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1

Production of pineapple transgenic plants assisted by temporary immersion bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for producing pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] transgenic plants was developed that involved selection by micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs). Pineapple calluses ranging in size from 1.5 mm to 2.0 mm that were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AT2260 (pIG121Hm) and LBA4404 (pTOK233) for 24 h produced the highest percentage (40%) of GUS+ calluses. Phosphinothricin and hygromycin,

P. Espinosa; J. Lorenzo; A. Iglesias; L. Yabor; E. Menéndez; J. Borroto; L. Hernández; A. Arencibia

2002-01-01

2

Sugarcane metabolites produced in CO 2 -rich temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs) induce tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) resistance against bacterial wilt ( Ralstonia solanacearum )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of phenolic metabolites has been optimized in parallel to sugarcane micropropagation in temporary immersion\\u000a bioreactors (TIBs). Culturing micropropagated plants in 0.4% CO2-rich air induced their photosynthetic activity by enhancing the change from a heterotrophic to a photomixotrophic metabolic\\u000a stage. Under 0.4% CO2 enrichment, the transcript levels of both phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL EF189195) and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase\\u000a (Rubisco CF576750) increased

Liu Yang; Yumarys Zambrano; Chun-Jin Hu; Elva R. Carmona; Aydiloide Bernal; Alicia Pérez; Carlos M. Zayas; Yang-Rui Li; Abby Guerra; Ignacio Santana; Ariel D. Arencibia

2010-01-01

3

Temporary immersion systems in plant micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary immersion systems for plant micropropagation have been described and grouped into 4 categories according to operation: tilting and rocker machines; complete immersion of plant material and renewal of the nutrient medium; partial immersion and a liquid nutrient renewal mechanism; complete immersion by pneumatic driven transfer of liquid medium and without nutrient medium renewal. The positive effects of temporary immersion

H. Etienne; M. Berthouly

2002-01-01

4

Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) micropropagation in temporary immersion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the mass propagation of pineapple plants (Ananas comosus L. Merr) using a temporary immersion technique is described. This procedure involved three distinct phases in the automated\\u000a temporary immersion system: shooting, bud differentiation and elongation. To establish this protocol, we used in vitro shoots\\u000a obtained from established liquid culture as starting materials. Three culture methods (solid, liquid and

M. Escalona; J. C. Lorenzo; B. González; M. Daquinta; J. L. González; Y. Desjardins; C. G. Borroto

1999-01-01

5

Betalains biosynthesis by Beta vulgaris L. hairy root culture in a temporary immersion cultivation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of betalains biosynthesis by Beta vulgaris L. hairy root culture in a temporary immersion system was studied. It was established that temporary immersion technique is suitable for the cultivation of hairy roots. The immersion frequency had significant effect on the biomass accumulation and the yields of betalains. The hairy root culture biosynthesized 18.8mgg?1 dry biomass (DB) betalains (9.6mgg?1

Atanas Pavlov; Thomas Bley

2006-01-01

6

Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

1996-01-01

7

Biomass properties and permeability in an immersed hollow fibre membrane bioreactor at high sludge concentrations.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the influence of biomass properties and high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations on membrane permeability in a pilot-scale hollow fibre membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater. Auxiliary molasses solution was added to maintain system operation at constant food-to-microorganisms ratio (F/M = 0.13). Various physicochemical and biological biomass parameters were measured throughout the trial, comprising pre-thickening, thickening and post-thickening periods with reference to the sludge concentration and with aerobic biotreatment continuing throughout. Correlations between dynamic changes in biomass characteristics and membrane permeability decline as well as permeability recovery were further assessed by statistical analyses. Results showed the MLSS concentration to exert the greatest influence on sustainable membrane permeability, with a weaker correlation with particle size distribution. The strong dependence of absolute recovered permeability on wet accumulated solids (WACS) concentration, or clogging propensity, revealed clogging to deleteriously affect membrane permeability decline and recovery (from mechanical declogging and chemical cleaning), with WACS levels increasing with increasing MLSS. Evidence from the study indicated clogging may permanently reduce membrane permeability post declogging and chemical cleaning, corroborating previously reported findings. PMID:24901628

Wang, Z Z; Zsirai, T; Connery, K; Fabiyi, M; Larrea, A; Li, J; Judd, S J

2014-01-01

8

Natural variation in immersion and emersion affects breakdown and invertebrate colonization of leaf litter in a temporary river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow pulses that alternately immerse and expose benthic habitats are widely recognized as key determinants of biodiversity\\u000a and ecosystem functioning in rivers. Terrestrial leaf litter input, colonization, and breakdown are also key processes in\\u000a river ecosystems, but little is known about the effects of alternating immersion and emersion on these processes. We used\\u000a litterbags to examine breakdown, microbial activity, and

Roland CortiT; T. Datry; L. Drummond; S. T. Larned

9

Immersed membrane activated sludge for the reuse of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two pilot studies of an immersed membrane activated sludge process are presented. This process involves coupling a bioreactor with effluent separation by microfiltration hollow fibres immersed directly in the bioreactor. The two pilot studies were conducted at Valley Sanitary District, Indio, California, for 5 months and in Maisons-Laffitte, France, for 1 year. The objectives were to demonstrate

Pierre Côté; Hervé Buisson; Charles Pound; Greg Arakaki

1997-01-01

10

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

11

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

12

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

13

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

14

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

15

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

16

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

17

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

18

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

19

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

20

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

21

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

22

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

23

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

24

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

25

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

26

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

27

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

28

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

29

Multimembrane Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

1989-01-01

30

Immersive video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

1996-03-01

31

Immersive CAD  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

Ames, A.L.

1999-02-01

32

Bioreactors and Bioseparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.

Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

33

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bioreactor designs exist today as a result of previous efforts by engineers and researchers to construct optimal\\u000a systems for a particular tissue engineering application. The primary purpose of any bioreactor is to provide a sterile cell\\u000a culture environment that can be tightly controlled. A bioreactor can be as simple as a petri dish and as complex as

Scott Maxson; David Orr; Karen J. L. Burg

34

Protecting Temporary Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... en español Protecting Temporary Workers 10/23/2014 Illinois: Temporary worker killed in fall from third floor ... killed in fall from rooftop. 12/7/2013 Illinois: Temporary worker died after forklift he was operating ...

35

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

36

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

37

In vitro evaluation of a novel bioreactor based on an integral oxygenator and a spirally wound nonwoven polyester matrix for hepatocyte culture as small aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The development of custom-made bioreactors for use as a bioartificial liver (BAL) is considered to be one of the last challenges on the road to successful temporary extracorporeal liver support therapy. We devised a novel bioreactor (patent pending) which allows individual perfusion of high density cultured hepatocytes with low diffusional gradients, thereby more closely resembling the conditions in the

Leonard M. Flendrig; John W. la Soe; George G. A. Jörning; Arie Steenbeek; Ole T. Karlsen; Wim M. M. J. Bovée; Nita C. J. J. Ladiges; Anje A. te Velde; Robert A. F. M. Chamuleau

1997-01-01

38

Bioreactor rotating wall vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

2001-01-01

39

Application of bioreactors for large-scale micropropagation systems of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The application of bioreactor culture techniques for plant micropropagation is regarded as one of the ways to reduce production\\u000a cost by scaling-up and automation. Recent experiments are restricted to a small number of species that, however, demonstrate\\u000a the feasibility of this technology. Periodic immersion liquid culture using ebb and flood system and column-type bubble bioreactors\\u000a equipped with a raft support

Kee-Yoeup Paek; Eun-Joo Hahn; Sung-Ho Son

2001-01-01

40

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

41

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

42

Space Bioreactor Science Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

1987-01-01

43

Impact of membrane configuration on fouling in anaerobic membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filtration performance of flocculated and granulated configured anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBR) treating domestic wastewater has been evaluated and compared to conventional aerobic MBR. Immersed hollow fibre (HF) and external tubular membrane geometries were additionally compared with the latter operated in both pumped and gas-lift mode. After 200d of operation, both granular and flocculated anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) suspensions were characterised

I. Martin-Garcia; V. Monsalvo; M. Pidou; P. Le-Clech; S. J. Judd; E. J. McAdam; B. Jefferson

2011-01-01

44

NASA Classroom Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

Scully, Robert

2004-01-01

45

NASA Bioreactor Schematic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

46

Native Language Immersion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

Reyhner, Jon

47

NASA Bioreactor tissue culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

48

Biofouling in Membrane Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) combines membrane separation and biological treatment, normally involving the activated sludge process, in municipal wastewater treatment. Despite excellent performance over years of full?scale operation, the interactions between microbes and the membrane in the MBR process, which determine its design and operational criteria, remain unclear. This report reviewed research regarding how numerous process parameters impact biofouling rates

A. Ramesh; D. J. Lee; M. L. Wang; J. P. Hsu; R. S. Juang; K. J. Hwang; J. C. Liu; S. J. Tseng

2006-01-01

49

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

Schüler, Axel

50

Instrumented Bioreactors BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

. Spin-off applications for these materials are as alternatives to animal testing for pharmaceuticals hydrogel-based engineered tissues. Ultrasonic sensors have been incorporated to monitor extracellular ultrasonic imaging for determining extracellular matrix (ECM) content. Our bioreactor houses five cubic

51

Computational immersive displays  

E-print Network

Immersion is an oft-quoted but ill-defined term used to describe a viewer or participant's sense of engagement with a visual display system or participatory media. Traditionally, advances in immersive quality came at the ...

Novy, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2013-01-01

52

Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction,…

Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

1998-01-01

53

Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

2010-01-01

54

Design challenges for space bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

1989-01-01

55

Fast multipoint immobilized MOF bioreactor.  

PubMed

An enzyme-NBD@MOF bioreactor with exemplary proteolytic performance, even after successive reuse and storage, was produced through a novel, rapid and simple multipoint immobilization technique without chemical modification of the solid support. Enzyme loading and distribution could be directly monitored from the fluorescence emission of the bioreactor. The dye molecular dimension plays a role in its overall performance. PMID:24954123

Liu, Wan-Ling; Wu, Cheng-You; Chen, Chien-Yu; Singco, Brenda; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

2014-07-14

56

Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This scientific paper provides a brief introduction into the use and development of industrial mineral-processing bioreactors and reviews the variety of microfloral species used in bioreactors. Additionally, the authors discuss recent microbiological and process developments with thermoacidophiles that could expand the range of mineral sulfides processed commercially using microorganisms. A subscription to Extremophiles is required to access this article electronically.

P.R. Norris

57

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

58

Membrane bioreactors: Engineering aspects.  

PubMed

Membrane bioreactors have in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of immobilized cell reactors. This makes them very useful for certain systems. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane reactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells. PMID:14543147

Chang, H N

1987-01-01

59

Microtechnology in space bioreactors.  

PubMed

Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000. PMID:11542392

Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

1999-03-01

60

Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

61

Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

1991-01-01

62

Spiral vane bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

Morrison, Dennis R. (inventor)

1991-01-01

63

Fuzzy control with genetic algorithm in a batch bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, the growth medium temperature in a batch bioreactor was controlled at the set point by using fuzzy model-based control method. Fuzzy control parameters which are membership functions and relation matrix were found using genetic algorithm. Heat input given from the immersed heater and the cooling water flow rate were selected as the manipulated variables in order to control the growth medium temperature in the bioreactor. Controller performance was tested in the face of different types of input variables. To eliminate the noise on the temperature measurements, first-order filter was used in the control algorithm. The achievement of the temperature control was analyzed in terms of both microorganism concentration which was reached at the end of the stationary phase and the performance criteria of Integral of the Absolute Error. It was concluded that the cooling flow rate was suitable as manipulated variable with regard to microorganism concentration. On the other hand, performance of the controller was satisfactory when the heat input given from the immersed heater was manipulated variable. PMID:24037514

Ahio?lu, Suna; Altinten, Ayla; Ertunç, Suna; Erdo?an, Sebahat; Hapo?lu, Hale

2013-12-01

64

Simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry  

PubMed Central

A novel technique for label-free imaging of live biological cells in aqueous medium that is insensitive to ambient vibrations is presented. This technique is a spin-off from previously developed immersion Mirau interferometry. Both approaches utilize a modified Mirau interferometric attachment for a microscope objective that can be used both in air and in immersion mode, when the device is submerged in cell medium and has its internal space filled with liquid. While immersion Mirau interferometry involves first capturing a series of images, the resulting images are potentially distorted by ambient vibrations. Overcoming these serial-acquisition challenges, simultaneous immersion Mirau interferometry incorporates polarizing elements into the optics to allow simultaneous acquisition of two interferograms. The system design and production are described and images produced with the developed techniques are presented. PMID:23742552

Lyulko, Oleksandra V.; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Brenner, David J.

2013-01-01

65

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

66

Membrane bioreactors: present and prospects.  

PubMed

Membrane bioreactors have a very handy in-situ separation capability lacking in other types of bioreactors. Combining various functions of membrane separations and biocatalyst characteristics of enzymes, microbial cells, organelles, animal and plant tissues can generate quite a number of membrane bioreactor systems. The cell retaining property of membranes and selective removal of inhibitory byproducts makes high cell density culture possible and utilizes enzyme catalytic activity better, which leads to high productivity of bioreactors. Enzyme reactions utilizing cofactors and hydrolysis of macromolecules are advantageous in membrane bioreactors. Anaerobic cell culture may be efficiently carried out in membrane cell recycle systems, while aerobic cultures work well in dual hollow fiber reactors. Animal and plant cells have much a better chance of success in membrane reactors because of the protective environment of the reactor and the small oxygen uptake rate of these cells. Industrial use of these reactors are still in its infancy and limited to enzyme and animal tissue culture, but applications will expand as existing problems are resolved. PMID:1781318

Chang, H N; Furusaki, S

1991-01-01

67

Immersive cyberspace system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

68

Immersing complete digraphs  

E-print Network

We consider the problem of immersing the complete digraph on t vertices in a simple digraph. For Eulerian digraphs, we show that such an immersion always exists whenever minimum degree is at least t(t-1), and for t at most 4 minimum degree at least t-1 suffices. On the other hand, we show that there exist non-Eulerian digraphs with all vertices of arbitrarily high in- and outdegree which do not contain an immersion of the complete digraph on 3 vertices. As a side result, we obtain a construction of digraphs with large outdegree in which all cycles have odd length, simplifying a former construction of such graphs by Thomassen.

DeVos, Matt; Mohar, Bojan; Scheide, Diego

2011-01-01

69

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

70

Total Technology Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

Vaughn, Sandy

2010-01-01

71

MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

72

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

73

Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

2003-01-01

74

Kula Kaiapuni: Hawaiian Immersion Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Hawaii State Department of Education offers a growing number of Hawaiian language immersion schools for its students. The article presents the history of immersion schools in Hawaii, examining criticisms of immersion schools, discussing their benefits, and explaining necessary components for success. (SM)

Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala

1992-01-01

75

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

76

Use of flocculants for increasing permeate flux in anaerobic membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Biomass retention, required for high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment, can be accomplished coupling an anaerobic bioreactor with membrane filtration. However, low flux seems to be a common factor when operating anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). Modification of biomass properties may represent a strategy for improving membrane flux. The addition of flocculants was tested as a tool for flux increase. Six different products were tested in dead-end filtration experiments. Based on the results, two products were selected for cross-flow tests. The one presenting better performance (Nalco MPE50) was tested in a laboratory-scale continuous AnMBR. Results show that the flocculant was able to substantially increase flux. Indeed, the flux-increasing effect was observed for several weeks after flocculant addition. Therefore, the use of flocculants seems to be an interesting tool to cope with temporary increases in required flux. PMID:24901617

Díaz, H; Azócar, L; Torres, A; Lopes, S I C; Jeison, D

2014-01-01

77

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

78

Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

1993-01-01

79

Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology  

SciTech Connect

Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

1993-09-01

80

Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of perspective within the scene contained on only one wall has integrity. Unfortunately, parallel lines that lie on adjacent walls do not necessarily remain parallel. This results in inaccuracies in the scene that can distract the viewer and subtract from the immersive experience of the CAVE.

Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

2011-01-01

81

BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

82

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

83

Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

Ellis, Ronald II

2013-01-01

84

Card Issuance for Temporary KU Affiliates, Temporary Faculty, and Temporary Staff A temporary KU Card will be issued to KU affiliates (visiting scholars, Fulbright scholars,  

E-print Network

Card Issuance for Temporary KU Affiliates, Temporary Faculty, and Temporary Staff A temporary KU Card will be issued to KU affiliates (visiting scholars, Fulbright scholars, adjunct faculty if the appointment has been entered into the HR/Payroll system, and the data has been interfaced to the KU Card

85

Enabling immersive simulation.  

SciTech Connect

The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

2009-02-01

86

Design of temporary trench supports  

E-print Network

DESIGN OF TEMPORARY TRENCH SUPPORTS A Thesis by MARC YOUSSEF BALLOUZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering DESIGN OF TEMPORARY TRENCH SUPPORTS A Thesis by MARC YOUSSEF BALLOUZ Approved as to style and content by: uis J. Tho son (Chair of Commit tee) yne A. Dunlap (Member) Ja R. Walton (Member) Jame T. . Yao (Head of partment...

