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Sample records for temporary immersion bioreactor

  1. A new temporary immersion bioreactor system for micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Manuel L; Herrera-Herrera, José Luis; Herrera-Herrera, Gastón; Herrera-Alamillo, Miguel Angel; Fuentes-Carrillo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    A new type of bioreactor system for plant micropropagation is described that incorporates a number of features specifically designed to simplify its operation and reduce production costs. The BioMINT unit is a mid-sized (1.2 L) reactor that operates on the principle of temporary immersion. It is built of polypropylene and is translucent, autoclavable, and reusable. It consists of two vessels, one for the plant tissues and the other one for the liquid culture media coupled together through a perforated adaptor piece that permits the flow of the liquid media from one vessel to the other. This flux is driven by gravity through a see-saw movement provided by equipment (SyB) consisting of electric motor powered platforms that change position. The structural simplicity and the modular and independent nature of the bioreactors simplify their operation and reduce the amount of hand labor required for transfers, thereby reducing the cost of the whole micropropagation process. PMID:16673911

  2. Temporary Immersion Bioreactors for the Contained Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transplastomic Plants.

    PubMed

    Barretto, Sherwin; Michoux, Franck; Nixon, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the largely maternal inheritance of plastid genomes, the risk of transgene dissemination from transplastomic plants can limit the scope for field cultivation. There is a need for a cost-effective, scalable process to grow large quantities of transplastomic plant biomass for biosynthesis of biopharmaceuticals and other high-value heterologous proteins. Temporary immersion culture is a means of achieving this under fully contained conditions. This method describes the organogenesis of transplastomic Nicotiana tabacum callus in RITA(®) temporary immersion bioreactors to produce rootless leafy biomass, and subsequent total soluble protein extraction, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblot analysis of heterologous protein expression. This method can be used for propagation of plastid or nuclear transformants, though is especially suitable for transplastomic biomass, as organogenesis leads to greater expression and accumulation of transplastomic proteins due to increases in chloroplast number and size. PMID:26614288

  3. Hydrogen peroxide induced phenylpropanoids pathway eliciting a defensive response in plants micropropagated in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs).

    PubMed

    Arencibia, Ariel D; Bernal, Aydiloide; Zayas, Carlos; Carmona, Elva; Cordero, Cecilia; González, Gloria; García, Rolando; Santana, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The relation between the oxidative burst and phenylpropanoid pathways has been studied using the sugarcane cultivar C86-56, which does not release phenolics in agar-base micropropagation systems. In stationary liquid culture, a significant production of phenolic compounds and plant survival were determined in sugarcane plants treated with 5mM H(2)O(2). The spectrophotometer determinations and the gene expression analysis corroborated that releasing of phenolics and soluble ?-quinones was induced during the first 24h of treatment. In comparison with the control treatments, sugarcane plants treated with H(2)O(2) demonstrated differences in the micropropagation-related variables when multiplied in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs) supplemented with polyethyleneglycol (PEG 20%). Expression of selected genes related to photosynthesis, ethylene, auxins, oxidative burst, and defense pathways were confirmed during the entire PEG 20% stress in the plants coming from the 5mM H(2)O(2) treatment; whereas, much more heterogeneous expression patterns were evidenced in plants stressed with PEG but not previously treated with H(2)O(2). RT-PCR expression analysis supports the hypothesis that while H(2)O(2) induces the oxidative burst, the phenylpropanoids pathways elicit and maintain the defensive response mechanism in micropropagated sugarcane plants. PMID:22921000

  4. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  5. A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts, large nuclei and nucleoli, and numerous plasmodesmata. Plantlets were obtained and after 3 months in culture their growth was significantly better in TIS than on solid culture medium. However, during acclimatization the survival rate of TIS-grown plantlets was lower. Conclusions The present study confirms the occurrence of secondary somatic embryos in peach palm and describes a feasible protocol for regeneration of peach palm in vitro. Further optimizations include the use of explants obtained from adult palms and improvement of somatic embryo conversion rates. PMID:21355009

  6. Biomass properties and permeability in an immersed hollow fibre membrane bioreactor at high sludge concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Z; Zsirai, T; Connery, K; Fabiyi, M; Larrea, A; Li, J; Judd, S J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of biomass properties and high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations on membrane permeability in a pilot-scale hollow fibre membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater. Auxiliary molasses solution was added to maintain system operation at constant food-to-microorganisms ratio (F/M = 0.13). Various physicochemical and biological biomass parameters were measured throughout the trial, comprising pre-thickening, thickening and post-thickening periods with reference to the sludge concentration and with aerobic biotreatment continuing throughout. Correlations between dynamic changes in biomass characteristics and membrane permeability decline as well as permeability recovery were further assessed by statistical analyses. Results showed the MLSS concentration to exert the greatest influence on sustainable membrane permeability, with a weaker correlation with particle size distribution. The strong dependence of absolute recovered permeability on wet accumulated solids (WACS) concentration, or clogging propensity, revealed clogging to deleteriously affect membrane permeability decline and recovery (from mechanical declogging and chemical cleaning), with WACS levels increasing with increasing MLSS. Evidence from the study indicated clogging may permanently reduce membrane permeability post declogging and chemical cleaning, corroborating previously reported findings. PMID:24901628

  7. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  8. Disposable bioreactors for plant micropropagation and mass plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco. PMID:19475375

  9. Fate and impact of organics in an immersed membrane bioreactor applied to brine denitrification and ion exchange regeneration.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Ewan J; Pawlett, Mark; Judd, Simon J

    2010-01-01

    The application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) to brine denitrification for ion exchange regeneration has been studied. The developed culture was capable of complete brine denitrification at 50 gNaCl.l(-1). Denitrification reduced to c.60% and c.70% when salinity was respectively increased to 75 and 100g.l(-1), presumed to be due to reduced growth rate and the low imposed solids retention time (10 days). Polysaccharide secretion was not induced by stressed cells following salt shocking, implying that cell lysis did not occur. Fouling propensity, monitored by critical flux, was steady at 12-15l.m(-2).h(-1) during salinity shocking and after brine recirculation, indicating that the system was stable following perturbation. Low molecular weight polysaccharide physically adsorbed onto the nitrate selective anion exchange resin during regeneration reducing exchange capacity by c.6.5% when operating up to complete exhaustion. However, based on a breakthrough threshold of 10 mgNO(3)(-)-N.l(-1) the exchange capacity was comparative to that determined when using freshly produced brine for regeneration. It was concluded that a denitrification MBR was an appropriate technology for IEX spent brine recovery and reuse. PMID:19775718

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and reuse: a success story.

    PubMed

    Ben Aim, R M; Semmens, M J

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews our current understanding of membrane bioreactor processes (including conventional and immersed membrane designs) resulting from three decades of development, highlighting process advantages, applications and areas for continuing research. PMID:12578166

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  11. Bio-reactor chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

  12. Immersive video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  13. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. Immersion Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Eileen B.

    Four classroom activities useful for language immersion instruction are described and specific applications and extensions are noted. All are best used to teach content and language at the same time. The first, entitled "Think-Pair-Share," is a cooperative learning technique that increases student participation in classroom experiences and…

  15. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  16. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  18. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  19. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the design of a bioreactor configuration was carried out depending on multiscale studies of parameters correlation in a bioprocess. With respect to the development trend of bioreactor studies in China, the significance of the development of microbioreactors for high throughput strain screening and large-scale bioreactors for animal cell cultivation were put forward. Finally, the importance of studies of systems biology for bioprocesses based on bioinformation processing was raised, and the necessity of establishing a bioprocess information database and local area network (LAN) were emphasized as well.Bioseparation engineering plays a key role in biotechnology production. At present, many difficulties need to be resolved in the area. Scientists of China have made considerable progress in bioseparation engineering. This progress includes chromatography media, recycling aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS), affinity precipitation, molecular imprinting, renaturation and modification of proteins, protein fractionation using ultrafiltration (UF), ion liquid separation of bioproducts, reverse micellar extraction, etc. The preparation of bioseparation materials, as well as part of bioseparation process research development in the past 5 years, are introduced here. PMID:20396995

  20. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  2. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-01

    Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic-anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia-nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75d and 60d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4L/kgvs and 113.2L/kgvs. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens. PMID:25857421

  3. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. Bioreactors Modeling and Control

    E-print Network

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, fungi) ex: ethanol, penicillin Recombinant m.o., mammalian (or insect) cells-bioreactor-downstream) #12;MODEL 1 ("classic") Scaling up penicillin production 1928, Fleming ­ inhibitory halo 1939, Florey Chain isolates active penicillin 1941-1943, surface cultivation (semi-solid reactors) does not1941

  5. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  6. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  7. Computational immersive displays

    E-print Network

    Novy, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2013-01-01

    Immersion is an oft-quoted but ill-defined term used to describe a viewer or participant's sense of engagement with a visual display system or participatory media. Traditionally, advances in immersive quality came at the ...

  8. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  9. IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    Mucina, Ladislav

    IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL TRAINING ENVIRONMENTS IP COMMERCIALISATION Tom Hammond Business Development Systems at Curtin have developed nDiVE: n-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Environments, a framework. Advantages · Immersive training with a focus on teaching and learning pedagogy results in greater retention

  10. Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction,…

  11. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing.

    PubMed

    Norris, P R; Burton, N P; Foulis, N A

    2000-04-01

    Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale. A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized, but the most active strains have not been fully characterized. PMID:10805560

  13. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  14. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  15. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  16. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  17. From Remote Media Immersion to Distributed Immersive Performance

    E-print Network

    Papadopoulos, Christos

    From Remote Media Immersion to Distributed Immersive Performance A.A. Sawchuk, E. Chew, R-site, interactive and collaborative environment called Distributed Immersive Performance (DIP). The objective of DIP immersive technology - the creation of the complete aural and visual ambience that places a person

  18. Immersion, Presence and Performance in Immersive Ves Logistic Regression Model

    E-print Network

    Slater, Mel

    Appendices Immersion, Presence and Performance in Immersive Ves Appendix A Logistic Regression of exocentric immersion, plain environment, no previous chess experience, and male. Then #12; h ^ = 0.9535 ­ 2) the parameter estimates are coefficients, whereas for the factors (immersion, environment, gender, chess

  19. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

  20. Immersive cyberspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

  1. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  2. EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

  3. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  4. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  5. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  6. Bilingual or Immersion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2006-01-01

    A group of new studies is providing fresh evidence of what many researchers have been saying all along: English immersion has more political appeal than educational merit. Dr. Amy Merickel, co-author of "Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners K-12," says it is not possible given the data available to…

  7. Total Immersion Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Mildred; Murphy, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    Describes the immersion experiences developed by one high school to involve foreign language students in speaking the target language over a period of hours or days. Experiences ranged from an afternoon of language games and a party for first-level students to a weekend involving 165 people from 13 schools. (KM)

  8. Total Immersion Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Mildred; Murphy, Stephen

    A total immersion program at North Rose-Wolcott High School, Wolcott, New York, involves speaking in the target language over a period of hours or days, the assistance of at least one fluent speaker for each six students, and a planned schedule of activities. Programs have varied from activities at the home of a teacher, all-day interaction at…

  9. Trench Foot or Immersion Foot

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Weather Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Trench Foot or Immersion Foot DISASTER RECOVERY FACT SHEET Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What is trench foot? Trench foot, also known as immersion foot, occurs ...

  10. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  11. Bioreactors for Plant Embryogenesis and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Fei, Liwen; Weathers, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    A variety of different bioreactors have been developed for use in initiating and cultivating somatic embryos. The various designs for embryogenesis and culture are critically evaluated here. Bioreactor optimization and operation methods are also described along with recommendations for use based on desired outcome. PMID:26619865

  12. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  13. Solvent immersion imprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Vasdekis, A E; Wilkins, M J; Grate, J W; Kelly, R T; Konopka, A E; Xantheas, S S; Chang, T-M

    2014-06-21

    We present Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a technique for polymer functionalization and microsystem prototyping. SIIL is based on polymer immersion in commonly available solvents. This was experimentally and computationally analyzed, uniquely enabling two practical aspects. The first is imprinting and bonding deep features that span the 1 to 100 ?m range, which are unattainable with existing solvent-based methods. The second is a functionalization scheme characterized by a well-controlled, 3D distribution of chemical moieties. SIIL is validated by developing microfluidics with embedded 3D oxygen sensors and microbioreactors for quantitative metabolic studies of a thermophile anaerobe microbial culture. Polystyrene (PS) was employed in the aforementioned applications; however all soluble polymers - including inorganic ones - can be employed with SIIL under no instrumentation requirements and typical processing times of less than two minutes. PMID:24789571

  14. Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors

    E-print Network

    Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors Eunsung Kan, Marc A called the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) has been investigated. The effect of several liquid feeding have developed a new vapor phase bioreactor named the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) that over

  15. Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity Eunsung Kan: The sensitivity of a conceptual model of a foam emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) used for the control of toluene vapors high perfor- mance bioreactor system called the foamed emulsion bioreactor (FEBR). The FEBR consists

  16. Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Ronald II

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

  17. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

  18. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. Maps, immersions and permutations

    E-print Network

    Robert Coquereaux; Jean-Bernard Zuber

    2015-11-12

    We consider the problem of counting and of listing topologically inequivalent "planar" {4-valent} maps with a single component and a given number n of vertices. This enables us to count and to tabulate immersions of a circle in a sphere (spherical curves), extending results by Arnold and followers. Different options where the circle and/or the sphere are/is oriented are considered in turn, following Arnold's classification of the different types of symmetries. We also consider the case of bicolourable and bicoloured maps or immersions, where faces are bicoloured. Our method extends to immersions of a circle in a higher genus Riemann surface. There the bicolourability is no longer automatic and has to be assumed. We thus have two separate countings in non zero genus, that of bicolourable maps and that of general maps. We use a classical method of encoding maps in terms of permutations, on which the constraints of "one-componentness" and of a given genus may be applied. Depending on the orientation issue and on the bicolourability assumption, permutations for a map with n vertices live in S(4n) or in S(2n). In a nutshell, our method reduces to the counting (or listing) of orbits of certain subset of S(4n) (resp. S(2n)) under the action of the centralizer of a certain element of S(4n) (resp. S(2n)). This is achieved either by appealing to a formula by Frobenius or by a direct enumeration of these orbits. Applications to knot theory are briefly mentioned.

