting and repelling forces acting on two parallel semi-infinite plates, partly immersed in an infinite liquid bath and subject to capillary attractions in a uniform gravity field. We find a considerable range of behavior patterns, depending on the contact angles on the plate sides and on the plate separation, in ways that we did not anticipate.

Finn, Robert; Lu, Devin

2013-06-01

328

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09

329

Ocean Immersion in K-12 Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California COSEE is working to create regional ocean education Centers focused on increasing awareness of K-12 schools and their communities to ocean-related issues and opportunities. The Ocean Immersion Centers provide numerous benefits both in the classroom and the community. This site includes information on the Centers and commentary on the implementation of the program in a local elementary school. Workshop information is also provided.

330

Reconstruction for 3D immersive virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of tele-conferencing is towards multi-party 3D Tele-Immersion (TI) and TI environments that can support realistic inter-personal communications and virtual interaction among participants. In this paper, we address two important issues, pertinent to TI environments. The paper focuses on techniques for the real-time, 3D reconstruction of moving humans from multiple Kinect devices. The off-line generation of real-life 3D scenes

D. S. Alexiadis; G. Kordelas; K. C Apostolakis; J. D. Agapito; J. M. Vegas; E. Izquierdo; P. Daras

2012-01-01

331

Liquid immersion apparatus for minute articles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus is disclosed for immersing minute integrated circuit chips in an etching solution in manufacturing integrated circuits during research and development. The apparatus includes a holder, having a handle and basket support for carrying a removable unitary basket and lid structure where fluid flow-through passages are formed, and wherein graduated openings in the handle provide for adjustably supporting the basket in a breaker at a desired level.

Belcher, J. G., Jr.; Hollis, B. R., Jr. (inventors)

1981-01-01

332

Plasma immersion ion implantation of Pebax polymer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was applied to Pebax thin films and plates using doses ranging from 5×1014 to 1017ions\\/cm2 at applied voltages of 5, 10, 20 and 30kV. The analysis of the Pebax structure after implantation was performed using FTIR ATR, Raman, UV–vis transmission spectra, tensile and AFM contact mode data. The carbonization and depolymerisation processes were observed

A. Kondyurin; P. Volodin; J. Weber

2006-01-01

333

Immersive Telecommunication Using Stereo Video Avatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersive projection displays such as CABIN and COSMOS have been connected through a broadband network. This kind of network environment is expected to be used as a multimedia virtual laboratory. In particular, video avatar technology has been developed in order to realize high-presence communication in this multimedia virtual laboratory. A video avatar is a computer-synthesized 3D image created using live

Tetsuro Ogi; Toshio Yamada; Ken Tamagawa; Makoto Kano; Michitaka Hirose

2001-01-01

334

Collaborative dancing in tele-immersive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a study of collaborative dancing between remote dancers in a tele-immersive environment which features 3D full and real body capturing, wide field of view, multi-display 3D rendering, and attachment free participant. We invite two professional dancers to perform collaborative dancing in the environment. The coordination requires one dancer to take the lead while the other follows by appropriate

Zhenyu Yang; Bin Yu; Wanmin Wu; Ross Diankov; Ruzena Bajcsy

2006-01-01

335

Intercepting Virtual Ball in Immersive Virtual Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Catching a flying ball is a difficult task that requires sensory systems to calculate the precise trajectory of the ball to\\u000a predict its movement, and the motor systems to drive the hand in the right place at the right time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In this paper we have analyzed the human performance in an intercepting task performed in an immersive virtual environment\\u000a and

Massimiliano Valente; Davide Sobrero; Andrea Brogni; Darwin Caldwell

336

Numerical Simulations Using the Immersed Boundary Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immersed-boundary method can be used to simulate flows around complex geometries within a Cartesian grid. This method has been used quite extensively in low Reynolds-number flows, and is now being applied to turbulent flows more frequently. The technique will be discussed, and three applications of the method will be presented, with increasing complexity. to illustrate the potential and limitations of the method, and some of the directions for future work.

Piomelli, Ugo; Balaras, Elias

1997-01-01

337

Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1986-08-01

338

Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

2012-01-01

339

Expert System Based Intelligent Control Scheme for Space Bioreactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An expert system based intelligent control scheme is being developed for the effective control and full automation of bioreactor systems in space. The scheme developed will have the capability to capture information from various resources including heuris...

K. San

1988-01-01

340

Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

2003-01-01

341

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01

342

Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotech...

C. E. Niederhaus H. K. Nahra J. P. Kizito

2004-01-01

343

Corrosion of orthodontic temporary anchorage devices.  

PubMed

Corrosion of orthodontic miniscrews or temporary anchorage devices (TADs) has been proposed as a contributor to inflammation, which in turn is a factor in the clinical success of miniscrews. The purpose of this study was to measure the electrochemical properties of orthodontic miniscrews in artificial saliva with and without fluoride. The corrosion properties of three miniscrew products (VectorTAS, Ormco Corp.; Unitek TAD, 3M Unitek; and Through-Hole Screw, American Orthodontics) were tested in an artificial saliva (Fusayama-Meyer) with (1500 ppm) or without fluoride (n = 10/product/solution). Open circuit potential (OCP), polarization resistance (R p), and corrosion current (I corr) were measured and statistically analysed with the Friedman/Tukey least significant difference tests. No significant differences (P > 0.05) between miniscrews with regard to OCP, R p, and I corr were found except that the American Orthodontics miniscrews had a significantly (P < 0.05) more noble OCP compared to the others. Incorporation of 1500 ppm fluoride in the artificial saliva significantly (P < 0.001) lowered the OCP, reduced the polarization resistance, and increased the corrosion current of each miniscrew product. Few differences existed in the electrochemical properties of miniscrews from the three different manufacturers; however, exposure to fluoride was detrimental to the corrosion properties of all miniscrews. PMID:22573910

Knutson, Kevin J; Berzins, David W

2013-08-01

344

Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2013-12-01

345

Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

1983-01-01

346

Resist interaction in 193-/157-nm immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the interaction of resists with water and perfluoropolyether (PFPE) as immersion fluids. We found that some unique behaviors occurred in immersion lithography. An acetal protected poly(p-hydroxystyrene) type resist in water immersion showed decreased resist thickness after exposure. The deprotection reaction during exposure appeared to be accelerated by water. A COMA (cycloolefine-mareic anhydride alt-copolymer) type resist in water immersion showed an increased dissolution rate. FT-IR measurements indicated that the hydrolysis of maleic anhydride occurred during exposure and post-exposure baking. A reduction in the dissolution rate was observed in the immersion lithography of most resists. In water immersion, the formation of a surface insoluble layer and swelling was observed. We confirmed that a photochemical acid generator (PAG) or generated acid eluted into the water by TOF-SIMS. In PFPE immersion, we think that PFPE penetrating across the resist film blocks the penetration of the alkaline aqueous developer.

Kishimura, Shinji; Endo, Masayuki; Sasago, Masaru

2004-05-01

347

Dynamic modeling and simulation of continuous airlift bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

For dynamic behaviors of continuous airlift bioreactors, a mathematical model based on a tanks-in-series model with backflow has been developed. The equations describing the dynamics of airlift bioreactors are material balances for micro-organism, substrate, dissolved oxygen and oxygen in gas-phase and heat balances. Non-ideal mixing of liquid and gas phases is taken into account using a tanks-in-series model with backflow.

T. Kanai; J. Ichikawa; H. Yoshikawa; Y. Kawase

2000-01-01

348

Treatment of oil contaminated wastewater in a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge processes are frequently applied to treat industrial effluents. The membrane-bioreactor (MBR) is a modification of this conventional process, where the activated sludge is concentrated in a bioreactor which is connected to a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane unit. Trials in a MBR with a high activated sludge concentration of up to 48 g l?1, showed that oily wastewater also containing surfactants

W. Scholz; W. Fuchs

2000-01-01

349

Chondrogenesis in a Cell-Polymer-Bioreactor System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chondrogenesis was studied under controlledin vitroconditions using a cell-polymer-bioreactor system. Bovine calf articular chondrocytes were seeded onto biodegradable polymer scaffolds and cultured in rotating bioreactor vessels. Concomitant increases in the amounts of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen resulted in cell-polymer constructs with continuous cartilaginous matrix over their entire cross sections (6.7 mm diameter × 5 mm thick) after 40

L. E. Freed; A. P. Hollander; I. Martin; J. R. Barry; R. Langer; G. Vunjak-Novakovic

1998-01-01

350

Modular integrated fluidized bed bioreactor technology.  

PubMed

We describe the design and demonstrate the application of a modular integrated fluidized bed bioreactor system. Basically the system is a reactor vessel equipped with an extending cylinder and a liquid distributor plate. Instead of an external recirculation loop, as used in existing fluidized bed systems, a low shear stress impeller is used as the recirculation pump. The system has several unique features, such as modular exchangeable elements, efficient oxygenation and the option of operating as a stirred tank-, a packed bed- or a fluidized bed reactor. An example of a fluidized bed run using CHO-K1 cells is shown. Under standard culture conditions a 100-fold increase in cell density (up to 1.2 x 10(8) cells/ml) was achieved. PMID:1367626

Reiter, M; Blüml, G; Gaida, T; Zach, N; Unterluggauer, F; Doblhoff-Dier, O; Noe, M; Plail, R; Huss, S; Katinger, H

1991-11-01

351

Optical stirring in a droplet cell bioreactor  

PubMed Central

In the context of a bioreactor, cells are sensitive to cues from other cells and mechanical stimuli from movement. The ability to provide the latter in a discrete fluidic system presents a significant challenge. From a prior finding that the location of the focus of a laser below particles relative to the beam axis producing a pushing effect in a predominant lateral sense, we advance an approach here that generates a gentle and tunable stirring effect. Computer simulation studies show that we are able to characterize this effect from the parameters that govern the optical forces and the movement of the particles. Experimental results with polystyrene microbeads and red blood cells confirm the notions from the simulations.

Muradoglu, Murat; Le, Thuong; Lau, Chun Yat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

352

Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research.

Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

353

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce greenhouse gas...guidance will improve management of agency travel programs, save money on travel...

2010-10-14

354

1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN BE SEEN AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, May 10, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

355

78 FR 23503 - Hazardous Materials; Temporary Reduction of Registration Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...HM-208I)] RIN 2137-AE95 Hazardous Materials; Temporary Reduction of Registration...AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

2013-04-19

356

22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls is required for the temporary import and subsequent export...must contact the Department of Justice's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for the appropriate...

2013-04-01

357

40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS...actions taken to control or eliminate immediate threats to human health and the environment. (b) Examples of temporary...

2013-07-01

358

Regional Myocardial Blood Flow and Ultrastructure Following Acute Temporary Ischemia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of reopening acutely occluded coronary arteries has on regional myocardial blood flow and ultrastructure was studied in open chest dogs. Temporary and permanent ischemia were produced in the same animal by ligating a branch of the left anterior...

H. Davis

1982-01-01

359

Temporary Laboratory Office in Huntsville Industrial Center Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temporary quarters in the Huntsville Industrial Center (HIC) building located in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, as Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) grew. This image shows drafting specialists from the Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory at work in the HIC building.

1964-01-01

360

Temporary umbilical loop colostomy for anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

Transumbilical surgical procedures have been reported to be a feasible, safe, and cosmetically excellent procedure for various pediatric surgical diseases. Umbilical loop colostomies have previously been created in patients with Hirschsprung's disease, but not in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs). We assessed the feasibility and cosmetic results of temporal umbilical loop colostomy (TULC) in patients with ARMs. A circumferential skin incision was made at the base of the umbilical cord under general anesthesia. The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fascia were cored out vertically, and the umbilical vessels and urachal remnant were individually ligated apart from the opening in the fascia. A loop colostomy was created in double-barreled fashion with a high chimney more than 2 cm above the level of the skin. The final size of the opening in the skin and fascia was modified according to the size of the bowel. The bowel wall was fixed separately to the peritoneum and fascia with interrupted 5-0 absorbable sutures. The bowel was opened longitudinally and everted without suturing to the skin. The loop was divided 7 days postoperatively, and diversion of the oral bowel was completed. The colostomy was closed 2-3 months after posterior saggital anorectoplasty through a peristomal skin incision followed by end-to-end anastomosis. Final wound closure was performed in a semi-opened fashion to create a deep umbilicus. TULCs were successfully created in seven infants with rectourethral bulbar fistula or rectovestibular fistula. Postoperative complications included mucosal prolapse in one case. No wound infection or spontaneous umbilical ring narrowing was observed. Skin problems were minimal, and stoma care could easily be performed by attaching stoma bag. Healing of umbilical wounds after TULC closure was excellent. The umbilicus may be an alternative stoma site for temporary loop colostomy in infants with intermediate-type anorectal malformations, who undergo radical anorectoplasty via a non-abdominal approach. PMID:23001137

Hamada, Yoshinori; Takada, Kohei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sato, Masahito; Kwon, A-Hon

2012-11-01

361

The temporary help industry: A response to the dual internal labor market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the rapidly growing temporary help industry draws on Commerce Department data and the results of the authors' national mail survey of employers. The authors also conducted interviews in the San Francisco area with employers of temporary help and with representatives of temporary help agencies and labor unions. They provide a taxonomy of employer responses to temporary increases

Garth L. Mangum; Donald Mayall; Kristin Nelson

1985-01-01

362

Gas Immersion Laser Doping for superconducting nanodevices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conceived and fabricated Superconductor/Normal metal/Superconductor Josephson junctions made entirely of boron doped Silicon. We have used Gas Immersion Laser Doping to fabricate SN bilayers with good ohmic interfaces and well controlled concentration and doping depth. Standard fabrication processes, optimised for silicon, were employed to nanostructure the bilayers without affecting their transport properties. The junctions thus fabricated are proximity superconducting and show well understood I-V characteristics. This research opens the road to all-silicon, non-dissipative, Josephson Field Effect Transistors.

Chiodi, F.; Grockowiak, A.; Duvauchelle, J. E.; Fossard, F.; Lefloch, F.; Klein, T.; Marcenat, C.; Débarre, D.

2014-05-01

363

Idrolisi enzimatica del lattosio con bioreattori a membrana. (Membrane bioreactors for enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Bioreactor systems obtained by cell or enzyme immobilization offer many advantages compared with native enzyme, intact cell systems or other biocatalysts. Thus, many attempts have been made to design and use new types of bioreactor systems in order to imp...

M. Pizzichini R. Pilloton M. Pontecorvo G. Mignogna A. Fortunato

1993-01-01

364

Neuroendocrine Tissue Engineering in Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactors Under Simulated Microgravity Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The low-shear, microgravity-simulating cell culture environment in Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactors RWV Bioreactors is well suited for generating differentiated 3-D tissue constructs (organoids). Biochemical, immunological and molecular biological t...

P. I. Lelkes N. Akhtar E. Lelkes L. Maltz R. Arthur

2001-01-01

365

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

1998-06-30

366

Defect transfer from immersion exposure process to etching process using novel immersion exposure and track system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For lithography technology to support the scaling down of semiconductor devices, 193-nm immersion exposure processing is being introduced to mass-production at a rapid pace. At the same time, there are still many unclear areas and many concerns to be addressed with regards to defects in 193-nm immersion lithography. To make 193-nm immersion lithography technology practical for mass production, it is essential that the defect problems be solved. Importance must be attached to understanding the conditions that give rise to defects and their transference in the steps between lithography and etching processes. It is apparent that double patterning (DP) will be the mainstream technology below 40nm node. It can be assumed that the risk of the defect generation will rise, because the number of the litho processing steps will be increased in DP. Especially, in the case of Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) process, the concept of defect transfer becomes more important because etch processing is placed between each litho processing step. In this paper, we use 193-nm immersion lithography processing to examine the defect transference from lithography through the etching process for a representative 45nm metal layer substrate stack for device manufacturing. It will be shown which types of defects transfer from litho to etch and become killer defects.

Miyahara, Osamu; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Dunn, Shannon; van Dommelen, Youri; Grouwstra, Cedric

2008-11-01

367

MASCULINIZATION OF TILAPIA BY IMMERSION IN TRENBOLONE ACETATE: GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF TRENBOLONE ACETATE-IMMERSED TILAPIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate (TA) is a good candidate for masculinizing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry using short immersions. In this study we investigated the effects of TA treatment on the growth performance of Nile tilapia. We tested the potential anabolic effects of two treatments by growing treated and control fish for

Wilfrido M. Contreras-Sánchez; Martin S. Fitzpatrick; Carl B. Schreck

368

JSC technician Trinh with space bioreactor which will be tested on STS-44  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JSC technician Tinh Trinh checks out hardware for the space bioreactor. The bioreactor will have its first microgravity test on STS-44 as part of Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 316, Bioreactor / Flow and Particle Trajectory in Microgravity, and Application Specific Preprogrammed Experiment Culture (ASPEC). The space bioreactor was conceived by Trinh to keep tissue cultures suspended during the ascent, orbit, and entry phases of flight by maintaining it in a state of continual motion and preventing tissue damage.

1988-01-01

369

Immersive Environment Technologies for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL's charter includes the unmanned exploration of the Solar System. One of the tools for exploring other planets is the rover as exemplified by Sojourner on the Mars Pathfinder mission. The light speed turnaround time between Earth and the outer planets precludes the use of teleoperated rovers so autonomous operations are built in to the current and upcoming generation devices. As the level of autonomy increases, the mode of operations shifts from low-level specification of activities to a higher-level specification of goals. To support this higher-level activity, it is necessary to provide the operator with an effective understanding of the in-situ environment and also the tools needed to specify the higher-level goals. Immersive environments provide the needed sense of presence to achieve this goal. Use of immersive environments at JPL has two main thrusts that will be discussed in this talk. One is the generation of 3D models of the in-situ environment, in particular the merging of models from different sensors, different modes (orbital, descent, and lander), and even different missions. The other is the use of various tools to visualize the environment within which the rover will be operating to maximize the understanding by the operator. A suite of tools is under development which provide an integrated view into the environment while providing a variety of modes of visualization. This allows the operator to smoothly switch from one mode to another depending on the information and presentation desired.

Wright, John R.; Hartman, Frank

2000-01-01

370

VR scientific visualization in an immersive room  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the efforts being carried out at the NRL towards VR Scientific Visualization. We are exploring scientific visualization in an immersive virtual environment: the NRL's CAVE-like device known as the GROTTO. Our main effort has been towards the development of software that eases the transition between desktop visualization and VR visualization. It has been our intention to develop visualization tools that can be applied in a wide range of scientific areas without spending excessive time in software development. The advantages of such software are clear. The scientists do not have to be expert programmers, nor need they make a large investment of time to visualize scientific information in a Virtual Environment. As a result of this effort, we were able to port a considerable number of applications to the GROTTO in a short period of time. These projects cover a wide range of scientific areas and include chemistry, fluid dynamics, space physics and materials sciences. We describe the major technical hurdles we have addressed for interactive visualization of real data sets for real users. Finally we comment on the advantages that immersive systems like the GROTTO offer to the scientific community.

Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Rosenberg, Rob; Kuo, Eddy

2000-05-01

371

Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

2012-02-01

372

Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion gratings, diffraction gratings where the incident radiation strikes the grooves while immersed in a dielectric medium, offer significant compactness and performance advantages over front-surface grat- ings. These advantages become particularly large for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-IR. The production and evaluation of immersion gratings produced by fabricating grooves in silicon substrates using photolithographic patterning and anisotropic etching is described.

J. P. Marsh; D. J. Mar; D. T. Jaffe

2007-01-01

373

Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion gratings, diffraction gratings where the incident radiation strikes the grooves while immersed in a dielectric medium, offer significant compactness and performance advantages over front-surface gratings. These advantages become particularly large for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-IR. The production and evaluation of immersion gratings produced by fabricating grooves in silicon substrates using photolithographic patterning and anisotropic etching is described. The

J. P. Marsh; D. J. Mar; D. T. Jaffe

2007-01-01

374

Ageing of the avalanche angle in immersed granular matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of packings of glass beads immersed in various fluids is studied experimentally in a rotating drum. The avalanche angle depends on the time during which the system remains at rest before measurement only when the grains are immersed in water. The experimental results prove that ageing of immersed granular materials, under low applied stress and in the absence of external sollicitations, only originates from chemical reactions that occur at the surface of the grains.