Ballouz, Marc Youssef

1991-01-01

87

A temperature control algorithm of immersion liquid for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography is one of the main technologies used to manufacture integrated circuits with the shortest feature size. In immersion lithography, temperature of immersion liquid is strictly constrained and its allowable range is less than +/-0.01°C at 22°C. To meet this requirement, a temperature control algorithm adopted by the test rig which controls the temperature of the immersion liquid with process cooling water (PCW) via heat exchangers is proposed. By adjusting the flow rate of PCW through the heat exchangers, the control system varies the amount of heat exchanged, and the temperature of the immersion liquid can be properly controlled. The temperature control rig is a multi-disturbed, timevariant, non-linear and time-delayed system and its transfer function varies with the inlet temperature and flow rates of the streams through the heat exchangers. Considering the characteristics of the system, a cascade-connected fuzzy PID feedback algorithm is designed.

He, Junwei; Li, Xiaoping; Lei, Min; Chen, Bing; Wang, Jinchun

2014-03-01

88

Bioreactor cultivation of osteochondral grafts.  

PubMed

The clinical utility of tissue engineering depends upon our ability to direct cells to form tissues with characteristic structural and mechanical properties across different hierarchical scales. Ideally, an engineered graft should be tailored to (re)establish the structure and function of the native tissue being replaced. Engineered grafts of such high fidelity would also foster fundamental research by serving as physiologically relevant models for quantitative in vitro studies. The approach discussed here involves the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) cultured on custom-designed scaffolds (providing a structural and logistic template for tissue development) in bioreactors (providing environmental control, biochemical and mechanical cues). Cartilage, bone and ligaments have been engineered by using hMSC, highly porous protein scaffolds (collagen; silk) and bioreactors (perfused cartridges with or without mechanical loading). In each case, the scaffold and bioreactor were designed to recapitulate some aspects of the environment present in native tissues. Medium flow facilitated mass transport to the cells and thereby enhanced the formation of all three tissues. In the case of cartilage, dynamic laminar flow patterns were advantageous as compared to either turbulent steady flow or static (no flow) cultures. In the case of bone, medium flow affected the geometry, distribution and orientation of the forming bone-like trabeculae. In the case of ligament, applied mechanical loading (a combination of dynamic stretch and torsion) markedly enhanced cell differentiation, alignment and functional assembly. Taken together, these studies provide a basis for the ongoing work on engineering osreochondral grafts for a variety of potential applications, including those in the craniofacial complex. PMID:16022723

Vunjak-Novakovic, G; Meinel, L; Altman, G; Kaplan, D

2005-08-01

89

Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant. PMID:23505813

John, Siby; Tare, Vinod

2011-10-01

90

Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work describes a novel imaging technique for label-free no-UV vibration-insensitive imaging of live cells in an epi-illumination geometry. This technique can be implemented in a variety of imaging applications. For example, it can be used for cell targeting as a part of a platform for targeted cell irradiations - single-cell microbeam. The goal of microbeam facilities is to provide biological researchers with tools to study the effects of ionizing radiation on live cells. A common way of cell labeling - fluorescent staining - may alter cellular metabolism and UV illumination presents potential damage for the genetic material. The new imaging technique will allow the researchers to separate radiation-induced effects from the effects caused by confounding factors like fluorescent staining or UV light. Geometry of irradiation endstations at some microbeam facilities precludes the use of transmitted light, e.g. in the Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility microbeam endstation, where the ion beam exit window is located just below the sample. Imaging techniques used at such endstations must use epi-illumination. Mirau Interferometry is an epi-illumination, non-stain imaging modality suitable for implementation at a microbeam endstation. To facilitate interferometry and to maintain cell viability, it is desirable that cells stay in cell growth medium during the course of an experiment. To accommodate the use of medium, Immersion Mirau Interferometry has been developed. A custom attachment for a microscope objective has been designed and built for interferometric imaging with the possibility of immersion of the apparatus into cell medium. The implemented data collection algorithm is based on the principles of Phase-Shifting Interferometry. The largest limitation of Phase-Shifting Interferometry is its sensitivity to the vertical position of the sample. In environments where vibration isolation is difficult, this makes image acquisition challenging. This problem was resolved by integration of polarization optics into the optics of the attachment to enable simultaneous creation and spatial separation of two interferograms, which, combined with the background image, are used to reconstruct the intensity map of the specimen. Giving the name Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry to this approach, simultaneous acquisition of all interferograms per image has eliminated the issue of vibrations. The designed compound microscope attachment has been manufactured and tested; the system produces images of quality, sufficient to perform targeted cellular irradiation experiments.

Lyulko, Oleksandra

91

An Immersive Programming System: Ougi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ougi immersive programming system employs abstract data visualization and manipulations utilizing virtual reality technologies. Its multimodal interfaces allow one to edit a program, to control its execution and to debug the program by direct manipulation and hand gestures in an immersive virtual environment. Ougi uses both textual and graphical representations and supports a subset of the Java programming language

Noritaka OSAWA; Kikuo ASAI; Motofumi SUZUKI; Yuji Y. SUGIMOTO; Fumihiko SAITO

2002-01-01

92

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

2014-06-21

93

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

DOEpatents

A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

94

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

95

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Temporary Employment Request.doc 3/28/2013  

E-print Network

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Temporary Employment Request.doc 3/28/2013 Please contact the appropriate Administrative Office with questions regarding temporary employment Ag Employment Request · E-mail to appropriate Administrative Office · Call appropriate Administrative Office

Collins, Gary S.

96

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

97

New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles  

SciTech Connect

An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

2014-06-20

98

Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

99

Immersed interface methods. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1996-11-01

100

An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation.  

PubMed

In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR. PMID:25463780

Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D

2014-12-01

101

Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering  

PubMed Central

Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

2013-01-01

102

Thermal comfort following immersion.  

PubMed

Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

2015-02-01

103

Continuous and sequencing membrane bioreactors applied to food industry effluent treatment.  

PubMed

This work focuses on the performances of two immersed membrane bioreactors used for the treatment of easily biodegradable organic matter present in food industry effluents, for the purpose of water reuse. Two reactor functioning modes (continuous and sequencing) were compared in terms of organic carbon removal and of membrane permeability. For each working mode, pollutant removal was very high, treated water quality presented a low COD concentration (< 125 mg x L(-1)), no solids in suspension and low turbidity (< 0.5 NTU). The quality of the treated water (including germ removal) enabled its reuse on site. Moreover, by developing high biomass concentrations in the reactor, excess sludge production remained very low (< 0.1 gVSS x gCOD(-1)). The performances appeared slightly better for the continuous system (lower COD concentration in the effluent, < 50 mg x L(-1), and lower sludge production). In terms of filtration, a distinct difference was observed between continuous and sequencing systems; transmembrane pressure showed a small and constant evolution rate in continuous membrane bioreactor (CMBR) although it appeared more difficult to control in sequencing membrane bioreactor (SMBR) probably due to punctually higher permeate flow rate and modified suspension properties. The rapid evolution of membrane permeability observed in SMBR was such that more frequent chemical cleaning of the membrane system was required. PMID:17849980

Lobos, J; Wisniewski, C; Heran, M; Grasmick, A

2007-01-01

104

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

2001-01-01

105

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

2001-01-01

106

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

107

Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence\\u000a cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as\\u000a black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic\\u000a environment and tissue properties remains elusive,

H. Singh; D. W. Hutmacher

2009-01-01

108

NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in the body. Experiments conducted by Johnson scientist Dr. Thomas Goodwin proved that the NASA bioreactor could successfully cultivate cells using simulated microgravity, resulting in three-dimensional tissues that more closely approximate those in the body. Further experiments conducted on space shuttle missions and by Wolf as an astronaut on the Mir space station demonstrated that the bioreactor s effects were even further expanded in space, resulting in remarkable levels of tissue formation. While the bioreactor may one day culture red blood cells for injured astronauts or single-celled organisms like algae as food or oxygen producers for a Mars colony, the technology s cell growth capability offers significant opportunities for terrestrial medical research right now. A small Texas company is taking advantage of the NASA technology to advance promising treatment applications for diseases both common and obscure.

2009-01-01

109

Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

110

TEMPORARY AGENCY APPOINTMENTS HUMAN RESOURCES GUIDELINE  

E-print Network

TEMPORARY AGENCY APPOINTMENTS HUMAN RESOURCES GUIDELINE Human Resources | One Washington Square AGENCY APPOINTMENTS DATE: July 2007 I. PURPOSE / DESCRIPTION Temporary Agency appointments are available until a permanent hire can be made. A temporary agency worker can be employed by a single department

Su, Xiao

111

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Please contact the appropriate Administrative Office with questions regarding temporary employment  

E-print Network

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Please contact the appropriate Administrative Office with questions regarding temporary employment Ag & Natural Resources .............509. SUPERVISOR completes WSU Extension Temporary Employment Request Form · WSU Temporary Employment

Collins, Gary S.

112

Micro-bioreactor design for Chinese hamster ovary cells  

E-print Network

The research objective is to design a micro-bioreactor for the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. There is an increasing demand for upstream development in high-throughput micro-bioreactors specifically for the ...

Goh, Shireen

2013-01-01

113

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

114

Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

2014-01-01

115

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

116

Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that…

Burt, Andy; And Others

117

Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study  

PubMed Central

Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the effects of bleaching agent compared to other temporary restorative materials used in the study. PMID:23633802

Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

2012-01-01

118

Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

2005-01-01

119

Membrane bioreactors for water reclamation.  

PubMed

Singapore has been using dual membrane technology (MF/UF RO) to produce high-grade water (NEWater) from secondary treated sewage. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) has very high potential and will lead to the further improvement of the productivity and quality of high-grade water. This study was focused on the technical feasibility of MBR system for water reclamation in Singapore, making a comparison between various membrane systems available and to get operational experience in terms of membrane cleaning and other issues. Three MBR plants were built at Bedok Water Reclamation Plant with a design flow of 300 m3/day each. They were commissioned in March 2003. Three different types of submerged membranes were tested. They are Membrane A, plate sheet membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; Membrane B, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; and Membrane C, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.035 microm. The permeate quality of all the three MBR Systems were found equivalent to or better than that of the conventional tertiary treatment by ultrafiltration. MBR permeate TOC was about 2 mg/l lower than UF permeate TOC. GC-MS, GC-ECD and HPLC scan results show that trace organic contaminants in MBR permeate and UF permeate were in the same range. MBR power consumption can be less than 1 kwh/m3. Gel layer or dynamic membrane generated on the submerged membrane surface played an important role for the lower MBR permeate TOC than the supernatant TOC in the membrane tank. Intensive chemical cleaning can temporarily remove this layer. During normal operation conditions, the formation of dynamic membrane may need one day to obtain the steady low TOC levels in MBR permeate. PMID:16004005

Tao, G; Kekre, K; Wei, Z; Lee, T C; Viswanath, B; Seah, H

2005-01-01

120

The Remote Media Immersion (RMI)  

E-print Network

the ultimate digital media delivery platform. Its streaming media server delivers multiple high- bandwidth aspects). The hope is that our advances in digital media delivery will enable new applicationsThe Remote Media Immersion (RMI) system blends multiple cutting- edge media technologies to create

Shahabi, Cyrus

121

Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

Pricer, Wayne F.

2011-01-01

122

Attrition in French Immersion Programs: Possible Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Motivated by attrition in French immersion programs in Canada, a study was undertaken of the perceptions of French coordinators, helping teachers, school principals, and French immersion teachers in British Columbia (Canada) school districts regarding the attrition rate and students' reasons for leaving immersion. The research differed from…

Obadia, Andre A.; Theriault, Claire M. L.

123

Effective Biofuel Production by an Intelligent Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of contributing to efforts to solve global energy and environmental problems, a joint research project — Effective Biofuel Production by an Intelligent Bioreactor — has been set up with participants representing several universities, research institute, and industrial companies. Biofuel obtained from biomass resources is seen as an important source of ‘clean energy’ by virtue of features such

Hideki Fukuda; Akihiko Kondo; Hideo Noda

124

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

125

HIGH-PERFORMANCE STEREOSPECIFIC ELASTOMERS FROM BIOREACTORS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2008, 10 million tons of natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, will be produced for commercial use. Every molecule of that product will be produced in a microscopic bioreactor known as the rubber particle. These particles, suspended in an aqueous phase called latex, evolved to produce and store n...

126

Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging

Jonathan I Betts; Frank Baganz

2006-01-01

127

Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-01-01

128

LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

129

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

130

Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and

A. Guidi; G. Dubini; F. Tominetti; M. Raimondi

2002-01-01

131

Human cell culture in a space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1988-01-01

132

Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

Hossan, Mohammad Robiul [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034-5209 (United States); Dillon, Robert [Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-3113 (United States); Dutta, Prashanta, E-mail: dutta@mail.wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

2014-08-01

133

Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

2014-08-01

134

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-21

135

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11

136

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01

137

Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces  

E-print Network

The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

2015-01-01

138

Scattering in liquid immersion lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured the intrinsic scattering of water with an eye toward its potential impact on immersion lithography. Quantitative measurements of the elastic Rayleigh scatter agree well with theory and show a loss of 0.001 cm-1. Qualitative measurements of the inelastic Raman scattering show a strong peak at 206 nm, consistent with the O-H stretch present in water. Both are

Michael Switkes; Theodore M. Bloomstein; Roderick R. Kunz; Mordechai Rothschild; J. W. Ruberti; T. A. Shedd; Michael S. Yeung

2004-01-01

139

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

140

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging may be furnished to...

2012-07-01

141

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging may be furnished to...

2011-07-01

142

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging may be furnished to...

2010-07-01

143

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2012-07-01

144

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2013-07-01

145

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2011-07-01

146

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2014-07-01

147

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2010-07-01

148

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2012-10-01

149

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2011-10-01

150

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2014-10-01

151

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2013-10-01

152

UC DAVIS HEALTH SYSTEM Temporary Position Closure Proposal  

E-print Network

UC DAVIS HEALTH SYSTEM Temporary Position Closure Proposal Note: In this proposal, "position--Bargaining Unit: ______________ Check one: Temporary position closure Temporary reduction in time from ______% to ______% 1. Period of position closure Begin __________________ End ___________________ 2. Reason

Leistikow, Bruce N.

153

8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. 244.14 Section 244.14 Aliens...IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director....

2010-01-01

154

8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. 1244.14 Section 1244.14 Aliens...IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED STATES § 1244.14 Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of director....

2010-01-01

155

18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Temporary compression facilities. 157.209 Section 157...Abandonment § 157.209 Temporary compression facilities. (a) Automatic authorization...1) A description of the temporary compression facility, including the size,...

2010-04-01

156

18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Temporary compression facilities. 157.209 Section 157...Abandonment § 157.209 Temporary compression facilities. (a) Automatic authorization...1) A description of the temporary compression facility, including the size,...

2011-04-01

157

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. 213.3302 Section 213.3302...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. (a) An agency may establish temporary transitional Schedule C positions necessary to assist a...

2011-01-01

158

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. 213.3302 Section 213.3302...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. (a) An agency may establish temporary transitional Schedule C positions necessary to assist a...

2014-01-01

159

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. 213.3302 Section 213.3302...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. (a) An agency may establish temporary transitional Schedule C positions necessary to assist a...

2013-01-01

160

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. 213.3302 Section 213.3302...Temporary transitional Schedule C positions. (a) An agency may establish temporary transitional Schedule C positions necessary to assist a...

2012-01-01

161

Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

162

Temporary Food Stand Policy Environmental Health Program  

E-print Network

-formed burgers, pancakes and eggs. i. In addition, temporary food stands that involve cooking or grillingTemporary Food Stand Policy UW-Madison Environmental Health Program University Health Services Revised February 2014 The sale of foods to the general campus community can take place at approved

Scharer, John E.

