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1

Effect of sucrose, light, and carbon dioxide on plantain micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro physiology and carbon metabolism can be affected by the sink–source relationship. The effect of different sucrose concentrations\\u000a (10, 30, and 50 g L?1), light intensities (80 and 150 ?mol m?2 s?1), and CO2 levels (375 and 1,200 ?mol mol?1) were tested during plantain micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors. Activities of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenol\\u000a pyruvate carboxylase, and the photosynthesis rate were recorded. From the morphological

Carlos Eduardo Aragón; Maritza Escalona; Roberto Rodriguez; Maria Jesús Cañal; Iris Capote; Danilo Pina; Justo González-Olmedo

2010-01-01

2

Temporary immersion systems in plant micropropagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary immersion systems for plant micropropagation have been described and grouped into 4 categories according to operation: tilting and rocker machines; complete immersion of plant material and renewal of the nutrient medium; partial immersion and a liquid nutrient renewal mechanism; complete immersion by pneumatic driven transfer of liquid medium and without nutrient medium renewal. The positive effects of temporary immersion

H. Etienne; M. Berthouly

2002-01-01

3

Immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) for treatment of combined domestic and dairy wastewater in an isolated farm.  

PubMed

In many regions dairy farms and milk processing industries discharge large quantities of their wastes to the surroundings posing serious environmental risks. This problem is mostly faced in small dairy farms and isolated communities lacking both central collection and conventional wastewater treatment systems. Dairy wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of organic matter, solids, nutrients, as well as fractions of dissolved inorganic pollutants, exceeding those levels considered typical for high strength domestic wastewaters. With the purpose of treating the combined dairy and domestic wastewater from a small dairy farm in the Negev Desert of Israel, the use of a recent emerging technology of Immersed Membrane BioReactor (IMBR) was evaluated over the course of 500 test hours, under a variety of wastewater feed quality conditions (during the test periods, the feed BOD5 ranged from 315 ppm up to 4,170 ppm). The overall performance of a pilot-scale Ultrafiltration (UF) IMBR process for a combined domestic and dairy wastewater was analyzed based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. The IMBR performance in terms of membrane performance (permeate flux, transmembrane pressure, and organic removal) and DEA model (Technical Efficiency) was acceptable. DEA is an empirically based methodology and the research approach has been found to be effective in the depiction and analysis for complex systems, where a large number of mutual interacting variables are involved. PMID:16104437

Bick, A; Tuttle, J G P; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

2005-01-01

4

Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

1996-01-01

5

A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts, large nuclei and nucleoli, and numerous plasmodesmata. Plantlets were obtained and after 3 months in culture their growth was significantly better in TIS than on solid culture medium. However, during acclimatization the survival rate of TIS-grown plantlets was lower. Conclusions The present study confirms the occurrence of secondary somatic embryos in peach palm and describes a feasible protocol for regeneration of peach palm in vitro. Further optimizations include the use of explants obtained from adult palms and improvement of somatic embryo conversion rates. PMID:21355009

Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

2011-01-01

6

Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

7

In vitro-grown roots: a superior explant for prolific shoot regeneration of St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum L. cv ‘New Stem’) in a temporary immersion bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a traditional medicinal plant, which has been used for the treatment of neurological disorders and depression. In vitro regeneration of St. John's wort provides one approach for mass clonal propagation of this facultative apomictic species. The current study was designed (i) to compare the regeneration potential of several explant types and (ii) to

S. M. A. Zobayed; P. K. Saxena

2003-01-01

8

Landfill Leachate Treatment by Yeast and Bacteria Based Membrane Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological treatment of medium-age landfill leachate was investigated on a membrane bioreactor. The experiments were conducted in two 5-L reactors with immersed hollow fiber microfiltration membranes. One reactor was operated with a mixed bacterial culture termed as bacteria based membrane bioreactor (BMBR) while the other with mixed yeast culture termed as yeast based membrane bioreactor (YMBR). The leachate was characterized

B. Wichitsathian; S. Sindhuja; C. Visvanathan; K. H. Ahn

2004-01-01

9

Immersed membrane activated sludge for the reuse of municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of two pilot studies of an immersed membrane activated sludge process are presented. This process involves coupling a bioreactor with effluent separation by microfiltration hollow fibres immersed directly in the bioreactor. The two pilot studies were conducted at Valley Sanitary District, Indio, California, for 5 months and in Maisons-Laffitte, France, for 1 year. The objectives were to demonstrate

Pierre Côté; Hervé Buisson; Charles Pound; Greg Arakaki

1997-01-01

10

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

11

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

12

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

13

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

14

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

15

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

16

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

17

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

18

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

19

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

20

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

21

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

22

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

23

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

24

Multimembrane Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

1989-01-01

25

Bio-reactor chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

Chandler, Joseph A. (inventor)

1989-01-01

26

[Temporary work].  