Gayvallet, H.; Géminard, J.-C.

2002-12-01

375

Modeling the tele-immersive systems using stochastic activity network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next-generation social communication medium, tele- immersion, is receiving increasing attention from both the research and industrial communities. It enables interaction between geographically distributed sites through realistic re- construction of physical scenes in immersive spaces. While the previous research focused on real-world measurements of implemented tele-immersive systems, we take a model-based approach to study the system more generally and thoroughly.

Rahul Malik; Wanmin Wu; Klara Nahrstedt

2009-01-01

376

Ultrasonic immersion echomammography: state of the art and prospects.  

PubMed

This article discusses the state of the art and the prospects of evolution of ultrasonic immersion mammographs. It is shown that ultrasonic immersion mammography for diagnostics of surface organs has a preference over existing ultrasonic scanning devices of contact type. An immersion mammograph has been developed, a characteristic of which is the use of compact ring multielement antenna with the electronic dynamic focusing block. PMID:1388229

Nagiev, V A; Leonov, B I; Yakovlev, G M; Golubkov, A P; Yermolayeva, O V; Fomchenko, V A

1992-01-01

377

Early fluid and protein shifts in men during water immersion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  High precision blood and plasma densitometry was used to measure transvascular fluid shifts during water immersion to the\\u000a neck. Six men (28–49 years) undertook 30 min of standing immersion in water at 35.0±0.2‡ C; immersion was preceded by 30 min\\u000a control standing in air at 28±1‡ C. Blood was sampled from an antecubital catheter for determination of blood density (BD),

H. Hinghofer-Szalkay; M. H. Harrison; J. E. Greenleaf

1987-01-01

378

Biomass adaptation to complex substrate degradation in membrane bioreactors: appropriated operating conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to analyse the biological performances of two immersed membranes bioreactors focusing on the biomass adaptation to complex substrate degradation and the performance in term of permeate quality. Two influents were selected: a synthetic complex influent (acetate/Viandox, MBR1) and a real seafood processing wastewater (surimi product, MBR2). The MBR systems were operated for long periods without any sludge extraction except for sampling. Organic matter removal, sludge production and quality of the treated wastewater were analysed and studied. COD removal efficiencies after a period of biomass adaptation were higher than 97% and 95% for the synthetic and real wastewater respectively. In both cases, the COD of the treated wastewater was lower than 50 mg.L(-1). In spite of salt concentration in the real wastewater a biomass adaptation process occurs. In the overall operational period, a 0.058 gCOD P.gCOD T(-1) and a 0.12 gCOD P.gCOD T(-1) observed sludge yields were obtained for the MBR1 and MBR2 respectively. These values are approximately 5 to 10 times lower than those measured in conventional activated sludge process. These results showed that the presence of particular and some of non-easily degradable compounds in the influent of MBR2 didn't limit the performance of MBR in term of COD removal achieved. The results have also confirmed the excellent permeate quality for water reuse from MBRs systems. PMID:18192738

Sridang, P C; Lobos, J; Pottier, A; Wisniewski, C; Grasmick, A

2008-01-01

379

Response of a Packed-Bed, Fixed-Film Bioreactor to Zinc Toxicant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An anaerobic, upflow bioreactor was fed a zinc chloride and nutrient solution, and the response of the bioreactor was monitored over a two-week period. The main objectives of this project were to assess the biological performance of the bioreactor in resp...

M. Amrhein F. Ngan

1980-01-01

380

A numerical analysis of effects of vortex breakdown on oxygen transport in a micro-bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vortex breakdown effects on oxygen concentration distributions in a micro-bioreactor were investigated by a finite volume model. The bioreactor consists of a cylindrical chamber with a rotating bottom wall. The minimum oxygen concentration and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient were summarized at different Reynolds numbers, Damkohler numbers as well as bioreactor aspect ratios. It was found that vortex breakdown extends the

P. Yu; T. S. Lee; Y. Zeng; H. T. Low

2008-01-01

381

Membrane fouling control in a submerged membrane bioreactor with porous, flexible suspended carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling has been the main obstacle to the wide application of membrane bioreactors (MBR). A hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) with porous, flexible suspended carriers was explored that was efficient in controlling membrane fouling, especially cake layers. In order to investigate the influence of suspended carriers on the filtration performance of the HMBR, two kinds of bioreactors—MBR and HMBR—were tested

Qiyong Yang; Jihua Chen; Feng Zhang

2006-01-01

382

Disposable bioreactors: the current state-of-the-art and recommended applications in biotechnology.  

PubMed

Disposable bioreactors have increasingly been incorporated into preclinical, clinical, and production-scale biotechnological facilities over the last few years. Driven by market needs, and, in particular, by the developers and manufacturers of drugs, vaccines, and further biologicals, there has been a trend toward the use of disposable seed bioreactors as well as production bioreactors. Numerous studies documenting their advantages in use have contributed to further new developments and have resulted in the availability of a multitude of disposable bioreactor types which differ in power input, design, instrumentation, and scale of the cultivation container. In this review, the term "disposable bioreactor" is defined, the benefits and constraints of disposable bioreactors are discussed, and critical phases and milestones in the development of disposable bioreactors are summarized. An overview of the disposable bioreactors that are currently commercially available is provided, and the domination of wave-mixed, orbitally shaken, and, in particular, stirred disposable bioreactors in animal cell-derived productions at cubic meter scale is reported. The growth of this type of reactor system is attributed to the recent availability of stirred disposable benchtop systems such as the Mobius CellReady 3 L Bioreactor. Analysis of the data from computational fluid dynamic simulation studies and first cultivation runs confirms that this novel bioreactor system is a viable alternative to traditional cell culture bioreactors at benchtop scale. PMID:20094714

Eibl, Regine; Kaiser, Stephan; Lombriser, Renate; Eibl, Dieter

2010-03-01

383

The effects of daily cover soils on shear strength of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills are operated to enhance refuse decomposition, gas production, and waste stabilization. The major aspect of bioreactor landfill operation is the recirculation of collected leachate back through the refuse mass. Due to the accelerated decomposition and settlement of solid waste, bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity as an alternative to the conventional landfill. The addition or recirculation of leachate to

Mohamed A. Haque

2009-01-01

384

Wastewater treatment in a microbial membrane bioreactor — a model of the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of microbial membrane bioreactor with convective flow through the membrane is presented in the paper. Permeability coefficients hi in reference to microbial cells, substrates and possible reaction products as well as intensification coefficient ? which is a hydrodynamic parameter very significant for this bioreactor type, were introduced. The latter coefficient is used to control the bioreactor operation. Advantages

A. Trusek-Holownia

2008-01-01

385

Long-term dry immersion: review and prospects.  

PubMed

Dry immersion, which is a ground-based model of prolonged conditions of microgravity, is widely used in Russia but is less well known elsewhere. Dry immersion involves immersing the subject in thermoneutral water covered with an elastic waterproof fabric. As a result, the immersed subject, who is freely suspended in the water mass, remains dry. For a relatively short duration, the model can faithfully reproduce most physiological effects of actual microgravity, including centralization of body fluids, support unloading, and hypokinesia. Unlike bed rest, dry immersion provides a unique opportunity to study the physiological effects of the lack of a supporting structure for the body (a phenomenon we call 'supportlessness'). In this review, we attempt to provide a detailed description of dry immersion. The main sections of the paper discuss the changes induced by long-term dry immersion in the neuromuscular and sensorimotor systems, fluid-electrolyte regulation, the cardiovascular system, metabolism, blood and immunity, respiration, and thermoregulation. The long-term effects of dry immersion are compared with those of bed rest and actual space flight. The actual and potential uses of dry immersion are discussed in the context of fundamental studies and applications for medical support during space flight and terrestrial health care. PMID:21161267

Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Tomilovskaya, Elena S; Larina, Irina M; Mano, Tadaaki; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Kozlovskaya, Inesa B

2011-07-01

386

Strategies for improving the functionality of an affinity bioreactor.  

PubMed

Heparin employed in extracorporeal blood circulation (ECBC) procedures (e.g. open heart operations) often leads to a high incidence of bleeding complications. Protamine employed in heparin neutralization, on the other hand, can cause severe adverse reactions. We previously developed an approach that could prevent both heparin- and protamine-induced toxic side effects concomitantly. This approach consisted of placing a hollow fiber-based bioreactor device containing immobilized protamine (termed a "protamine bioreactor") at the distal end of the ECBC procedure. This protamine bioreactor would remove heparin after heparin served its anticoagulant purpose in the ECBC device, thereby eliminating heparin-induced bleeding risks. In addition, this protamine bioreactor would prevent protamine from entering the patients, thereby aborting any protamine-induced toxic effects. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. Despite promises, early findings also revealed two shortcomings that must be overcome for the protamine bioreactor to be applied clinically. The first drawback was that the cyanate ester linkages, involved in conjugating protamine to the bioreactor device, were unstable and prone to hydrolysis, resulting in the leakage of a significant amount of protamine into circulation during application of the protamine bioreactor. The second deficiency was that the capacity of the protamine bioreactor in heparin removal was rather low, owing to the limited surface area of the hollow fibers for protamine immobilization and subsequently heparin adsorption. In this paper, we present novel strategies to overcome these two limitations. A new conjugation method based on the use of 4-(oxyacetyl)phenoxyacetic acid (OAPA) as the activating reagent was employed to yield stable linkages, via the abundant arginine residues of protamine, onto the hollow fibers. Results showed that while the amount of protamine immobilized on each gram of fibers was relatively comparable between the OAPA and the previous CNBr activation methods (7.45 mg/g versus 7.69 mg/g fibers), there was virtually no detectable leaching of immobilized protamine from the bioreactor by the OAPA method, comparing to 35% leaching of protamine by the previous CNBr method following 72 h of storage of the bioreactor in PBS buffer at 37 degrees C. To improve the capacity and functionality of the protamine bioreactor, two novel approaches were adopted. Long chain and high molecular weight poly-lysine was linked to the hollow fibers, prior to protamine coupling, to create multiple layers of immobilized protamine for subsequent heparin adsorption. In addition, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) chain was inserted between protamine and the hollow fibers to yield a three-dimensional, free dynamic motion for immobilized protamine. Preliminary observations indicated that a four- to five-fold enhancement in heparin adsorption was attained by utilizing each of these new approaches. Aside from their current use, these new strategies can also be employed generically to improve the functionality of any affinity-type bioreactor. Indeed, efforts have been made recently in utilizing these approaches to develop a clinically usable GPIIb/IIIa bioreactor for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)-an autoimmune disease. PMID:16246511