  20. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of perspective within the scene contained on only one wall has integrity. Unfortunately, parallel lines that lie on adjacent walls do not necessarily remain parallel. This results in inaccuracies in the scene that can distract the viewer and subtract from the immersive experience of the CAVE.

  1. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  2. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

    2014-06-20

    An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

  3. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  4. An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR. PMID:25463780

  5. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  6. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  7. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  8. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts. PMID:23787304

  9. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  10. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in the body. Experiments conducted by Johnson scientist Dr. Thomas Goodwin proved that the NASA bioreactor could successfully cultivate cells using simulated microgravity, resulting in three-dimensional tissues that more closely approximate those in the body. Further experiments conducted on space shuttle missions and by Wolf as an astronaut on the Mir space station demonstrated that the bioreactor s effects were even further expanded in space, resulting in remarkable levels of tissue formation. While the bioreactor may one day culture red blood cells for injured astronauts or single-celled organisms like algae as food or oxygen producers for a Mars colony, the technology s cell growth capability offers significant opportunities for terrestrial medical research right now. A small Texas company is taking advantage of the NASA technology to advance promising treatment applications for diseases both common and obscure.

  11. Immersion in China: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Wiegerink-Roe, Elizabeth; Rucker-Shannon, Marcia

    2008-01-01

    Students can learn a great deal from international experiences. Although one can learn about another culture from books and discussions, immersing oneself in a culture tends to have a greater impact on both intended and incidental learning. The authors describe the lessons learned and student outcomes during a faculty-led 5-week immersion trip to China. PMID:18317318

  12. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  13. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  14. Broadcasting presence: immersive television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

    2000-06-01

    Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

  15. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  16. Micro-bioreactor design for Chinese hamster ovary cells

    E-print Network

    Goh, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    The research objective is to design a micro-bioreactor for the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. There is an increasing demand for upstream development in high-throughput micro-bioreactors specifically for the ...

  17. Design and Test of a Low-Cost RGB Sensor for Online Measurement of Microalgae Concentration within a Photo-Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Wouwer, Alain Vande

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer. PMID:25730481

  18. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  19. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

    2000-06-20

    A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  20. Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control

    E-print Network

    Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

  1. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  2. Strategies for Providing Low-Cost Water Immersion Therapy With Limited Resources.

    PubMed

    Brickhouse, Brenda; Isaacs, Christine; Batten, Meghann; Price, Amber

    2015-12-01

    At our university-affiliated medical center, a major renovation of the women's health and birthing unit resulted in the temporary loss of the permanent tub used for water immersion therapy during labor. Because 40 percent of the women in the nurse-midwifery practice utilize hydrotherapy, we undertook a rigorous search for an interim solution. We developed a safe and cost-effective strategy that can be easily replicated and utilized by others to provide hydrotherapy for laboring women. PMID:26682659

  3. Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

    1995-01-01

    A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

  4. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  5. IMMERSIVE WELL PATH PLANNING: THE ADDED VALUE OF INTERACTIVE IMMERSIVE VISUALIZATION

    E-print Network

    Gruchalla, Kenny

    IMMERSIVE WELL PATH PLANNING: THE ADDED VALUE OF INTERACTIVE IMMERSIVE VISUALIZATION by KENNY is entitled: IMMERSIVE WELL PATH PLANNING: THE ADDED VALUE OF INTERACTIVE IMMERSIVE VISUALIZATION written;iii Kenny Gruchalla (M.S. Computer Science) Immersive well path planning: The added value

  6. Dynamic global sensitivity analysis in bioreactor networks for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, M P; Estrada, V; Di Maggio, J; Hoch, P M

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was performed for three different dynamic bioreactor models of increasing complexity: a fermenter for bioethanol production, a bioreactors network, where two types of bioreactors were considered: aerobic for biomass production and anaerobic for bioethanol production and a co-fermenter bioreactor, to identify the parameters that most contribute to uncertainty in model outputs. Sobol's method was used to calculate time profiles for sensitivity indices. Numerical results have shown the time-variant influence of uncertain parameters on model variables. Most influential model parameters have been determined. For the model of the bioethanol fermenter, ?max (maximum growth rate) and Ks (half-saturation constant) are the parameters with largest contribution to model variables uncertainty; in the bioreactors network, the most influential parameter is ?max,1 (maximum growth rate in bioreactor 1); whereas ? (glucose-to-total sugars concentration ratio in the feed) is the most influential parameter over all model variables in the co-fermentation bioreactor. PMID:26556401

  7. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  8. Perchlorate Degradation in Fixed Bed Bioreactors-1

    E-print Network

    Perchlorate Degradation in Fixed Bed Bioreactors- 1 Bruce Logan (blogan@psu.edu) Department important and emerging topics: chlorate biodegradation · 1994-1997: Research on chlorate degradation continues · Search for funding­ failures continue · CA Dept of Health: 1997, new IC method developed; study

  9. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  10. HIGH-PERFORMANCE STEREOSPECIFIC ELASTOMERS FROM BIOREACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, 10 million tons of natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, will be produced for commercial use. Every molecule of that product will be produced in a microscopic bioreactor known as the rubber particle. These particles, suspended in an aqueous phase called latex, evolved to produce and store n...

  11. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  12. Eddington's Gravity in Immersed Spacetime

    E-print Network

    Hemza Azri

    2015-01-25

    We formulate Eddington's affine gravity in a spacetime which is immersed in a larger eight dimensional space endowed with a hypercomplex structure. The dynamical equation of the first immersed Ricci-type tensor leads to gravitational field equations which include matter. We also study the dynamical effects of the second Ricci-type tensor when added to the Lagrangian density. A simple Lagrangian density constructed from combination of the standard Ricci tensor and a new tensor field that appears due to the immersion, leads to gravitational equations in which the vacuum energy gravitates with a different cosmological strength as in Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 90}, 064017 (2014), rather than with Newton's constant. As a result, the tiny observed curvature is reproduced due to large hierarchies rather than fine-tuning.

  13. Isometric Immersions and Compensated Compactness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Slemrod, Marshall; Wang, Dehua

    2010-03-01

    A fundamental problem in differential geometry is to characterize intrinsic metrics on a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold {{mathcal M}^2} which can be realized as isometric immersions into {mathbb{R}^3}. This problem can be formulated as initial and/or boundary value problems for a system of nonlinear partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type whose mathematical theory is largely incomplete. In this paper, we develop a general approach, which combines a fluid dynamic formulation of balance laws for the Gauss-Codazzi system with a compensated compactness framework, to deal with the initial and/or boundary value problems for isometric immersions in {mathbb{R}^3}. The compensated compactness framework formed here is a natural formulation to ensure the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for approximate solutions, which yields the isometric realization of two-dimensional surfaces in {mathbb{R}^3}. As a first application of this approach, we study the isometric immersion problem for two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with strictly negative Gauss curvature. We prove that there exists a C 1, 1 isometric immersion of the two-dimensional manifold in {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our prescribed initial conditions. To achieve this, we introduce a vanishing viscosity method depending on the features of initial value problems for isometric immersions and present a technique to make the a priori estimates including the L ? control and H -1-compactness for the viscous approximate solutions. This yields the weak convergence of the vanishing viscosity approximate solutions and the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for the approximate solutions, hence the existence of an isometric immersion of the manifold into {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our initial conditions. The theory is applied to a specific example of the metric associated with the catenoid.

  14. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  15. Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that…

  16. Learning immersion without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  17. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  18. Immersive experimentation in a wave propagation laboratory

    E-print Network

    Immersive experimentation in a wave propagation laboratory Marlies Vasmel and Johan O. A that the physical experi- ment is fully immersed in the larger numerical simulation domain, and the two domains

  19. PORTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS TO IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    Gruchalla, Kenny

    , virtual reality, software engineering, biology. Abstract: Immersive virtual environments are becomingPORTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS TO IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Case Study Kenny Gruchalla. We discuss some of the issues and limitations of porting an existing molecular graphics system, Py

  20. [Occupational accidents in temporary work].

    PubMed

    Nola, A; Cattaneo, G; Maiocchi, A; Gariboldi, C; Rocchi, R; Cavallaro, S; Loreto, B; Lanfredini, L; Bassino, P

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 in Italy about 470,000 workers found jobs provided by Temporary Work Agencies, i.e., more than twice the number in 1999. Temporary Work is an expanding phenomenon since it well suits the flexibility requirements of business: 77% of Temporary Work is in the manufacturing industry, involving mostly unskilled workers. The young age, low level of qualification, poor training, and lack of knowledge of the working environment are factors that can favour occupational accidents. There are studies that relate the frequency of labour accidents to the level of training and job experience. There are no data in the literature about occupational accidents during temporary work. Our study concerns sixteen temporary work Agencies that employed more than 250,000 manual workers in 2000. From the occupational accident registers of these agencies, we analysed all accidents concerning manual workers employed during 2000, with reference to: the number of accidents with up to three days prognosis, age, sex, nationality, prognosis pattern and cause. The agencies supplied data regarding the number of hours worked during 2000. We considered 5259 accidents: the overall frequency index (FI) was 92.1, with a considerable difference between the three main agencies (87.5) and the others. The mean age accident was 27.8 years, mean duration of sick leave 13.7 days, and the main causes were work tools (51.5%); 76% of the accidents concerned unskilled manual workers. The above indexes are definitely higher than those provided by INAIL (italian compulsory insurances) for the metalworking (38.1), construction (47.7) and mining (58.8) sectors during 1997. There is evidence that temporary work is related to an increased risk of occupational accidents. Further studies are required to confirm this evidence. PMID:11676190

  1. Embedding Versus Immersion in General Relativity

    E-print Network

    Edmundo M. Monte

    2009-08-23

    We briefly discuss the concepts of immersion and embedding of space-times in higher-dimensional spaces. We revisit the classical work by Kasner in which he constructs a model of immersion of the Schwarzschild exterior solution into a six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold. We show that, from a physical point of view, this model is not entirely satisfactory since the causal structure of the immersed space-time is not preserved by the immersion.

  2. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered... (d) The temporary nature of the work or services to be performed in applications...to provide workers as part of a signed work contract or labor services...

  3. Stability Analysis for the Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z. X.; Huang, H. X.; Lu, C. J.

    In this paper, we analyse the stablity of the Immersed Boundary Method applied to a membrane-fluid system with a plasma membrane immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. For small deformations, the immersed boundary method, using a standard regularization technique for the singular force, is shown to be linearly stable.

  4. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  5. Immersion Through Believability: Using Realistic Character

    E-print Network

    Katchabaw, Michael James

    Immersion Through Believability: Using Realistic Character Behaviours to Enhance Gameplay Introduction · Immersion can be of great importance to the success of a video game · It can be a clear indication of the player's: ­Interest ­Focus ­Attention · As a result, immersion is a desirable goal

  6. Immersive Whiteboards In a Networked Collaborative Environment

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    Immersive Whiteboards In a Networked Collaborative Environment Belle L. Tseng Zon-Yin Shae IBM T@andrew.cmu.edu, tsuhan@ece.cmu.edu} Abstract An immersive whiteboard system is presented in a networked collaborative environment where users at multiple locations can communicate with each other. The immersive system consists

  7. Attention, Time Perception and Immersion in Games

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    Attention, Time Perception and Immersion in Games A. Imran Nordin Department of Computer Science Abstracts, April 27­May 2, 2013, Paris, France. ACM 978-1-4503-1952-2/13/04. Abstract Immersion gamers claim that they are losing track of time while they are immersed in the game. In this work

  8. Immersion and Presence Daniel R Mestre

    E-print Network

    Immersion and Presence Daniel R Mestre Movement & Perception, CNRS & University.laps.univ-mrs.fr/~mestre/mestre.htm Abstract: In a Virtual Environment (VE), Immersion, defined in technical terms, is capable of producing of skills or knowledge learned in a VE to the real world. 1- Immersion and Presence Virtual reality

  9. A Possible Role for Immersion Freezing in

    E-print Network

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    A Possible Role for Immersion Freezing in Mixed-phase Stratus Clouds Gijs de Boer T. Hashino, G and Klett, 1997) (Contact) - Nucleation through free IN - Immersion nucleation - Condensation nucleation;Jensenetal., 1998) SplinterEjection(>-8°C) (HeymsfieldandMossop, 1984) #12;Immersion Freezing Polar Cloud

  10. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  11. Game immersion in BCI settings Boris Zijsling

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Game immersion in BCI settings Boris Zijsling b.p.h.zijsling@student.utwente.nl December 4, 2011 1 Introduction Immersion is stated by gamers and game developers alike to be an important part of making a game good, Brown and Cairns found[1]. Jennett et al. described immersion as such:[2] [...] Sometimes people

  12. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  13. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  14. TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PLASMA IMMERSION

    E-print Network

    TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION K. G. Kostov, J. J Immersion Ion Implantation A novel implantation technique especially developed for fast and efficient;Objectives · Development of realistic, particle-in-cell (PIC), computer simulation of plasma immersion ion

  15. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  16. Immersive Well-Path Editing: Investigating the Added Value of Immersion Kenny Gruchalla

    E-print Network

    Gruchalla, Kenny

    Immersive Well-Path Editing: Investigating the Added Value of Immersion Kenny Gruchalla BP Center The benefits of immersive visualization are primarily anecdotal; there have been few controlled user studies an immersive virtual environment (IVE) and a desktop workstation. This work presents the results of sixteen

  17. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  18. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.