163

Temporary immersion system: a new concept for use liquid medium in mass propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass propagation of plants by tissue culture is labour intensive and costly. Gelling agents have many drawbacks: they are not inert medium components and do not enable easy automation for commercial mass propagation. So liquid culture systems are considered to have advantages, e.g. culture conditions are much more uniform, media can be changed easily. The use of liquid medium for

M. Berthouly; H. Etienne

164

Cardiotonic glycosides from biomass of Digitalis purpurea L. cultured in temporary immersion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiotonic glycosides are extracted mostly from leaves of Digitalis plants. Commercial production of bioactive secondary metabolites by traditional agriculture is an inefficient process and\\u000a can be affected by climatic and soil conditions. Strategies, based on in vitro culture methods, have been extensively studied\\u000a to improve the production of specific plant derived chemicals. The aim of the present research was to

Naivy Pérez-Alonso; Dirk Wilken; André Gerth; Annett Jähn; Horst-Michael Nitzsche; Gerhard Kerns; Alina Capote-Perez; Elio Jiménez

2009-01-01

165

Bioreactor-on-a-chip: application to baker's yeast fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a miniaturized bioreactor (bioreactor-on-a-chip) applied to baker's yeast fermentation. The bioreactor-on-a-chip is fabricated using silicon and glass wafers applying micromachining technology (wet-etching techniques) in order to create microchannels, mixerchannels, and microvalves. The miniaturization and integration allows smaller volumes to be used, which can be often rather challenging from the analytical point of view. Also, optical detection by absorption, electrochemical

Filomena O. Soares; J. H. Correia

2000-01-01

166

Biological treatment and thickening with a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Aerobic operation of an immersed hollow fibre membrane bioreactor, treating municipal wastewater supplemented with molasses solution, has been studied across mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations between 8 and 32 g L(-1), the higher concentrations being normally associated with thickening operations. Only a marginal loss in membrane permeability was noted between 8 and 18 g L(-1) when operation was conducted without clogging. The sustainable operational flux attainable above 18 g L(-1) was highly dependent upon both the MLSS concentration and the state of the membrane. A temperature-corrected flux of 28 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH) was sustained for 18 h at an MLSS of 8 g L(-1) using membranes close to initial their virgin-state permeability. This value decreased to around 14 LMH at 20 g L(-1) and 5 LMH at 32 g L(-1) MLSS for an aged membrane whose permeability had been recovered following clogging. Below the threshold flux operation without significant clogging was possible, such that the membrane permeability could be recovered with a chemically enhanced backflush (CEB). Above this flux clogging took place at a rate of around 7-14 g solids per m(2) membrane per m(3) permeate volume passed irrespective of the MLSS concentration. The permeability of the unclogged membrane was depressed and could not be recovered using a standard CEB, indicative of irrecoverable pore clogging. The outcomes corroborated previously reported observations concerning the deleterious long-term impacts of clogging, and confirmed the critical importance of operation at a sustainable flux value. PMID:24731874

Zsirai, T; Wang, Z-Z; Gabarrón, S; Connery, K; Fabiyi, M; Larrea, A; Judd, S J

2014-07-01

167

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

1993-06-01

168

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1993-12-31

169

Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-11-01

170

Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.  

PubMed

Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

2011-09-01

171

Bioreactors for tissues of the musculoskeletal system.  

PubMed

Muskuloskeletal tissue includes bone, cartilage, ligament, skeletal muscle and tendons. These tissues malfunction either due to a natural injury, trauma, or a disorder. In all cases natural regeneration needs to be enhanced by medication and, in many instances, by surgery. Surgical techniques are limited to suturing, autografts or allografts. Tissue engineering stems from the challenge presented by the limited resources for natural implants and the ineffectiveness of previous curing techniques. The challenge in tissue engineering resides in the design of a functional bioreactor that would: (1) house the engineered construct under sterile conditions; and (2) provide the appropriate stimuli that would result in a neotissue with biochemical and biomechanical properties comparable to in situ tissue. The various types and designs of bioreactors for the regeneration of musculoskeletal tissue, including spinner flask, rotating wall vessel, flow perfusion, and mechanical loading devices are presented in this paper. PMID:17120789

Abousleiman, Rita I; Sikavitsas, Vassilios I

2006-01-01

172

Ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor for urban wastewater reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 162-day pilot-scale operation for reclamation of urban wastewater was studied by using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Performance of the UMBR was investigated with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 5, 15, and 30 days, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5h, and membrane flux between 75 and 150lm?2h?1, respectively. It was observed that the highest sludge concentration in

C.-H Xing; E Tardieu; Y Qian; X.-H Wen

2000-01-01

173

Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

2015-01-01

174

Design concepts for bioreactors in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

1987-01-01

175

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Are membranes really necessary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes themselves represent a significant cost for the full scale application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR). The possibility of operating an AnMBR with a self-forming dynamic membrane generated by the substances present in the reactor liquor would translate into an important saving. A self-forming dynamic membrane only requires a support material over which a cake layer is formed, which determines

M. Davila; G. Kassab; A. Klapwijk; Lier van J. B

2008-01-01

176

Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

2006-01-01

177

Gestural interfaces for immersive environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

Margolis, Todd

2014-02-01

178

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

179

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

180

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

181

Immersed Boundary Fractional Step Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new formulation of the immersed boundary method for incompressible flow over moving rigid bodies. Like many existing techniques we introduce a set of interpolation points on the surface at which the no-slip boundary condition is satisfied by including a (regularized) force in the momentum equations. By introducing interpolation and regularization operators and grouping pressure and force unknowns together, the discretized Navier-Stokes equations with the immersed boundary method can be formulated with an identical structure to the traditional fractional step method, but with a modified Poisson equation whose unknowns are both the pressure and the boundary force. The method highlights the analogous roles of pressure and boundary forcing as Lagrange multipliers in order to satisfy the divergence free and no-slip constraints, respectively. The overall method is found to be a simple addition to an existing fractional step code and the extended Poisson equation is solved efficiently with the conjugate gradient method. We demonstrate convergence and present results for two-dimensional flows with a variety of moving rigid bodies.

Taira, Kunihiko

2005-11-01

182

Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

1981-01-01

183

Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2013-01-01

184

Temporary Tattoos and Henna/Mehndi  

MedlinePLUS

... Products Contact Lenses Temporary Tattoos, Henna/Mehndi, and "Black Henna" Safety and Regulatory Information FDA has received ... part of your body. Henna, or Mehndi, and "Black Henna" Henna, a coloring made from a plant, ...

185

Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.  

PubMed

Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398

Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

2015-03-01

186

Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity Eunsung Kan: The sensitivity of a conceptual model of a foam emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) used for the control of toluene vapors in air was examined. Model parametric sensitivity studies showed which parameters affect the removal

187

Doctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for  

E-print Network

Doctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Energy Recovery from Domestic such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are emerging as one option to recover energy during domestic wastewater treatment. In comparison to conventional treatment, AnMBR generates biogas directly from

Kamat, Vineet R.

188

ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

189

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

190

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances  

PubMed Central

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-01-01

191

Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

2004-01-01

192

The synthesis of L-tryptophan degrading bioreactors.  

PubMed

To design a bioreactor for removing the potential cancer nutrient L-tryptophan from blood, the L-tryptophan degrading enzyme tryptophan side chain oxidase (TSO) was chemically bound to glutaraldehyde activated gamma amino silane silica and to Zetaffinity microcolumns consisting of a glutaraldehyde activated polyacrylic-cellulose copolymer. Five experiments were carried out in sheep and six experiments in rabbits using a closed circuit plasmapheresis bioreactor system. L-tryptophan in sheep was degraded by the silica bioreactor in a single pass to undetectable levels as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Zetaffinity bioreactors degraded L-tryptophan in rabbits to more than 95% in a single pass. Whole blood L-tryptophan levels changed little throughout the experiment indicating a vast extravascular tryptophan pool. Enzyme leakage from the bioreactor was less than 10(-5) IU TSO per ml plasma. The procedures were tolerated well by the animals without any change in vital signs. PMID:2163986

Schmer, G; Dennis, M B; Hsueh, S; Hou, K C

1990-05-01

193

Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

Wang, Kathleen

2009-01-01

194

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

Lerner, Scott A.

2005-12-20

195

Virtual Notepad: handwriting in immersive VR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Virtual Notepad, a collection of interface tools that allows the user to take notes, annotate documents and input text using a pen, while still immersed in virtual environments (VEs). Using a spatially-tracked, pressure-sensitive graphics tablet, pen and handwriting recognition software, Virtual Notepad explores handwriting as a new modality for interaction in immersive VEs. This paper reports details of

Ivan Poupyrev; Numada Tomokazu; Suzanne Weghorst

1998-01-01

196

Practical implementation of immersion resist materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion lithography has gone through its first phase of introduction and acceptance as the main solution for critical layer lithography for 45nm node and beyond. In this phase, the industry has found that immersion technology has its own unique challenges associated with introducing water as a medium between the projection lens and wafer. Resist process qualification is once again under

Hamid Khorram; Katsushi Nakanob; Tomoharu Fujiwara; Yasuhiro Iriuchijima; Y. Ishii; Natsuko Sagawa; Tadamasa Kawakubo; Shirou Nagaoka

2009-01-01

197

The Two-Way Immersion Toolkit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Toolkit is meant to be a resource for teachers, parents, and administrators involved with two-way immersion (TWI) programs, particularly those at the elementary level. Two-way immersion is a form of dual language instruction that brings together students from two native language groups for language, literacy, and academic content instruction…

Howard, Elizabeth; Sugarman, Julie; Perdomo, Marleny; Adger, Carolyn Temple

2005-01-01

198

An immersion technique for studying wood wettability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wetting properties of wood were studied by a modification of the Wilhelmy technique. This method involved continuously monitoring the force exerted on a wood specimen as it was immersed at a controlled rate into a liquid. Wettability was expressed in terms of the area under the force-immersion curve and was referred to in this study as “wettability index”. The

R. C. Casilla; S. Chow; P. R. Steiner

1981-01-01

199

Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.  

PubMed

By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ? 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

2014-05-01

200

Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the Rotating Wall Vessel developed by NASA, and originally designed to protect cell culture from the

Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

201

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-07-03

202

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

203

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22...Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d...water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank certified by...

2010-01-01

204

Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited Victoria Interrante  

E-print Network

Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited Victoria Interrante 1 , Lee experiments in which we assess egocentric distance perception in a high fidelity, low latency, immersive perception appears not to be significantly compressed in the immersive virtual environment, relative

Interrante, Victoria

205

Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments  

PubMed Central

Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2013-01-01

206

Bioreactor boats high BTEX removal rate  

SciTech Connect

The oil and gas industries face formidable challenges in treating process wastes to federally mandated standards. The sheer magnitude of the job is daunting: 1,200 Superfund sites and 11,000 military installations have been identified for toxic cleanup. EPA assessments place petroleum as the point source of contamination for fully 50 percent of all identified hazardous waste sites. A new treatment technolgy is a fluidized-bed bioreactor that combines the advantages of a physical carbon adsorption system with bioremediation. The system has been effective in treating tank botton wastes, brines, groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Hickey, R.

1994-04-01

207

Disposable Bioreactors: Maturation into Pharmaceutical Glycoprotein Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.

Brecht, René

208

Flexible Community Structure Correlates with Stable Community Function in Methanogenic Bioreactor Communities Perturbed by Glucose  

PubMed Central

Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDRA), and partial sequencing of SSU rDNA clones. One set of replicated communities, designated the high-spirochete (HS) set, was characterized by good replicability, a high proportion of spiral and short thin rod morphotypes, a dominance of spirochete-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosarcina-related SSU rRNA. The second set of communities, designated the low-spirochete (LS) set, was characterized by incomplete replicability, higher morphotype diversity dominated by cocci, a predominance of Streptococcus-related and deeply branching Spirochaetales-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosaeta-related SSU rRNA. In the HS communities, glucose perturbation caused a dramatic shift in the relative abundance of fermentative bacteria, with temporary displacement of spirochete-related ribotypes by Eubacterium-related ribotypes, followed by a return to the preperturbation community structure. The LS communities were less perturbed, with Streptococcus-related organisms remaining prevalent after the glucose shock, although changes in the relative abundance of minor members were detected by morphotype analysis. A companion paper demonstrates that the more stable LS communities were less functionally stable than the HS communities (S. A. Hashsham, A. S. Fernandez, S. L. Dollhopf, F. B. Dazzo, R. F. Hickey, J. M. Tiedje, and C. S. Criddle, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4050–4057, 2000). PMID:10966429

Fernandez, Ana S.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Glagoleva, Olga; Dazzo, Frank B.; Hickey, Robert F.; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M.

2000-01-01

209

Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.  

PubMed

: In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 °C. PMID:25022362

Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

2014-07-15

210

High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

2014-09-01

211

A Bioreactor Model of Mouse Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

The present study represents an investigation of a novel stirred bioreactor for culture of a transformed cell line under defined hydrodynamic conditions in vitro. Cell colonies of the EL-4 mouse lymphoma cell line grown for the first time in a rotating disc bioreactor (RDB), were observed to undergo changes in phenotype in comparison to standard, static flask cultures. RDB cultures, with or without agitation, promoted the formation of adherent EL-4 cell plaques that merged to form contiguous tumor-like masses in longer-term cultures, unlike the unattached spheroid aggregates of flask cultures. Plaques grown under agitated conditions were further altered in morphology and distribution in direct response to fluid mechanical stimuli. Plaque colonies growth in RDBs with or without agitation also exhibited significant increases in production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and lactate, suggesting an inducible “Warburg effect.” Increases in cell biomass in RDB cultures were no different to flask cultures, though a trend toward a marginal increase was observed at specific rotational speeds. The RDB may therefore be a suitable alternative method to study mechanisms of tumor progression and invasiveness in vitro, under more complex physicochemical conditions that may approximate natural tissue environments. PMID:18288240

Thouas, George A.; Sheridan, John; Hourigan, Kerry

2007-01-01

212

Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

2014-05-01

213

Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.  

PubMed

Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in vitro studies in physiologically relevant cell and tissue models. PMID:12951697

Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2002-01-01

214

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-12-01

215

Temporary stent scaffolding during aneurysm coiling.  

PubMed

We report a case of temporary Solitaire FR stent (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) scaffolding to reduce coil herniation during embolization of a large neck anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In contrast to classic stent-assisted coiling, the fully retrievable stent is recaptured prior to detachment of the last coil. The presented technical nuance hence does not require institution of prolonged antiplatelet coverage. But the door is left open for coil-repositioning in case of coil basket instability. Permanent stent redeployment remains a fall-back option if critical hardware conflict occurs. In comparison to classic balloon remodeling, the presented method may offer easier distal access, particularly in tortuous arterial anatomy. Temporary occlusion of the parent artery, side branches, and perforators is also avoided. Given its specific potential advantages, temporary stent scaffolding using the fully retrievable Solitaire FR device may find its niche as a bailout option, primarily in a very specific subset of distally located wide neck aneurysms. PMID:24331624

Zumofen, Daniel W; Sahasrabudhe, Nikhil; Riina, Howard A; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Becske, Tibor; Nelson, Peter K

2014-05-01

216

Comparison of the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR).  

PubMed

This study focuses on comparing the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) and submerged membrane adsorption bioreactor (SMABR) over a period of 20 days at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.1h. The effects of PAC on critical flux and membrane fouling were also investigated. The SMABR exhibited better results in terms of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) growth, DOC removal (over 96%), COD removal (over 95%), transmembrane pressure (TMP) and oxygen uptake rate. Nearly 100% of bacteria and 100% of total coliforms were removed in both systems. The addition of PAC could maintain the critical flux at a lower TMP value (7.5 kPa), while irreversible fouling caused by PAC occurred when the filtration flux exceeded critical flux. PMID:17499503

Guo, Wenshan; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Ngo, Huu-Hao; Xing, Wen; Goteti, Pavan

2008-03-01

217

Immersive Representation of Building Information Model  

E-print Network

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an emerging technology that utilizes 3D graphical representations to improve communication, collaboration, and data exchange. Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE) is another promising technology...

Nseir, Hussam

2012-07-16

218

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a)...

2010-04-01

219

Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

220

Topology of Lagrangian immersions and submanifolds  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we look at some of the first topological results for Lagrangian immersions and embeddings. In particular, we state and consider some applications of the h-principle of Gromov which gives a homotopy ...

Hilaire, Christian, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01

221

Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

2012-01-01

222

Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

2003-01-01

223

Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism  

DOEpatents

An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

2010-04-20

224

pH control in a miniaturized bioreactor  

E-print Network

A miniaturized bioreactor with a volume on the order of 100 [micro]l has been built with the aim of increasing the efficiency of the screening process for various microbial cultures. Unlike larger reactors currently in ...

Griswold, Aaron A. (Aaron Alexander), 1981-

2004-01-01

225

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01

226

Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

2003-01-01

227

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2012-10-01

228

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2010-10-01

229

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2011-10-01

230

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2013-10-01

231

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2014-10-01

232

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2012-10-01

233

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2011-10-01

234

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2014-10-01

235

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2013-10-01

236

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2010-07-01

237

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2014-10-01

238

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2010-10-01

239

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2012-10-01

240

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2013-10-01

241

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2011-10-01

242

76 FR 80733 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S7-19-10] RIN 3235-AK69 Extension of Temporary Registration...Interim final temporary rule; extension...purpose, and developing an electronic registration system. This extension will prevent a gap...

2011-12-27

243

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2013-10-01

244

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2011-10-01

245

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2014-10-01

246

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

247

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

248

20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED...

2011-04-01

249

20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED...

2012-04-01

250

20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED...

2010-04-01

251

5 CFR 351.608 - Permissive temporary exceptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...when needed to retain an employee after the effective...temporary exception to retain on sick leave a lower standing employee covered by chapter...temporary exception to retain on accrued annual leave a lower standing employee who: (i)...

2010-01-01

252

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2014-07-01

253

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2012-07-01

254

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2011-07-01

255

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2013-07-01

256

TEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University  

E-print Network

, of the following courses; social psychology, personality, developmental psychology, and abnormal psychology, personality, developmental psychology, APA-accredited clinical psychology, or APA-accredited counselingTEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant

Gering, Jon C.

257

20 CFR 416.1149 - What is a temporary absence from your living arrangement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a temporary absence from your living arrangement. 416.1149 Section 416.1149...a temporary absence from your living arrangement. (a) General. A temporary...temporary absence from your permanent living arrangement if you (or you and your eligible...