Wang, Tanya; Yang, Zhiqiang; Emregul, Emel; David, Allan; Balthasar, Joseph P; Liang, Junfeng; Yang, Victor C

2005-12-01

387

Effects of N-acetylcysteine on noise-induced temporary threshold shift and temporary emission shift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animal research has shown that antioxidants can provide significant protection to the cochlea from traumatic noise exposure with some benefit when given after the exposure. Similar results in humans would have a significant impact on both prevention and treatment of noise-induced hearing loss. The current study evaluates the effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on temporary threshold shift (TTS) by using both behavioral and physiological measures. Sixteen healthy, normal-hearing subjects were given NAC or a placebo prior to exposure to a 10-min, 102-dB narrow-band noise, centered at 2 kHz. This exposure was designed to induce a 10-15-dB TTS. Following the noise exposure, pure-tone thresholds (Bekesy) and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) were measured for 60 min to monitor the effects of NAC on TTS recovery. Postexposure measures were compared to baseline data. [Work supported by American BioHealth Group.

Robinette, Martin

2001-05-01

388

Two Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide Following Contained Fumigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continued use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity or structural fumigant is in question because its release to the atmosphere contributes to depletion of stratospheric ozone. However, no single alternative to the use of MeBr as a fumigant has been identified. Nonetheless, future regulation of the amount of MeBr released by structural and commodity fumigations is likely. Hence, if MeBr use is to continue, it is imperative to lower the amount released to the atmosphere by collecting the gas following fumigation for eventual recycling or destruction. We report here on two bioreactors that remove MeBr from waste air streams. The bioreactors utilize the enzymatic activity of a previously described, methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, to oxidize MeBr directly during growth. The first bioreactor, operated as a closed system, consisted of 0.5 L of growing culture of strain IMB-1 which removed MeBr (>2,500 ppm) from re-circulating air. Strain IMB-1 grew to high cell densities in this bioreactor by using pulsed additions of MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr) which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Addition of oxygen was required for long-term (>30 days) operation of the closed-system bioreactor. Strain IMB-1 was capable of oxidizing large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 days). The second bioreactor, operated as an open system, consisted of a 10-L flow-through fermenter, in which strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (5,000 ppm in air). NaOH was added by pH stat to maintain neutrality. Growth was continuous and 500 mmol (46 g) of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 days. Bioreactors using strain IMB-1 can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr. Considerable range in the inlet concentration of MeBr can be tolerated, however very high concentrations of MeBr (>10,000 ppm) are toxic to the organisms comprising the bioreactor. Strategies for limiting the range of inlet concentrations may include load dampening by adsorption of MeBr on solids such as activated charcoal or zeolite, followed by desorption and subsequent controlled introduction of MeBr, along with a supply of air, into the bioreactor.

Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

2002-12-01

389

Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

1998-03-01

390

Bioreactor design for clinical-grade expansion of stem cells.  

PubMed

The many clinical trials currently in progress will likely lead to the widespread use of stem cell-based therapies for an extensive variety of diseases, either in autologous or allogeneic settings. With the current pace of progress, in a few years' time, the field of stem cell-based therapy should be able to respond to the market demand for safe, robust and clinically efficient stem cell-based therapeutics. Due to the limited number of stem cells that can be obtained from a single donor, one of the major challenges on the roadmap for regulatory approval of such medicinal products is the expansion of stem cells using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)-compliant culture systems. In fact, manufacturing costs, which include production and quality control procedures, may be the main hurdle for developing cost-effective stem cell therapies. Bioreactors provide a viable alternative to the traditional static culture systems in that bioreactors provide the required scalability, incorporate monitoring and control tools, and possess the operational flexibility to be adapted to the differing requirements imposed by various clinical applications. Bioreactor systems face a number of issues when incorporated into stem cell expansion protocols, both during development at the research level and when bioreactors are used in on-going clinical trials. This review provides an overview of the issues that must be confronted during the development of GMP-compliant bioreactors systems used to support the various clinical applications employing stem cells. PMID:23625834

dos Santos, Francisco F; Andrade, Pedro Z; da Silva, Cláudia Lobato; Cabral, Joaquim M S

2013-06-01

391

Culture of human septal chondrocytes in a rotary bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) To show that extracellular matrix deposition is possible in 3-dimensional culture of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a rotary bioreactor as well as in static conditions. 2) To demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a bioreactor and static culture amplify with time. Study Design Prospective, basic science Setting Research laboratory Methods Human septal chondrocytes from nine donors were expanded in monolayer and seeded in alginate beads. The beads were cultured in a rotary bioreactor for 21 days in media supplemented with growth factors and human serum, using static culture as the control. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the beads were measured. Results Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation significantly increased during two measured time intervals, zero to 10 days and 10 to 21 days (p<0.01). No significant difference was seen between the static and bioreactor conditions. However, substantial type II collagen production was demonstrated in the beads terminated at day 21 of culture in both conditions. In addition, the biomechanical properties of the beads were enhanced at 21 days in comparison to beads from days 0 and 10. Conclusion Human septal chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads exhibit significant matrix deposition and improved biomechanical properties after 21 days. Enhanced matrix deposition during bead culture will expectantly lead to formation of neocartilage that is comparable to native tissue. Matrix production in beads is supported by the use of a rotary bioreactor.

Reuther, Marsha S.; Briggs, Kristen K.; Wong, Van W.; Chang, Angela A.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.; Watson, Deborah

2014-01-01

392

Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon immersion gratings (SIGs) offer several advantages over the commercial echelle gratings for high resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy: 3.4 times the gain in dispersion or ~10 times the reduction in the instrument volume, a multiplex gain for a large continuous wavelength coverage and low cost. We present results from lab characterization of a large format SIG of astronomical observation quality. This SIG, with a 54.74 degree blaze angle (R1.4), 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area, was developed for high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~70,000) in the near IR (1.1-2.5 ?m). Its entrance surface was coated with a single layer of silicon nitride antireflection (AR) coating and its grating surface was coated with a thin layer of gold to increase its throughput at 1.1-2.5 ?m. The lab measurements have shown that the SIG delivered a spectral resolution of R=114,000 at 1.55 ?m with a lab testing spectrograph with a 20 mm diameter pupil. The measured peak grating efficiency is 72% at 1.55 ?m, which is consistent with the measurements in the optical wavelengths from the grating surface at the air side. This SIG is being implemented in a new generation cryogenic IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectrometer (FIRST), to offer broad-band high resolution IR spectroscopy with R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 um under a typical seeing condition in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array at the robotically controlled Tennessee State University 2-meter Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. FIRST is designed to provide high precision Doppler measurements (~4 m/s) for the identification and characterization of extrasolar planets, especially rocky planets in habitable zones, orbiting low mass M dwarf stars. It will also be used for other high resolution IR spectroscopic observations of such as young stars, brown dwarfs, magnetic fields, star formation and interstellar mediums. An optimally designed SIG of the similar size can be used in the Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer (SIGS) to fill the need for high resolution spectroscopy at mid IR to far IR (~25-300 ?m) for the NASA SOFIA airborne mission in the future.

Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Fletcher, Adam; Wan, Xiaoke; Chang, Liang; Jakeman, Hali; Koukis, Dimitrios; Tanner, David B.; Ebbets, Dennis; Weinberg, Jonathan; Lipscy, Sarah; Nyquist, Rich; Bally, John

2012-09-01

393

Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

Schlager, K. J.

1998-11-01

394

Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

2010-01-01

395

Oxygen transfer characteristics of miniaturized bioreactor systems.  

PubMed

Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1-10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached k(L) a values of 460 h(-1) , and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h(-1) k(L) a system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of k(L) a measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. PMID:23280578

Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

2013-04-01

396

Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect

Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper-try sealers. Two specific additives without sodium silicate as alkaline additive were developed in this project: One additive was the sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as self-degradation promoting additive; the other was the hard-burned magnesium oxide (MgO) made from calcinating at 1,000-1,500 C as an expansive additive. The AASC and AASF cementitious sealers made by incorporating an appropriate amount of these additives met the following six criteria: 1) One dry mix component product; 2) plastic viscosity, 20 to 70 cp at 300 rpm; 3) maintenance of pumpability for at least 1 hour at 85 C; 4) compressive strength >2000 psi; 5) self-degradable by injection with water at a certain pressure; and 6) expandable and swelling properties; {ge}0.5% of total volume of the sealer.

Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

2011-12-31

397

Liquid refractometer based on immersion diffractometry.  