    1993-12-31

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  19. Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

  20. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  1. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

  2. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

  3. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

  4. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

  5. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

  6. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control. PMID:25903476

  7. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  8. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  9. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  10. REQUEST FOR TEMPORARY ID NUMBER

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    of Citizenship: Has SSN Been applied for? *Assigned Number: *The UGACard Office will assign special identification numbers to foreign visitors who do not apply for a SSN Dates Affiliate will be on campusREQUEST FOR TEMPORARY ID NUMBER AFFILIATE RETURN TO: UGACard Office 309 Tate Student Center Phone

  11. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  12. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, John S.; Qiu, Brynan; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J.; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or a vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, the lenses rely on semispherical topographies and are nonplanar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in the material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  13. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  14. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  15. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is “only” a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  16. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    E-print Network

    Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

    2015-01-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  17. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  18. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  19. Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactors Operating with Polymers Applied to

    E-print Network

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Two-Phase Partitioning Bioreactors Operating with Polymers Applied to the Removal of Substituted) within Hytrel polymer beads added to a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) operating in sequencing% polymer loading, rapid and compete biodegradation is achieved. Different polymer/ aqueous phase ratios

  20. ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

  1. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398

  2. OUTER LOOP BIOREACTOR PROJECT STATUS AND PRELIMINARY DATA SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluate the Performance of As-Built (Aerobic-Anaerobic) and Retrofit (Anaerobic) Landfill Bioreactors cells to that of conventional "dry tomb" landfills. Evaluate the performance of full scale bioreactor landfill on an operational level. Collect statistically sound data that wi...

  3. Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the effects of bleaching agent compared to other temporary restorative materials used in the study. PMID:23633802

  4. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  5. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  6. Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

  7. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the Rotating Wall Vessel developed by NASA, and originally designed to protect cell culture from the

  8. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  9. Immersed interface methods. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1995-04-01

    Considerable progress has been made on several problems mentioned in the original proposal and in last year`s progress report. Our work is also going in some new directions. The primary focus is still on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM`s) for high order accuracy of interface problems on Cartesian grids, but the investigators have also been involved in other projects. In particular, LeVeque`s work on clawpack described below has been supported in part by these grants and has been used in direct connection with IIM`s in projects in both groundwater flow and acoustics.

  10. Bioreactor boats high BTEX removal rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.

    1994-04-01

    The oil and gas industries face formidable challenges in treating process wastes to federally mandated standards. The sheer magnitude of the job is daunting: 1,200 Superfund sites and 11,000 military installations have been identified for toxic cleanup. EPA assessments place petroleum as the point source of contamination for fully 50 percent of all identified hazardous waste sites. A new treatment technolgy is a fluidized-bed bioreactor that combines the advantages of a physical carbon adsorption system with bioremediation. The system has been effective in treating tank botton wastes, brines, groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

  13. Immersive Representation of Building Information Model 

    E-print Network

    Nseir, Hussam

    2012-07-16

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an emerging technology that utilizes 3D graphical representations to improve communication, collaboration, and data exchange. Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE) is another ...

  14. Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-01-01

    : In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 °C. PMID:25022362

  15. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  16. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

  17. Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

  18. Cardiovascular tissue engineering I. Perfusion bioreactors: a review.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir A; Yost, Michael J; Visconti, Richard; Twal, Waleed; Trusk, Thomas; Wen, Xuejun; Ozolanta, Iveta; Kadishs, Arnolds; Prestwich, Glenn D; Terracio, Louis; Markwald, Roger R

    2006-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a fast-evolving field of biomedical science and technology with future promise to manufacture living tissues and organs for replacement, repair, and regeneration of diseased organs. Owing to the specific role of hemodynamics in the development, maintenance, and functioning of the cardiovascular system, bioreactors are a fundamental of cardiovascular tissue engineering. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology for cardiovascular tissue engineering is a direct sequence of previous historic successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques. Bioreactors provide a fluidic environment for tissue engineered tissue and organs, and guarantee their viability, maturation, biomonitoring, testing, storage, and transportation. There are different types of bioreactors and they vary greatly in their size, complexity, and functional capabilities. Although progress in design and functional properties of perfusion bioreactors for tissue engineered blood vessels, heart valves, and myocardial patches is obvious, there are some challenges and insufficiently addressed issues, and room for bioreactor design improvement and performance optimization. These challenges include creating a triple perfusion bioreactor for vascularized tubular tissue engineered cardiac construct; designing and manufacturing fluidics-based perfused minibioreactors; incorporation of systematic mathematical modeling and computer simulation based on computational fluid dynamics into the bioreactor designing process; and development of automatic systems of hydrodynamic regime control. Designing and engineering of built-in noninvasive biomonitoring systems is another important challenge. The optimal and most efficient perfusion and conditioning regime, which accelerates tissue maturation of tissue-engineered constructs also remains to be determined. This is a first article in a series of reviews on critical elements of cardiovascular tissue engineering technology describing the current status, unsolved problems, and challenges of bioreactor technology in cardiovascular tissue engineering and outlining future trends and developments. PMID:16700652

  19. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

  20. Measuring and Defining the Experience of Immersion in Games

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    1 Measuring and Defining the Experience of Immersion in Games Charlene Jennett UCL Interaction Consultancy Alison Walton Bunnyfoot Behavioural Research Consultancy #12;2 RUNNING HEAD: IMMERSION IN GAMES not clear what immersion means. This paper explores immersion further by investigating whether immersion can

  1. The effect of fine bubble aeration intensity on membrane bioreactor sludge characteristics and fouling.

    PubMed

    De Temmerman, L; Maere, T; Temmink, H; Zwijnenburg, A; Nopens, I

    2015-06-01

    While most membrane bioreactor (MBR) research focuses on improving membrane filtration through air scour, backwashing and chemical cleaning to physically counteract fouling, relatively few studies have dealt with fouling prevention, e.g. minimizing the impact of operational settings that negatively impact sludge filterability. To evaluate the importance of those settings, the effects of bioreactor aeration intensity variations on membrane fouling have been studied in a lab-scale MBR setup while simultaneously monitoring a unique set of key sludge parameters. In particular, this paper focuses on the impact of shear dynamics resulting from fine air bubbles on the activated sludge quality and flocculation state, impacting membrane fouling. When augmenting the fine bubble aeration intensity both the total and irreversible fouling rate increased. Major indications for sludge filterability deterioration were found to be a shift in the particle size distribution (PSD) in the 3-300 ?m range towards smaller sludge flocs, and increasing concentrations of submicron particles (10-1000 nm), soluble microbial products and biopolymers. When lowering the aeration intensity, both the sludge characteristics and fouling either went back to background values or stabilized, respectively indicating a temporary or more permanent effect, with or without time delay. The shift in PSD to smaller flocs and fragments likely increased the total fouling through the formation of a less permeable cake layer, while high concentrations of submicron particles were likely causing increased irreversible fouling through pore blocking. The insights from the performed fouling experiments can be used to optimize system operation with respect to influent dynamics. PMID:25794465

  2. Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

  3. Spatialized Audio Rendering for Immersive Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    Staadt, Oliver

    trade-off between audio quality, spatial precision, and perfor- mance. Convincing acoustic roomSpatialized Audio Rendering for Immersive Virtual Environments Martin Naef1 Oliver Staadt2 Markus@cs.ucdavis.edu ABSTRACT We present a spatialized audio rendering system for the use in immersive virtual environments

  4. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  5. Mathematics HIGHER-ORDER INVARIANTS OF IMMERSIONS

    E-print Network

    Nowik, Tahl

    -ORDER INVARIANTS OF IMMERSIONS INTO 3-SPACE 335 located at p 3, the degree dp(i) of i at p is defined as follows of F, obtaining a new immersion ^i that misses p, and we define dp(i) to be the degree of the map ^i : F 3 - {p}. We then define Cp(i) to be the expre

  6. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  7. Immersion Education in China: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip; Chi, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the views of immersion teachers in Hong Kong and Xi'an towards the immersion curriculum they are teaching. Teachers are important stakeholders in any curriculum implementation and their views are significant in both evaluating progress and determining future directions. The teachers' views were gathered from questionnaires…

  8. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  9. Assessment of Readiness for Primary French Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trites, R. L.; Price, M. A.

    A two-year study of "Learning Disabilities Found in Association with French Immersion Programming" indicated that children who encounter difficulty in primary French immersion programs may have a specific learning disability characterized by a maturational lag in the temporal lobe regions of the brain. In addition, it was found that biographical…

  10. Game engines and immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  11. Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

    1974-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

  12. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ? 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

  13. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ?0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

  14. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  15. 77 FR 59087 - Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...38 CFR Part 60 RIN 2900-AN79 Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging AGENCY: Department...Affairs (VA) regulations concerning Fisher Houses and other temporary lodging furnished...clarifies the distinctions between Fisher Houses and other temporary lodging provided...

  16. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  17. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  18. 75 FR 65365 - Disaster Temporary Housing Operational Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Disaster Temporary Housing Operational Guide AGENCY: Federal... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on the Disaster Temporary Housing Operational Guide... 840, 500 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20472. II. Background The proposed Disaster Temporary...

  19. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

  20. Extension of metabolic control analysis to bioreactor systems 

    E-print Network

    Tan, Hiong Leong

    1994-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts: i) extracellular modeling and ii) intracellular modeling. For the extracellular modeling, we focus on strategies for obtaining kinetic parameters from the continuous stiffed tank bioreactor systems. Kinetics...

  1. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  2. Optimization of cell adhesion environments for a liver cell bioreactor

    E-print Network

    Wongchaowart, Michael B

    2006-01-01

    The MilliF bioreactor offers great potential for the formation of i vivo-like liver tissue outside the body, making it a valuable tool for applications such as drug toxicity models and biosensors. Cell adhesion is an ...

  3. Development of a Perfusion Fed Bioreactor for Embryonic Stem

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Development of a Perfusion Fed Bioreactor for Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Generation. Embryonic stem (ES) cells may be a promising source for therapeutic applications, potentially providing design; stem cells; cardiomyocytes; oxygen; tissue engineering INTRODUCTION Adult cardiomyocytes

  4. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

  5. Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  6. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  7. Wesleyan Graduate Liberal Studies Guidelines/Expectations for Immersion Courses

    E-print Network

    Royer, Dana

    Wesleyan Graduate Liberal Studies Guidelines/Expectations for Immersion Courses Schedule Immersion courses, like courses run during the regular term, meet immersion course should have a syllabus available online with readings, assignments

  8. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-print Network

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by spherical aberration of the crystalline spherical aberration by an aspheric plate, the PSF of the immersion setup is improved (d). The PSF

  9. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  10. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a)...

  11. 42 CFR 488.835 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.835 Section 488.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.835 Temporary management. (a) Application....

  12. 42 CFR 488.835 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.835 Section 488.835 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.835 Temporary management. (a) Application....

  13. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a)...

  14. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a)...

  15. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a)...

  16. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a)...

  17. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  18. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  19. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

  20. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  1. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  2. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2015-12-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, Hw, and the bottom-sidewall angle, ?, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At ? = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small Hw, the AMF effect dominates. As Hw increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  3. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  4. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  5. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Noah, Karl S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sayer, Raymond L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

  6. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

  7. PARTIALLY PENALIZED IMMERSED FINITE ELEMENT METHODS ...

    E-print Network

    2015-01-05

    Interface Problems, Immersed Finite Element, Optimal Convergence. .... equations [42], the planar elasticity system [26, 40, 46, 47], the parabolic equation ... addition, on the same mesh, the unfitted finite element method has a slightly larger.

  8. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  9. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  10. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  11. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  12. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  13. Story immersion in a health videogame for childhood obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion’s role in health video games among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed...