2010-04-01

258

Story immersion in a health videogame for childhood obesity prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion’s role in health video games among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed...

259

Treatment of oil contaminated wastewater in a membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge processes are frequently applied to treat industrial effluents. The membrane-bioreactor (MBR) is a modification of this conventional process, where the activated sludge is concentrated in a bioreactor which is connected to a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane unit. Trials in a MBR with a high activated sludge concentration of up to 48 g l?1, showed that oily wastewater also containing surfactants

W. Scholz; W. Fuchs

2000-01-01

260

A new bioreactor system for animal cell culture  

E-print Network

A NEW BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR ANIMAL CELL CULTURE A Thesis by PATRICK BERNARD MONAHAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1989 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering A NEW BIOREACTOR SYSTEM FOR ANIMAL CELL CULTURE A Thesis by PATRICK BERNARD MONAHAN Approved as to style and content by: le C. Engler (Member) D. Hanson (Member) R. Flumer elt (Head of Department...

Monahan, Patrick Bernard

1989-01-01

261

Fluid dynamics of bioreactors for tissue engineered cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various types of bioreactors have been investigated for use in producing tissue-engineered human cartilage. These include rotating-wall vessels, spinner flasks, perfusion and compression\\/perfusion bioreactors. In each type of reactor the flow of the culture medium causes the growing tissue to experience a different dynamic environment, potentially influencing the character of the final tissue. Laboratory measurements have been made in model

G. P. Neitzel; M. K. Smith; P. Sucosky; D. Moreau; J. Pennecot

2002-01-01

262

A High-Throughput Bioreactor System for Simulating Physiological Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optimization of in vitro cell culture for tissue engineering, pharmacological, or metabolic studies requires a large number of experiments to be performed under varying conditions. In this paper, we describe a high-throughput bioreactor system that allows the conduction of parallel experiments in a simulated in vivo-like environment. Our bioreactors consist of tissue-, organ-, or system-specific culture chambers and a

Daniele Mazzei; Federico Vozzi; Antonio Cisternino; Giovanni Vozzi; Arti Ahluwalia

2008-01-01

263

Process challenges relating to hematopoietic stem cell cultivation in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are extremely useful in treating a wide range of diseases and have a variety of useful research\\u000a applications. However, the routinely generated low in vitro concentrations of HSCs from current bioreactor manufacturing systems\\u000a has been a hindrance to the full-scale application of these essential cellular materials. This has made the search for novel\\u000a bioreactor systems for

Marcin Kowalczyk; Kathryn Waldron; Penia Kresnowati; Michael K. Danquah

2011-01-01

264

Stochastic identification of bioreactor process exhibiting input multiplicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor systems involve complex biochemical reactions, which make the systems highly non-linear in nature. Developing model\\u000a based controllers for such processes require mathematical representations, which are simple, yet capable of capturing the\\u000a non-linear process characteristics. Continuous bioreactor falls under the class of non-linear systems that exhibit input multiplicity\\u000a in the optimal operating region, i.e., the operating region where identical outputs

Rishi Amrit; Prabirkumar Saha

2007-01-01

265

Brewery wastewater treatment in a fluidised bed bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrodynamic characteristic performance of a three phase fluidised bed bioreactor has been studied with brewery wastewater. The influence of operating parameters, such as phase hold up, phase mixing, aspect ratio and superficial gas velocity, on an aerobic biodegradation in a bioreactor of 0.16m i.d. and 2.7m in height, was analysed. A low-density (960kg\\/m3) support particle with an internal interstice

Aoyi Ochieng; Tom Ogada; William Sisenda; Paul Wambua

2002-01-01

266

Heavy Metals Removal in a Horizontal Rotating Tubular Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed microbial culture was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated ground soils located inside iron, vinyl and cement factory\\u000a area. Isolated mixed microbial culture was used for the heavy metal ions (Fe2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) removal process in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In this research, the effect of bioreactor process parameters\\u000a on the bioprocess dynamics in the HRTB was studied.

Ton?i Rezi?; Michaela Zeiner; Božidar Šantek; Sr?an Novak

2011-01-01

267

Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

268

Studies of craniofacial development in rotating bioreactors.  

PubMed

Several studies in our laboratory assessed the effect of 3-D culture in various rotating bioreactors on craniofacial development. Initially, mouse first branchial arches were cultured. Molar and incisor development occurred in both upper and lower jaws, but maxilla development was deficient because no brain was present. In a second study using excised whole heads, the oral epithelia fused and teeth did not develop. External structure of the face was obliterated, although internally, eye development was excellent. To preserve both internal spaces and external face structure, subsequent experiments used heads encapsulated in alginate. Teeth developed in these heads, though some interior components were necrotic. Additional experiments used older embryos, with already initiated structures, and less concentrated alginate. Orientation and unreserved identification of structures remain unresolved issues. Future studies will identify structures of interest using transcription factors unique to these structures at particular stages of fetal development. PMID:18372730

Duke, P J; Williams, P; Horn, N; Iverson, J; Leonhart, V; Kong, J; Montufar-Solis, D

2007-07-01

269

Optical stirring in a droplet cell bioreactor  

PubMed Central

In the context of a bioreactor, cells are sensitive to cues from other cells and mechanical stimuli from movement. The ability to provide the latter in a discrete fluidic system presents a significant challenge. From a prior finding that the location of the focus of a laser below particles relative to the beam axis producing a pushing effect in a predominant lateral sense, we advance an approach here that generates a gentle and tunable stirring effect. Computer simulation studies show that we are able to characterize this effect from the parameters that govern the optical forces and the movement of the particles. Experimental results with polystyrene microbeads and red blood cells confirm the notions from the simulations. PMID:23082288

Muradoglu, Murat; Le, Thuong; Lau, Chun Yat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

270

Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

271

Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

Schwarz, Ray P. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

272

[The use of temporary implants in prosthetic dentistry].  

PubMed

Temporary implants can offer a worthwhile contribution to a patient's comfort during the integration of conventional implants or during the maturation of bone grafts. Although temporary implants are not intended for osseointegration, survival rates are sufficiently high for them to be functional during several months. Fixed prostheses which are attached to temporary implants perform better than removable prostheses which more quickly lead to the loosening and loss of these temporary implants. PMID:25022044

Van Cauter, D; Barbier, L; Van Zeghbroeck, L

2014-06-01

273

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

1998-01-01

274

New developments concerning discrimination against temporary workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers the growth and development of the temporary worker within the workforce and looks at the advantages and disadvantages this brings. Cites common characteristics found in this area and provides a brief case study. Covers the legal implications and the importance of employee classification under Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines. Briefly outlines new developments in this area.

Cornel Gusan; Brian H. Kleiner

2000-01-01

275

Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Row crop farmers have been reluctant to use broiler litter on their crops because of the difficulty getting it transported and spread at planting time in the spring. Temporary field storage near the site of spreading will help with this problem and encourage more row crop farmers to use poultry lit...

276

27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

For purposes of administering this part, a temporary retailer is a dealer who is not engaged in business as a retailer for more than four consecutive days per event, and for not more than five events in a calendar year. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26,...

2011-04-01

277

27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

For purposes of administering this part, a temporary retailer is a dealer who is not engaged in business as a retailer for more than four consecutive days per event, and for not more than five events in a calendar year. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26,...

2013-04-01

278

27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

For purposes of administering this part, a temporary retailer is a dealer who is not engaged in business as a retailer for more than four consecutive days per event, and for not more than five events in a calendar year. [T.D. ATF-364, 60 FR 20423, Apr. 26,...

2012-04-01

279

TIPS FOR WORKING WITH A TEMPORARY CAREGIVER  

E-print Network

TIPS FOR WORKING WITH A TEMPORARY CAREGIVER Leaving your child with someone you don't know. Here are some tips to make it easier on all of you! · Your assigned caregiver will call you beforehand that the caregiver can be thinking ahead about what activities would be most appropriate and fun. If you have a child

Polz, Martin

280

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT POLICY  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT POLICY (Revised and Effective 7/1/04) THE LANGUAGE USED IN THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT CREATE AN EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT BETWEEN THE EMPLOYEE AND THE AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT DOES TO OR INCONSISTENT WITH THE TERMS OF THIS PARAGRAPH CREATE ANY CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT. The purpose of employing

Kasman, Alex

281

Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

Wilemon, David L.

1973-01-01

282

Operating buildings during temporary electricity shortages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of buildings can be temporarily modified to use much less electricity. These actions may be necessary during regional electricity shortages lasting anywhere from days to months. The electricity conservation measures typically involve a combination of technical modifications, temporary changes in occupant behavior, and greatly increased vigilance. At the same time, attempts to drastically reduce a building's electricity use

Alan Meier

2006-01-01

283

Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.  

PubMed

This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register. PMID:25118373

2014-07-28

284

Temporary Work and Insecurity in Britain: A Problem Solved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporary workers in Britain experience lower job quality. However, the proportion of employees on temporary contracts has fallen since a decade ago to just 5.5% in 2005. There have also been qualitative improvements. Many temporary workers now fall under the protection of the Fixed Term Employees' (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment)…

Green, Francis

2008-01-01

285

Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics Truman State University  

E-print Network

Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics Truman State University POSITION: Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics, beginning January 13, 2014. DESCRIPTION: Truman State University is seeking a Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics to teach two sections of Introduction to Linguistics

Gering, Jon C.

286

A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

2008-01-01

287

77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood Harvesting on Public...temporary closure to wood harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz...vehicle travel and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas...

2012-12-04

288

Mixing Beginners and Native Speakers in Minority Language Immersion: Who is Immersing Whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixing of Ll speakers with L2 learners occurs regularly in immersion situations where a minority language is the target language. This study looks at early immersion in Irish among children from diverse language backgrounds. It examines the children's frequency of target language use and the effect of the group's linguistic mix on that use. A sample of 60 children

Tina Hickey

2001-01-01

289

Focus and dose characterization of immersion photoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process window for state of the art chip manufacturing continues to decrease, driven by higher NA exposure tools and lower k1 values. The benefits of immersion lithography for Depth of Focus (DoF) are well known. Yet even with this immersion boost, NA=1.35 tools can push DoF into sub-100nm territory. In addition, immersion processes are subject to new sources of dose and focus variation. In order to realize the full potential of immersion lithography, it is necessary to characterize, understand and attack all sources of process variation. Previous work has established our dose/focus metrology capability1, in which we expose Process Monitor Grating (PMG) targets with high sensitivity to focus, measure the PMGs using scatterometry, and use the Ausschnitt dose/focus deconvolution approach to determine focus errors to within a few nm and dose errors to within 0.1%. In this paper, we concentrate on applying this capability to the detailed measurements of immersion photoclusters utilizing ASML exposure tools. Results will include: • comparison of Twinscan 1700i and 1900i focus capability • effectiveness of the Reticle Shape Correction (RSC) for non-flat reticles • visualization of non-flat wafer chucks, tilted image planes, and other systematic focus error components • tracking of tool trends over time, using automated monitor wafer flows The highly systematic nature of the observed focus errors suggest potential for future improvements in focus capability.

Brunner, T. A.; Corliss, D.; Wiltshire, T.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

2009-03-01

290

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

Noah, Karl S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sayer, Raymond L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

291

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

1998-06-30

292

A positron emission tomography approach to visualize flow perfusion in hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the success of hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors in tissue engineering, few evaluations of steady- and pulsatile-flow\\u000a perfusion through these bioreactors have been made. Such evaluations are vital to the optimization of bioreactor culture\\u000a conditions. In this study, positron emission tomography (PET) was proposed and used to visualize steady- and pulsatile-flow\\u000a perfusion in hollow-fiber membrane bioreactors for tissue-engineering applications. PET is

Davod Mohebbi-Kalhori

293

Enabling immersion lithography and double patterning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most semiconductor manufacturers expect 193nm immersion lithography to remain the dominant patterning technology through the 32nm technology node. Conventional immersion lithography, however, is unlikely to take the industry to 32nm half-pitch. Various double patterning techniques have been proposed to address this limitation. These solutions will combine design for manufacturability (DFM) and advanced process control (APC) strategies to achieve desired yield. Each strategy requires feeding forward design and process context and feeding back process metrics. In this work, we discuss some interim solutions for control of double patterning lithography (DPL), as well as some spacer-etch alternatives. We conclude with focus-exposure data showing some potential challenges for pitch-splitting strategies implemented in the context of immersion lithography.

Monahan, Kevin M.; Widmann, Amir

2007-03-01

294

The effects of daily cover soils on shear strength of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills are operated to enhance refuse decomposition, gas production, and waste stabilization. The major aspect of bioreactor landfill operation is the recirculation of collected leachate back through the refuse mass. Due to the accelerated decomposition and settlement of solid waste, bioreactor landfills are gaining popularity as an alternative to the conventional landfill. The addition or recirculation of leachate to

Mohamed A. Haque

2009-01-01

295

MELISSA: a loop of interconnected bioreactors to develop life support in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a loop of interconnected continuous bioreactors, aimed to provide life support in space, is reported. The complete loop concept consists of four bioreactors and one higher plant compartment. For its realization the continuous and controlled operation of the bioreactors is characterized, up to the pilot scale level, first for each individual reactor, second for the interconnected reactor

F. Godia; J. Albiol; J. L. Montesinos; J. Perez; N. Creus; F. Cabello; X. Mengual; A. Montras; Ch. Lasseur

2002-01-01

296

Two Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide Following Contained Fumigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The continued use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity or structural fumigant is in question because its release to the atmosphere contributes to depletion of stratospheric ozone. However, no single alternative to the use of MeBr as a fumigant has been identified. Nonetheless, future regulation of the amount of MeBr released by structural and commodity fumigations is likely. Hence, if MeBr use is to continue, it is imperative to lower the amount released to the atmosphere by collecting the gas following fumigation for eventual recycling or destruction. We report here on two bioreactors that remove MeBr from waste air streams. The bioreactors utilize the enzymatic activity of a previously described, methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, to oxidize MeBr directly during growth. The first bioreactor, operated as a closed system, consisted of 0.5 L of growing culture of strain IMB-1 which removed MeBr (>2,500 ppm) from re-circulating air. Strain IMB-1 grew to high cell densities in this bioreactor by using pulsed additions of MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr) which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Addition of oxygen was required for long-term (>30 days) operation of the closed-system bioreactor. Strain IMB-1 was capable of oxidizing large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 days). The second bioreactor, operated as an open system, consisted of a 10-L flow-through fermenter, in which strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (5,000 ppm in air). NaOH was added by pH stat to maintain neutrality. Growth was continuous and 500 mmol (46 g) of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 days. Bioreactors using strain IMB-1 can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr. Considerable range in the inlet concentration of MeBr can be tolerated, however very high concentrations of MeBr (>10,000 ppm) are toxic to the organisms comprising the bioreactor. Strategies for limiting the range of inlet concentrations may include load dampening by adsorption of MeBr on solids such as activated charcoal or zeolite, followed by desorption and subsequent controlled introduction of MeBr, along with a supply of air, into the bioreactor.

Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

2002-12-01

297

Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

1998-03-01

298

Characterization of membrane bioreactor for dry wine production.  

PubMed

Characteristics of yeast growth and ethanol fermentation were examined in membrane bioreactor using a grape juice. After inoculation, batch fermentation was carried out for 24 h. When yeast growth reached the stationary phase, continuous fermentation was initiated. In continuous fermentation, a linear relationship was observed between cell concentration and dilution rate. In single-vessel membrane bioreactor, the cell concentrations of 18.7 g/l and 76.9 g/l (15 and 60 times higher than that of the batch fermentation, respectively) were observed at dilution rates of 0.1 h(-1) and 0.3 h(-1), respectively. The residual sugar concentration was higher than 10 g/l at the dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1), 0.2 h(-1) or 0.3 h(-1), therefore the single-vessel membrane bioreactor was not suitable for producing dry wine (sugar concentration: 4 g/l or less). In the double-vessel membrane bioreactor, it is most suitable to set the recycle ratio at 0.15 for keeping the sugar concentration below 4 g/l. The productivity of dry wine in the double-vessel membrane bioreactor was 28 times higher than that in the batch fermentation. PMID:16233194

Takaya, Masamitsu; Matsumoto, Nobuya; Yanase, Hideshi

2002-01-01

299

Culture of human septal chondrocytes in a rotary bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) To show that extracellular matrix deposition is possible in 3-dimensional culture of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a rotary bioreactor as well as in static conditions. 2) To demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a bioreactor and static culture amplify with time. Study Design Prospective, basic science Setting Research laboratory Methods Human septal chondrocytes from nine donors were expanded in monolayer and seeded in alginate beads. The beads were cultured in a rotary bioreactor for 21 days in media supplemented with growth factors and human serum, using static culture as the control. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the beads were measured. Results Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation significantly increased during two measured time intervals, zero to 10 days and 10 to 21 days (p<0.01). No significant difference was seen between the static and bioreactor conditions. However, substantial type II collagen production was demonstrated in the beads terminated at day 21 of culture in both conditions. In addition, the biomechanical properties of the beads were enhanced at 21 days in comparison to beads from days 0 and 10. Conclusion Human septal chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads exhibit significant matrix deposition and improved biomechanical properties after 21 days. Enhanced matrix deposition during bead culture will expectantly lead to formation of neocartilage that is comparable to native tissue. Matrix production in beads is supported by the use of a rotary bioreactor. PMID:22597575

Reuther, Marsha S.; Briggs, Kristen K.; Wong, Van W.; Chang, Angela A.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.; Watson, Deborah

2014-01-01

300

Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors.  