PubMed

This study presents a laser diffractometric refractometer for measuring the refractive index of liquids. The refractive index is determined by rotating a reflection grating that is immersed in the fluid under test, and measuring the first-order Littrow diffraction angle. The Littrow angle is easily detected form the interferogram formed by the diffracted beam from the grating and the reflected beam from the liquid surface. No special cell for liquids is required. The alignment and measuring processes are simpler than those of other refractometers. The results of a feasibility experiment reveal that the accuracy of the proposed approach is about 0.003 for a refractive index of around 1.3. PMID:19547294

Lu, Sheng-Hua; Pan, Shang-Peng; Liu, Tzong-Shi; Kao, Ching-Fen

2007-07-23

398

Plasma immersion ion implantation of Pebax polymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was applied to Pebax thin films and plates using doses ranging from 5 × 10 14 to 10 17 ions/cm 2 at applied voltages of 5, 10, 20 and 30 kV. The analysis of the Pebax structure after implantation was performed using FTIR ATR, Raman, UV-vis transmission spectra, tensile and AFM contact mode data. The carbonization and depolymerisation processes were observed in the surface layer of Pebax. It was found, that graphitic- and diamond-like structures in Pebax are formed at PIII treatment of 30 kV applied voltage. AFM measurement data showed that the hardness of the Pebax surface layer increased sharply at PIII treatment with a dose higher then 10 16 ions/cm 2. The bulk mechanical properties of the Pebax film after PIII remained unchanged.

Kondyurin, A.; Volodin, P.; Weber, J.

2006-10-01

399

Motion parallax in immersive cylindrical display systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion parallax is a crucial visual cue produced by translations of the observer for the perception of depth and selfmotion. Therefore, tracking the observer viewpoint has become inevitable in immersive virtual (VR) reality systems (cylindrical screens, CAVE, head mounted displays) used e.g. in automotive industry (style reviews, architecture design, ergonomics studies) or in scientific studies of visual perception. The perception of a stable and rigid world requires that this visual cue be coherent with other extra-retinal (e.g. vestibular, kinesthetic) cues signaling ego-motion. Although world stability is never questioned in real world, rendering head coupled viewpoint in VR can lead to the perception of an illusory perception of unstable environments, unless a non-unity scale factor is applied on recorded head movements. Besides, cylindrical screens are usually used with static observers due to image distortions when rendering image for viewpoints different from a sweet spot. We developed a technique to compensate in real-time these non-linear visual distortions, in an industrial VR setup, based on a cylindrical screen projection system. Additionally, to evaluate the amount of discrepancies tolerated without perceptual distortions between visual and extraretinal cues, a "motion parallax gain" between the velocity of the observer's head and that of the virtual camera was introduced in this system. The influence of this artificial gain was measured on the gait stability of free-standing participants. Results indicate that, below unity, gains significantly alter postural control. Conversely, the influence of higher gains remains limited, suggesting a certain tolerance of observers to these conditions. Parallax gain amplification is therefore proposed as a possible solution to provide a wider exploration of space to users of immersive virtual reality systems.

Filliard, N.; Reymond, G.; Kemeny, A.; Berthoz, A.

2012-02-01

400

Human hepatocyte functions in a crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

An important challenge in liver tissue engineering is the development of bioartificial systems that are able to favour the liver reconstruction and to modulate liver cell behaviour. A crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor was developed to support the long-term maintenance and differentiation of human hepatocytes. The bioreactor consists of two types of hollow fiber (HF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) and physico-chemical properties cross-assembled in alternating manner: modified polyetheretherketone (PEEK-WC) and polyethersulfone (PES), used for the medium inflow and outflow, respectively. The combination of these two fiber set produces an extracapillary network for the adhesion of cells and a high mass exchange through the cross-flow of culture medium. The transport of liver specific products such as albumin and urea together with the transport of drug such as diazepam was modelled and compared with the experimental metabolic data. The theoretical metabolite concentration differed 7.5% for albumin and 5% for urea with respect to experimental data. The optimised perfusion conditions of the bioreactor allowed the maintenance of liver functions in terms of urea synthesis, albumin secretion and diazepam biotransformation up to 18 days of culture. In particular the good performance of the bioreactor was confirmed by the high rate of urea synthesis (28.7 microg/h 10(6) cells) and diazepam biotransformation. In the bioreactor human hepatocytes expressed at high levels the individual cytochrome P450 isoenzymes involved in the diazepam metabolism. The results demonstrated that crossed HF membrane bioreactor is able to support the maintenance of primary human hepatocytes preserving their liver specific functions for all investigated period. This device may be a potential tool in the liver tissue engineering for drug metabolism/toxicity testing and study of disease pathogenesis alternatively to animal experimentation. PMID:19185912

De Bartolo, Loredana; Salerno, Simona; Curcio, Efrem; Piscioneri, Antonella; Rende, Maria; Morelli, Sabrina; Tasselli, Franco; Bader, Augustinus; Drioli, Enrico

2009-05-01

401

Mathematical foundations of the immersed finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an immersed solid system (ISS) method to efficiently treat the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems. Augmenting a fluid in the moving solid domain, we introduce a volumetric force to obtain the correct dynamics for both the fluid and the structure. We further define an Euler-Lagrange mapping to describe the motion of the immersed solid. A weak

Wing Kam Liu; Do Wan Kim; Shaoqiang Tang

2007-01-01

402

Mathematical foundations of the immersed finite element method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an immersed solid system (ISS) method to efficiently treat the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems. Augmenting a fluid in the moving solid domain, we introduce a volumetric force to obtain the correct dynamics for both the fluid and the structure. We further define an Euler–Lagrange mapping to describe the motion of the immersed solid. A weak

Wing Kam Liu; Do Wan Kim; Shaoqiang Tang

2007-01-01

403

Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

Reyhner, Jon

2010-01-01

404

Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives

Scott A. Lerner; Charles L. Bennett; Jay V. Bixler; Paul J. Kuzmenko; Isabella T. Lewis

2005-01-01

405

Fabrication and performance of silicon immersion gratings for infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon immersion gratings open up the possibility of compact infrared spectrometers with high throughput, high spectral resolution, and extensive instantaneous coverage. The performance of the diffraction gratings that we have been developing over the past 15 years has reached the level where it can exceed that of commercially available diffraction gratings. We have produced science-grade immersion grating echelles with coarsely

Jasmina P. Marsh; Douglas J. Mar; Daniel T. Jaffe

2006-01-01

406

Fabrication and Performance of Silicon Immersion Gratings for Infrared Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon immersion gratings open up the possibility of compact infrared spectrometers with high throughput, high spectral resolution, and extensive instantaneous coverage. The performance of the diffraction gratings that we have been developing over the past 15 years has reached the level where it can exceed that of commercially available diffraction gratings. We have produced science-grade immersion grating echelles with coarsely

Jasmina P. Marsh; Douglas J. Mar; Daniel T. Jaffe

407

Materials and Fabrication Issues for Large Machined Germanium Immersion Gratings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LLNL has successfully fabricated small (1.5 cm2 area) germanium immersion gratings. We studied the feasibility of producing a large germanium immersion grating by means of single point diamond flycutting. Our baseline design is a 63.4(sup o) blaze echelle...

P. J. Kuzmenko P. J. Davis S. L. Little L. C. Hale

2006-01-01

408

Immersion grating and etched gratings for infrared astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immersion grating with a high refractive index, n, increases the spectral resolution by a factor n over that of a reflective surface grating of equal length. A silicon immersion grating has been developed and tested; initial results are reported here.

Guenter R. Wiedemann; Hemant H. Dave; Donald E. Jennings

1993-01-01

409

Manufacturing of silicon immersion gratings for infrared spectrometers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon immersion gratings have been a promising future technology for high resolution infrared spectroscopy for over 15 years. We report here on our current immersion grating research, including extensive measurements of the performance of micromachined silicon devices. We are currently producing gratings for two high resolution spectrometers: iSHELL at the University of Hawaii and IGRINS at the University of Texas

Weisong Wang; Michael Gully-Santiago; Casey Deen; Douglas J. Mar; Daniel T. Jaffe

2010-01-01

410

Immersion lens microscopy of photonic nanostructures and quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe recent experimental and theoretical advances in immersion lens microscopy for, both surface and subsurface imaging as applied to photonic nanostructures. We examine in detail the ability of sharp metal tips to enhance local optical fields for nanometer resolution microscopy and spectroscopy. Finally, we describe a new approach to nano-optics, that of combining solid immersion microscopy with tip-enhanced focusing

Bennett B. Goldberg; S. B. Ippolito; L. Novotny; Zhiheng Liu; M. S. Unlu

2002-01-01

411

Immersion Marking of Juvenile Midas Cichlids with Oxytetracycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory experiments were conducted on the use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) for marking juvenile Midas cichlids Amphilophus citrinellus. Juveniles were immersed in tris-buffered OTC solutions of 200, 400, or 600 mg\\/L for 4, 8, or 16 h. Marked juveniles were detected by the presence of a fluorescent mark on spines and rays when viewed under an ultraviolet light. Immersion in

Jennifer M. Barker; Kenneth R. McKaye

2004-01-01

412

Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

Makropoulos, Josee

2010-01-01

413

Constructing immersive virtual space for HAI with photos  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research presents a system to construct immersive virtual spaces for human agent interaction which added information for agents not to unnaturally behave by using photos. We need virtual spaces which look like the real world to observe human agent interaction, for expansion of research scope. To make such a space, we think that immersive space, photos and information of

Shingo Mori; Yoshimasa Ohmoto; Toyoaki Nishida

2011-01-01

414

Introduction of English Immersion in China: A Transplant with Modifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of replicating the French immersion model used in Canada to English immersion programs in China. It provides the Chinese context of this program highlighting the importance of English education and the defect of traditional English teaching and learning. The paper explains the borrowable features of the French…

Qiang, Haiyan; Siegel, Linda S.

2012-01-01

415

'This Is Not a Game': Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing convergence and mobility of digital network technologies have given rise to new, massively-scaled modes of social interaction where the physical and virtual worlds meet. This paper explores one product of these extreme networks, the emergent genre of immersive enter- tainment, as a potential tool for harnessing collective action. Through an analysis of the structure and rhetoric of immersive

Jane McGonigal

416

Perceptual Properties of Immersive Environments: Differentiating Necessary, Sufficient, and Nice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immersive environments for virtual reality in flight simulation are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation. The presentation covers the effects of latency on the realism of an immersive environment, state of the art graphics from 1978 and 1998, billboarding, the resolution and texture of Hi-Lo Stereo, and the aesthetics of virtual environments.

Kaiser, Mary K.