  14. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  15. Tele-Immersion for Wireless Networks Rahul Malik

    E-print Network

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    Tele-Immersion for Wireless Networks Rahul Malik Department of Computer Science, UIUC, USA rmalik4 Department of Computer Science, UIUC, USA jhou@cs.uiuc.edu ABSTRACT Tele-immersive 3D multi camera sources in one tele-immersive environment. Due to data requirements, in the past a tele-immersive session

  16. Exploring the Benefits of Immersion in Abstract Information Visualization

    E-print Network

    Exploring the Benefits of Immersion in Abstract Information Visualization Dheva Raja, Doug A, bowman, jolucas, chnorth1}@vt.edu ABSTRACT The benefits of immersion with regard to information to explore a variety of information visualization tasks in immersive and non-immersive 3D scatterplots

  17. Immersion Committee End of Year Report Fall 2014 Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Bordenstein, Seth

    Immersion Committee End of Year Report Fall 2014 ­ Spring 2015 Why Immersion our gifted student body, Vanderbilt should offer every student the opportunity to have an immersive. · Vanderbilt currently offers many types of immersion experiences that form a solid foundation upon which

  18. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  19. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  20. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  1. Culture of human septal chondrocytes in a rotary bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Marsha S.; Briggs, Kristen K.; Wong, Van W.; Chang, Angela A.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.; Watson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To show that extracellular matrix deposition is possible in 3-dimensional culture of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a rotary bioreactor as well as in static conditions. 2) To demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a bioreactor and static culture amplify with time. Study Design Prospective, basic science Setting Research laboratory Methods Human septal chondrocytes from nine donors were expanded in monolayer and seeded in alginate beads. The beads were cultured in a rotary bioreactor for 21 days in media supplemented with growth factors and human serum, using static culture as the control. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the beads were measured. Results Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation significantly increased during two measured time intervals, zero to 10 days and 10 to 21 days (p<0.01). No significant difference was seen between the static and bioreactor conditions. However, substantial type II collagen production was demonstrated in the beads terminated at day 21 of culture in both conditions. In addition, the biomechanical properties of the beads were enhanced at 21 days in comparison to beads from days 0 and 10. Conclusion Human septal chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads exhibit significant matrix deposition and improved biomechanical properties after 21 days. Enhanced matrix deposition during bead culture will expectantly lead to formation of neocartilage that is comparable to native tissue. Matrix production in beads is supported by the use of a rotary bioreactor. PMID:22597575

  2. An implantable electrical bioreactor for enhancement of cell viability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Tae Hyung; Song, Yun Mi; Kim, In Sook; Cho, Tae Hyung; Hwang, Sune Jung; Kim, Sung June

    2011-01-01

    Low survival of injected cells which are prepared by ex-vivo culture is main obstacle in cell-based tissue regeneration. To elevate cell adaptation, we designed an implantable electrical bioreactor where human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) can be cultured and stimulated electrically. Bioreactor was composed of biocompatible cylindrical Teflon body containing a flexible polyimide electrode and implantable stimulator. The Teflon body has about 300 holes with a diameter of 300 um for effective nutrients supply inside the bioreactor and has a length of 17 mm and a diameter of 8mm for implantation. After hMSCs seeded on the collagen sponge that serves as scaffold to form a bone tissue graft, they are cultured in the bioreactor with biphasic electric current (BEC) stimulation. BEC stimulation with amplitude of 20/40 uA, duration of 100 us and a frequency of 100 Hz was applied for one week in the early stage of cultivation. Subsequently, after hMSCS were cultured for another week without electrical stimulation, cell response such as cell proliferation, cell attachment and gene expression are evaluated. In vitro and In vivo culture of hMSCs showed 19% and 22% increase in cell proliferation at stimulated groups, compared to unstimulated control. The expression of type I collagen increased significantly at stimulated group. These results suggest that the usage of implantable electrical bioreactor can be a good strategy to enhance the efficiency of stem cell-based tissue engineering. PMID:22255118

  3. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  4. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  5. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  6. Full Time Temporary Employment Opportunity Communication Administrator

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Full Time Temporary Employment Opportunity Communication Administrator The Mc of strategic and targeted communication initiatives for the Library and brand management activities designed Relations and other University units to ensure the integrity of the brand, issues management and synergistic

  7. 28 CFR 48.15 - Temporary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... whatever form of joint or unified action would be lawful under the Act if performed as part of an approved...: (1) That a request for temporary approval of a joint operating arrangement or other joint or...

  8. 28 CFR 48.15 - Temporary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... whatever form of joint or unified action would be lawful under the Act if performed as part of an approved...: (1) That a request for temporary approval of a joint operating arrangement or other joint or...

  9. Use and Fabrication of Temporary Orthotics

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Denise L.

    1994-01-01

    Orthotics are effective for altering compensatory motions which result from abnormalities in the foot and lower extremity. In specific cases, temporary use of an orthosis is beneficial for reducing abnormal stresses while allowing involved structures to heal. Additionally, a temporary orthotic may provide a trial period to determine if the athlete would benefit from a permanent orthosis. A step-by-step procedure is presented for the fabrication of a temporary semirigid orthotic. Used as an adjunct to the treatment and rehabilitation program, temporary orthotics are effective in encouraging early weight-bearing tolerance, while placing the foot near the subtalar joint neutral position. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8. PMID:16558293

  10. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  11. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  12. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  13. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

  14. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  15. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

  16. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

  17. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

  18. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

  19. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  20. Hydrodynamics of an electrochemical membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399

  1. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-05-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment.

  2. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    DOEpatents

    Zaluski, Marek H. (Butte, MT); Manchester, Kenneth R. (Butte, MT)

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  3. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  4. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399

  5. The Envirostat - a new bioreactor concept.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Hendrik; Chasanis, Paris; Blank, Lars M; Franzke, Joachim; Kenig, Eugeny Y; Schmid, Andreas

    2009-02-21

    One major goal of biology is to provide a quantitative description of cellular physiology. This task is complicated by population effects, which perturb culture conditions and mask the behavior of the individual cell. To overcome these limitations, the construction and operation of a microfluidic bioreactor is presented. The new reactor concept guarantees constant environmental conditions and single cell resolution, thus it was named Envirostat (environment, constant). In the Envirostat, cells are contactless trapped by negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) and cultivated in a constant medium flow. To control chip temperature, a Peltier device was constructed. Joule heating by nDEP was quantified with Rhodamine B in dependence of applied voltage, field mode, medium conductivity, and flow velocity. The integration of the Joule heating effect in the temperature control allowed setting and maintaining the cultivation temperature. For single cell cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, medium composition changes below 0.001% were estimated by computational fluid dynamic simulation. These changes were considered not to influence cell physiology. Finally, single S. cerevisiae cells were cultivated for more than four generations in the Envirostat, thus showing the applicability of the new reactor concept. The Envirostat facilitates single cell research and might simplify the investigation of hitherto difficult to access biological phenomena such as the true regulatory and physiological response to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19190793

  6. Bioreactor landfills: experimental and field results.

    PubMed

    Warith, Mostafa

    2002-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. This paper presents the results of an experimental study carried out to determine the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation and nutrient balance on the rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) biodegradation. Higher rates of MSW biodegradation eventually cause a reduction of the contaminant life span of the landfill and decrease in the cost of long term monitoring. The study indicated that the smaller the size of the MSW the faster the biodegradation rate of the waste. In addition, the paper presents the results of leachate recirculation on solid waste biodegradation in a full-scale landfill site, which is located in Nepean, Ontario, Canada. The leachate was recirculated into the landfilled solid waste for 8 years through infiltration lagoons. Similar results to those obtained in the laboratory scale experiments were noted. The average pH of the leachate in the early stages of recirculation was on the acidic range of the pH scale, however, the pH value was in the range of 7-8 after 2 years of leachate recirculation. The concentration of chloride remained fairly constant at about 1000 mg/l during the leachate recirculation period. A decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was observed. Recovery of landfill air space was also noted because of the enhanced subsidence and decomposition of the solid waste. PMID:11942706

  7. [Production of ligninolytic enzymes in bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Qian, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Production of ligninolytic enzymes under nitrogen limited conditions(C/N = 56/2.2) was studied in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor with a working volume of 2 L for obtaining higher production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and its control strategy. Results show that the manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac) reached peak at the sixth day and the seventh day, respectively, and the variation of them with time in a batch cultivation are similar to the results by agitated Erlenmeyer flasks; however higher enzyme activity was not achieved by applying a fed-batch strategy, in which nitrogen limited medium was fed to the reactor. In addition, variation of pH during cultivation was related to the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during both batch and fed-batch cultivation. The pH value of liquid medium began to decline when the enzyme activity occurred in the system, and the decline became more and more slow along with the decrease of enzyme activity at the end of fermentation. So, pH would be as a control parameter to find out the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during incubating P. chrysosporium. However, fed-batch strategy still need further study. PMID:16686200

  8. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  9. Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, K. J.

    1998-11-01

    An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

  10. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads.

    PubMed

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Corn, Paul Stephen; Lambert, Brad A

    2006-04-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. PMID:16676548

  12. Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

  13. Fiber-packed channel bioreactor for microfluidic protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huizhi; Chen, Gang

    2007-10-01

    The fabrication and performance of a fiber-packed channel bioreactor in microchip along with its application in protein analysis were reported. The feasibility and performance of the unique microfluidic bioreactor were demonstrated by the tryptic digestion of myoglobin (MYO) and BSA. The on-chip digestion was carried out at a flow rate of 2.0 microL/min and the digestion time was significantly reduced to less than 5 s. The digests were identified by MALDI-TOF MS with sequence coverages of 66% (MYO) and 40% (BSA) that were comparable to those obtained by the conventional in-solution tryptic digestion. The present fiber-based microchip bioreactor provides a promising platform for the high-throughput protein identification. PMID:17722209

  14. Organic ionic salt draw solutions for osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Katie S; Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E

    2012-10-01

    This investigation evaluates the use of organic ionic salt solutions as draw solutions for specific use in osmotic membrane bioreactors. Also, this investigation presents a simple method for determining the diffusion coefficient of ionic salt solutions using only a characterized membrane. A selection of organic ionic draw solutions underwent a desktop screening process before being tested in the laboratory and evaluated for performance using specific salt flux (reverse salt flux per unit water flux), biodegradation potential, and replenishment cost. Two of the salts were found to have specific salt fluxes three to six times lower than two commonly used inorganic draw solutions, NaCl and MgCl(2). All of the salts tested have organic anions with the potential to degrade in the bioreactor as a carbon source and aid in nutrient removal. Results demonstrate the potential benefits of organic ionic salt draw solutions over currently implemented inorganics in osmotic membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:22771022

  15. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  16. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  17. Computer control of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The initial steps taken in developing a completely menu driven and totally automated computer control system for a bioreactor are discussed. This bioreactor is an electro-mechanical cell growth system cell requiring vigorous control of slowly changing parameters, many of which are so dynamically interactive that computer control is a necessity. The process computer will have two main functions. First, it will provide continuous environmental control utilizing low signal level transducers as inputs and high powered control devices such as solenoids and motors as outputs. Secondly, it will provide continuous environmental monitoring, including mass data storage and periodic data dumps to a supervisory computer.

  18. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  19. 77 FR 22756 - Modification of Temporary Denial Order Making Temporary Denial of Export Privileges Applicable to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Renewal Order was published in the Federal Register on February 23, 2012. See 77 FR 10719. Mahan Air... of Industry and Security Modification of Temporary Denial Order Making Temporary Denial of Export... Close, Prince Albert Road St. Johns Wood, London NW87RY, United Kingdom. Mahan Air General Trading...

  20. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

  1. Cultural Immersion as a Strategy for Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennell P

    2015-01-01

    Cultural immersion experiences offered through study abroad opportunities for nursing students have been increasing in recent years. Examining the impact of these experiences has largely focused on students and not on the faculty leading the experiences. It is important to understand the impact of these experiences on all participants. Exploring the literature on empowerment provides some clarity on the relationship between studying abroad and its impact on participants. Further research linking cultural immersion experiences with empowerment is needed to better understand this relationship and the possibilities of empowering both students and faculty engaged in these exciting opportunities. PMID:26376576

  2. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    PubMed

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

  3. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. [Study on energy dissipation in modified airlift bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Jin, Ren-Cun; Zheng, Ping

    2005-09-01

    The effects of operational variables and reactor configurations (e.g. diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers) on energy loss in modified airlift bioreactor were investigated at the first time. The results showed that improving the structure of draft tube could reduce energy loss in the bioreactor. When the diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers were 4.0cm and 39, respectively, the total energy loss in the modified bioreactor was the least among all the configurations and 23.6% less than that of the conventional counterpart at the same air flowrate. The energy consumption for aeration was the smallest (43.9% less than that of the conventional counterpart) when the diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers were 5.5cm and 13, respectively. The highest energy dissipation (70% - 80%) occurred in the riser, the bottom zone (about 20%) took the second place and the separator (less than 10%) took the third place. The energy dissipation in the downcomer was neglectable under the conditions in the research. When the energy loss per unit volume was considered, bottom zone stood the first place. It was implied that the riser was the most important zone to cut down the energy loss of the bioreactor and some attention should also be paid to the bottom zone. PMID:16285528

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

  6. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. These methods are available from The American Society for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill... WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL...

  7. TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

  8. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

  9. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  10. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

  11. LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

  12. Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J.; McGrath, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

  13. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, I.; Lecheva, A.

    2015-10-01

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  14. Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

  15. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  16. NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

  17. Continuous Production of Alkyl Esters Using an Immobilized Lipase Bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An immobilized lipase packed-bed bioreactor was developed for esterifying the free fatty acids in greases as a pretreatment step in the production of their simple alkyl esters for use as biodiesel. The immobilized lipases used in the study were immobilized preparations of Candida antarctica (C. a.)...