PubMed

In recent years, labour market has really changed in Italy: in addition to traditional categories of workers, self-governing or subordinate, a "tertium genus" was born, that of "temporary workers". This new modality allows firms which need to introduce temporary workers in production processes, to find them through the activity of skilled intermediary agencies. This type of agencies, regularly authorized by the Ministry of Labour, was born to select subordinates, who will work in other firms, without engagement. (The low which regulates temporary work in Italy is the Act n. 196 of 1997). The subject analysed the most closely in the text, is the really interesting question of responsibility for prevention, safety and health in work places: in fact, temporary work creates a complex system of bilateral relations, but the only real work contract is between provider firms and temporary workers. The Act n. 196 states that the provider firm must fulfill its duties of contribution, security, aid and insurance against industrial accidents and occupational diseases. Therefore, according to a series of argumentations developed in the text, only the occupational health consultant designated by the temporary agency is reasonably responsible for medical supervision, but he has to coordinate and collaborate with the occupational health consultant of third firms (Directive 383 of 1991 and article 7 of Legislative Decree n. 626 of 1994). On the contrary, firms which need temporary workers, must fulfill duties of information and training for workers. As a consequence, to draw a conclusion, on the ground of principles of European Union and national laws (in force since '50s in this field), the responsibility for medical supervision falls on temporary agencies; on the contrary, economic responsibility falls on firms which request workers, in order to achieve protection of workers' health. PMID:12161956

Del Forno, E; Candura, F

2002-01-01

27

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of bioreactor designs exist today as a result of previous efforts by engineers and researchers to construct optimal\\u000a systems for a particular tissue engineering application. The primary purpose of any bioreactor is to provide a sterile cell\\u000a culture environment that can be tightly controlled. A bioreactor can be as simple as a petri dish and as complex as

Scott Maxson; David Orr; Karen J. L. Burg

28

Bioreactors for Bioartificial Organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the design of bioreactors constituting the core of some bioartificial organs is discussed. Initially, the\\u000a problem of cell sourcing is shortly addressed. Then, criteria and limitations to current bioreactor design for bioartificial\\u000a organs are presented. Design equations are separately obtained and discussed for bioreactors implanted in extravascular body\\u000a compartments or connected to the blood circulation of the

G. Catapano

29

Instrumented Bioreactors BIOMATERIALS  

E-print Network

) and for screening the effects of chemical and biological warfare agents. Approach Materials Science and Engineering (University of Colorado), a leading tissue engineering researcher, to develop a new bioreactor for cell-seeded to use this bioreactor to investigate the effects of polymer chemistry on scaffold durability, helping

30

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

31

Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Managed by the Florida Center for Solid and Hazardous Waste Management, this Website provides information on the Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project. The slow decomposition rates in current municipal landfills have prompted research in bioreactor landfills, which operate under the "wet cell" theory where moisture is added to enhance degradation. The Research section contains a plethora of material, including the Bioreactor Presentation, which consists of 60 slides outlining the project and solid waste issues, and A Proposed Bioreactor Landfill Demonstration Project, which is the proposal that started the project. The proposal is a great source of background information about bioreactor landfills. Though not all of the topics listed on the site have active links, the information available is worthwhile.

32

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

33

In vitro evaluation of a novel bioreactor based on an integral oxygenator and a spirally wound nonwoven polyester matrix for hepatocyte culture as small aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The development of custom-made bioreactors for use as a bioartificial liver (BAL) is considered to be one of the last challenges on the road to successful temporary extracorporeal liver support therapy. We devised a novel bioreactor (patent pending) which allows individual perfusion of high density cultured hepatocytes with low diffusional gradients, thereby more closely resembling the conditions in the

Leonard M. Flendrig; John W. la Soe; George G. A. Jörning; Arie Steenbeek; Ole T. Karlsen; Wim M. M. J. Bovée; Nita C. J. J. Ladiges; Anje A. te Velde; Robert A. F. M. Chamuleau

1997-01-01

34

Bioreactor design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

Bowie, William

1987-01-01

35

Space Bioreactor Science Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

1987-01-01

36

Bioreactors: Design and Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry.

Cooney, Charles L.

1983-02-01

37

Impact of membrane configuration on fouling in anaerobic membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filtration performance of flocculated and granulated configured anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBR) treating domestic wastewater has been evaluated and compared to conventional aerobic MBR. Immersed hollow fibre (HF) and external tubular membrane geometries were additionally compared with the latter operated in both pumped and gas-lift mode. After 200d of operation, both granular and flocculated anaerobic MBR (AnMBR) suspensions were characterised

I. Martin-Garcia; V. Monsalvo; M. Pidou; P. Le-Clech; S. J. Judd; E. J. McAdam; B. Jefferson

2011-01-01

38

NASA Classroom Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

Scully, Robert

2004-01-01

39

Computational immersive displays  

E-print Network

Immersion is an oft-quoted but ill-defined term used to describe a viewer or participant's sense of engagement with a visual display system or participatory media. Traditionally, advances in immersive quality came at the ...