PubMed

Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field-scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory-scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar mine runoff water. In general both reactors were efficient in removing most of the metals assayed, Al, As, Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, with the exception of Mn. Both systems showed evidence of bacterial-mediated sulphate reduction and concomitant metal sulphide complexes. However, the experimental laboratory bioreactor showed greater proportions of immobile metals reductions than did the ML bioreactor, presumably due to the greater action of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The major metal removal mechanism in the ML bioreactor was surmised to be adsorption. Differences in metal removal mechanisms between the reactors were hypothesized to be due to fluctuating hydraulic residence times at the ML site, in turn, due to unregulated runoff flow. PMID:21275250

Christian, David; Wong, Edmund; Crawford, Ronald L; Cheng, I Francis; Hess, Thomas F

2010-12-14

301

Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with an internal membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment is growing very popular these days because of low sludge production compared to activated sludge processes. The drawback of the process is the risk of sludge washout, especially when the formation of granular sludge is not expected. By using an internal anaerobic bioreactor this problem can be overcome. A lab scale internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. to which brewery wastewater was fed (COD=2300 mg/l). Hollow fibres were inserted into the anaerobic bioreactor, from which the effluent was extracted by underpressure. The COD-removal was excellent and very constant at a value of 95%. No suspended solids were present in the effluent. The membrane permeability stabilised at relatively low value of 18 l/m2.h.bar due to an irreversible adhesion of constituents in the bioreactor. No growth of biomass was found during two months of operation. Inocculated granular sludge fell apart into loose flocs within several weeks of the startup, not affecting biological performance. The internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a promising new area within the field of wastewater treatment. It is expected that this process will have an important future. PMID:15954573

Cornelissen, E R; van Buggenhout, S; van Ermen, S; De Smedt, M; Van Impe, J; Koning, J

2001-01-01

302

Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

2013-01-01

303

Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

Schlager, K. J.

1998-11-01

304

Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

2010-01-01

305

Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control  

DOEpatents

A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

Zaluski, Marek H. (Butte, MT); Manchester, Kenneth R. (Butte, MT)

2001-01-01

306

Penicillin fermentation: mechanisms and models for industrial-scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

Even after many years of research and industrial practice, the production of penicillin G in fed-batch fermentation by Penicillium crysogenum continues to attract research interest. There are many reasons: the commercial and therapeutic importance of penicillin and its derivatives, the complexity of cell growth, and the impact of engineering variables, the last of which are significant in large bioreactors but are not yet fully understood. Extensive research has generated new information on the mechanisms of cellular reactions and morphological features of the mycelia and their role in the synthesis of the product. Given a choice of mechanisms, models of different degrees of complexity, for both cellular differentiation and bioreactor performance, have been proposed. The more complex models require and provide more information. They are also more difficult to evaluate and apply in automatic control systems for production-scale bioreactors. The present review considers the evolution of recent knowledge and models from this perspective. PMID:11305366

Patnaik, P R

2001-01-01

307

Penicillin fermentation: mechanisms and models for industrial-scale bioreactors.  

PubMed

Even after many years of research and industrial practice, the production of penicillin G in fed-batch fermentation by Penicillium crysogenum continues to attract research interest. There are many reasons: the commercial and therapeutic importance of penicillin and its derivatives, the complexity of cell growth, and the impact of engineering variables, the last of which are significant in large bioreactors but are not yet fully understood. Extensive research has generated new information on the mechanisms of cellular reactions and morphological features of the mycelia and their role in the synthesis of the product. Given a choice of mechanisms, models of different degrees of complexity, for both cellular differentiation and bioreactor performance, have been proposed. The more complex models require and provide more information. They are also more difficult to evaluate and apply in automatic control systems for production-scale bioreactors. The present review considers the evolution of recent knowledge and models from this perspective. PMID:10770225

Patnaik, P R

2000-01-01

308

Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

2010-01-01

309

Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

2014-08-01

310

Spherical CR Geometry and Holomorphically Immersed Spheres  

E-print Network

, there was Poincar´e's model on B1 for the non-Euclidean geometry, or hyperbolic geometry; there was MSpherical CR Geometry and Holomorphically Immersed Spheres Shanyu Ji Abstract We survey some rational mappings, balls, complex hyperbolic geometry, spherical CR geometry. c Higher Education Press

Ji, Shanyu

311

Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transpar- ency over the wavelength range 150 to 200 nm for the purpose of iden- tifying a suitably transparent fluid for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification, distillation, silica gel drying, and supercritical fluid fractionation are investigated to determine the impact of residual contaminants on absorbance. The

Roderick R. Kunz; Michael Switkes; Roger F. Sinta; Jane E. Curtin; Roger H. French; Robert C. Wheland; Chien-Ping Chai Kao; Michael P. Mawn; Lois Lin; Paula M. Wetmore; Val J. Krukonis; Kara Williams

2004-01-01

312

Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.  

PubMed

Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284

Civitarese, Giuseppe

2008-04-01

313

PARAMETRIC RESONANCE IN IMMERSED ELASTIC BOUNDARIES  

E-print Network

tissues such as the basilar membrane in the inner ear, or heart muscle fibers immersed in blood. Problems that arise between fluid and solid, such problems represent a major challenge to both mathematical modelers. STOCKIE§, AND DOUGLAS VARELA¶ SIAM J. APPL. MATH. c 2004 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

Peskin, Charles S.

314

Learning in an immersive digital theater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Museum of Natural Science, in collaboration with Rice University has an outreach program taking portable digital theaters to schools and community sites for over five years and has conducted research on student learning in this immersive environment. By using an external independent evaluator, the effectiveness of NASA-funded Education and Public Outreach (EPO) projects can be assessed. This paper documents interactive techniques and learning strategies in full-dome digital theaters. The presentation is divided into Evaluation Strategies and Results and Interactivity Strategies and Results. All learners from grades 3-12 showed statistically significant short-term increase in knowledge of basic Earth science concepts after a single 22-min show. Improvements were more significant on items that were taught using more than one modality of instruction: hearing, seeing, discussion, and immersion. Thus immersive theater can be an effective as well as engaging teaching method for Earth and Space science concepts, particularly those that are intrinsically three-dimensional and thus most effectively taught in an immersive environment. The portable system allows taking the educational experience to rural and tribal sites where the underserved students could not afford the time or expense to travel to museums.

Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.; Weber, W.

2008-12-01

315

How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

Allery, Virginia

2009-01-01

316

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

317

Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

318

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2010-10-01

319

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2013-10-01

320

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2011-10-01

321

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2012-10-01

322

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section...SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1...

2014-10-01

323

Computer control of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial steps taken in developing a completely menu driven and totally automated computer control system for a bioreactor are discussed. This bioreactor is an electro-mechanical cell growth system cell requiring vigorous control of slowly changing parameters, many of which are so dynamically interactive that computer control is a necessity. The process computer will have two main functions. First, it will provide continuous environmental control utilizing low signal level transducers as inputs and high powered control devices such as solenoids and motors as outputs. Secondly, it will provide continuous environmental monitoring, including mass data storage and periodic data dumps to a supervisory computer.

Hall, William A.

1987-01-01

324

Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

1987-01-01

325

An Immersive Game for K-5 Math and Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present SMILEtrade (Science and Math in an Immersive Learning Environment) an immersive game in which deaf and hearing children ages 5-10 learn math and science concepts and ASL (American Sign Language) terminology through interaction with animated 3D characters and objects. The application can be displayed in stationary, four-wall immersive devices (i.e., the FLEX), Fish Tank VR systems, and non-immersive

Nicoletta Adamo-villani; Ronnie B. Wilbur

2007-01-01

326

A comparison of bioreactors for culture of fetal mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Bioreactors provide a dynamic culture system for efficient exchange of nutrients and mechanical stimulus necessary for the generation of effective tissue engineered bone grafts (TEBG). We have shown that biaxial rotating (BXR) bioreactor-matured human fetal mesenchymal stem cell (hfMSC) mediated-TEBG can heal a rat critical sized femoral defect. However, it is not known whether optimal bioreactors exist for bone TE (BTE) applications. We systematically compared this BXR bioreactor with three most commonly used systems: Spinner Flask (SF), Perfusion and Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) bioreactors, for their application in BTE. The BXR bioreactor achieved higher levels of cellularity and confluence (1.4-2.5x, p < 0.05) in large 785 mm(3) macroporous scaffolds not achieved in the other bioreactors operating in optimal settings. BXR bioreactor-treated scaffolds experienced earlier and more robust osteogenic differentiation on von Kossa staining, ALP induction (1.2-1.6×, p < 0.01) and calcium deposition (1.3-2.3×, p < 0.01). We developed a Micro CT quantification method which demonstrated homogenous distribution of hfMSC in BXR bioreactor-treated grafts, but not with the other three. BXR bioreactor enabled superior cellular proliferation, spatial distribution and osteogenic induction of hfMSC over other commonly used bioreactors. In addition, we developed and validated a non-invasive quantitative micro CT-based technique for analyzing neo-tissue formation and its spatial distribution within scaffolds. PMID:20739062

Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Teoh, Swee Hin; Teo, Erin Yiling; Khoon Chong, Mark Seow; Shin, Chong Woon; Tien, Foo Toon; Choolani, Mahesh A; Chan, Jerry K Y

2010-11-01

327

Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

2011-01-01

328

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction to a temporary tattoo  

PubMed Central

A 6-year-old boy developed a skin eruption 10 days after application of a temporary tattoo advertised as a “natural black henna tattoo.” The eruption was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the tattoo ink. The textile dye paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common industrial allergen and can be found in some temporary tattoo inks. This case describes the reaction and reviews the international literature pertaining to PPD and temporary tattoos. PMID:17256041

2007-01-01

329

Stereo-based environment scanning for immersive telepresence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The processing power and network bandwidth re- quired for true immersive telepresence applications are only now beginning to be available. We draw from our experience developing stereo based tele-immersion prototypes to present the main issues arising when building these systems. Tele-immersion is a new medium that enables a user to share a virtual space with remote participants. The user is

Jane Mulligan; Xenophon Zabulis; Nikhil Kelshikar; Konstantinos Daniilidis

2004-01-01

330

Life in Language Immersion Classrooms. Multilingual Matters 86.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to other volumes on language immersion programs that have discussed language outcomes, this book focuses on how teachers and school administrators implement and carry on the daily operations of immersion schooling. It chronicles a 2-year research project that involved the staff and principals of two immersion schools in the midwest, in…

Bernhardt, Elizabeth B., Ed.

331

Viscoelastic Immersed Boundary Methods for Zero Reynolds Number Flow  

E-print Network

Viscoelastic Immersed Boundary Methods for Zero Reynolds Number Flow Wanda Strychalski1, , Robert D viscoelastic structures immersed in zero Reynolds number flow. We find that the explicit time immersed boundary (minutes) it acts like a viscoelastic fluid due to polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments

Guy, Bob

332

English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

Jeon, Mihyon

2012-01-01

333

Chinese Language and Culture Immersion for Rising 912 Graders  

E-print Network

Chinese Language and Culture Immersion for Rising 912 Graders Learn Chinese! Earn The Chinese Language and Culture Immersion Program is a crucial component of the Virginia STARTALK Chinese HISTORY The Chinese Language and Culture Immersion Program is created for the Virginia STARTALK Chinese

Acton, Scott

334

An Adaptive Version of the Immersed Boundary Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computational setting for the Immersed Boundary Method employing an adaptive mesh refinement is presented. Enhanced accuracy for the method is attained locally by covering an immersed boundary vicinity with a sequence of nested, progressively finer rectangular grid patches which dynamically follow the immersed boundary motion. The set of equations describing the interaction between a non-stationary, viscous incompressible fluid and

Alexandre M Roma; Charles S Peskin; Marsha J Berger

1999-01-01

335

Immersion Gold Coatings, Surface Analysis and Solderability Prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion gold coating is a one of the major metallic alternative finishes used to replace tin\\/lead hot air finish. The immersion process provides flat coating over the substrate and do not introduce any lead into the solder joint. Both these features make this coating extremely attractive to PCB manufacturers and assemblers. Despite its un-doubtful advantages, immersion processes reveal some problems

Peter Bratin; Michael Pavlov; Gene Chalyt

336

Insect cells respiratory activity in bioreactor.  

PubMed

Specific respiration rate ( [Formula: see text]) is a key parameter to understand cell metabolism and physiological state, providing useful information for process supervision and control. In this work, we cultivated different insect cells in a very controlled environment, being able to measure [Formula: see text]. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been used through virus infection as host for foreign protein expression and bioinsecticide production. Transfected Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells can be used to produce different proteins. The objective of this work is to investigate respiratory activity and oxygen transfer during the growth of different insect cells lines as Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), Drosophila melanogaster (S2) wild and transfected for the expression of GPV and EGFP. All experiments were performed in a well-controlled 1-L bioreactor, with SF900II serum free medium. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells reached 10.7 x 10(6) cells/mL and maximum specific respiration rate ([Formula: see text]) of 7.3 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s. Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells achieved 51.2 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] of 3.1 x 10(-18) molO(2)/cell s. S2AcGPV (expressing with rabies virus glycoprotein) reached 24.9 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] of 1.7 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s, while S2MtEGFP (expressing green fluorescent protein) achieved 15.5 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] = 1.9 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s. Relating to the Sf9, S2 cells reached higher maximum cell concentrations and lower specific respiration rate, which can be explained by its smaller size. These results presented useful information for scale-up and process control of insect cells. PMID:19003170

Pamboukian, Marilena Martins; Jorge, Soraia Athie Calil; Santos, Mariza Gerdulo; Yokomizo, Adriana Yurie; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Tonso, Aldo

2008-05-01

337

Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose — For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods — 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10–16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results — The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9–4.5) cm to 0.8 (–1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven’s zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation — Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

2014-01-01

338

The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the simulated environment.

Park, Brian

2006-01-01

339

Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

2014-05-01

340

Characterization of an experimental miniature bioreactor for cellular perturbation studies.  

PubMed

A mini bioreactor (3.0 mL volume) has been developed and shown to be a versatile tool for rapidly screening and quantifying the response of organisms on environmental perturbations. The mini bioreactor is essentially a plug flow device transformed into a well-mixed reactor by a recycle flow of the broth. The gas and liquid phases are separated by a silicone membrane. Dynamic mass transfer experiments were performed to determine the mass transfer capacities for oxygen and carbon dioxide. The mass transfer coefficients for oxygen and carbon dioxide were found to be 1.55 +/- 0.17 x 10(-5) m/s and 4.52 +/- 0.60 x 10(-6) m/s, respectively. Cultivation experiments with the 3.0 mL bioreactor show that (i) it can maintain biomass in the same physiological state as the 4.0 L lab scale bioreactor, (ii) reproducible perturbation experiments such as changing substrate uptake rate can be readily performed and the physiological response monitored quantitatively in terms of the O2 and CO2 uptake and production rates. PMID:16977621

Aboka, Fredrick O; Yang, Huiling; de Jonge, Lodewijk P; Kerste, Rob; van Winden, Wouter A; van Gulik, Walter M; Hoogendijk, Rob; Oudshoorn, Arthur; Heijnen, Joseph J

2006-12-20

341

NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

342

Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50?kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

2013-01-01

343

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

344

Development of a Novel Bioreactor System for Treatment of  

E-print Network

Development of a Novel Bioreactor System for Treatment of Gaseous Benzene Sung-Ho Yeom,1,2 Andrew J benzene. The bubble column contained hexadecane as an absorbent for benzene, and was systemically chosen solubility for benzene and very low volatility. After absorbing benzene in the bubble column, the hexadecane

Daugulis, Andrew J.

345

Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

2003-01-01

346

Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

2014-01-01

347

TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

348

MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

349

Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can no longer be considered as a novel process. This reliable and efficient technology has become a legitimate alternative to conventional activated sludge processes and an option of choice for many domestic and industrial applications. However, membrane fouling and its consequences in terms of plant maintenance and operating costs limit the widespread application of MBRs. To

Pierre Le-Clech; Vicki Chen; Tony A. G. Fane

2006-01-01

350

Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

351

LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

352

A load dampening system for vapor phase bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

Vapor phase bioreactors have been used extensively to control odorous gases and are receiving increased attention as an efficient and cost-effective treatment method for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, an important issue related to bioreactors is their high sensitivity to shock loads and periods of process shutdown, which can significantly reduce treatment efficiency. The focus of this paper is the use of a novel closed absorption and humidification system to dampen dynamic loads of toluene, methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE), and acetone, and to reduce their detrimental effect on a downstream bioreactor. A model based on the mass transfer characteristics of target pollutants was developed and takes into account the closed water recirculation loop that minimizes fugitive emissions and simultaneously humidifies the influent gas stream. When water is used as the scrubbing liquid, model and experimental results indicate that the system effectively dampens hydrophilic compounds and segregates them from the hydrophobic compounds in the waste gas stream. The response of a vapor phase bioreactor to the pretreated stream has also been assessed and shows that the system works effectively with hydrophilic, but not hydrophobic, VOCs.