  18. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50?kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

  19. Nutrient removal efficiency in a rice-straw denitrifying bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinqiang; Lin, Limin; Ye, Yushi; Gu, Jiatao; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian; Jin, Yi; Ru, Qiukai; Tian, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Rice straw was used as a carbon source in a denitrifying bioreactor, for the removal of nutrients from agricultural drainage. Nutrient removal efficiency was evaluated by: (a) nutrient loading rates (low, medium, and high); (b) hydraulic retention time, and (c) comparison with another carbon source (woodchip). The results show that concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and orthophosphate phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) in the rice-straw bioreactor effluents were reduced by 53%, 25%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, compared with influents at the medium nutrient loading rate (NO3(-)-N: 10-15mgNL(-1), NH4(+)-N: 10-15mgNL(-1), PO4(3-)-P: 1.0-1.5mgPL(-1)) and long hydraulic retention time (HRT, 24h), with a corresponding denitrification rate (DR) of 0.40mgNL(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the rice-straw bioreactor showed significantly higher (p<0.05) nutrient removal efficiency than the woodchip bioreactor at the medium nutrient loading rate and 24h HRT. PMID:26454040

  20. Pilot study: Fixed-film bioreactor to enhance carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gromicko, G.J.; Smock, M.; Wong, A.D.; Sheridan, B.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate a novel bioreactor for treatment of groundwater at a former wood-preserving facility. Groundwater, impacted with wood-treating preservatives, is currently being recovered and treated using chemical/physical pretreatment followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The bioreactor was evaluated to reduce GAC usage. The study tested AlliedSignal`s Immobilized Cell Bioreactor (ICB) on a sidestream from the groundwater treatment system. The ICB technology is a fixed-film, fixed-bed bioreactor that utilizes a dual microbe support media system consisting of (1) a patented, carbon-coated, polyurethane foam packing; and (2) conventional, random, plastic packing. The ICB was tested at four discrete operating conditions representing hydraulic retention times of 16.6, 8.3, 4.2, and 2.1 h. Influent and effluent samples collected at each condition were analyzed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenolics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Results indicated that a maximum removal of 86.9% for COD, 96.3% for total phenols, 98.9% for total PAHs, and 97.2% for BTEX. Based on these data, a full-scale ICB as a pretreatment step would decrease GAC usage by a factor of 3.5.

  1. Bioreactor landfill technology in municipal solid waste treatment: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Mudhoo, Ackmez

    2011-03-01

    In recent years, due to an advance in knowledge of landfill behaviour and decomposition processes of municipal solid waste, there has been a strong thrust to upgrade existing landfill technologies for optimizing these degradation processes and thereafter harness a maximum of the useful bioavailable matter in the form of higher landfill gas generation rates. Operating landfills as bioreactors for enhancing the stabilization of wastes is one such technology option that has been recently investigated and has already been in use in many countries. A few full-scale implementations of this novel technology are gaining momentum in landfill research and development activities. The publication of bioreactor landfill research has resulted in a wide pool of knowledge and useful engineering data. This review covers leachate recirculation and stabilization, nitrogen transformation and corresponding extensive laboratory- and pilot-scale research, the bioreactor landfill concept, the benefits to be derived from this bioreactor landfill technology, and the design and operational issues and research trends that form the basis of applied landfill research. PMID:20578971

  2. Ultrasound assisted production of a fibrinolytic enzyme in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Avhad, Devchand N; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    The present work illustrates ultrasound assisted production of a fibrinolytic enzyme at 1L bioreactor scale from Bacillus sphaericus MTCC 3672. To alleviate the shortcomings of one factor at a time method of optimization, central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology was employed for optimization of ultrasound assisted production. Different process parameters such as irradiation time, duty cycle and power of ultrasound were varied in 3 different levels in 11 experimental runs. For evaluating mass transfer enhancement effect of ultrasonication on production, control non sonicated fermentation was optimized by varying different agitation speed (300-500rpm) and aeration rate (8.33-33.33cc/s). Optimized ultrasonication protocol resulted in 1.48-fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme yield as compared to non sonicated fermentation, which comprised of ultrasound irradiation at 25kHz for 10min with 40% duty cycle and 160W power on 12h of growth phase in 1L bioreactor operated at 400rpm agitation speed and 16.66cc/s aeration rate. Declined glucose concentration from 0.1% w/v (non sonicated control run) to 0.05% w/v and breakage of cells cluster emphasized on increased substrate utilization potential and enhanced convection of ultrasound assisted fermentation in a bioreactor. Deliverables of current studies will provide significant insights for enhancement of productivity of various enzymes at a bioreactor level. PMID:24889547

  3. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  4. Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

  5. Trichloroethylene Mineralization in a Fixed-Film Bioreactor Using a

    E-print Network

    Wood, Thomas K.

    for the continuous degradation and miner- remediation (McFarland et al., 1992; Nyer and Mor- alization of gas/mL et al., 1990; McFarland et al., 1992; Oldenhuis et al.,carrier with glucose minimal medium that lacks-the bioreactor was monitored; the loss of TOM activity of the effluent cells corroborated the decrease in the TCE

  6. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  7. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

  8. No cheers for temporary artificial hearts.

    PubMed

    Annas, G J

    1985-10-01

    The author continues his argument against the temporary artificial heart ("The Phoenix heart: what we have to lose," Hastings Center Report 1985 Jun; 15(3): 15-16) with an account of recipient Michael Drummond's experience at the University of Arizona in August 1985. Annas faults the University's informed consent procedure and labels its consent form "misleading, rudimentary, and confusing." He also questions why Drummond was assigned top priority for a human heart after he had received a temporary artificial one. Annas urges a moratorium on permanent artificial hearts because of their devastating effects on recipients, and on temporary devices because they may become permanent. He also argues that there is, as yet, no ethically acceptable way of allocating human hearts to those with artificial hearts, and that the expensive bridge-to-transplant procedure fails to increase the total number of lives saved by heart transplants. PMID:3905705

  9. ICP Source with Immersed Ferromagnetic Inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2013-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have found a wide range of applications in various areas of plasma science and technology. Among different ICP topology, ICPs with immersed inductors have benefits (compared to ICPs with helical side or flat top inductors) of better coupling and electromagnetic (EM) field self-screening by the plasma surrounding the inductor. This allows for EM-free otter plasma boundary, thus making an ICP chamber entirely of metal or glass, with no EM radiation outside the plasma. It's been long known that ICP enhanced with ferromagnetic core immersed inductor is applicable in rf light sources and has demonstrated good performance. In this presentation we report a detailed experimental study of the electrical and plasma characteristics of compact ICPs with immersed ferromagnetic inductors in argon and xenon gas. The extremely high plasma transfer efficiency of this plasma source has been demonstrated in a wide range of gas pressure and rf power. A compact plasma cathode built with ICP having an immersed ferromagnetic inductor, and operating at 70-200 W has shown high power transfer efficiency of 97%, and electron emission efficiency of 25 mA/W. These data are superior compared to those demonstrated for other plasma cathodes.

  10. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  11. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  12. How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allery, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

  13. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  14. Immersion Calorimetry: Molecular Packing Effects in Micropores.

    PubMed

    Madani, S Hadi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Biggs, Mark J; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Repeated and controlled immersion calorimetry experiments were performed to determine the specific surface area and pore-size distribution (PSD) of a well-characterized, microporous poly(furfuryl alcohol)-based activated carbon. The PSD derived from nitrogen gas adsorption indicated a narrow distribution centered at 0.57±0.05?nm. Immersion into liquids of increasing molecular sizes ranging from 0.33?nm (dichloromethane) to 0.70?nm (?-pinene) showed a decreasing enthalpy of immersion at a critical probe size (0.43-0.48?nm), followed by an increase at 0.48-0.56?nm, and a second decrease at 0.56-0.60?nm. This maximum has not been reported previously. After consideration of possible reasons for this new observation, it is concluded that the effect arises from molecular packing inside the micropores, interpreted in terms of 2D packing. The immersion enthalpy PSD was consistent with that from quenched solid density functional theory (QSDFT) analysis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherm. PMID:26394883

  15. Language Proficiency, Biliteracy and French Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews impact of Canadian French immersion research on theoretical conceptions of bilingualism and biliteracy and identifies four major issues: effects of bilingualism on children's cognitive and academic development; effects of intensity of school exposure to the second language; the "optimal age" issue; and the suitability of a home-school…

  16. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  17. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284

  18. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  20. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  3. Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

  4. Immersive Electronic Books for Teaching Surgical Procedures

    E-print Network

    Pollefeys, Marc

    with the use of immersive virtual reality technology for trauma surgery training. We discuss our technical for trauma surgery. We focus on a class of trauma injuries that are both potentially lethal and also for surgical training and re-training suffer from inflexible and overconstrained timing for both instructors

  5. Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

  6. Nurses' perceptions of temporary nursing service agencies.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, E A; Simunek, L A

    1991-04-01

    Temporary staffing agencies have indeed carved out a role for themselves, and our free enterprise system lends itself to the perpetuation of the entrepreneurial spirit in all: nurses, agencies, and hospitals alike. It is wiser to learn to work with current structure realizing that supply and demand plays an important role in the survival and success of agencies. Although there are problems associated with temporary nursing staffing, they are surmountable. Orientation programs, performance monitoring, ensuring accountability of both nurse and agency are but a few that can enhance utilization and quality of service. PMID:10109458

  7. WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES

    E-print Network

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    WATER-IMMERSION DEEP-SUBWAVELENGTH SURFACE PLASMON VIRTUAL PROBES QIAN WANG Optoelectronics-refractive-index prism or high-numerical-aperture oil immersion objective lens is the simplest demonstration

  8. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

  9. BIOREACTOR ECONOMICS, SIZE AND TIME OF OPERATION (BEST) COMPUTER SIMULATOR FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is an Excel™ spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with the public domain geochemical modeling software, PHREEQCI. The BEST model is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreacto...

  10. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate § 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  11. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate § 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  12. 20 CFR 655.209 - Invalidation of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.209 Invalidation of temporary labor certifications....

  13. 20 CFR 655.209 - Invalidation of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.209 Invalidation of temporary labor certifications....

  14. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  15. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  16. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  17. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  18. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  19. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  20. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as polymethylmethacrylate...prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as polymethylmethacrylate...prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a...

  3. 76 FR 80733 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ...of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...the temporary registration of municipal advisors under the Securities Exchange Act of...2\\ makes it unlawful for a municipal advisor to provide advice to or on behalf...

  4. 78 FR 59814 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...the temporary registration of municipal advisors under the Securities Exchange Act of...2\\ makes it unlawful for a municipal advisor to provide advice to or on behalf...

  5. 77 FR 59061 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...the temporary registration of municipal advisors under the Securities Exchange Act of...2\\ makes it unlawful for a municipal advisor to provide advice to or on behalf...

  6. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  7. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  8. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  9. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  10. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  11. Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

    1983-07-18

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

  12. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psotka, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  13. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  14. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  15. Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Daniel T.

    Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy J. P. Marsh, D. J January 2007; posted 5 February 2007 (Doc. ID 76195); published 18 May 2007 Immersion gratings, diffraction gratings where the incident radiation strikes the grooves while immersed in a dielectric medium

  16. IMMERSIONS IN THE METASTABLE RANGE AND SPIN STRUCTURES ON SURFACES

    E-print Network

    Ekholm, Tobias

    IMMERSIONS IN THE METASTABLE RANGE AND SPIN STRUCTURES ON SURFACES TOBIAS EKHOLM 1. Introduction Recall that an immersion of a smooth manifold into another one is a map, which locally is a smooth embedding. Hence, smooth embeddings are immersions, but not vice versa. The basic classifications of immer

  17. Simulation Study of Process Latitude for Liquid Immersion Lithography

    E-print Network

    Cole, Dan C.

    Simulation Study of Process Latitude for Liquid Immersion Lithography So-Yeon Baeka, Daniel C has been developed for predicting the influence of immersion, i.e. the presence of a uniform liquid the improvement in process window afforded by immersion under a variety of conditions, including = 193 nm and 157

  18. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  19. From immersion to addiction in videogames May-li Seah

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    From immersion to addiction in videogames May-li Seah University College London 31-32 Alfred Place 1904 434751 pcairns@cs.york.ac.uk ABSTRACT Immersion is commonly described by gamers and game the immersive experience of videogames and the addictive nature of games. Building on Charlton's (2002) study

  20. Integrated Media Systems: Toward the Media Immersion Environment

    E-print Network

    Southern California, University of

    1 Integrated Media Systems: Toward the Media Immersion Environment By Dennis McLeod, Ulrich Neumann-0877/Fax: (213) 740-8931 nikias@imsc.usc.edu 1. Introduction The Media Immersion Environment (MIE business. The Media Immersion Environment provides a framework for the creation of various integrated media

  1. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  2. Investigating Real World Dissociation in Computer Game Immersion

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    Investigating Real World Dissociation in Computer Game Immersion: Manipulating Sense of Progression of play and can provide a sense of escapism due to their immersive characteristics, motivating players of the immersive experience (Jennett et al., 2008). Understanding RWD is important because, despite it being

  3. An Immersed Boundary Method for Computing Anisotropic Permeability of

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    An Immersed Boundary Method for Computing Anisotropic Permeability of Structured Porous Media David Research & Development, Neuch^atel, Switzerland PhD-TW Colloquium June 11, 2009 An Immersed Boundary Method remarks & outlook An Immersed Boundary Method for Computing Anisotropic Permeability of Structured Porous

  4. SOME NEW IMMERSION RESULTS FOR COMPLEX PROJECTIVE SPACE

    E-print Network

    Davis, Donald M.