Novy, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2013-01-01

40

Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction,…

Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

1998-01-01

41

Biofouling in Membrane Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) combines membrane separation and biological treatment, normally involving the activated sludge process, in municipal wastewater treatment. Despite excellent performance over years of full?scale operation, the interactions between microbes and the membrane in the MBR process, which determine its design and operational criteria, remain unclear. This report reviewed research regarding how numerous process parameters impact biofouling rates

A. Ramesh; D. J. Lee; M. L. Wang; J. P. Hsu; R. S. Juang; K. J. Hwang; J. C. Liu; S. J. Tseng

2006-01-01

42

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

Schüler, Axel

43

Bioreactors Modeling and Control  

E-print Network

- Bioreactors: · Enzymatic reactors · Cultivation of microorganisms/cells ("fermenters") ThyssenKrupp Stainless · Recombinant m.o., mammalian (or insect) cells pharmaceuticals Processes: ·Biofuels ·Food industry for P. chrysogenum 3 ... #12;Enzymatic reactors: ex-vivo enzyme or enzymes "Fermenters" (not quite

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

44

What Works in Immersion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Materials used in conducting a conference workshop on language immersion are presented, including an introductory overview, a guide for observing and analyzing immersion instruction, findings resulting from analysis of the program in question, and the text of a related presentation made at the same conference. The introductory section describes…

Trimino, Andy; Ferguson, Nancy

45

Membrane bioreactor for waste gas treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis thesis describes the design and testing of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for removal of organic pollutants from air. In such a bioreactor for biological gas treatment pollutants are degraded by micro-organisms. The membrane bioreactor is an alternative to other types of bioreactors for waste gas treatment, such as compost biofilters and bioscrubbers. Propene was used as a model pollutant

M. W. Reij

1997-01-01

46

Perfusion Bioreactor Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1990-01-01

47

Sensing in tissue bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

Rolfe, P.

2006-03-01

48

Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

49

Immersive cyberspace system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

50

Measurement and Estimation in Bioreactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with measurement problems in bioreactors and how on-line estimation methods can be applied to help solve them by using indirect measurements and algorithmic techniques. An adaptive filter based method that provides a simultaneous state and...

A. Halme

1987-01-01

51

Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.

Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh

1989-01-01

52

Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

1991-01-01

53

Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

1997-01-01

54

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

55

Fuzzy control with genetic algorithm in a batch bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, the growth medium temperature in a batch bioreactor was controlled at the set point by using fuzzy model-based control method. Fuzzy control parameters which are membership functions and relation matrix were found using genetic algorithm. Heat input given from the immersed heater and the cooling water flow rate were selected as the manipulated variables in order to control the growth medium temperature in the bioreactor. Controller performance was tested in the face of different types of input variables. To eliminate the noise on the temperature measurements, first-order filter was used in the control algorithm. The achievement of the temperature control was analyzed in terms of both microorganism concentration which was reached at the end of the stationary phase and the performance criteria of Integral of the Absolute Error. It was concluded that the cooling flow rate was suitable as manipulated variable with regard to microorganism concentration. On the other hand, performance of the controller was satisfactory when the heat input given from the immersed heater was manipulated variable. PMID:24037514

Ahio?lu, Suna; Altinten, Ayla; Ertunç, Suna; Erdo?an, Sebahat; Hapo?lu, Hale

2013-12-01

56

Bilingual or Immersion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of new studies is providing fresh evidence of what many researchers have been saying all along: English immersion has more political appeal than educational merit. Dr. Amy Merickel, co-author of "Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners K-12," says it is not possible given the data available to…

Hamilton, Kendra

2006-01-01

57

Immersive environments for rehabilitation activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents (a) new technologies for real-time immersion of humans into virtual reality (VR) environments with non-invasive real-time three-dimensional (3D) imaging, (b) a new methodology for evaluating immersive VR spaces in rehabilitation applications, and (c) experimental results documenting the benefits of Immersive VR (IVR) spaces for regaining proprioception. Our work focuses on designing immersive VR spaces with non-invasive multimedia

Peter Bajcsy; Kenton Mchenry; Hye-jung Na; Rahul Malik; Andrew Spencer; Suk-kyu Lee; Rob Kooper; Mike Frogley

2009-01-01

58

MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

59

Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of perspective within the scene contained on only one wall has integrity. Unfortunately, parallel lines that lie on adjacent walls do not necessarily remain parallel. This results in inaccuracies in the scene that can distract the viewer and subtract from the immersive experience of the CAVE.

Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

2011-01-01

60

The Effectiveness of a Novel Cartridge-Based Bioreactor Design in Supporting Liver Cells  

PubMed Central

There are a number of applications—ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing—that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0?×?108 cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture—sans bioreactor—and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions—reaching peak values of 170?±?22??g/106 cells/day and 195?±?18??g/106 cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84?±?18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56.6% higher than achieved by the collagen sandwich functional control cultures. The success of the novel cartridge-based bioreactor in supporting hepatocytes with good viability and functional performance suggests that it is an effective design for supporting anchorage-dependent cells. PMID:19271993

Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul

2009-01-01

61

Enabling immersive simulation.  

SciTech Connect

The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

2009-02-01

62

Immersive viewing engine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

Schonlau, William J.

2006-05-01

63

PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

64

Temporary Construction Dewatering  

E-print Network

MAG910000, this letter submits a Notice of Intent (NOI) and the applicable documentation as required by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for temporary construction site dewatering under the RGP. Temporary dewatering is planned in support of the proposed site development which includes construction of a 12-story building with two to six levels of below grade parking or imaging space located in Boston, Massachusetts as shown on Figure 1 – Project Locus. The Site is bordered to the north by Fenwood Road beyond which is the BWH Shapiro Center, to the east by Vining Street, to the south by Vining Street beyond which is the Roxbury Tenants of Harvard Tower, and to the west by a parking lot beyond which is the Riverway. The Site is generally flat ranging in elevation from El. 22 to El. 26 (Boston City Base, BCB datum). A Subsurface Exploration Location Plan is included as Figure 2.

Post Office Square

2013-01-01

65

A temperature control algorithm of immersion liquid for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography is one of the main technologies used to manufacture integrated circuits with the shortest feature size. In immersion lithography, temperature of immersion liquid is strictly constrained and its allowable range is less than +/-0.01°C at 22°C. To meet this requirement, a temperature control algorithm adopted by the test rig which controls the temperature of the immersion liquid with process cooling water (PCW) via heat exchangers is proposed. By adjusting the flow rate of PCW through the heat exchangers, the control system varies the amount of heat exchanged, and the temperature of the immersion liquid can be properly controlled. The temperature control rig is a multi-disturbed, timevariant, non-linear and time-delayed system and its transfer function varies with the inlet temperature and flow rates of the streams through the heat exchangers. Considering the characteristics of the system, a cascade-connected fuzzy PID feedback algorithm is designed.

He, Junwei; Li, Xiaoping; Lei, Min; Chen, Bing; Wang, Jinchun

2014-03-01

66

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

DOEpatents

A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

67

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

68

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

69

Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

1993-01-01

70

Use of flocculants for increasing permeate flux in anaerobic membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Biomass retention, required for high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment, can be accomplished coupling an anaerobic bioreactor with membrane filtration. However, low flux seems to be a common factor when operating anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). Modification of biomass properties may represent a strategy for improving membrane flux. The addition of flocculants was tested as a tool for flux increase. Six different products were tested in dead-end filtration experiments. Based on the results, two products were selected for cross-flow tests. The one presenting better performance (Nalco MPE50) was tested in a laboratory-scale continuous AnMBR. Results show that the flocculant was able to substantially increase flux. Indeed, the flux-increasing effect was observed for several weeks after flocculant addition. Therefore, the use of flocculants seems to be an interesting tool to cope with temporary increases in required flux. PMID:24901617

Díaz, H; Azócar, L; Torres, A; Lopes, S I C; Jeison, D

2014-01-01

71

Immersion in desktop virtual reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores techniques for evaluating and improving immersion in Desktop Virtual Reality (VR). Three experiments are reported which extend findings on immersion in VR reported by Pausch et al. (9). In the current experiments, a visual search paradigm was used to examine navigation in Desktop VR both with and without navigational aids. Pausch et al. found that non-head tracked

George G. Robertson; Mary Czerwinski; Maarten van Dantzich

1997-01-01

72

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

SciTech Connect

A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

2000-06-20

73

Membrane bioreactor: a new treatment tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new process that combines membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology and powdered activated carbon (PAC) has been developed at industrial scale. This process denitrifies, removes natural organic matter (NOM) and pesticides, and disinfects. Denitrification is carried out by heterotrophic bacteria using ethanol as a carbon source. PAC added to the bioreactor adsorbs pesticides and a fraction of NOM. The membrane keeps

Vincent Urbain; Raymond Benoit; Jacques Manem

1996-01-01

74

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

2004-12-01

75

In vitro production and chemical characterization of St. John’s wort ( Hypericum perforatum L. cv ‘New Stem’)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s wort) is a traditional medicinal plant that has been used for the treatment of neurological disorders and depression. To investigate a large-scale in vitro growth system for St. John’s wort cv ‘New Stem’, six different culture systems, balloon type bubble bioreactor, temporary immersion bioreactor, temporary root zone immersion bioreactor, Erlenmeyer flask, large vessel with gelled

S. M. A. Zobayed; S. J. Murch; H. P. V. Rupasinghe; P. K. Saxena

2004-01-01

76

Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing  

SciTech Connect

The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

Scott, C.D.