Al-Rayes, A.W.; Kinney, K.A.; Seibert, F.; Corsi, R.L.

1999-07-01

353

Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

2006-01-01

354

REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

355

FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

356

Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.  

PubMed

We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. PMID:25078821

Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

2013-12-01

357

Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

358

Membrane bioreactors for waste water treatment: reduction of sludge production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the excess sludge produced by Activated Sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants, studies have been carried out with a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) to study the maintenance and cryptic growth phenomena of Pseudomonas fluorescens cultures. Experiments with various imposed wasting rates showed that viability and sludge production yield decreased when sludge age increased.A continuous sludge thermal treatment system

Gérard Goma; Jean Luc Rols; Alain Pareilleux

1997-01-01

359

Membrane Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been extensively employed for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional technologies. To provide current state and development trends of MBR technology used for industrial wastewater treatments, more than 300 scientific publications have been reviewed and analysed. This paper presents an overview of the most recent development of MBR technology for

HONGJUN LIN; WEIJUE GAO; FANGANG MENG; BAO-QIANG LIAO; KAM-TIN LEUNG; LEIHONG ZHAO; JIANRONG CHEN; HUACHANG HONG

2011-01-01

360

Membrane Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been extensively employed for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional technologies. To provide present state and development trends of MBR technology used for industrial wastewater treatments, the authors reviewed and analyzed more than 300 scientific publications. They present an overview of the most recent development of MBR technology for treatment

Hongjun Lin; Weijue Gao; Fangang Meng; Bao-Qiang Liao; Kam-Tin Leung; Leihong Zhao; Jianrong Chen; Huachang Hong

2012-01-01

361

Continuous Production of Alkyl Esters Using an Immobilized Lipase Bioreactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An immobilized lipase packed-bed bioreactor was developed for esterifying the free fatty acids in greases as a pretreatment step in the production of their simple alkyl esters for use as biodiesel. The immobilized lipases used in the study were immobilized preparations of Candida antarctica (C. a.)...

362

Computing the Resilience of a Wastewater Treatment Bioreactor Nabil Mabrouk  

E-print Network

Computing the Resilience of a Wastewater Treatment Bioreactor Nabil Mabrouk Laboratory guillaume.deffuant@cemagref.fr Abstract--Biological wastewater treatment reactor are de- signed to reduce wastewater treatment reactors are often subject to unexpected perturba- tions (variations in wastewater flow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

363

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: feasibility and potential applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass retention is a necessary feature for the successful application of anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment. Biofilms and granule formation are the traditional way to achieve such retention, enabling reactor operation at  high biomass concentrations, and therefore at high organic loading rates. Membrane filtration represents an alternative way to achieve biomass retention. In membrane bioreactors, complete biomass retention can be

D. A. Jeison

2007-01-01

364

Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

365

Pilot study: Fixed-film bioreactor to enhance carbon adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A pilot study was performed to evaluate a novel bioreactor for treatment of groundwater at a former wood-preserving facility. Groundwater, impacted with wood-treating preservatives, is currently being recovered and treated using chemical/physical pretreatment followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The bioreactor was evaluated to reduce GAC usage. The study tested AlliedSignal`s Immobilized Cell Bioreactor (ICB) on a sidestream from the groundwater treatment system. The ICB technology is a fixed-film, fixed-bed bioreactor that utilizes a dual microbe support media system consisting of (1) a patented, carbon-coated, polyurethane foam packing; and (2) conventional, random, plastic packing. The ICB was tested at four discrete operating conditions representing hydraulic retention times of 16.6, 8.3, 4.2, and 2.1 h. Influent and effluent samples collected at each condition were analyzed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenolics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Results indicated that a maximum removal of 86.9% for COD, 96.3% for total phenols, 98.9% for total PAHs, and 97.2% for BTEX. Based on these data, a full-scale ICB as a pretreatment step would decrease GAC usage by a factor of 3.5.

Gromicko, G.J. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Moon Township, PA (United States); Smock, M.; Wong, A.D. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States); Sheridan, B. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

366

The Flow in a Model Rotating-Wall Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregates of mammalian cells can be grown on artificial polymer constructs in a reactor vessel in order to produce high-quality tissue for medical applications. The growth and differentiation of these cells is greatly affected by the fluid flow and mass transfer within the bioreactor. The surface shear stress on the constructs is an especially important quantity of interest. Here, we

Marc K. Smith; G. Paul Neitzel

1997-01-01

367

Drinking water denitrification by a membrane bio-reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water denitrification performance of a bench scale membrane bio-reactor (MBR) was investigated as function of hydraulic and biological parameters. The reactor was a stirred tank and operated both in batch and continuous mode. The mixed denitrifying culture used in the batch mode tests was derived from the mixed liquor of a wastewater treatment plant in Erzincan province in Turkey.

Alper Nuhoglu; Turgay Pekdemir; Ergun Yildiz; Bulent Keskinler; Galip Akay

2002-01-01

368

An Immersive VR System for Sports Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

369

Cooling by immersion in liquid nitrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When an object is cooled by immersion in a liquid, there is an unexpected increase in the violence of boiling just before the boiling stops. Most people seem fascinated by this phenomenon yet few are acquainted with its explanation in terms of a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from film boiling to nucleate boiling. We have developed two variations of an intermediate level undergraduate laboratory experiment to measure the heat-transfer rate after a sample is immersed in liquid nitrogen. The temperature of the sample, as measured by a thermocouple, is recorded as a function of time using either a potentiometer strip-chart recorder or a digital voltmeter-microcomputer combination. The heat-transfer rate as a function of sample temperature is computed from these results, and the reason for the effect is clearly seen.

Listerman, Thomas W.; Boshinski, Thomas A.; Knese, Lynn F.

1986-06-01

370

Friction and dilatancy in immersed granular matter  

E-print Network

The friction of a sliding plate on a thin immersed granular layer obeys Amonton-Coulomb law. We bring to the fore a large set of experimental results which indicate that, over a few decades of values, the effective dynamical friction-coefficient depends neither on the viscosity of the interstitial fluid nor on the size of beads in the sheared layer, which bears out the analogy with the solid-solid friction in a wide range of experimental parameters. We accurately determine the granular-layer dilatancy, which dependance on the grain size and slider velocity can be qualitatively accounted by considering the rheological behaviour of the whole slurry. However, additional results, obtained after modification of the grain surface by a chemical treatment, demonstrate that the theoretical description of the flow properties of granular matter, even immersed, requires the detailed properties of the grain surface to be taken into account.

Thibaut Divoux; Jean-Christophe Géminard

2008-06-10

371

Ocean Immersion in K-12 Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California COSEE is working to create regional ocean education Centers focused on increasing awareness of K-12 schools and their communities to ocean-related issues and opportunities. The Ocean Immersion Centers provide numerous benefits both in the classroom and the community. This site includes information on the Centers and commentary on the implementation of the program in a local elementary school. Workshop information is also provided.

372

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09

373

First: Florida Ir Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FIRST silicon immersion grating spectrometer is being developed at UF to search for habitable Earth-like planets around M dwarfs and giant planets around young active stars. This compact cryogenic IR instrument is designed to have a spectral resolution of R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 µm with a silicon immersion grating and R=60K at 0.8-1.35 µm with an R4 echelle. The goal is to reach a long term Doppler precision of 1-3 m/s for bright M dwarfs. The FIRST silicon immersion grating, with 54.74 degree blaze angle and 16 l/mm groove density, has been fully characterized in the lab. The 50x50 mm square grating entrance pupil is coated with a single layer of anti-reflection coating resulting in a 2.1% measured reflection loss. The grating surface was coated with a gold layer to increase grating surface reflectivity. It has produced R=110,000 diffraction limited spectral resolution at 1.523 micron in a lab test spectrograph with 20 mm pupil diameter. The integrated scattered light is less than 0.2\\% and grating has no visible ghosts down to the measuring instrument noise level. The grating efficiency is 69\\% at the peak of the blaze. This silicon immersion grating is ready for scientific observations with FIRST. FIRST is scheduled to be integrated in the lab during the spring of 2012 and see the first light at an astronomical telescope (TBD) the summer of 2012.

Ge, Jian; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Wan, X.; Powell, S.

2012-01-01

374

[Temporary henna tattoos: Sometimes serious side effects].  

PubMed

Temporary henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular among Western tourists during summer holidays, especially children, teenagers and young adults. Natural henna takes several hours to be absorbed into the skin, imparts a brownish-orange color, and causes very few allergic reactions. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a powerful allergen, is added to henna tattoo mixtures (black henna tattoo) to decrease application time and intensify the color. It is responsible for most of the complications reported after henna tattoos: localized or generalized contact dermatitis, hypertrophic or keloid scars, and temporary or permanent hyper- or hypopigmentation. More rarely, type I hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, angioedema, or anaphylaxis) with potentially lethal outcomes have been reported. PPD allergy can induce cross-reactivity with other substances, such as hair dyes and textile azo dyes. Patch testing for PPD must be performed at a very diluted concentration (0.01% in vaseline) to avoid unnecessarily strong reactions and sensitization to PPD. In the absence of any legal control of henna tattooing practices, prevention requires the annual provision of information to Western consumers, especially young people and their parents. PMID:18329233

Kluger, Nicolas; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Guillot, Bernard

2008-01-01

375

Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

1983-01-01

376

Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers  

SciTech Connect

The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

1986-08-01

377

Reconstruction of liver organoid using a bioreactor  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop the effective technology for reconstruction of a liver organ in vitro using a bio-artificial liver. METHODS: We previously reported that a radial-flow bioreactor (RFB) could provide a three-dimensional high-density culture system. We presently reconstructed the liver organoid using a functional human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (FLC-5) as hepatocytes together with mouse immortalized sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) line M1 and mouse immortalized hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line A7 as non parenchymal cells in the RFB. Two x 107 FLC-5 cells were incubated in the RFB. After 5 d, 2 x 107 A7 cells were added in a similar manner followed by another addition of 107 M1 cells 5 d later. After three days of perfusion, some cellulose beads with the adherent cells were harvested. The last incubation period included perfusion with 200 nmol/L swinholide A for 2 h and then the remaining cellulose beads along with adherent cells were harvested from the RFB. The cell morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To assess hepatocyte function, we compared mRNA expression for urea cycle enzymes as well as albumin synthesis by FLC-5 in monolayer cultures compared to those of single-type cultures and cocultures in the RFB. RESULTS: By transmission electron microscopy, FLC-5, M1, and A7 were arranged in relation to the perfusion side in a liver-like organization. Structures resembling bile canaliculi were seen between FCL-5 cells. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated fenestrae on SEC surfaces. The number of vesiculo-vacuolar organelles (VVO) and fenestrae increased when we introduced the actin-binding agent swinholide-A in the RFB for 2h. With respect to liver function, urea was found in the medium, and expression of mRNAs encoding arginosuccinate synthetase and arginase increased when the three cell types were cocultured in the RFB. However, albumin synthesis decreased. CONCLUSION: Co-culture in the RFB system can dramatically change the structure and function of all cell types, including the functional characteristics of hepatocytes. Our system proves effective for reconstruction of a liver organoid using a bio-artificial liver. PMID:16609994

Saito, Masaya; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Masaki, Takahiro; Maehashi, Haruka; Shimizu, Keiko; Hataba, Yoshiaki; Iwahori, Tohru; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Braet, Filip

2006-01-01

378

Bioreactors for tissue engineering of cartilage.  

PubMed

The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix production using confined and unconfirmed systems. Development of automatic culture systems and noninvasive monitoring of matrix production will take place during the next few years in order to improve the cost affectivity of tissue-engineered products. PMID:19290500

Concaro, S; Gustavson, F; Gatenholm, P

2009-01-01

379

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering of Cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix production using confined and unconfined systems. Development of automatic culture systems and noninvasive monitoring of matrix production will take place during the next few years in order to improve the cost affectivity of tissue-engineered products.

Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.

380

38 CFR 60.20 - Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging. 60.20...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.20 Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging....

2013-07-01

381

38 CFR 60.20 - Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 false Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging. 60.20...VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.20 Duration of Fisher House or other temporary lodging....

2014-07-01

382

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2013-10-01

383

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2010-10-01

384

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2011-10-01

385

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2012-10-01

386

76 FR 34080 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection; Comment Request; Temporary Marketing Permit Applications AGENCY: Food and...existing FDA regulations governing temporary marketing permit applications. DATES: Submit...of information technology. Temporary Marketing Permit Applications--21 CFR...

2011-06-10

387

75 FR 24737 - Extension of the Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Designation of Nicaragua for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment...designation of Nicaragua for temporary protected status (TPS) for 18 months from its current...gov. Select ``Temporary Protected Status'' from the homepage. You can find...

2010-05-05

388

38 CFR 21.6001 - Temporary vocational training program for certain pension recipients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Temporary vocational training program for certain pension...EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients... § 21.6001 Temporary vocational training program for certain...

2010-07-01

389

38 CFR 21.6001 - Temporary vocational training program for certain pension recipients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Temporary vocational training program for certain pension...EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients... § 21.6001 Temporary vocational training program for certain...

2011-07-01

390

75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and Regulations...granting temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act provisions and regulations...credit default swaps that reference government securities. The temporary...

2010-03-11

391

Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

2009-01-01

392

Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

PubMed Central

Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

2011-01-01

393

Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2013-12-01

394

BIOREACTOR ECONOMICS, SIZE AND TIME OF OPERATION (BEST) COMPUTER SIMULATOR FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is an Excel? spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with the public domain geochemical modeling software, PHREEQCI. The BEST model is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreacto...

395

7 CFR 160.41 - Issuance of temporary license.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

In a case of special urgency, and in the discretion of the Administrator, a temporary license may be issued without reference to § 160.40 upon presentation of satisfactory evidence by the accredited processor of the need therefor and the competency of the applicant for such temporary...

2012-01-01

396

How do fish exploit temporary waters throughout a flooding episode?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary waters are important habitats for many fish species. Nevertheless, determination of which species colonise these habitats, when this occurs and where fish distribute themselves within the temporary waters are rare. The fish assemblage on a temporarily flooded grassland and its adjacent permanent canal, together with environmental variables, were monitored throughout an entire flooding event from February to May 2006

J. C UCHEROUSSET; A. C ARPENTIER

397

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2010-07-01

398

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2011-07-01

399

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2012-07-01

400

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2014-07-01

401

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2013-07-01

402

Briefing Paper Should we introduce a (temporary) wealth tax?  

E-print Network

Briefing Paper Should we introduce a (temporary) wealth tax? In August 2012, Nick Clegg suggested that a temporary wealth tax was needed to help tackle the budget deficit at a time of economic crisis. Almost of envy' and would create a disincentive to wealth creators who would then leave the country. Mr Jenkin

Birmingham, University of

403

18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Temporary certificates-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57... § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies. The Federal Energy...enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be the...

2014-04-01

404

Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N(2)O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N(2)O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N(2)O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N(2)O releases: 8.1 +/- 0.16 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 384), 4.2 +/- 0.14 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 132) and 1.9 +/- 0.10 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N(2)O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N(2)O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection. PMID:19297142

Tallec, G; Bureau, C; Peu, P; Benoist, J C; Lemunier, M; Budka, A; Presse, D; Bouchez, T

2009-07-01

405

19 CFR 10.104 - Temporary importation entries for United States Government agencies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Temporary importation entries for United States Government agencies. 10...ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations ...Temporary importation entries for United States Government agencies....

2010-04-01

406

26 CFR 1.103(n)-5T - Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary...5T Certification of no consideration for allocation (temporary...must certify that there was no consideration for an allocation?...

2010-04-01

407

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. ...655.1301 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE...

2013-04-01

408

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. ...655.1301 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE...

2012-04-01

409

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. ...655.1301 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE...

2011-04-01

410

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. ...655.1301 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE...

2014-04-01

411

20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. ...655.1301 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE...

2010-04-01

412

Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.  

PubMed

We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

2014-04-01

413

Minimally Invasive Removal of a Temporary RVAD.  

PubMed

We describe a minimally invasive technique for the removal of a temporary right ventricular assist device (RVAD) that provided support concomitant with durable left ventricular assist device support. The RVAD cannulas are mobilized through a small subxiphoid incision at the cannula exit site. Both cannulas are transected subcutaneously, then occluded with plugs made of rolled bovine pericardium, and the skin is closed. The cannula remnants are left in place until heart transplantation is accomplished. To minimize risk of thrombus formation at the cannula tips and subsequent embolization into the right atrium or pulmonary artery, anticoagulation is increased to achieve an international normalized ratio (INR) in the range of 2.5-3.0. PMID:25485558

Netuka, Ivan; Ivák, Peter; Szarszoi, Ondrej; Urban, Marian; Novotný, Ji?í; Bešík, Josef; Malý, Jiri

2015-01-01

414

Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO/sub 3//sup -/ and as large as 2000 m/sup 3//d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m/sup 3/. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m/sup 3/ and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation.

Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

1981-01-01

415

Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal  

DOEpatents

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

1989-01-01

416

Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

417

Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

418

Validation of an optical sensor-based high-throughput bioreactor system for mammalian cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell culture optimization is a labor-intensive process requiring a large number of experiments to be conducted under varying conditions. Here we describe a high-throughput bioreactor system that allows 12 mini stirred-tank bioreactors to be operated simultaneously. All bioreactors are monitored by low-cost minimally invasive optical sensors for pH and dissolved oxygen. The sensors consist of single-use patches affixed inside the

Xudong Ge; Michael Hanson; Hong Shen; Yordan Kostov; Kurt A. Brorson; Douglas D. Frey; Antonio R. Moreira; Govind Rao

2006-01-01

419

Dynamic Properties of Municipal Solid Waste in Bioreactor Landfills with Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactor landfills are operated to enhance refuse decomposition, gas production, and waste stabilization. The major aspect\\u000a of bioreactor landfill operation is the recirculation of collected leachate back through the refuse mass. Due to the presence\\u000a of additional leachate and accelerated decomposition, the characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in bioreactor landfills\\u000a are expected to change. About 50% of the continental

M. S. Hossain; M. A. Haque; L. R. Hoyos

2010-01-01

420

A comparison of bioreactors for culture of fetal mesenchymal stem cells for bone tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioreactors provide a dynamic culture system for efficient exchange of nutrients and mechanical stimulus necessary for the generation of effective tissue engineered bone grafts (TEBG). We have shown that biaxial rotating (BXR) bioreactor-matured human fetal mesenchymal stem cell (hfMSC) mediated-TEBG can heal a rat critical sized femoral defect. However, it is not known whether optimal bioreactors exist for bone TE

Zhi-Yong Zhang; Swee Hin Teoh; Erin Yiling Teo; Mark Seow Khoon Chong; Chong Woon Shin; Foo Toon Tien; Mahesh A. Choolani; Jerry K. Y. Chan

2010-01-01

421

Computational fluid dynamics modeling of momentum transport in rotating wall perfused bioreactor for cartilage tissue engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of a rotating-wall perfused-vessel (RWPV) bioreactor is performed to characterize the complex hydrodynamic environment for the simulation of cartilage development in RWPV bioreactor in the presence of tissue-engineered cartilage constructs, i.e., cell-chitosan scaffolds. Shear stress exerted on chitosan scaffolds in bioreactor was calculated for different rotational velocities in the range of 33–38rpm.

Mahmut N. Cinbiz; R. Seda T??l?; I??l Gerçek Be?karde?; Menem?e Gümü?derelio?lu; Üner Çolak

2010-01-01

422

Gas Immersion Laser Doping for superconducting nanodevices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conceived and fabricated Superconductor/Normal metal/Superconductor Josephson junctions made entirely of boron doped Silicon. We have used Gas Immersion Laser Doping to fabricate SN bilayers with good ohmic interfaces and well controlled concentration and doping depth. Standard fabrication processes, optimised for silicon, were employed to nanostructure the bilayers without affecting their transport properties. The junctions thus fabricated are proximity superconducting and show well understood I-V characteristics. This research opens the road to all-silicon, non-dissipative, Josephson Field Effect Transistors.

Chiodi, F.; Grockowiak, A.; Duvauchelle, J. E.; Fossard, F.; Lefloch, F.; Klein, T.; Marcenat, C.; Débarre, D.

2014-05-01

423

Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

2014-09-01

424

High-throughput miniaturized bioreactors for cell culture process development: reproducibility, scalability, and control.  

PubMed

Decreasing the timeframe for cell culture process development has been a key goal toward accelerating biopharmaceutical development. Advanced Microscale Bioreactors (ambr™) is an automated micro-bioreactor system with miniature single-use bioreactors with a 10-15 mL working volume controlled by an automated workstation. This system was compared to conventional bioreactor systems in terms of its performance for the production of a monoclonal antibody in a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. The miniaturized bioreactor system was found to produce cell culture profiles that matched across scales to 3 L, 15 L, and 200 L stirred tank bioreactors. The processes used in this article involve complex feed formulations, perturbations, and strict process control within the design space, which are in-line with processes used for commercial scale manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Changes to important process parameters in ambr™ resulted in predictable cell growth, viability and titer changes, which were in good agreement to data from the conventional larger scale bioreactors. ambr™ was found to successfully reproduce variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH conditions similar to the larger bioreactor systems. Additionally, the miniature bioreactors were found to react well to perturbations in pH and DO through adjustments to the Proportional and Integral control loop. The data presented here demonstrates the utility of the ambr™ system as a high throughput system for cell culture process development. PMID:24449637

Rameez, Shahid; Mostafa, Sigma S; Miller, Christopher; Shukla, Abhinav A

2014-01-01

425

Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion gratings, diffraction gratings where the incident radiation strikes the grooves while immersed in a dielectric medium, offer significant compactness and performance advantages over front-surface grat- ings. These advantages become particularly large for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-IR. The production and evaluation of immersion gratings produced by fabricating grooves in silicon substrates using photolithographic patterning and anisotropic etching is described.

J. P. Marsh; D. J. Mar; D. T. Jaffe

2007-01-01

426

ArF immersion lithography using TWINSCAN technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 193-nm lithography, water proves to be a suitable immersion fluid. ArF immersion offers the potential to extend conventional optical lithography to the 45-nm node and potentially to the 32-nm node. Additionally, with existing lenses, the immersion option offers the potential to increase the focus window with 50% and more, depending on actual NA and feature type. In this paper

Jan Mulkens; Bob Streefkerk; Martin Hoogendorp

2005-01-01

427

Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas  

E-print Network

Two-way Immersion 1 Running Head: TWO-WAY IMMERSION BILINGUAL PROGRAMS Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas Martha Galloway, Ph.D. Clinical Assistant Professor and Coordinator, Title III Grants Department... of Educational Psychology Texas A&M University College Station, TX bilingual@tamu.edu Rafael Lara-Alecio, Ph.D. Professor and Director, Bilingual Programs Department of Educational Psychology Texas A&M University College Station, TX a...

Galloway, Martha; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Rodriguez, Linda; Gomez, Leo

2010-10-22

428

Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

2014-01-01

429

The Feel Good Factor: Comparing Immersion by Design and Immersion by Default Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from an exploratory research project entitled "Gaelscoileanna and Multicultural classrooms: the potential for transfer to enhance L2 learning experiences". The project focussed on two language immersion contexts in Ireland which, despite obvious differences, share a range of significant commonalities. One…

Gallagher, Fiona; Leahy, Angela

2014-01-01

430

Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

2014-01-01

431

Bioreactor design effects on biodegradation capabilities of VOCS in wastewater  

SciTech Connect

Biodegradation of aromatic chemical requires air and tests have conclusively shown that traditional biodegradation designs result in VOC stripping losses to air stream rather than biodegradation. Computer models and experimental data are presented comparing batch (plug flow), CSTR and packed bed bioreactor designs for their abilities to degrade VOC chemicals. Batch or plug flow reactors are shown to be a very poor method for biodegradation. CSTRs work well but require a large process residence time. A new packed bed column bioreactor will be shown to provide much faster biodegradation and still minimize air stripping losses. Mass transfer and fluid mechanic parameters have been measured with and without biomass and compared to traditional chemical engineering correlations. The packed column minimizes the demand for air flow while increasing the throughput rate of wastewater as compared to a CSTR design. The efficiency of VOC biodegradation will be seen to be greatly improved.

Hill, G.A.; Van Cleave, K.M. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)); Tomusiak, M.E. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States)); Quail, B. (DOW Chemical Canada Inc., Saskatchewan, Alberta (Canada))

1991-05-01

432

Over-pressurized bioreactors: application to microbial cell cultures.  

PubMed

In industrial biotechnology, microbial cultures are exposed to different local pressures inside bioreactors. Depending on the microbial species and strains, the increased pressure may have detrimental or beneficial effects on cellular growth and product formation. In this review, the effects of increased air pressure on various microbial cultures growing in bioreactors under moderate total pressure conditions (maximum, 15 bar) will be discussed. Recent data illustrating the diversity of increased air pressure effects at different levels in microbial cells cultivation will be presented, with particular attention to the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures on cellular growth and product formation, and the concomitant effect of oxygen pressure on antioxidant cellular defense mechanisms. PMID:24777971

Lopes, Marlene; Belo, Isabel; Mota, Manuel

2014-01-01

433

Critical analysis of engineering aspects of shaken flask bioreactors.  

PubMed

Shaking bioreactors are the most frequently used reaction vessels in biotechnology. Since their inception, shaking bioreactors have been playing a significant role in medicine, agriculture, food, environmental, and industrial research. In spite of their huge practical importance, very little is known about the characteristic properties of shaken cultures from an engineering point of view. In this paper, a critical analysis is presented of the mixing characteristics, aeration, mass and heat transfer, power consumption, and suitability for on-line monitoring and control of various environmental and other operating parameters in aerated and anaerobic/anoxic conditions. Aspects of cell damage due to shear stress generated in shaken flask and loss of sterility due to contamination are also discussed. PMID:19929318

Suresh, S; Srivastava, V C; Mishra, I M

2009-01-01

434

The role of perfusion bioreactors in bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering has emerged as a possible alternative to current treatments for bone injuries and defects. However, the common tissue engineering approach presents some obstacles to the development of functional tissues, such as insufficient nutrient and metabolite transport and non-homogenous cell distribution. Culture of bone cells in three-dimensional constructs in bioreactor systems is a solution for those problems as it improves mass transport in the culture system. For bone tissue engineering spinner flasks, rotating wall vessels and perfusion systems have been investigated, and based on these, variations that support cell seeding and mechanical stimulation have also been researched. This review aims at providing an overview of the concepts, advantages and future applications of bioreactor systems for bone tissue engineering with emphasis on the design of different perfusion systems and parameters that can be optimized. PMID:23507883

Gaspar, Diana Alves; Gomide, Viviane; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge

2012-01-01

435

Effect of triclosan on protozoa in wastewater treating bioreactors.  

PubMed

The effect of antimicrobial chemical, triclosan (TCS) on protozoa present in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors for wastewater treatment is reported in this study. Bioreactor sludge ciliated protozoa such as Spirostomum, Cyclidium and Colpoda and flagellated protozoa Mastigella were exposed to TCS at 1 mg/L level in batch cultures. The response of TCS on protozoa was followed by microscopic observation of the sludge at specific time intervals. Among the protozoa in aerobic sludge, Colpoda exhibited strong sensitivity to triclosan and the cells distorted and burst in 20 minutes period. Mastigella and Spirostomum were resistant to triclosan for first two days, but afterwards the mobility was found declined and subsequently mortality increased to 100% in four and five days respectively. Anaerobic sludge ciliate, Cyclidium exhibited morphological distortion and motility decline after 1 hour exposure to triclosan. The sludge flocs were affected and pelagic cell count declined by the presence of triclosan at the tested level. PMID:21330724

Krishnakumar, B; Anupama, V N; Anju, S; Rugminisukumar, M

2011-01-01

436

The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

Goochee, Charles F.

1988-01-01

437

Biofilm productivity and concomitant cell autolysis in a membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Phanerochaete chrysoporium morphology and manganese peroxidase (MnP) productivity was characterised in a scalable, modularised 1145 cm(3) membrane gradostat reactor in response to switching between an enhanced production medium and a nutrient limited feed (50% C and N reduction). Irrespective of the feed composition used nutrients permeating from the lumen of the ultrafiltration membrane matrix established nutrient gradients across the immobilised biofilm with distinct primary, stationary and decline growth phases observed. Severe nutrient C and N limitation did not change the cyclic nature of enzyme production (MnP(max) = 189.5 U l(-1)) but did reduce the overall bioreactor efficiency from 32 to 22 U l(-1) day(-1). Stress induced secondary metabolism resulted in concomitant cell autolysis causing biomass loss and increased operational flux after 20 days in the 33 day bioreactor operation cycle. PMID:20972820

Govender, S

2011-02-01

438

Optimization of biological sulfide removal in a CSTR bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, biological sulfide removal from natural gas in a continuous bioreactor is investigated for estimation of the optimal operational parameters. According to the carried out reactions, sulfide can be converted to elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, and polysulfide, of which elemental sulfur is the desired product. A mathematical model is developed and was used for investigation of the effect of various parameters on elemental sulfur selectivity. The results of the simulation show that elemental sulfur selectivity is a function of dissolved oxygen, sulfide load, pH, and concentration of bacteria. Optimal parameter values are calculated for maximum elemental sulfur selectivity by using genetic algorithm as an adaptive heuristic search. In the optimal conditions, 87.76% of sulfide loaded to the bioreactor is converted to elemental sulfur. PMID:22252421

Roosta, Aliakbar; Jahanmiri, Abdolhossein; Mowla, Dariush; Niazi, Ali; Sotoodeh, Hamidreza

2012-08-01

439

Large scale production of phage antibody libraries using a bioreactor.  

PubMed

One of the limitations of the use of phage antibody libraries in high throughput selections is the production of sufficient phage antibody library at the appropriate quality. Here, we successfully adapt a bioreactor-based protocol for the production of phage peptide libraries to the production of phage antibody libraries. The titers obtained in the stirred-tank bioreactor are 4 to 5 times higher than in a standard shake flask procedure, and the quality of the phage antibody library produced is indistinguishable to that produced using standard procedures as assessed by Western blotting and functional selections. Availability of this protocol will facilitate the use of phage antibody libraries in high-throughput scale selections. PMID:25524379

Ferrara, Fortunato; Kim, Chang-Yub; Naranjo, Leslie A; Bradbury, Andrew Rm

2015-01-01

440

Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement.  

PubMed

The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R

2013-01-01

441

Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement  

PubMed Central

The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

2013-01-01

442

Long-term dry immersion: review and prospects.  

PubMed

Dry immersion, which is a ground-based model of prolonged conditions of microgravity, is widely used in Russia but is less well known elsewhere. Dry immersion involves immersing the subject in thermoneutral water covered with an elastic waterproof fabric. As a result, the immersed subject, who is freely suspended in the water mass, remains dry. For a relatively short duration, the model can faithfully reproduce most physiological effects of actual microgravity, including centralization of body fluids, support unloading, and hypokinesia. Unlike bed rest, dry immersion provides a unique opportunity to study the physiological effects of the lack of a supporting structure for the body (a phenomenon we call 'supportlessness'). In this review, we attempt to provide a detailed description of dry immersion. The main sections of the paper discuss the changes induced by long-term dry immersion in the neuromuscular and sensorimotor systems, fluid-electrolyte regulation, the cardiovascular system, metabolism, blood and immunity, respiration, and thermoregulation. The long-term effects of dry immersion are compared with those of bed rest and actual space flight. The actual and potential uses of dry immersion are discussed in the context of fundamental studies and applications for medical support during space flight and terrestrial health care. PMID:21161267

Navasiolava, Nastassia M; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Tomilovskaya, Elena S; Larina, Irina M; Mano, Tadaaki; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Gharib, Claude; Kozlovskaya, Inesa B

2011-07-01

443

Virtual Worlds: A Performative Perspective on Globally Distributed, Immersive Work  

E-print Network

Virtual worlds are immersive, simulated, persistent, and dynamic environments that include rich graphical three dimensional spaces, high fidelity audio, motion, viewpoint, and interactivity. Initially dismissed as environments ...

Schultze, Ulrike

444

TCE degradation in a methanotrophic attached-film bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethene was degraded in expanded-bed bioreactors operated with mixed-culture methanotrophic attached films. Biomass concentrations of 8 to 75 g volatile solids (VS) per liter static bed (L[sub sb]) were observed. Batch TCE degradation rates at 35C followed the Michaelis-Menten model, and a maximum TCE degradation rate (q[sub max]) of 10.6 mg TCE\\/gVS [center dot] day and a half velocity coefficient

Donna E. Fennell; Yarrow M. Nelson; Sheila E. Underhill; Thomas E. White; William J. Jewell

1993-01-01

445

Method for culturing mammalian cells in a horizontally rotated bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bio-reactor system where cell growth microcarrier beads are suspended in a zero head space fluid medium by rotation about a horizontal axis and where the fluid is continuously oxygenated from a tubular membrane which rotates on a shaft together with rotation of the culture vessel. The oxygen is continuously throughput through the membrane and disbursed into the fluid medium along the length of the membrane.

Schwarz, Ray P. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor); Trinh, Tinh T. (inventor)

1992-01-01

446

An expert system based intelligent control scheme for space bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expert system based intelligent control scheme is being developed for the effective control and full automation of bioreactor systems in space. The scheme developed will have the capability to capture information from various resources including heuristic information from process researchers and operators. The knowledge base of the expert system should contain enough expertise to perform on-line system identification and thus be able to adapt the controllers accordingly with minimal human supervision.