    SOME NEW IMMERSION RESULTS FOR COMPLEX PROJECTIVE SPACE DONALD M. DAVIS Abstract. We prove the following two new optimal immersion results for complex projective space. First, if n 3 mod 8 but n 3 mod 64, and (n) = 7, then CPn can be immersed in R4n-14 . Second, if n is even and (n) = 3, then CPn can

  5. Evaluating Immersion and Time Perception in Digital Games

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    Evaluating Immersion and Time Perception in Digital Games A. Imran Nordin Department of Computer-XXXX-X/XX/XX...$10.00. Abstract Immersion is a commonly reported phenomenon amongst gamers, designers and reviewers of games. One of the consequences from immersion is losing track of time. Studies on time perception

  6. MImm student questionnaire p. 1/2 Marine Immersion

    E-print Network

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    MImm student questionnaire ­ p. 1/2 Marine Immersion Student questionnaire Please return to Jessica you want to learn ­ during Marine Immersion, and more generally? What is your greatest concern about this class? What would you like to be able to say about Marine Immersion at the end of the course? What

  7. Preliminary design of IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph)

    E-print Network

    Pak, Soojong

    Preliminary design of IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph) In-Soo Yuk*a , Daniel T. A silicon immersion grating serves as the primary disperser and a pair of volume phased holographic gratingsDonald Observatory from 2013. Keywords: near-infrared, spectrograph, high resolution, silicon, immersion grating 1

  8. Time perception, immersion and music in videogames Timothy Sanders

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    Time perception, immersion and music in videogames Timothy Sanders Stevenson College Edinburgh feature of immersion being a loss of the sense of time passing. In this paper, we inves- tigate if altering the degree of immersion in a videogame re- ally does influence people's psychological perception

  9. Fabrication and Performance of Silicon Immersion Gratings for Infrared Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Jaffe, Daniel T.

    Fabrication and Performance of Silicon Immersion Gratings for Infrared Spectroscopy Jasmina P Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT Silicon immersion gratings open up the possibility of compact-grade immersion grating echelles with coarsely spaced grooves on silicon substrates appropriate for applications

  10. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  11. Immersive Examination of the Qualitative Structure of Biomolecules Kenny Gruchalla

    E-print Network

    Gruchalla, Kenny

    Immersive Examination of the Qualitative Structure of Biomolecules Kenny Gruchalla gruchall, using 2D mouse or pointing device. Immersive vi- sualization is a potential solution to this: it allows upon a pilot study about the effects of immersive visualization upon an ex- pert's reasoning about

  12. An immersed boundary method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactant

    E-print Network

    Huang, Huaxiong

    An immersed boundary method for interfacial flows with insoluble surfactant Ming-Chih Lai Yu-Hau Tseng Huaxiong Huang Abstract In this paper, an immersed boundary method is proposed for the simulation in an usual immersed boundary formulation where a mixture of Eulerian flow and Lagrangian interfacial

  13. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  14. Behaviour, Realism and Immersion in Games Kevin Cheng

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    1 Behaviour, Realism and Immersion in Games Kevin Cheng University College London Interaction Centre London, United Kingdom p.cairns@ucl.ac.uk ABSTRACT Immersion is recognised as an important element of good games. However, it is not always clear what is meant by immersion. Earlier work has identified

  15. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  16. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  17. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary relief bond. (a) In every investigation under...

  18. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Complainant's temporary relief bond. 210.68 Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary relief bond. (a) In every investigation under...

  19. 33 CFR 174.21 - Contents of temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of temporary certificate. 174.21 Section 174.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....21 Contents of temporary certificate. A temporary certificate issued pending the issuance of...

  20. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency loads. 112.15-1 Section 112.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-1 Temporary emergency loads. On vessels required by § 112.05-5(a) to have a temporary emergency...

  1. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  2. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  3. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  4. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according to its terms but not later than...

  5. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  6. 47 CFR 76.1907 - Temporary bona fide trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary bona fide trials. 76.1907 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules § 76.1907 Temporary bona fide trials. The... not apply in the case of a temporary bona fide trial of a service....

  7. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may only be used for the next 24-hour period. No temporary splice shall be made in a trailing cable...

  8. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable may only be used for the next 24-hour period. No temporary splice shall be made in a trailing cable...

  9. 77 FR 15650 - Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 60 RIN 2900-AN79 Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging AGENCY: Department of... its regulations concerning Fisher House and other temporary lodging furnished by VA while a veteran is... between Fisher House and other temporary lodging provided by VA. The proposed rule generally...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  11. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules for temporary management. 438.706 Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... temporary management. (a) Optional imposition of sanction. The State may impose temporary management only...

  12. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special rules for temporary management. 438.706 Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... temporary management. (a) Optional imposition of sanction. The State may impose temporary management only...

  13. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special rules for temporary management. 438.706 Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... temporary management. (a) Optional imposition of sanction. The State may impose temporary management only...

  14. 42 CFR 438.706 - Special rules for temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special rules for temporary management. 438.706 Section 438.706 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... temporary management. (a) Optional imposition of sanction. The State may impose temporary management only...

  15. The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of six hospitals and five auto parts suppliers showed that in high-skilled occupations, employers paid more to temporary agency help than regular staff. In low-skilled occupations, temporary agencies facilitated use of riskier workers. Temporaries may relieve pressure to raise wages in tight labor markets, perhaps contributing to…

  16. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  17. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  5. 18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary compression... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment § 157.209 Temporary compression facilities. (a) Automatic....2011 of this chapter; (1) A description of the temporary compression facility, including the size,...

  6. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary registration numbers. 47.16 Section 47.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.16 Temporary registration numbers. (a) Temporary registration...

  7. 15 CFR 766.24 - Temporary denials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary denials. 766.24 Section 766.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  8. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS...REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210...section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act. Temporary permits shall...section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act have been complied...

  9. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  10. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  11. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  12. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    For purposes of administering this part, a temporary retailer is a dealer who is not engaged in business as a retailer for more than four consecutive days per event, and for not more than five events in a calendar year. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26,...

  13. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    For purposes of administering this part, a temporary retailer is a dealer who is not engaged in business as a retailer for more than four consecutive days per event, and for not more than five events in a calendar year. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26,...

  14. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    For purposes of administering this part, a temporary retailer is a dealer who is not engaged in business as a retailer for more than four consecutive days per event, and for not more than five events in a calendar year. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26,...

  15. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary permits. 1210.24 Section 1210.24 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control §...

  16. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

  17. The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the simulated environment.

  18. Development of a bioreactor based on magnetically stabilized fluidized bed for bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fei; Chen, Li; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Yu; Li, Na; Li, Shen; Guo, Xin; Ma, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Bioartificial liver (BAL) based on microcapsules has been proposed as a potential treatment for acute liver failure. The bioreactors used in such BAL are usually expected to achieve sufficient flow rate and minimized void volume for effective application. Due to the superiorities in bed pressure drop and operation velocity, magnetically stabilized fluidized beds (MSFBs) show the potential to serve as ideal microcapsule-based bioreactors. In the present study, we attempted to develop a microcapsule-based MSFB bioreactor for bioartificial liver device. Compared to conventional-fluidized bed bioreactors, the bioreactor presented here increased perfusion velocity and decreased void volume significantly. Meanwhile, the mechanical stability as well as the immunoisolation property of magnetite microcapsules were well maintained during the fluidization. Besides, the magnetite microcapsules were found no toxicity to cell survival. Therefore, our study might provide a novel approach for the design of microcapsule-based bioartificial liver bioreactors. PMID:26391509

  19. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...: 14X1125] Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood... harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz Ranch Estates (TRE) and Preacher fires burn... and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas burned by the TRE and...

  20. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  1. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

  3. Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Galloway, Martha; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Rodriguez, Linda; Gomez, Leo

    2010-10-22

    stream_source_info AERA-Twoway Immersion(2004).pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16716 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name AERA-Twoway Immersion(2004).pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 Two-way Immersion 1 Running Head: TWO-WAY IMMERSION BILINGUAL PROGRAMS Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas Martha Galloway, Ph.D. Clinical Assistant Professor and Coordinator, Title III Grants Department of Educational...

  4. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  5. Sequences of Smooth Global Isothermic Immersions

    E-print Network

    Rivière, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    In the present work we study the behavior of sequences of smooth global isothermic immersions of a given closed surface and having a uniformly bounded total curvature. We prove that, if the conformal class of this sequence is bounded in the Moduli space of the surface, it weakly converges in W^{2,2} away from finitely many points, modulo extraction of a subsequence, to a possibly branched weak isothermic immersion of this surface. Moreover, if this limit happens to be smooth away from the branched points, we give an optimal description of the possible loss of strong compactness of such a subsequence by proving that, beside possibly finitely many atomic concentrations, the defect measure associated to the L^2 norm of the second fundamental form is "transported" along exceptional directions given by some holomorphic quadratic forms associated the limiting surface. We give examples where these losses of compactness, invariant along such exceptional directions, eventually happen.

  6. Immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Adrian M.; Liu, Wing K.

    2013-07-01

    A unique simulation technique has been developed capable of modeling electric field induced detection of biomolecules such as viruses, at room temperatures where thermal fluctuations must be considered. The proposed immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method couples electrokinetics with fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the motion and deformation of flexible objects immersed in a suspending medium under an applied electric field. The force induced on an arbitrary object due to an electric field is calculated based on the continuum electromechanics and the Maxwell stress tensor. The thermal fluctuations are included in the Navier-Stokes fluid equations via the stochastic stress tensor. Dielectrophoretic and fluctuating forces acting on the particle are coupled through the fluid-structure interaction force calculated within the surrounding environment. This method was used to perform concentration and retention efficacy analysis of nanoscale biosensors using gold particles of various sizes. The analysis was also applied to a human papillomavirus.

  7. High temperature immersion type ultrasonic imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-04-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, are operated in the pulse-echo mode. The operating temperature is up to 215 °C and there is no need for a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is attached with a piezoelectric transducer and the other end is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape that provides the focus. The operating frequency is 5 MHz. Ultrasonic images produced using mechanical raster scan and the measurements, when the probes are fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  8. Ultrasonic probes for high temperature immersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-03-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, and may be operated in the pulse echo mode. The probes can operate to temperatures as high as 215 °C without requiring a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape, of which the purpose is to focus the ultrasound. The operating frequency is between 5 and 9 MHz. Ultrasonic images, produced using a mechanical raster scan with the probes fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  9. An Immersive VR System for Sports Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

    The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

  10. Friction and dilatancy in immersed granular matter

    E-print Network

    Thibaut Divoux; Jean-Christophe Géminard

    2008-06-10

    The friction of a sliding plate on a thin immersed granular layer obeys Amonton-Coulomb law. We bring to the fore a large set of experimental results which indicate that, over a few decades of values, the effective dynamical friction-coefficient depends neither on the viscosity of the interstitial fluid nor on the size of beads in the sheared layer, which bears out the analogy with the solid-solid friction in a wide range of experimental parameters. We accurately determine the granular-layer dilatancy, which dependance on the grain size and slider velocity can be qualitatively accounted by considering the rheological behaviour of the whole slurry. However, additional results, obtained after modification of the grain surface by a chemical treatment, demonstrate that the theoretical description of the flow properties of granular matter, even immersed, requires the detailed properties of the grain surface to be taken into account.

  11. Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

    2014-09-01

    In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

  12. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  13. Immersion pulmonary oedema and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrew; Edmonds, Carl

    2015-12-01

    A 67-year-old female scuba diver developed a typical immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE), but investigations strongly indicated Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). The cardiac abnormalities included increased cardiac enzymes, electrocardiographic anomalies and echocardiographic changes, all reverting to normal within days. This case demonstrates a similarity and association between IPE and TC, and the importance of prompt cardiac investigations both in the investigation of IPE and in making the diagnosis of TC. PMID:26687314

  14. Liquid immersion apparatus for minute articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. G., Jr.; Hollis, B. R., Jr. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for immersing minute integrated circuit chips in an etching solution in manufacturing integrated circuits during research and development. The apparatus includes a holder, having a handle and basket support for carrying a removable unitary basket and lid structure where fluid flow-through passages are formed, and wherein graduated openings in the handle provide for adjustably supporting the basket in a breaker at a desired level.

  15. Cultivation of Mammalian Cells Using a Single-use Pneumatic Bioreactor System

    PubMed Central

    Obom, Kristina M.; Cummings, Patrick J.; Ciafardoni, Janelle A.; Hashimura, Yasunori; Giroux, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in mammalian, insect, and stem cell cultivation and scale-up have created tremendous opportunities for new therapeutics and personalized medicine innovations. However, translating these advances into therapeutic applications will require in vitro systems that allow for robust, flexible, and cost effective bioreactor systems. There are several bioreactor systems currently utilized in research and commercial settings; however, many of these systems are not optimal for establishing, expanding, and monitoring the growth of different cell types. The culture parameters most challenging to control in these systems include, minimizing hydrodynamic shear, preventing nutrient gradient formation, establishing uniform culture medium aeration, preventing microbial contamination, and monitoring and adjusting culture conditions in real-time. Using a pneumatic single-use bioreactor system, we demonstrate the assembly and operation of this novel bioreactor for mammalian cells grown on micro-carriers. This bioreactor system eliminates many of the challenges associated with currently available systems by minimizing hydrodynamic shear and nutrient gradient formation, and allowing for uniform culture medium aeration. Moreover, the bioreactor’s software allows for remote real-time monitoring and adjusting of the bioreactor run parameters. This bioreactor system also has tremendous potential for scale-up of adherent and suspension mammalian cells for production of a variety therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies, stem cells, biosimilars, and vaccines. PMID:25349946

  16. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  17. Art, science, and immersion: data-driven experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ruth G.; Monroe, Laura; Ford Morie, Jacquelyn; Aguilera, Julieta

    2013-03-01

    This panel and dialog-paper explores the potentials at the intersection of art, science, immersion and highly dimensional, "big" data to create new forms of engagement, insight and cultural forms. We will address questions such as: "What kinds of research questions can be identified at the intersection of art + science + immersive environments that can't be expressed otherwise?" "How is art+science+immersion distinct from state-of-the art visualization?" "What does working with immersive environments and visualization offer that other approaches don't or can't?" "Where does immersion fall short?" We will also explore current trends in the application of immersion for gaming, scientific data, entertainment, simulation, social media and other new forms of big data. We ask what expressive, arts-based approaches can contribute to these forms in the broad cultural landscape of immersive technologies.