1988-01-01

77

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

78

Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

79

Time dependence of immersion freezing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time dependence of immersion freezing was studied for temperatures between 236 K and 243 K. Droplets with single immersed, size-selected 400 nm and 800 nm kaolinite particles were produced at 300 K, cooled down to supercooled temperatures typical for mixed-phase cloud conditions, and the fraction of frozen droplets with increasing residence time was detected. To simulate the conditions of immersion freezing in mixed-phase clouds we used the Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC) and its vertical extension, the Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (IMCA). We observed that the frozen fraction of droplets increased with increasing residence time in the chamber. This suggests that there is a time dependence of immersion freezing and supports the importance of a stochastic component in the ice nucleation process. The rate at which droplets freeze was observed to decrease towards higher temperatures and smaller particle sizes. Comparison of the laboratory data with four different ice nucleation models, three based on classical nucleation theory with different representations of the particle surface properties and one singular, suggest that the classical, stochastic approach combined with a distribution of contact angles is able to reproduce the ice nucleation observed in these experiments most accurately. Using the models to calculate the increase in frozen fraction at typical mixed-phase cloud temperatures over an extended period of time, yields an equivalent effect of -1 K temperature shift and an increase in time scale by a factor of ~10.

Welti, A.; Lüönd, F.; Kanji, Z. A.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

2012-05-01

80

Retirement Program Guidelines for Temporary Employees  

E-print Network

Retirement Program Guidelines for Temporary Employees 1 Retirement Program Guidelines for Temporary Employees Temporary employees are offered the right to opt out of participation in the retirement program Benefit Authority (PEBA) Retirement Programs. As a temporary employee, you may opt out of enrolling

Almor, Amit

81

NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in the body. Experiments conducted by Johnson scientist Dr. Thomas Goodwin proved that the NASA bioreactor could successfully cultivate cells using simulated microgravity, resulting in three-dimensional tissues that more closely approximate those in the body. Further experiments conducted on space shuttle missions and by Wolf as an astronaut on the Mir space station demonstrated that the bioreactor s effects were even further expanded in space, resulting in remarkable levels of tissue formation. While the bioreactor may one day culture red blood cells for injured astronauts or single-celled organisms like algae as food or oxygen producers for a Mars colony, the technology s cell growth capability offers significant opportunities for terrestrial medical research right now. A small Texas company is taking advantage of the NASA technology to advance promising treatment applications for diseases both common and obscure.

2009-01-01

82

Thin film bioreactors in space.  

PubMed

Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology. PMID:11537324

Hughes-Fulford, M; Scheld, H W

1989-01-01

83

Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts. PMID:23787304

Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

2013-01-01

84

Isometric Immersions and Compensated Compactness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental problem in differential geometry is to characterize intrinsic metrics on a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold {{mathcal M}^2} which can be realized as isometric immersions into {mathbb{R}^3}. This problem can be formulated as initial and/or boundary value problems for a system of nonlinear partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type whose mathematical theory is largely incomplete. In this paper, we develop a general approach, which combines a fluid dynamic formulation of balance laws for the Gauss-Codazzi system with a compensated compactness framework, to deal with the initial and/or boundary value problems for isometric immersions in {mathbb{R}^3}. The compensated compactness framework formed here is a natural formulation to ensure the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for approximate solutions, which yields the isometric realization of two-dimensional surfaces in {mathbb{R}^3}. As a first application of this approach, we study the isometric immersion problem for two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with strictly negative Gauss curvature. We prove that there exists a C 1, 1 isometric immersion of the two-dimensional manifold in {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our prescribed initial conditions. To achieve this, we introduce a vanishing viscosity method depending on the features of initial value problems for isometric immersions and present a technique to make the a priori estimates including the L ? control and H -1-compactness for the viscous approximate solutions. This yields the weak convergence of the vanishing viscosity approximate solutions and the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for the approximate solutions, hence the existence of an isometric immersion of the manifold into {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our initial conditions. The theory is applied to a specific example of the metric associated with the catenoid.