San, Ka-Yiu

1988-01-01

447

Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a\\u000aOf the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li\\u000a\\u000aThe work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and IBOS program. The aim of this cluster project was

X. Li

2009-01-01

448

Microbial Community And Metabolite Dynamics of an Anoxic Dechlorinating Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring and quantification of organohalide respiring bacteria is essential for optimization of on-site bioremediation of anoxic subsurface sites contaminated with chloroethenes. Molecular monitoring and model simulations were applied to determine degradation performance of an in situ dechlorinating bioreactor and its influence on the contamination plume. Dehalococcoides was the dominant dechlorinating microorganism as revealed by qPCR targeting 16S rRNA- and chloroethene

F. Maphosa; H. Smidt; Vos de W. M; W. F. Röling

2010-01-01

449

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

450

Transport Advances in Disposable Bioreactors for Liver Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F.; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

451

Construction and characterization of a novel vocal fold bioreactor.  

PubMed

In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:25145349

Zerdoum, Aidan B; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

2014-01-01

452

Hydrodynamic Evaluation of a Bioreactor for Tissue Engineering Heart Valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal objective was to develop an autoclavable pulsatile bioreactor capable of subjecting disc-shaped or trileaflet\\u000a valve tissue constructs to prescribed, reproducible hydrodynamic profiles. The pump actuator consisted of: a computer-controlled\\u000a stepper motor and a lead-screw attached to the piston of a water filled cylinder which was connected to the outer chamber\\u000a of a pulsatile sac ventricular assist device with

C. T. Bowles; S. E. P. New; R. Van Loon; S. A. Dreger; G. Biglino; C. Chan; K. H. Parker; A. H. Chester; M. H. Yacoub; P. M. Taylor

2010-01-01

453

Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for domestic wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of backwash frequency (15, 30 and 60 min) and influent flux (3.75, 7.50 and 11.25 L\\/h\\/m2) on fouling amelioration in an innovative external side-stream dead-end microfiltration anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for the treatment of domestic wastewater at 25°C was investigated. During 6 months of reactor operation, a constant COD removal of 88% and an accumulation of 350 mg

B. Lew; S. Tarre; M. Beliavski; C. Dosoretz; M. Green

2009-01-01

454

Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane\\u000a bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now\\u000a be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated\\u000a sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major

Pierre Le-Clech

2010-01-01

455

Biofouling in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating municipal sewage  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, considering the availability of reports on aerobic membrane reactor research and full scale experiences, there is a lack of understanding associated to anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) applications for low-strength wastewater treatment. In this context, this research aims (1) to evaluate the performance of an AnMBR for municipal sewage treatment at ambient temperature and (2) to contribute to the

M. Herrera-Robledo; D. M. Cid-León; J. M. Morgan-Sagastume; A. Noyola

2011-01-01

456

Physiological responses to mixing in large scale bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli fed-batch cultivations at 22 m3 scale were compared to corresponding laboratory scale processes and cultivations using a scale-down reactor furnished with a high-glucose concentration zone to mimic the conditions in a feed zone of the large bioreactor. Formate accumulated in the large reactor, indicating the existence of oxygen limitation zones. It is suggested that the reduced biomass yield

S.-O. Enfors; M. Jahic; A. Rozkov; B. Xua; M. Hecker; B. Jürgen; E. Krüger; T. Schweder; G. Hamer; D. O'Beirne; N. Noisommit-Rizzi; M. Reuss; L. Boone; C. Hewitt; C. McFarlane; A. Nienow; T. Kovacs; C. Trägårdh; L. Fuchs; J. Revstedt; P. C. Friberg; B. Hjertager; G. Blomsten; H. Skogman; S. Hjort; F. Hoeks; H.-Y. Lin; P. Neubauer; R. van der Lans; K. Luyben; P. Vrabel; Å. Manelius

2001-01-01

457

Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering: A Four-Dimensional Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro creation of three-dimensional tissues will require well-controlled culture tools to maximise nutrient mass transfer,\\u000a allow the culture of multiple cell types, and assert mechanical forces on the cells. The development of bioreactor technologies\\u000a will help greatly in this respect. Although still in its infancy, there are some basic design rules and general biological\\u000a and physical considerations that

M. Ellis; M. Jarman-Smith; J. B. Chaudhuri

458

Prolonged shearing of insect cells in a couette bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscometers have had a prominent role in the study of hydrodynamic damage to cell cultures. A Couette bioreactor overcomes stringent time limits of previous viscometric research. At low shear levels, the vessel supported robust growth of Spodopterafrugiperda cells (>92% viability) at 0.64±0.09 day?1 to a maximum cell density of 6.1×106 cellsml?1. The intrinsic rate of necrosis was 30+ times slower

Kim C. O’Connor; Nancy L. Cowgera; Daniel C. R. De Kee; Ray P. Schwarz

2002-01-01

459

Modelling and characterization of an airlift-loop bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An airlift-loop reactor is a bioreactor for aerobic biotechnological processes. The special feature of the ALR is the recirculation of the liquid through a downcomer connecting the top and the bottom of the main bubbling section. Due to the high circulation-flow rate, efficient mixing and oxygen transfer is combined with a controlled liquid flow in the absence of mechanical agitators.Liquid

P. Verlaan

1987-01-01

460

Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

2012-03-01

461

An immersed boundary method for endocytosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

2014-09-01

462

Model of oxygen transport limitations in hollow fiber bioreactors.  

PubMed

Axial and radial oxygen depletion are believed to be critical scale-limiting factors in the design of cell culture hollow fiber bioreactors. A mathematical analysis of oxygen depletion has been performed in order to develop effectiveness factor plots to aid in the scaling of hollow fiber bioreactors with cells immobilized in the shell-side. Considerations of the lumen mass transport resistances and the axial gradients were added to previous analyses of this immobilization geometry. An order of magnitude analysis was used to evaluate the impact of the shell-side convective fluxes on the oxygen transport. A modified Thiele modulus and a lumen and membrane resistance factor have been derived from the model. Use of these terms in the effectiveness factor plots results in a considerable simplification of the presentation and use of the model. Design criteria such as fiber dimensions and spacing, reactor lengths, and recycle flow rates can be selected using these plots. Model predictions of the oxygen limitations were compared to experimental measurements of the axial cell distributions in a severely oxygen limited hollow fiber bioreactor. Despite considerable uncertainty in our parameters and nonidealities in hollow fiber geometry, the cell distribution correlated well with the modeling results. PMID:18597310

Piret, J M; Cooney, C L

1991-01-01

463

Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2014-01-01

464

Biogas production from citrus waste by membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2014-01-01

465

Hydrodynamics of soil immobilization in the immobilized soil bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The hydrodynamic characteristics of a new type of reactor, the immobilized soil bioreactor, were studied. This apparatus is a practical new engineering concept (soil immobilization) based on entrapment of soil particles, which contain pollutant-degrading microorganisms, in the pores of a geotextile to activate the indigenous microorganisms. The soil immobilization is the third on the size scale of immobilization processes, coming after (1) that of molecules in heterogeneous catalysis (in Angstrom) and (2) that of microbial cells and their fragments in immobilized cells and enzymes biocatalysis (in micron). The size of immobilized soil particles is in the range of a millimeter. A mathematical model of liquid flow within the reactor is proposed, which qualitatively explains the distribution of the immobilized soil in space. The dynamics of soil immobilization within the bioreactor has been studied as a function of the particle size, initial slurry concentration and air flow rate. A mathematical model of the process of soil immobilization was proposed based on deep filter mechanics. The process can be described by a second-order kinetic model. This study will be of great importance for the design of immobilized soil bioreactors for degradation of recalcitrant soil pollutants.

Karamanev, D.G.; Chavarie, C.; Samson, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01

466

Bioreactors for Guiding Muscle Tissue Growth and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Muscle tissue bioreactors are devices which are employed to guide and monitor the development of engineered muscle tissue. These devices have a modern history that can be traced back more than a century, because the key elements of muscle tissue bioreactors have been studied for a very long time. These include barrier isolation and culture of cells, tissues and organs after isolation from a host organism; the provision of various stimuli intended to promote growth and maintain the muscle, such as electrical and mechanical stimulation; and the provision of a perfusate such as culture media or blood derived substances. An accurate appraisal of our current progress in the development of muscle bioreactors can only be made in the context of the history of this endeavor. Modern efforts tend to focus more upon the use of computer control and the application of mechanical strain as a stimulus, as well as substrate surface modifications to induce cellular organization at the early stages of culture of isolated muscle cells.

Dennis, R. G.; Smith, B.; Philp, A.; Donnelly, K.; Baar, K.

467

Bioreactors for guiding muscle tissue growth and development.  

PubMed

Muscle tissue bioreactors are devices which are employed to guide and monitor the development of engineered muscle tissue. These devices have a modern history that can be traced back more than a century, because the key elements of muscle tissue bioreactors have been studied for a very long time. These include barrier isolation and culture of cells, tissues and organs after isolation from a host organism; the provision of various stimuli intended to promote growth and maintain the muscle, such as electrical and mechanical stimulation; and the provision of a perfusate such as culture media or blood derived substances. An accurate appraisal of our current progress in the development of muscle bioreactors can only be made in the context of the history of this endeavor. Modern efforts tend to focus more upon the use of computer control and the application of mechanical strain as a stimulus, as well as substrate surface modifications to induce cellular organization at the early stages of culture of isolated muscle cells. PMID:19290497

Dennis, R G; Smith, B; Philp, A; Donnelly, K; Baar, K

2009-01-01

468

The Flow in a Model Rotating-Wall Bioreactor.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aggregates of mammalian cells can be grown on artificial polymer constructs in a reactor vessel in order to produce high-quality tissue for medical applications. The growth and differentiation of these cells is greatly affected by the fluid flow and mass transfer within the bioreactor. The surface shear stress on the constructs is an especially important quantity of interest. Here, we consider a bioreactor in the form of two concentric, independently-rotating cylinders with the axis of rotation in a horizontal plane. We shall examine the flow around a model tissue construct in the form of a disk fixed in the flow produced by the rotating walls of the bioreactor. Using CFD techniques, we shall determine the flow field and the surface shear stress distribution on the construct as a function of the wall velocities, the Reynolds number of the flow, and the construct size and position. The results will be compared to the PIV measurements of this system reported by Brown & Neitzel(1997 Meeting of the APS/DFD.).

Smith, Marc K.; Neitzel, G. Paul

1997-11-01

469

Three-dimensional adipose tissue model using low shear bioreactors.  

PubMed

Presented here are techniques developed to culture and analyze three-dimensional (3-D) adipose-like tissues as a means to bridge the gap between current limitations in culturing preadipocytes (PAs) and that of providing clinically relevant volumes of adipose tissue useful for soft tissue engineering strategies in reconstructive surgery. Pilot studies were performed to determine techniques to visualize and analyze 3-D PA-like tissues as well as to develop successful strategies to culture 3T3-L1 cells in a high aspect ratio vessel rotating-wall bioreactor both with and without microcarriers. Next, a series of cultures were accessed to verify these techniques as well as to compare the culture of the cells with and without microcarriers. Finally, a perfused rotating-wall bioreactor was used to further investigate the nature of the aggregates or tissues being generated. The aggregates that formed in the perfused system were analyzed via histology and in vivo animal studies. PA-like tissues as large as 4-5 mm in diameter without microcarriers that were capable of lipid-loading and composed of viable cells were achieved. We have successfully demonstrated that large tissue aggregates can be grown in bioreactor culture systems. PMID:16848629

Frye, Cynthia A; Patrick, Charles W

2006-01-01

470

The temporary help industry: A response to the dual internal labor market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the rapidly growing temporary help industry draws on Commerce Department data and the results of the authors' national mail survey of employers. The authors also conducted interviews in the San Francisco area with employers of temporary help and with representatives of temporary help agencies and labor unions. They provide a taxonomy of employer responses to temporary increases

Garth L. Mangum; Donald Mayall; Kristin Nelson

1985-01-01

471

Proliferation of meristematic clusters in disposable presterilized plastic bioreactors for the large-scale micropropagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Proliferation of meristematic clusters of several plants in an inexpensive airlift bioreactor system, consisting of a disposable\\u000a presterilized light transmittable plastic film vessel is described. The optimal shape, size, and structural function of the\\u000a disposable plastic bioreactor are based on the bubble column and airlift glass bioreactors. The disposable bioreactors are\\u000a designed in a conical configuration with a single inoculation

M. Ziv; G. Ronen; M. Raviv

1998-01-01

472

12 CFR 908.5 - Temporary cease and desist orders.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and desist proceeding, the Board of Directors may issue...inaccurate that the Finance Board is unable, through the normal supervisory process, to determine the...condition of a Bank, the Finance Board may issue a temporary...

2010-01-01

473

22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP END TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

474

23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

475

18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and...facilities provided that the temporary compressor facilities shall not be used...

2013-04-01

476

18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and...facilities provided that the temporary compressor facilities shall not be used...

2012-04-01

477

18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ABANDONMENT UNDER SECTION 7 OF THE NATURAL GAS ACT Interstate Pipeline Blanket...Authorization Under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act for Certain Transactions and...facilities provided that the temporary compressor facilities shall not be used...

2014-04-01

478

84. View looking down showing temporary platform at level 6 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

84. View looking down showing temporary platform at level 6 and canisters of grit used to test interior cleaning methods. October 1984. - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY

479

Indications, Management, and Complications of Temporary Inferior Vena Cava Filters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis. Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis. Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Nussbaumstrasse 20, D-80336 Munich (Germany)

1998-11-15

480

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

2012-10-01

481

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

2011-10-01

482

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

2013-10-01

483

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

2014-10-01

484

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2014-10-01

485

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2012-10-01

486

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2010-10-01

487

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2011-10-01

488

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2013-10-01

489

78 FR 23503 - Hazardous Materials; Temporary Reduction of Registration Fees  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...HM-208I)] RIN 2137-AE95 Hazardous Materials; Temporary Reduction of Registration...AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

2013-04-19

490

Temporary Laboratory Office in Huntsville Industrial Center Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temporary quarters in the Huntsville Industrial Center (HIC) building located in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, as Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) grew. This image shows drafting specialists from the Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory at work in the HIC building.

1964-01-01

491

Temporary Territories?: Responses to Intrusions in a Public Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a study concerning temporary territories in public settings. Implications of the results for territorial typologies, animal-human territorial differences, and future research on human territoriality are outlined. (Author/SA)

Brooks, Debra Kaye; Taylor, Ralph B.

1980-01-01

492

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.45 Temporary warning... During construction of an antenna structure, for which red...

2013-10-01

493

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.45 Temporary warning... During construction of an antenna structure, for which red...

2011-10-01

494

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.45 Temporary warning... During construction of an antenna structure, for which red...

2012-10-01

495

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.45 Temporary warning... During construction of an antenna structure, for which red...

2010-10-01

496

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF ANTENNA STRUCTURES Specifications for Obstruction Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures § 17.45 Temporary warning... During construction of an antenna structure, for which red...

2014-10-01

497

10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

2014-01-01

498

10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

2012-01-01

499

8 CFR 210.2 - Application for temporary resident status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...temporary to permanent in Group 2 classification. ...legalization office for presentation or completion of Form...Fingerprint Card), presentation of the applicant's...prospective applicants for the Group 2 classification....

2010-01-01

500

Immersion freezing of birch pollen washing water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Up to now, the importance of pollen for atmospheric ice nucleation was considered to be minor, as they are too large to stay in the atmosphere for a long time. But as recent investigations have shown, not the pollen grains themselves are responsible for freezing, but easily suspendable macromolecules on their surfaces (Pummer et al., 2012). Due to the bursting of pollen grains these ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules could be numerous in the atmosphere. In the present study, the immersion freezing behavior of birch pollen, i.e. its ice nucleating active (INA) macromolecules, was investigated at the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011). For this, washing water of two different birch pollen samples with different origin (Northern birch and Southern birch) were used. Immersion freezing of droplets generated from the pollen washing water was observed at temperatures higher than -20 °C for both samples. The main difference between the Northern and the Southern birch pollen was the temperature dependence of the immersion freezing process. Our results suggest that the ice nucleating potential of the Southern birch is controlled by a single type of INA macromolecule, while the Northern birch pollen seem to feature two distinctively different types of INA macromolecules. We determined the heterogeneous nucleation rates for both INA macromolecule types and thereby consistently describe the ice nucleation behavior of both, the Southern and the Northern birch pollen washing water. Furthermore we will suggest a theoretical framework for describing e.g. single INA macromolecule related ice nucleation in atmospheric models. References: Pummer, B. G., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S. and Grothe, H.: Suspendable macromolecules are responsible for ice nucleation activity of birch and conifer pollen. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2541-2550, doi:10.5194/acp-12-2541-2012, 2012. Hartmann, S., Niedermeier, D., Voigtländer, J., Clauss, T., Shaw, R. A., Wex, H., Kiselev, A., and Stratmann, F.: Homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation at LACIS: operating principle and theoretical studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1753-1767, doi:10.5194/acp-11-1753-2011, 2011.

Augustin, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Pummer, Bernhard; Grothe, Hinrich; Niedermeier, Dennis; Clauss, Tina; Voigtländer, Jens; Tomsche, Laura; Wex, Heike; Stratmann, Frank

2013-04-01