  18. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  19. Bioreactor Cultivation of Anatomically Shaped Human Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua P.; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes. PMID:24014312

  20. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  1. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  2. Utilization of microgravity bioreactors for differentiation of mammalian skeletal tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Bioreactor cell and tissue culture vessels can be used to study bone development in a simulated microgravity environment. These vessels will also provide an advantageous, low maintenance culture system on space station Freedom. Although many types of cells and tissues can potentially utilize this system, our particular interest is in developing bone tissue. We have characterized an organ culture system utilizing embryonic mouse pre-metatarsal mesenchyme, documenting morphogenesis and differentiation as cartilage rods are formed, with subsequent terminal chondrocyte differentiation to hypertrophied cells. Further development to form bone tissue is achieved by supplementation of the culture medium. Research using pre-metatarsal tissue, combined with the bioreactor culture hardware, could give insight into the advantages and/or disadvantages of conditions experienced in microgravity. Studies such as these have the potential to enhance understanding of bone development and adult bone physiology, and may help define the processes of bone demineralization experienced in space and in pathological conditions here on earth.

  3. Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering: Scientific Challenges and Clinical Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, D.; Riboldi, S. A.; Cioffi, M.; Martin, I.

    In this Chapter we discuss the role of bioreactors in the translational paradigm of Tissue Engineering approaches from basic research to streamlined tissue manufacturing. In particular, we will highlight their functions as: (1) Pragmatic tools for tissue engineers, making up for limitations of conventional manual and static techniques, enabling automation and allowing physical conditioning of the developing tissues; (2) 3D culture model systems, enabling us to recapitulate specific aspects of the actual in vivo milieu and, when properly integrated with computational modeling efforts and sensing and control techniques, to address challenging scientific questions; (3) Tissue manufacturing devices, implementing bioprocesses so as to support safe, standardized, scaleable, traceable and possibly cost-effective production of grafts for clinical use. We will provide evidences that fundamental knowledge gained through the use of well-defined and controlled bio-reactor systems at the research level will be essential to define, optimize, and moreover, streamline the key processes required for efficient manufacturing models.

  4. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  5. Degradation of waste gas containing toluene in an airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lo, Cheng-Shing; Hwang, Shyh-Jye

    2004-04-01

    Suspension microorganisms in an internal-loop airlift bioreactor were utilized to treat waste gas containing toluene. The working volume of the reactor was 35 L, and the biomass concentration was 3 kg/m3. The gas pollutant flowed into the reactor from the bottom; it then transferred from the gas phase to the liquid phase and was degraded by the microorganisms suspended in the liquid phase. The microorganisms were able to degrade 50-90% of the inlet toluene when its concentration was from 0.5 to 10 g/m3, and the superficial gas velocity ranged from 0.15 to 1.23 cm/s. A comprehensive mathematical model was also developed to describe the overall degradation process of toluene in the internal-loop airlift bioreactor. The overall degradation process included gas flow, gas-liquid mass transfer, flow and dispersion of the liquid phase, and microbial kinetics. The hydrodynamic properties including the gas and liquid superficial velocities, the gas holdup, the volumetric mass transfer coefficients of toluene and oxygen, and the microbial kinetics were obtained for this model. The substrate inhibition theory was used to simulate the microorganism growth kinetics, and its kinetic constants were obtained experimentally. The penetration theory was used to predict the volumetric mass transfer coefficient. And the drift-flux theory was used to predict the hydrodynamic properties in each section (riser, gas-liquid separator, downcomer, and bottom) of the airlift bioreactor. The concentration distributions of toluene and oxygen in the airlift bioreactor and the removal efficiency of toluene predicted by the mathematical model agreed well with the experimental data. PMID:15112834

  6. Microcomputer pH control of multiple bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.H.; Takashima, M.; Speece, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    pH control of 16 bioreactors used to study the nutritional requirements of a mixed culture of Methanothrix soehnginii and Methanosarcina mazeii is, briefly described. This control was carried out using an inexpensive microcomputer. In addition, to cost savings the computer method allows control flexibility and provides on-line computational capability which is advantageous in characterizing the fermentation process under investigation. (Ref. 1).

  7. Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

  8. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  9. Transport Advances in Disposable Bioreactors for Liver Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F.; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

  10. Method for culturing mammalian cells in a horizontally rotated bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A bio-reactor system where cell growth microcarrier beads are suspended in a zero head space fluid medium by rotation about a horizontal axis and where the fluid is continuously oxygenated from a tubular membrane which rotates on a shaft together with rotation of the culture vessel. The oxygen is continuously throughput through the membrane and disbursed into the fluid medium along the length of the membrane.

  11. Anammox: an option for ammonium removal in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Roberto; Zon, Willem van der; Woelders, Hans; Lubberding, Henk J; Gijzen, Huub J

    2011-11-01

    Experiments carried out in bioreactor landfill simulators demonstrated that more than 40% of the total N was transferred into the liquid and gas phases during the incubation period of 380 days. Ammonium, an end product of protein degradation and important parameter to consider during landfill closure, tends to accumulate up to inhibitory levels in the leachate of landfills especially in landfills with leachate recirculation. Most efforts to remove ammonium from leachate have been focused on ex situ and partial in situ methods such as nitrification, denitrification and chemical precipitation. Besides minimal contributions from other N-removal processes, Anammox (Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation) bacteria were found to be active within the simulators. Anammox is considered to be an important contributor to remove N from the solid matrix. However, it was unclear how the necessary nitrite for Anammox metabolism was produced. Moreover, little is known about the nature of residual nitrogen in the waste mass and possible mechanisms to remove it. Intrusion of small quantities of O2 is not only beneficial for the degradation process of municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactor landfills but also significant for the development of the Anammox bacteria that contributed to the removal of ammonium. Volatilisation and Anammox activity were the main N removal mechanisms in these pilot-scale simulators. The results of these experiments bring new insights on the behaviour, evolution and fate of nitrogen from solid waste and present the first evidence of the existence of Anammox activity in bioreactor landfill simulators. PMID:21795036

  12. Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

    1981-03-01

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO/sub 3//sup -//K/sub s/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m/sup 3/-min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m/sup 3/ for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued.

  13. Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

  14. Growing Three-Dimensional Corneal Tissue in a Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glen F.; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Aten, Laurie; Prewett, Tacey; Fitzgerald, Wendy S.; OConnor, Kim; Caldwell, Delmar; Francis, Karen M.

    2003-01-01

    Spheroids of corneal tissue about 5 mm in diameter have been grown in a bioreactor from an in vitro culture of primary rabbit corneal cells to illustrate the production of optic cells from aggregates and tissue. In comparison with corneal tissues previously grown in vitro by other techniques, this tissue approximates intact corneal tissue more closely in both size and structure. This novel three-dimensional tissue can be used to model cell structures and functions in normal and abnormal corneas. Efforts continue to refine the present in vitro method into one for producing human corneal tissue to overcome the chronic shortage of donors for corneal transplants: The method would be used to prepare corneal tissues, either from in vitro cultures of a patient s own cells or from a well-defined culture from another human donor known to be healthy. As explained in several articles in prior issues of NASA Tech Briefs, generally cylindrical horizontal rotating bioreactors have been developed to provide nutrient-solution environments conducive to the 30 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 growth of delicate animal cells, with gentle, low-shear flow conditions that keep the cells in suspension without damaging them. The horizontal rotating bioreactor used in this method, denoted by the acronym "HARV," was described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May, 1992), page 150.

  15. 17 CFR 240.15Ba2-6T - Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal from temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal...temporary registration. (a) A municipal advisor (as defined in Section...

  16. 17 CFR 240.15Ba2-6T - Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal from temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal...temporary registration. (a) A municipal advisor (as defined in Section...

  17. 17 CFR 240.15Ba2-6T - Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal from temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal...temporary registration. (a) A municipal advisor (as defined in Section...

  18. 17 CFR 240.15Ba2-6T - Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal from temporary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal... Temporary registration as a municipal advisor; required amendments; and withdrawal...temporary registration. (a) A municipal advisor (as defined in Section...

  19. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform...section prescribes temporary question and answer regulations under...

  20. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform... Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform...section prescribes temporary question and answer regulations under...

  1. Containerized Wetland Bioreactor Evaluated for Perchlorate and Nitrate Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Dibley, V R; Krauter, P W

    2004-12-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) designed and constructed an innovative containerized wetlands (bioreactor) system that began operation in November 2000 to biologically degrade perchlorate and nitrate under relatively low-flow conditions at a remote location at Site 300 known as Building 854. Since initial start-up, the system has processed over 3,463,000 liters of ground water and treated over 38 grams of perchlorate and 148 kilograms of nitrate. Site 300 is operated by the University of California as a high-explosives and materials testing facility supporting nuclear weapons research. The 11-square mile site located in northern California was added to the NPL in 1990 primarily due to the presence of elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water. At the urging of the regulatory agencies, perchlorate was looked for and detected in the ground water in 1999. VOCs, nitrate and perchlorate were released into the soil and ground water in the Building 854 area as the result of accidental leaks during stability testing of weapons or from waste discharge practices that are no longer permitted at Site 300. Design of the wetland bioreactors was based on earlier studies showing that indigenous chlorate-respiring bacteria could effectively degrade perchlorate into nontoxic concentrations of chlorate, chlorite, oxygen, and chloride. Studies also showed that the addition of organic carbon would enhance microbial denitrification. Early onsite testing showed acetic acid to be a more effective carbon source than dried leaf matter, dried algae, or milk replacement starter; a nutrient and carbon source used in a Department of Defense phytoremediation demonstration. No inocula were added to the system. Groundwater was allowed to circulate through the bioreactor for three weeks to acclimate the wetland plants and to build a biofilm from indigenous flora. Using solar energy, ground water is pumped into granular activated carbon canisters to remove VOCs (Figure x). Following solar treatment, ground water containing approximately 46 mg/L of nitrate and 13 {micro}g/L of perchlorate is gravity-fed continuously into two parallel series of two-1,900 liter tank bioreactors. Each bioreactor contains coarse, aquarium-grade gravel and locally-obtained plant species such as cattails (Typha spp.), sedges (Cyperus spp.), and indigenous denitrifying microorganisms. No inocula were added to the system. Groundwater was allowed to circulate through the bioreactor for three weeks to acclimate the wetland plants and to build a biofilm from indigenous flora. Sodium acetate is added to the first bioreactor in each of the two series to promote growth and metabolic activity of rhizome microorganisms. The split flow from each series is combined, and flows through two back-up ion exchange columns to assure complete perchlorate removal. Effluent from the ground water treatment system is monitored and discharged an infiltration trench in accordance with the Substantive Requirements for Waste Discharge issued by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board.

  2. Immersing carbon nanotubes in cold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiß, C. T.; Mironova, P. V.; Fortágh, J.; Schleich, W. P.; Walser, R.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the sympathetic relaxation of a free-standing, vibrating carbon nanotube that is mounted on an atom chip and is immersed in a cloud of ultracold atoms. Gas atoms colliding with the nanotube excite phonons via a Casimir-Polder potential. We use Fermi's golden rule to estimate the relaxation rates for relevant experimental parameters and develop a fully dynamic theory of relaxation for the multimode phononic field embedded in a thermal atomic reservoir. Based on currently available experimental data, we identify the relaxation rates as a function of atom density and temperature that are required for sympathetic ground-state cooling of carbon nanotubes.

  3. COMPUTER SIMULATOR (BEST) FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with public domain software, PhreeqcI. BEST is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreactors to passively treat acid mine drainage (A...

  4. Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Sze-Bi

    Theory of a microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor for growth of planktonic and biofilm populations Sze-Bi Hsu and Ya-Tang Yang Abstract We present the theory of a microfluidic bioreactor with a two-compartment growth chamber and periodic serial dilution. In the model, coexisting plank- tonic and biofilm

  5. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monaem Zytoon, Mohamed; Ahmad AlZahrani, Abdulraheem; Hamed Noweir, Madbuli; Ahmed El-Marakby, Fadia

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008?ppm and 31,215?ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113?g?H2S?m?3?h?1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2?mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500?mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5. PMID:25147857

  6. Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture

    E-print Network

    Meinhart, Carl

    Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture of hematopoietic stem cell HSC cultures. Exploring a wide range of experimental conditions at the microliter scale-scale bioreactors for stem cell production at the clinical level. The controlled stirring inside the wells

  7. PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

  8. Setting up the Qplus Bioreactor Quick checklist a day before fermentation

    E-print Network

    Setting up the Qplus Bioreactor Day 1 Quick checklist a day before fermentation Before autoclave the head on the bioreactor) Temperature probe (at the controller) Clamp and close relevant connections filters (w/ foil) Temperature probe plug (w/ foil) pH and pO2 with relevant caps Rotor (w/ foil

  9. DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS USING THE BEST MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with a public domain computer software package, PHREEQCI. BEST is intended to be used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)field bioreactors to pas...

  10. ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors

    E-print Network

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH PAPER Solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactors for the treatment of gas-phase volatile organic carbons (VOCs) by a microbial consortium Andrew J. Daugulis Æ Neal G. Boudreau Received bioreactors (TPPBs) rely on the use of an immiscible organic phase that acts as a reservoir for inhibitory

  11. Optimization of denitrifying bioreactor performance with agricultural residue-based filter media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors are a promising technology for mitigation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) losses in subsurface drainage water. Bioreactors are constructed with carbon substrates, typically wood chips, to provide a substrate for denitrifying microorganisms. Columns were packed with wood chips...