Chen, Gui-Qiang; Slemrod, Marshall; Wang, Dehua

2010-03-01

85

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

2001-01-01

86

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

2001-01-01

87

Production of Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant cell culture provides a viable alternative over whole plant cultivation for the production of useful phytochemicals.\\u000a In order to successfully cultivate the plant cells at large scale, some engineering parameters such as cell aggregation, mixing,\\u000a aeration and shear sensitivity are taken into account for selection of a suitable bioreactor. Increased productivity in a\\u000a bioreactor can be achieved by selection

Saurabh Chattopadhyay; A. K. Srivastava; V. S. Bisaria

88

The development of a biofilm membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are commonly understood as the combination of membrane filtration and biological treatment using activated sludge. Development of a biofilm-MBR has been investigated combining a moving-bed-biofilm reactor with a submerged membrane biomass separation reactor. Treatment efficiencies were found to be high with the production of a consistent high-quality effluent, irrespective of loading rates on the bioreactor or membrane

TorOve Leiknes; Hallvard Ødegaard

2007-01-01

89

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

90

Bioreactor for blood product production.  

PubMed

The feasibility of ex vivo blood production is limited by both biological and engineering challenges. From an engineering perspective, these challenges include the significant volumes required to generate even a single unit of a blood product, as well as the correspondingly high protein consumption required for such large volume cultures. Membrane bioreactors, such as hollow fiber bioreactors (HFBRs), enable cell densities approximately 100-fold greater than traditional culture systems and therefore may enable a significant reduction in culture working volumes. As cultured cells, and larger molecules, are retained within a fraction of the system volume, via a semipermeable membrane it may be possible to reduce protein consumption by limiting supplementation to only this fraction. Typically, HFBRs are complex perfusion systems having total volumes incompatible with bench scale screening and optimization of stem cell-based cultures. In this article we describe the use of a simplified HFBR system to assess the feasibility of this technology to produce blood products from umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs). Unlike conventional HFBR systems used for protein manufacture, where cells are cultured in the extracapillary space, we have cultured cells in the intracapillary space, which is likely more compatible with the large-scale production of blood cell suspension cultures. Using this platform we direct HSPCs down the myeloid lineage, while targeting a 100-fold increase in cell density and the use of protein-free bulk medium. Our results demonstrate the potential of this system to deliver high cell densities, even in the absence of protein supplementation of the bulk medium. PMID:22405378

Doran, Michael R; Aird, Ian Alexander; Marturana, Flavia; Timmins, Nicholas; Atkinson, Kerry; Nielsen, Lars K

2012-01-01

91

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

92

Phase II Clinical Immersion Clinical ImmersionTraining  

E-print Network

on each rotation at any one time in the proposed plan and confirmed it never exceeds current clerkship capacity. Here is a sample rotation schedule for five students. Expanding Phase II of the proposed new and outpatient content. Viewthe complete Clinical Immersion Training section of the framework. Surgery Obstetrics

Lotko, William

93

Learning immersion without getting wet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

Aguilera, Julieta C.

2012-03-01

94

The Remote Media Immersion (RMI)  

E-print Network

The Remote Media Immersion (RMI) system blends multiple cutting- edge media technologies to create the ultimate digital media delivery platform. Its streaming media server delivers multiple high- bandwidth- gies, applications, and environments. One result of these research efforts is the Remote Media

Shahabi, Cyrus

95

COGNITIVE FITNESS IN IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL  

E-print Network

of Language, Speech, and Brain Disorders · People with aphasia ­ focus on ICT · Master in ICT and Learning;Constructivistic view on knowledge and learning · Neuroconstructivistic view on the brain (Luria, Goldberg, FredensCOGNITIVE FITNESS IN IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL WORLDS - Designing a Learning Environment for People

Hansen, René Rydhof

96

Micro-bioreactor design for Chinese hamster ovary cells  

E-print Network

The research objective is to design a micro-bioreactor for the culture of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. There is an increasing demand for upstream development in high-throughput micro-bioreactors specifically for the ...

Goh, Shireen

2013-01-01

97

PORTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS TO IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS  

E-print Network

PORTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS TO IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Case Study Kenny Gruchalla, virtual reality, software engineering, biology. Abstract: Immersive virtual environments are becoming increasingly common, driving the need to develop new software or adapt existing software to these environments

Gruchalla, Kenny

98

Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

2014-01-01

99

Doctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for  

E-print Network

highlighting microbial community shifts in the bioreactor and biofilm during changes in membrane foulingDoctoral Defense "Low-Temperature Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor for Energy Recovery from Domestic such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are emerging as one option to recover energy during domestic

Kamat, Vineet R.