1998-01-01

417

Collaborative scientific visualization in networked immersive virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A collaborative scientific visualization environment was constructed by connecting the CABIN immersive multi-screen display system to several immersive projection displays and to supercomputers via a broadband network. In this environment, users in remote places are able to discuss the displayed phenomena while looking at the same data. In particular, a video avatar method was developed to realize natural communication in

T. Ogi; K. Tamagawa; T. Yamada; M. Hirose

1999-01-01

418

Immersion Education in the Early Years: A Special Issue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early years' immersion education programmes can be either monolingual or bilingual, and their objectives can range from language maintenance and/or enrichment to early second language learning, depending on the context of implementation. Here we examine some of the key issues and policy concerns relating to immersion education in the early…

Hickey, Tina M.; de Mejía, Anne-Marie

2014-01-01

419

Non-avalanche-related snow immersion deaths: tree well and deep snow immersion asphyxiation.  

PubMed

Non-avalanche-related snow immersion death (NARSID), or snow immersion asphyxiation, is a significant winter mountain hazard for skiers and snowboarders. This phenomenon occurs predominately in western North America, where large tree wells and deep snowpacks develop. Although statistics are difficult to procure, snow immersion asphyxiation has resulted in more than 70 documented deaths in the past 2 decades. The primary purpose of this review is to examine the existing literature on NARSID to help prevent such dangerous accidents through educating wilderness medicine professionals and fostering public awareness. The exact duration of burial to time of death and the cause of death are not precisely known but can be postulated from accident reports, experimental snow burial studies, and avalanche literature. In most cases, death probably occurs within 15 to 30 minutes from the time of burial. However, survival after prolonged burial in a tree well and deep snow is possible. The cause of death is asphyxiation, probably due to one of the mechanisms that produce asphyxia in avalanche burial victims: positional asphyxia, airway obstruction, or carbon dioxide displacement asphyxia. Prevention of snow immersion asphyxiation begins with skiers and snowboarders staying within the limits of their skills, using the proper tools for deep powder, staying in control at all times, and employing a buddy system. A skier or snowboarder who falls near or into a tree well should tuck, roll, and try to land upright, grab the tree trunk or a branch, and yell or blow a whistle to alert partners. If buried upside down, the person should stay calm and create an air pocket, which is probably of paramount importance. Skiers and snowboarders should use avalanche safety equipment to lessen the risk of snow submersion asphyxiation. PMID:20832705

Van Tilburg, Christopher

2010-09-01

420

Perchlorate removal in sand and plastic media bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater was examined using two side-by-side pilot-scale fixed-bed bioreactors packed with sand or plastic media, and bioaugmented with the perchlorate-degrading bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. KJ. Groundwater containing perchlorate (77?g\\/L), nitrate (4mg-NO3\\/L), and dissolved oxygen (7.5mg\\/L) was amended with a carbon source (acetic acid) and nutrients (ammonium phosphate). Perchlorate was completely removed (<4?g\\/L) in the sand medium bioreactor

Booki Min; Patrick J Evans; Allyson K Chu; Bruce E Logan

2004-01-01

421

Computer control of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial steps taken in developing a completely menu driven and totally automated computer control system for a bioreactor are discussed. This bioreactor is an electro-mechanical cell growth system cell requiring vigorous control of slowly changing parameters, many of which are so dynamically interactive that computer control is a necessity. The process computer will have two main functions. First, it will provide continuous environmental control utilizing low signal level transducers as inputs and high powered control devices such as solenoids and motors as outputs. Secondly, it will provide continuous environmental monitoring, including mass data storage and periodic data dumps to a supervisory computer.

Hall, William A.

1987-01-01

422

Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

1987-01-01

423

Temporary Water Transfers for Dry-Year Water Supply  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporary transfers of water for dry year water supply are analyzed for cost and operational feasibility. The temporary transfer is implemented as part of a water rights option agreement (WROA) between a lessor and a lessee. First, engineering analysis determines the technical feasibility and operations plan under the Colorado doctrine of prior appropriation. The cost of the WROA to a water utility is estimated. Other considerations in the agreement are discussed. The WROA is compared to other dry-year supply alternatives using a water system simulation model to obtain expected cost and operational performance characteristics.

Clark, John R.; Abt, Steven R.

1993-04-01

424

The ALIVE Project: Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astronomy Learning in Immersive Virtual Environments (ALIVE) project seeks to discover learning modes and optimal teaching strategies using immersive virtual environments (VEs). VEs are computer-generated, three-dimensional environments that can be navigated to provide multiple perspectives. Immersive VEs provide the additional benefit of surrounding a viewer with the simulated reality. ALIVE evaluates the incorporation of an interactive, real-time ``virtual universe'' into formal college astronomy education. In the experiment, pre-course, post-course, and curriculum tests will be used to determine the efficacy of immersive visualizations presented in a digital planetarium versus the same visual simulations in the non-immersive setting of a normal classroom, as well as a control case using traditional classroom multimedia. To normalize for inter-instructor variability, each ALIVE instructor will teach at least one of each class in each of the three test groups.

Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.; Denn, G.

2008-06-01

425

Use of immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis in a novel fluidized bioreactor to produce ethanol  

SciTech Connect

A novel 2-L fluidized bioreactor was designed and built and its performance characteristics were compared with those of an ordinary stirred-tank bioreactor. Calcium alginate beads containing immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis were used in both types of bioreactors to produce ethanol from glucose. The Ca-alginate beads were exposed to low shear rates inside the fluidized bioreactor and as a result the cell leakage from the beads was found to be about 100 times less than the cell leakage obtained in the mechanically stirred bioreactor. For the operating conditions studied, the fluidized bioreactor system gave at least 64% higher maximum rate of ethanol production and the power consumption per unit volume was found to be about four times less than that obtained with the mechanically stirred bioreactor. 9 figures, 1 table.

Margaritis, A.; Wallace, J.B.

1982-01-01

426

Optimizing of Bioreactor Heat Supply and Material Feeding by Numerical Calculation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell culture at large scale normally uses stirred structure. And the situation of temperature field distribution is very important to the cell culture at large scale. Some cells are very sensitive to the circumstances. The local temperature is too high or too low all influences the cell survival and low the cell quantity at unit volume. This paper simulates the temperature field under three different heating conditions. Then analysis and contrast the simulation results. The mixed situation in bioreactor is extremely significant for nutrition transmit. Usually, use ways to measure the average mixture time in bioreactor, and improve the mixture circumstance in the bioreactor through stirred impeller and bioreactor structure change. This paper adopts numerical calculation method to investigate the flow field in bioreactor. It gets the mixture time of bioreactor through virtual tracer in simulate flow field and detects the tracer density time variation curve in the bioreactor.

Zhou, Zhiwei; Song, Boyan; Zhu, Likuan; Li, Zuntao; Wang, Yang

427

Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

2011-01-01

428

Insect cells respiratory activity in bioreactor.  

PubMed

Specific respiration rate ( [Formula: see text]) is a key parameter to understand cell metabolism and physiological state, providing useful information for process supervision and control. In this work, we cultivated different insect cells in a very controlled environment, being able to measure [Formula: see text]. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been used through virus infection as host for foreign protein expression and bioinsecticide production. Transfected Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells can be used to produce different proteins. The objective of this work is to investigate respiratory activity and oxygen transfer during the growth of different insect cells lines as Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), Drosophila melanogaster (S2) wild and transfected for the expression of GPV and EGFP. All experiments were performed in a well-controlled 1-L bioreactor, with SF900II serum free medium. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells reached 10.7 x 10(6) cells/mL and maximum specific respiration rate ([Formula: see text]) of 7.3 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s. Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells achieved 51.2 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] of 3.1 x 10(-18) molO(2)/cell s. S2AcGPV (expressing with rabies virus glycoprotein) reached 24.9 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] of 1.7 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s, while S2MtEGFP (expressing green fluorescent protein) achieved 15.5 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] = 1.9 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s. Relating to the Sf9, S2 cells reached higher maximum cell concentrations and lower specific respiration rate, which can be explained by its smaller size. These results presented useful information for scale-up and process control of insect cells. PMID:19003170

Pamboukian, Marilena Martins; Jorge, Soraia Athie Calil; Santos, Mariza Gerdulo; Yokomizo, Adriana Yurie; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Tonso, Aldo

2008-05-01

429

SEX REVERSAL OF NILE TILAPIA, Oreochromis niloticus L. BY EGG IMMERSION TECHNIQUE: THE EFFECT OF HORMONE CONCENTRATION AND IMMERSION TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated sex reversal of Nile tilapia O. niloticus by immersing the eggs in different concentrations of 17-? methyl testosterone (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 ?g l-1) exposed for different times (24, 48, 72, 96 hrs). The main effects of hormone concentration (HC), immersion time (IT) and their interaction effect (HC x IT) on hatching percentage, survival and percentages

Arsenia G. Cagauan; Francis N. Baleta; Jose S. Abucay

430

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2010-10-01

431

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2009-10-01

432

Data Visualization Using Immersive Virtual Reality Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing complexity of scientific data poses serious challenges for an effective visualization. Data sets, e.g., catalogs of objects detected in sky surveys, can have a very high dimensionality, ~ 100 - 1000. Visualizing such hyper-dimensional data parameter spaces is essentially impossible, but there are ways of visualizing up to ~ 10 dimensions in a pseudo-3D display. We have been experimenting with the emerging technologies of immersive virtual reality (VR) as a platform for a scientific, interactive, collaborative data visualization. Our initial experiments used the virtual world of Second Life, and more recently VR worlds based on its open source code, OpenSimulator. There we can visualize up to ~ 100,000 data points in ~ 7 - 8 dimensions (3 spatial and others encoded as shapes, colors, sizes, etc.), in an immersive virtual space where scientists can interact with their data and with each other. We are now developing a more scalable visualization environment using the popular (practically an emerging standard) Unity 3D Game Engine, coded using C#, JavaScript, and the Unity Scripting Language. This visualization tool can be used through a standard web browser, or a standalone browser of its own. Rather than merely plotting data points, the application creates interactive three-dimensional objects of various shapes, colors, and sizes, and of course the XYZ positions, encoding various dimensions of the parameter space, that can be associated interactively. Multiple users can navigate through this data space simultaneously, either with their own, independent vantage points, or with a shared view. At this stage ~ 100,000 data points can be easily visualized within seconds on a simple laptop. The displayed data points can contain linked information; e.g., upon a clicking on a data point, a webpage with additional information can be rendered within the 3D world. A range of functionalities has been already deployed, and more are being added. We expect to make this visualization tool freely available to the academic community within a few months, on an experimental (beta testing) basis.