  12. Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors, Constructed Wetlands, and Outreach

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors chip tile bioreactors to reduce nitrate losses in the upper Embarras River watershed in east-central Illinois, a dominantly tile-drained, agricultural watershed. We have an 18 year record of riverine nitrate

  13. Dissipation of atrazine, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethazine in wood chip bioreactors and impact on denitrification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood chip bioreactors are receiving increasing attention as a means of reducing nitrate in subsurface tile drainage systems. Agrochemicals in tile drainage water entering wood chip bioreactors can be retained or degraded and may impact denitrification. The degradation of 5 mg L-1 atrazine, enrofloxa...

  14. Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: I. Model Development and Experimental Validation

    E-print Network

    ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: I. Model Development and Experimental Validation, a new type of bioreactor for air pollution control referred to as the foamed emulsion bior- eactor (FEBR) has been developed. The process relies on the emulsion of an organic phase with a suspension

  15. Membrane bioreactor fouling behaviour assessment through principal component analysis and fuzzy clustering

    E-print Network

    as their life-time and operation (Judd and Judd, 2011). To prevent severe fouling problems, MBR installationsMembrane bioreactor fouling behaviour assessment through principal component analysis and fuzzy Keywords: Factor analysis Fuzzy clustering Membrane bioreactor Membrane fouling Monitoring Principal

  16. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  17. Immersion francaise precoce: Musique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Music for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide in music is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The program is presented as one that contributes to the development of the child, calls for flexibility and diversification, and requires a solid music education on the part of the teacher. The guide presents the following topics: (1) statements…

  18. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

  19. The Feel Good Factor: Comparing Immersion by Design and Immersion by Default Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Fiona; Leahy, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory research project entitled "Gaelscoileanna and Multicultural classrooms: the potential for transfer to enhance L2 learning experiences". The project focussed on two language immersion contexts in Ireland which, despite obvious differences, share a range of significant commonalities. One…

  20. Exact Lagrangian immersions with a single double point

    E-print Network

    Ekholm, Tobias; Smith, Ivan

    2015-01-09

    Lagrangian immersions with a single double point are easy to come by (take any Lagrangian immersion and remove all but one of the double points by surgery). 1.2. Context. A basic question in symplectic topology is to understand the borderline between... hypothesis is not technical, but that the borderline between rigidity and flexibility is harder to locate than had been anticipated, with rigidity phenomena being more scarce. Isolated double points of Lagrangian immersions have a mod 2 grading [13], which...

  1. Minimum degree condition forcing complete graph immersion Department of Mathematics

    E-print Network

    Fox, Jacob

    Minimum degree condition forcing complete graph immersion Matt DeVos Department of Mathematics University Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6 January 13, 2011 Abstract An immersion of a graph H into a graph G is a one, such that the path Puv corresponding to edge uv has endpoints f(u) and f(v). The immersion is strong if the paths Puv

  2. Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR). Filtration and cleaning assays.

    PubMed

    Diez, V; Ramos, C; Cabezas, J L

    2012-01-01

    An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) pilot plant was studied to improve certain operational conditions of AnMBRs that treat high oil and grease wastewaters discharged from a snacks factory. A comparison of its performance and behavior was made with an upflow anaerobic reactor throughout the first eight weeks of its operation. Raw snack food wastewater was characterized by oil and grease concentrations of up to 6,000 mg/l, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentrations of up to 22,000 and 10,300 mg/l, respectively. The AnMBR achieved COD removal efficiencies of 97% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.1 kg COD/m(3) d. The filtration flux, and the suction, backwash and relaxation times for each cycle were all varied: an 11 min filtration time involving 10 s pre-relaxation, 20 s backwash and 70 s post-relaxation was finally selected. The filtration flux for long-term operation was between 6.5 and 8.0 l/m(2) h. The study also tested physical cleaning strategies such as intensive backwashing cycles and extended relaxation mode, and different chemical cleaning methods, such as chemically enhanced backwash on air and chemical cleaning by immersion. PMID:22546801

  3. Effects of insufficient air injection on methanogenic Archaea in landfill bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mertoglu, Bulent; Calli, Baris; Guler, Nuray; Inanc, Bulent; Inoue, Yuzo

    2007-04-01

    In this study, methanogenic Archaea diversity in an aerated landfill bioreactor filled with co-disposed incineration bottom ashes and shredded incombustible wastes was monitored and analyzed as a function of time using molecular techniques. Besides, the effects of insufficient air injection on the bioreactor performance and methanogenic diversity were evaluated thoroughly. Results indicated that rapid bio-stabilization of solid waste are possible with aerated landfill bioreactor at various oxygen and oxidation reduction potential levels. Slot-blot hybridization results of leachate samples collected from aerated landfill bioreactor showed that archaeal and bacterial activities increased as stabilization accelerated and bacterial populations constituted almost 95% of all microorganisms. The results of slot-blot hybridization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene revealed that Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales were dominant species at the beginning while substituted by Methanosarcina-related methanogens close to the end of the operation of bioreactor. PMID:16973267

  4. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

  5. Virtual Worlds: A Performative Perspective on Globally Distributed, Immersive Work

    E-print Network

    Schultze, Ulrike

    Virtual worlds are immersive, simulated, persistent, and dynamic environments that include rich graphical three dimensional spaces, high fidelity audio, motion, viewpoint, and interactivity. Initially dismissed as environments ...

  6. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  7. An immersed boundary method for endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-09-01

    Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

  8. Photometric immersion refractometry of bacterial spores.

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, P; Beaman, T C; Corner, T R; Greenamyre, J T; Tisa, L S

    1982-01-01

    Photometric immersion refractometry was used to determine the average apparent refractive index (n) of five types of dormant Bacillus spores representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The n of a spore type increased as the molecular size of various immersion solutes decreased. For comparison of the spore types, the n of the entire spore and of the isolated integument was determined by use of bovine serum albumin, which is excluded from permeating into them. The n of the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was determined by use of glucose, which was shown to permeate into the spore only as deeply as the pericortex membrane. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated with the n of the entire spore and of the sporoplast, but not of the isolated perisporoplast integument. Correlation of the n with the solids content of the entire spore provided a method of experimentally obtaining the refractive index increment (dn/dc), which was constant for the various spore types and enables the calculation of solids and water content from an n. Altogether, the results showed that the total water content is distributed unequally within the dormant spore, with less water in the sporoplast than in the perisporoplast integument, and that the sporoplast becomes more refractile and therefore more dehydrated as the heat resistance becomes greater among the various spore types. PMID:6802796

  9. Immersive Environment Technologies for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, John R.; Hartman, Frank

    2000-01-01

    JPL's charter includes the unmanned exploration of the Solar System. One of the tools for exploring other planets is the rover as exemplified by Sojourner on the Mars Pathfinder mission. The light speed turnaround time between Earth and the outer planets precludes the use of teleoperated rovers so autonomous operations are built in to the current and upcoming generation devices. As the level of autonomy increases, the mode of operations shifts from low-level specification of activities to a higher-level specification of goals. To support this higher-level activity, it is necessary to provide the operator with an effective understanding of the in-situ environment and also the tools needed to specify the higher-level goals. Immersive environments provide the needed sense of presence to achieve this goal. Use of immersive environments at JPL has two main thrusts that will be discussed in this talk. One is the generation of 3D models of the in-situ environment, in particular the merging of models from different sensors, different modes (orbital, descent, and lander), and even different missions. The other is the use of various tools to visualize the environment within which the rover will be operating to maximize the understanding by the operator. A suite of tools is under development which provide an integrated view into the environment while providing a variety of modes of visualization. This allows the operator to smoothly switch from one mode to another depending on the information and presentation desired.

  10. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  11. Leachate recirculation between alternating aged refuse bioreactors and its effect on refuse decomposition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaojie; Sun, Yingjie; Zhao, Youcai; Wang, Ya-Nan

    2014-01-01

    In a sequencing batch bioreactor landfill system which combined a fresh and an aged refuse bioreactor, blockage occurred frequently in the aged refuse bioreactor during the treatment of leachate from the fresh refuse bioreactor. To overcome this problem, another aged refuse bioreactor was added, when blockage occurred, the two aged refuse bioreactor operated alternatively. A fresh refuse bioreactor F combined with two alternating aged refuse bioreactors A1 and A2 was called alternate recirculation process (ARP) in this study. The bioreactor system was operated in three stages, and the three bioreactors were exposed to air to facilitate surface re-aeration. The effect of the ARP on the accelerated degradation of fresh refuse was compared before and after blockage occurs in A1. The results indicated that ARP can improve the leachate production rate. The average daily net production rates of leachate in Stages 2 and 3 were approximately 2.1 and 1.6 mL (kgrefuse d)(-1), respectively, which exceeded that of Stage 1 (1.3 mL (kg refuse d)(-1)). The chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N concentrations of the leachate from Stage 1 are 1000 and 25mgL(-1) after 2.1 and 2.7 y, respectively. For Stages 2 and 3, these concentrations reach approximately after 0.877 and 1.3 y. Faster refuse settlement was observed in Stages 2 and 3, with an average daily settlement of approximately 0.11%, as compared with Stage 1 (approximately 0.099%). ARP can accelerate the biodegradation of the fresh refuse and overcome the problem of the blockage in the aged refuse reactor. PMID:24645462

  12. 2. Photocopy of Photograph, 1893 (Moore Memorial Library) TEMPORARY SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Photograph, 1893 (Moore Memorial Library) TEMPORARY SUPPORT SYSTEM DURING CONSTRUCTION - Christiana Borough Bridge, Bridge Street over Pennsylvania Railroad, Christiana, Lancaster County, PA

  13. 38 CFR 21.6505 - Participation in the temporary program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training and... work periods and vocational rehabilitation is limited to qualified veterans. (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  14. 38 CFR 21.6505 - Participation in the temporary program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training and... work periods and vocational rehabilitation is limited to qualified veterans. (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  15. In situ ammonia removal in bioreactor landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Berge, Nicole D; Reinhart, Debra R; Dietz, John; Townsend, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Although bioreactor landfills have many advantages associated with them, challenges remain, including the persistence of NH(3)-N in the leachate. Because NH(3)-N is both persistent and toxic, it will likely influence when the landfill is biologically stable and when post-closure monitoring may end. An in situ nitrogen removal technique would be advantageous. Recent studies have shown the efficacy of such processes; however, they are lacking the data required to enable adequate implementation at field-scale bioreactor landfills. Research was conducted to evaluate the kinetics of in situ ammonia removal in both acclimated and unacclimated wastes to aid in developing guidance for field-scale implementation. Results demonstrate that in situ nitrification is feasible in an aerated solid waste environment and that the potential for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (even under low biodegradable C:N conditions) in field-scale bioreactor landfills is significant due to the presence of both aerobic and anoxic areas. All rate data fit well to Monod kinetics, with specific rates of removal of 0.196 and 0.117 mgN/day-g dry waste and half-saturation constants of 59.6 and 147 mgN/L for acclimated and unacclimated wastes, respectively. Although specific rates of ammonia removal in the unacclimated waste are lower than in the acclimated waste, a relatively quick start-up of ammonia removal was observed in the unacclimated waste. Using the removal rate expressions developed will allow for estimation of the treatment times and volumes necessary to remove NH(3)-N from recirculated landfill leachate. PMID:16458496

  16. Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

  17. Trace Gas Emission from in-Situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication. A primary process for removing excess NO3- from water is denitrification, where denitrifying bacteria use NO3- for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas. A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs). DNBRs provide conditions ideal for denitrifiers: an anaerobic environment, sufficient organic matter, and excess NO3-. These conditions are also ideal for methanogens, which produce methane (CH4), another harmful trace gas. While initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, trace gas emissions are an unintended consequence. This study's goal was to determine how bioreactor design promotes denitrification while limiting trace gas production. Reactor inflow and outflow water samples were tested for nutrients, including NO3-, and dissolved inflow and outflow gas samples were tested for N2O and CH4. NO3- reduction and trace gas production were evaluated at various residence times, pHs, and inflow NO3- concentrations in field and lab-scale reactors. Low NO3- reduction indicated conditions that stressed denitrifying bacteria while high reductions indicated designs that optimized pollutant treatment for water quality. Several factors influenced high N2O, suggesting non-ideal conditions for the final step of complete denitrification. High CH4 emissions pointed to reactor media choice for discouraging methanogens, which may remove competition with denitrifiers. It is critical to understand all of potential impacts that DNBRs may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them.

  18. Transgenic rice endosperm as a bioreactor for molecular pharming.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jiquan; Guo, Zhibin; Shi, Jingni; Wang, Xianghong; Liu, Jingru; Shi, Bo; Guo, Fengli; Zhang, Chufu; Yang, Daichnag

    2014-04-01

    Plants provide a promising expression platform for producing recombinant proteins with several advantages in terms of high expression level, lower production cost, scalability, and safety and environment-friendly. Molecular pharming has been recognized as an emerging industry with strategic importance that could play an important role in economic development and healthcare in China. Here, this review represents the significant advances using transgenic rice endosperm as bioreactor to produce various therapeutic recombinant proteins in transgenic rice endosperm and large-scale production of OsrHSA, and discusses the challenges to develop molecular pharming as an emerging industry with strategic importance in China. PMID:24413763

  19. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  20. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.