100

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

101

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01

102

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11

103

Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

104

High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings  

SciTech Connect

We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

2006-05-01

105

Simple immersions of wonderful varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let G be a semisimple connected linear algebraic group over $${\\\\mathbb{C}}$$ , and X a wonderful G-variety. We study the possibility of realizing X as a closed subvariety of the projective space of a simple G-module. We describe the wonderful varieties having this property as well as the linear systems giving rise to such immersions.\\u000a We also prove that any

Guido Pezzini

2007-01-01

106

IMMERSED SURFACES IN CUBED MANIFOLDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the separability of the canonical surface immersed in cubed manifolds of non-positive curvature, partially answering the hyperbolicity question of cubed 3-manifolds. We show that the canonical surface is separable if we assume that the degrees of all edges are even. Further, the general argument also gives the same result for higher-dimensional manifolds admitting a cubing of non-positive curvature.

107

36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.  

...Cabins Use of Temporary Facilities Related to Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve where the taking of fish and wildlife is permitted, the construction, maintenance or...

2014-07-01

108

Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

1995-01-01

109

Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

2005-01-01

110

Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

2003-12-01

111

32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

2011-07-01

112

32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

2013-07-01

113

32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

2010-07-01

114

32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization...30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for “L” access...

2012-07-01

115

Comparative performance between intermittently cyclic activated sludge-membrane bioreactor and anoxic\\/aerobic-membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process of intermittently cyclic activated sludge-membrane bioreactor (ICAS-MBR) was developed to enhance the performance of biological phosphorus removal (EBPR), which was constructed under sequencing anoxic\\/anaerobic\\/aerobic condition. The performance between ICAS-MBR and conventional anoxic\\/aerobic-membrane bioreactor (A\\/O-MBR) in terms of phosphorus removal, nitrification performance and microbial aspects were investigated in this study. The experimental results indicated that the phosphorus removal efficiency

Yu-Lan Wang; Shui-Li Yu; Wen-Xin Shi; Rui-Ling Bao; Qing Zhao; Xing-Tao Zuo

2009-01-01

116

Plant cell cultures: bioreactors for industrial production.  

PubMed

The recent biotechnology boom has triggered increased interest in plant cell cultures, since a number of firms and academic institutions investigated intensively to rise the production of very promising bioactive compounds. In alternative to wild collection or plant cultivation, the production of useful and valuable secondary metabolites in large bioreactors is an attractive proposal; it should contribute significantly to future attempts to preserve global biodiversity and alleviate associated ecological problems. The advantages of such processes include the controlled production according to demand and a reduced man work requirement. Plant cells have been grown in different shape bioreactors, however, there are a variety of problems to be solved before this technology can be adopted on a wide scale for the production of useful plant secondary metabolites. There are different factors affecting the culture growth and secondary metabolite production in bioreactors: the gaseous atmosphere, oxygen supply and CO2 exchange, pH, minerals, carbohydrates, growth regulators, the liquid medium rheology and cell density. Moreover agitation systems and sterilization conditions may negatively influence the whole process. Many types ofbioreactors have been successfully used for cultivating transformed root cultures, depending on both different aeration system and nutrient supply. Several examples of medicinal and aromatic plant cultures were here summarized for the scale up cultivation in bioreactors. PMID:21520713

Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Bertoli, Alessandra; Pistelli, Luisa

2010-01-01

117

Perchlorate Degradation in Acetate-fed Bioreactors  

E-print Network

consortium in a autotrophic packed-bed biofilm reactor; · Dechloromonas sp. HZ: isolated from a gas-phase anaerobic packed-bed biofilm reactor. Several Perchlorate Respiring Bacteria Isolated in Our Laboratory #12;· Dechlorosoma sp. KJ: isolated from a perchlorate- degrading packed bed bioreactor; · Dechlorosoma sp. PDX

118

Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: Applications and Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membranes provide exceptional suspended solids removal and complete biomass retention that can improve the biological treatment process, but their commercial application to anaerobic treatment has been limited. This review summarizes the state of the art with respect to anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to

Bao-Qiang Liao; Jeremy T. Kraemer; David M. Bagley

2006-01-01

119

LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

120

MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

121

Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.

Singh, H.; Hutmacher, D. W.

122

Bioreactor studies and computational fluid dynamics.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic environment "created" by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs. PMID:19290504

Singh, H; Hutmacher, D W

2009-01-01

123

Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.

Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.