Cioc, Alexandru; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Lawler, E.; Sauer, F.; Longo, G.

2013-01-01

433

Immersive training and mentoring for laparoscopic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe in this paper a training system for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) that creates an immersive training simulation by recording the pathways of the instruments from an expert surgeon while performing an actual training task. Instrument spatial pathway data is stored and later accessed at the training station in order to visualize the ergonomic experience of the expert surgeon and trainees. Our system is based on tracking the spatial position and orientation of the instruments on the console for both the expert surgeon and the trainee. The technology is the result of recent developments in miniaturized position sensors that can be integrated seamlessly into the MIS instruments without compromising functionality. In order to continuously monitor the positions of laparoscopic tool tips, DC magnetic tracking sensors are used. A hardware-software interface transforms the coordinate data points into instrument pathways, while an intuitive graphic user interface displays the instruments spatial position and orientation for the mentor/trainee, and endoscopic video information. These data are recorded and saved in a database for subsequent immersive training and training performance analysis. We use two 6 DOF DC magnetic trackers with a sensor diameter of just 1.3 mm - small enough for insertion into 4 French catheters, embedded in the shaft of a endoscopic grasper and a needle driver. One sensor is located at the distal end of the shaft while the second sensor is located at the proximal end of the shaft. The placement of these sensors does not impede the functionally of the instrument. Since the sensors are located inside the shaft there are no sealing issues between the valve of the trocar and the instrument. We devised a peg transfer training task in accordance to validated training procedures, and tested our system on its ability to differentiate between the expert surgeon and the novices, based on a set of performance metrics. These performance metrics: motion smoothness, total path length, and time to completion, are derived from the kinematics of the instrument. An affine combination of the above mentioned metrics is provided to give a general score for the training performance. Clear differentiation between the expert surgeons and the novice trainees is visible in the test results. Strictly kinematics based performance metrics can be used to evaluate the training progress of MIS trainees in the context of UCLA - LTS.

Nistor, Vasile; Allen, Brian; Dutson, E.; Faloutsos, P.; Carman, G. P.

2007-04-01

434

Temporary Buildings: Where Are They Going, Where Have They Been?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the theme of movement in human geography as it is expressed by the phenomenon of temporary buildings. Discusses the anthropological and sociological clues derived from their composition and structural appearances. Includes a simple inquiry model that can be used for structures as diverse as an aluminum espresso bar or a tepee. (MJP)

Straight, Stephen; Mustoe, Myles

1996-01-01

435

Electrochemical Sensing Based on Printable Temporary Transfer Tattoos†  

PubMed Central

The realization of epidermal chemical sensing requires a fabrication methodology compatible with the non-planarity and irregularities of the human anatomy. This Communication describes the development of printed temporary transfer tattoo (T3) electrochemical sensors for physiological and security monitoring of chemical constituents leading towards the demonstration of ‘electronic skin’.

Windmiller, Joshua Ray; Bandodkar, Amay Jairaj; Valdes-Ramirez, Gabriela; Parkhomovsky, Serguey; Martinez, Alexandra Gabrielle

2012-01-01

436

Training "Expendable" Workers: Temporary Foreign Workers in Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to explore the experiences of Temporary Foreign Workers in health care in Alberta, Canada. In 2007-2008, one of the regional health authorities in the province responded to a shortage of workers by recruiting 510 health-care workers internationally; most were trained as Registered Nurses (RNs) in the Philippines.…

Taylor, Alison; Foster, Jason; Cambre, Carolina

2012-01-01

437

Drawing Lessons From The Boom Of Temporary Jobs In Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some lessons from the Spanish experience of using temporary employment contracts for regular jobs since 1984. The focus is on the role of fixed--term contracts with low severance pay, which have substituted for reform of employment protection legislation for permanent contracts. We consider the main findings about this reform on the Spanish labour market in the light of

Juan J; Carlos Garcia--Serrano; Juan F

2002-01-01

438

22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls may issue a license for the temporary export of unclassified defense articles (DSP-73). Such licenses are valid only if the article will be exported for a period of less than 4 years and will be...

2013-04-01

439

Temporary Help Supply Industry in the United States (USA).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document presents findings of a survey of temporary help agencies with a particular goal of determining the extent these agencies were able to serve the 'hard to employ' workers, such as older persons; disabled; ex-offenders; AFDC clients; and those w...

S. L. Wolfbein

1989-01-01

440

Temporary Threshold Shift Caused by Hearing Aid Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporary threshold shift over a wide range of frequencies was found after 4 hours of hearing aid use by a 15-year-old student with severe sensorineural hearing loss who was using real-ear insertion gains 10 to 20 decibels greater than those recommended by current standards. Less gain was recommended at frequencies from 500 to 1500 hertz.…

Macrae, John H.

1993-01-01

441

Welfare Returns and Temporary Time Limits: A Proportional Hazard Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes welfare returns for families who leave welfare for a "sit-out" period of 12 months in response to a temporary time limit requirement in Nevada. Findings reveal that relatively few families return for cash assistance after sitting out and that the majority who do return soon after their sit-out period is complete. Results also…

Albert, Vicky N.; King, William C.; Iaci, Ross

2007-01-01

442

8 CFR 245a.2 - Application for temporary residence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) Legalization Provisions § 245a.2 Application...are otherwise eligible to apply for legalization, may file for adjustment to temporary...who would be otherwise eligible for legalization and who was present in the...

2009-01-01

443

8 CFR 245a.2 - Application for temporary residence.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) Legalization Provisions § 245a.2 Application...are otherwise eligible to apply for legalization, may file for adjustment to temporary...who would be otherwise eligible for legalization and who was present in the...

2010-01-01

444

Credit BG. Interior view of the building displays temporary wooden ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Credit BG. Interior view of the building displays temporary wooden building construction, pump, and water piping arrangements. The well is currently used as an observation post for changes in ground water levels - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Well No. 2, East of Second Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

445

Emergent Communities of Practice in Temporary Inter-Organisational Partnerships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The paper aims to discuss the emergence of communities of practice in a temporary event organisation involving public and private partners. Design/methodology/approach: The study employs qualitative methods in the form of 31 semi-structured interviews, a five-week period of participant observations and archive research in a Swedish…

Juriado, Rein; Gustafsson, Niklas

2007-01-01

446

Bioreactors for treatment of VOCs and odours – A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odorous compounds discharged into the environment create ecological and health hazards. In the recent past, biological waste air treatment processes using bioreactors have gained popularity in control of VOCs and odour, since they offer a cost effective and environment friendly alternative to conventional air pollution control technologies. This review provides an overview of the various

Sandeep Mudliar; Balendu Giri; Kiran Padoley; Dewanand Satpute; Rashmi Dixit; Praveena Bhatt; Ram Pandey; Asha Juwarkar; Atul Vaidya

2010-01-01

447

Operation of Membrane Bioreactor with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to the activated sludge (AS) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been investigated. The long term nature of the tests allowed the PAC to gradually incorporate into the biofloc forming biologically activated carbon (BAC). One series of tests involved 4 bench scale (2 L) MBRs operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30

Choon Aun Ng; Darren Sun; Anthony G. Fane

2006-01-01

448

Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can no longer be considered as a novel process. This reliable and efficient technology has become a legitimate alternative to conventional activated sludge processes and an option of choice for many domestic and industrial applications. However, membrane fouling and its consequences in terms of plant maintenance and operating costs limit the widespread application of MBRs. To

Pierre Le-Clech; Vicki Chen; Tony A. G. Fane

2006-01-01

449

Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

2014-01-01

450

Hydrogen production by immobilized cells in the nozzle loop bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuous production of hydrogen in a Nozzle Loop Bioreactor was investigated using immobilized Rhodospirillum rubum KS-301 with glucose as the growth-limiting substrate. The maximum hydrogen production rate in the experimental range was 91mL\\/h at dilution rate 0.4h-1, initial glucose concentration 5.4g\\/L, and circulation rate 70h-1 .

Yong-Ho Seon; Choong-Gon Lee; Don-Hee Park; Kyung-Yub Hwang; Yung-Il Joe

1993-01-01

451

Two-phase partitioning bioreactors in fermentation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two-phase partitioning bioreactor concept appears to have a great potential in enhancing the productivity of many bioprocesses. The proper selection of an organic solvent is the key to successful application of this approach in industrial practice. The integration of fermentation and a primary product separation step has a positive impact on the productivity of many fermentation processes. The controlled

Janusz J Malinowski

2001-01-01

452

Anammox: An option for ammonium removal in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments carried out in bioreactor landfill simulators demonstrated that more than 40% of the total N was transferred into the liquid and gas phases during the incubation period of 380days. Ammonium, an end product of protein degradation and important parameter to consider during landfill closure, tends to accumulate up to inhibitory levels in the leachate of landfills especially in landfills

Roberto Valencia; Willem van der Zon; Hans Woelders; Henk J. Lubberding; Huub J. Gijzen

2011-01-01

453

Model System Studies with a Phase Separated Membrane Bioreactor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone ru...

G. R. Petersen P. K. Seshan E. H. Dunlop

1989-01-01

454

Treatment of household wastewater using an intermittently aerated membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intermittently aerated membrane bioreactor using a submerged hollow fiber membrane was applied in laboratory scale to treat household wastewater including toilet flushing water. Nitrogen removal was optimized with intermittent aeration of the reactor and adjusting the time lengths of anoxic and aerobic phases of a cycle. Membrane filtration occurred during the aeration period to take advantage of the air

Ick-Tae Yeom; Yoo-Mi Nah; Kyu-Hong Ahn

1999-01-01

455

A review of fouling of membrane bioreactors in sewage treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) represents one of the most significant barriers to their more widespread implementation for both municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. It exerts a limit on the membrane permeability, i.e. the flux through the membrane per unit transmembrane pressure, and thus the productivity of the process per unit membrane area installed. As with all membrane processes, extensive

S. Judd

456

Factors affecting the membrane performance in submerged membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submerged membrane bioreactors (SMBRs) operate at constant imposed flux usually with the membranes in direct contact with the mixed liquor. Membrane fouling is evident as a rise in the required transmembrane pressure (TMP). In this paper we describe the rise in TMP as a three stage process. Stage 1 occurs in a period of a few hours and involves abrupt

J. Zhang; H. C. Chua; J. Zhou; A. G. Fane

2006-01-01

457

Behaviour of soluble microbial products in a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic wastewater was treated with a submerged membrane bioreactor to investigate the organic removal performance, as well as the behaviour of soluble microbial products during long-term operation. Satisfactory chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal efficiencies were achieved, averaging over 90, 94 and 95%, respectively. The accumulation of TOC in the supernatant of

Xia Huang; Rui Liu; Yi Qian

2000-01-01

458

Membrane bioreactor technology for wastewater treatment and reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment technology for water recycling encompasses a vast number of options. Membrane processes are regarded as key elements of advanced wastewater reclamation and reuse schemes and are included in a number of prominent schemes world-wide, e.g. for artificial groundwater recharge, indirect potable reuse as well as for industrial process water production. Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are a promising process combination of

T. Melin; B. Jefferson; D. Bixio; C. Thoeye; W. De Wilde; J. De Koning; J. van der Graaf; T. Wintgens

2006-01-01

459

LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

460

Mathematical model for methane production from landfill bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this discussion is to explain the experimental results of a landfill bioreactor (LFBR) from a microbiological perspective and to provide a feasible strategy to evaluate methane production performance, since suitable models and complicated and not sufficiently reliable for anaerobic-system design, as concluded by the authors. The discussers point out that the LFBR system with a leachate recycle significantly increased the overall residence time of reactants available for biodegradation. Thus, a higher conversion of organic carbon resulted compared with the system without leachate recycle. For the degradation of recalcitrant compounds, it is crucial to acquire relatively longer residence times in order to induce and synthesize essential enzymes in optimum amounts to transform pollutants to CH{sub 4}. Pirt (1975) mentioned that, as the age of the culture used to inoculate a bioreactor approached the time of late logarithmic phase, the lag time for the bioreactor reached a minimum. This suggests that the degradation rate of the LFBR system can be maximized by using an inoculum of optimum age. This further suggests that biomass age is a critical parameter in the performance of bioreactors. In addition, the discussers propose that certain observations in the authors' paper can be explained in terms of biomass age.

Chen, B.Y.; Gallardo, V.J.; Tabak, H.H.

2000-02-01

461

Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

2003-01-01

462

Hydrodynamics of soil immobilization in the immobilized soil bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrodynamic characteristics of a new type of reactor, the immobilized soil bioreactor, were studied. This apparatus is a practical new engineering concept (soil immobilization) based on entrapment of soil particles, which contain pollutant-degrading microorganisms, in the pores of a geotextile to activate the indigenous microorganisms. The soil immobilization is the third on the size scale of immobilization processes, coming

Dimitar G. Karamanev; Claude Chavarie; Réjean Samson

1997-01-01

463

Measurement of Fugitive Emissions at a Bioreactor Landfill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The data presented in this report are from three field campaigns performed during September 2002, May 2003, and September 2003 by ARCADIS and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfil...

M. Modrak R. Hashmonay R. Varma R. Kagann

2005-01-01

464

MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

465

Impact of cation concentrations on fouling in membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the interaction of calcium, magnesium, and sodium as well as impact of monovalent to divalent (M\\/D) cation ratio and magnesium to calcium (Mg\\/Ca) ratio in the feed wastewater on membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The protein and carbohydrate content of soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) as well as their

Sara Arabi; George Nakhla

2009-01-01

466

Design of a photo-bioreactor for modelling purposes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae have been recently recognized as tools for high value products like polyunsaturated fatty acids, pigments or polysaccharides. So far however, only little modelling work has been done. Modelling of kinetics in standard photo-bioreactors is difficult because of strong light gradients and the lack of control of light flux. For the study of microalgae kinetics and for modelling purposes a

Zsuzsa Csögör; Michael Herrenbauer; Iris Perner; Karsten Schmidt; Clemens Posten

1999-01-01

467

Nonlinear PID controller for the regulation of fixed bed bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main issue of this paper is the synthesis of robust nonlinear PID control law for the regulation of the outlet substrate concentration in fixed bed bioreactor. The controller design is realized via a linearizing control law, which is coupled with a proportional-derivative reduced order observer to infer online the unknown kinetic terms related with the bioreaction rate. This controller

Ricardo Aguilar; Rafael Martinez-Guerra; Alexander Poznyak

2002-01-01

468

STUDY OF THE OPERABILITY OF NONIDEAL CONTINUOUS BIOREACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article investigates the operability of a nonideal unstructured kinetic model of continuous bioreactors. The study of operability (interactions between design and control) can help in identifying control problems that could be overcome during the design stage. The issue of operability has been studied extensively in the literature for chemically reactive systems but has not received the same attention for

A. Ajbar

2010-01-01

469

REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

470

Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50?kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors.

Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

2013-01-01

471

Selective fengycin production in a modified rotating discs bioreactor.  

PubMed

Production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in rotating discs bioreactor was studied. The effects of rotation velocity and the addition of agitators between the discs on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k L a were firstly studied in model media. Then the production of lipopeptides was also studied at different agitation conditions in the modified bioreactor (with agitators). The effect of agitation on dissolved oxygen, on submerged and immobilized biomass, on lipopeptide concentrations and yields and on the selectivity of the bioreaction was elucidated and discussed. The proposed modified rotating discs bioreactor allowed to obtain high fengycin concentrations (up to 787 mg L(-1)), but also better selectivity of the bioreaction towards fengycin (up to 88%) and better yields of fengycin per glucose (up to 62.9 mg g(-1)), lipopeptides per glucose (up to 71.5 mg g(-1)), fengycin per biomass (up to 309 mg g(-1)) and lipopeptides per biomass (up to 396 mg g(-1)) than those reported in the literature. Highest fengycin production and selectivity were obtained at agitation velocity of 30 min(-1). The proposed non-foaming fermentation process could contribute to the scale-up of lipopeptide fermentors and promote the industrial production of fengycin. The proposed bioreactor and bioprocess could be very useful also for the production of other molecules using bioprocesses requiring bubbleless oxygen supply. PMID:23694986

Chtioui, Omar; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Gancel, Frédérique; Dhulster, Pascal; Nikov, Iordan

2014-02-01

472

TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

473

NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

474

Viability of microbial mass in a submerged membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the viability of biomass in a submerged membrane activated sludge system (sMBR) which treats domestic wastewater was investigated by dealing with non-biodegradable COD, specific oxygen uptake rate and MLVSS during operation for 100 days. It was shown that the viability of biomass in the bioreactor was reduced at the 50% level because of the accumulation of inert

Halil Hasar; Cumali Kinaci; Ayhan Unlü

2002-01-01

475

Retention of soluble microbial products in submerged membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of soluble microbial products (SMP) is significant for the operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) from the aspect of both effluent quality and membrane fouling. Constant flux stirred dead-end filtration of a MBR sludge supernatant was conducted. The SMP retention by the membrane is dynamic rather than consistent during filtration. Polysaccharides and proteins are the major components of SMP

Xiao-Mao Wang; T. David Waite

2009-01-01

476

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

477

Optimal Feeding Strategy for Bioreactors with Biomass Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of bioreactors, and especially the maximization of product yield, has been studied extensively in the literature. It has been shown that, in many cases, the optimal solution corresponds to keeping the substrate concentration constant at a value that maximizes the instantaneous yield. However, in the presence of biomass death, keeping the substrate concentration constant at this value may lead

L. Bodizs; B. Srinivasan; D. Bonvin

478

Bioreactors for Space: Biotechnology of the Next Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades biotechnology in space will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living

Isabelle Walther; BART VAN DER SCHOOT; Marc Boillat; Augusto Cogoli

479

Demonstration of production readiness of an immersion lithography cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the qualification work performed on a state-of-the-art immersion cluster and shows results for an immersion process for the 45nm node. These results demonstrate full compliance with all lithographic parameters, including CD control and defectivity. Qualification was performed on an RF3iTM wafer track from Sokudo Co., Ltd. and a 1.2NA immersion scanner. A three-layer material stack was engineered using 820Å BARC / 1800Å ArF photoresist covered by 900Å immersion top-coat. After verification of tool and process cleanliness and testing the robustness of the material stack for use in the immersion scanner, resulting photo cell monitor (PCM) defect density on a 65nm memory device was evaluated. Critical dimension was verified using both CD-SEM and optical CD metrology. Results on a 45nm L/S pattern showed 0.55nm WIW 3sigma CD uniformity using optical CD metrology. Lot to lot CD control was tested for being below 1.5nm 3sigma. As special Soak-units were used prior to post exposure bake (PEB), the influence of post exposure delay (PED) on the CD performance was studied and quantified. All immersion-related modules were optimized and qualified on both 65nm products and 45nm prototypes. Additionally, comparison data for immersion and dry lithography will be presented.

Beccalli, Alberto; Canestrari, Paolo; Goeke, Mark; Kanaoka, Masashi; Kandraschow, Helmut; Kuroda, Takuya; De Simone, Danilo; Piacentini, Paolo; Padovani, Miriam; Piazza, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro

2008-03-01

480

77 FR 31643 - Siltronic Corporation FAB1 Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Temporaries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Temporaries, Aerotek Commercial Staffing...including on-site leased workers from Express Temporaries and Aerotek Commercial Staffing...including on- site leased workers from Express Temporaries, Aerotek Commercial...

2012-05-29

First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8