1994-01-01

124

Focus and dose characterization of immersion photoclusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process window for state of the art chip manufacturing continues to decrease, driven by higher NA exposure tools and lower k1 values. The benefits of immersion lithography for Depth of Focus (DoF) are well known. Yet even with this immersion boost, NA=1.35 tools can push DoF into sub-100nm territory. In addition, immersion processes are subject to new sources of

T. A. Brunner; D. Corliss; T. Wiltshire; C. P. Ausschnitt

2009-01-01

125

Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

1981-01-01

126

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

127

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2013-04-01

128

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2014-04-01

129

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2012-04-01

130

Cardiotonic glycosides from biomass of Digitalis purpurea L. cultured in temporary immersion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiotonic glycosides are extracted mostly from leaves of Digitalis plants. Commercial production of bioactive secondary metabolites by traditional agriculture is an inefficient process and\\u000a can be affected by climatic and soil conditions. Strategies, based on in vitro culture methods, have been extensively studied\\u000a to improve the production of specific plant derived chemicals. The aim of the present research was to

Naivy Pérez-Alonso; Dirk Wilken; André Gerth; Annett Jähn; Horst-Michael Nitzsche; Gerhard Kerns; Alina Capote-Perez; Elio Jiménez

2009-01-01

131

Temporary immersion system: a new concept for use liquid medium in mass propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass propagation of plants by tissue culture is labour intensive and costly. Gelling agents have many drawbacks: they are not inert medium components and do not enable easy automation for commercial mass propagation. So liquid culture systems are considered to have advantages, e.g. culture conditions are much more uniform, media can be changed easily. The use of liquid medium for

M. Berthouly; H. Etienne

132

Hybrid UASFB-aerobic bioreactor for biodegradation of acid yellow-36 in wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, a combined anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria was used to degrade azo dyes (AY-36). The experiment was integrated by exposing anaerobic granular sludge and aerobic aromatic amine degrading bacterial enrichment cultures. Under anaerobic conditions UASFB bioreactor using sodium acetate as a co-substrate, the AY-36 was reduced and resulting in a temporary accumulation of aromatic amines by the bacterial biomass. Hydraulic residence time (HRT) was fixed (24 h) through out the experiment. The two aromatic amine p-amino diphenylamine (p-ADPA) and 4-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (4-ABS) were detected from the reduction of AY-36. Subsequently, 4-ABS was degraded in the aerobic reactor which was earlier accumulated for 30days. But p-ADPA was not degraded in aerobic condition. The combined anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor was able to completely remove the AY-36 at a maximum loading rate of 100mg AY-36L(-1)d(-1). PMID:20097557

Ahmad, Rais; Mondal, Pijush Kanti; Usmani, Shams Qamar

2010-05-01

133

Donor Return Following Temporary Deferral  

PubMed Central

Background The consequences of temporary pre-donation donor deferrals are unsatisfactorily understood. Previous studies have found that deferral negatively impacts future return for donation in both first time and repeat donors. However, the applicability of these findings across centers has not been established. Methods Using a cohort design, presenting donors with a temporary deferral in the years 2006 – 2008 in 1 of 6 categories (low hematocrit, blood pressure or pulse, feeling unwell, malaria travel, tattoos/piercing and related exposures, or couldn’t wait/second thoughts) were passively followed for up to a 3-year period for the time to first return after the expiration of the deferral at 6 US blood centers. Time-to-event methods were used to assess return following the receipt of each deferral. We also analyzed which donor characteristics are associated with return following temporary deferral using multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 3.9 million donor presentations, 505,623 resulted in deferral in 1 of the 6 categories. Low hematocrit was the most common deferral, had the shortest median time to return, and largest cumulative number of donors returning. Deferrals of shorter duration had better return. Longer term deferrals (up to 1-year in length) had the lowest cumulative return which did not exceed 50% during the study period for malaria travel or tattoo/piercing and related exposures. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, return following deferral was associated with previously identified factors such as repeat donor status, older age, and higher educational attainment regardless of the type of deferral. In addition, return was associated with having been born in the USA, Asian race/ethnicity, and donation at fixed sites regardless of the type of deferral. Conclusion The category of temporary deferral influences the likelihood of future return, but the demographic and donation factors associated with return are consistent regardless of the deferral. PMID:21155833

Custer, Brian; Schlumpf, Karen S; Wright, David; Simon, Toby; Wilkinson, Susan; Ness, Paul

2012-01-01

134

Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2013-01-01

135

Cell Separations in Microgravity and Development of a Space Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor optimized for operations in space is now being developed. The current research is focused on determining the optimum cell-bead ratios, medium content and proper maintenance conditions required to keep living cell specimens alive and healthy for the entire flight. The bioreactor development project has recently added a microprocessor/computer to the JSC prototype for control and data analysis. Appropriate new technology is being combined with the current bioreactor designs and tested to determine what specific features must be included in the fabrication of a bioreactor designed to operate for STS demonstration tests. Considerations include: (1) circulation and resupply of culture media; (2) sensors required to monitor temperature, cell growth, mass transport, and oxygen consumption; and (3) inflight control of shear stress on cells, gas transfer in microgravity, diffusion, and intracellular transport. These data and results from the JSC prototype bioreactor test will be used for the design and construction of a small space bioreactor for the Orbiter middeck.

Morrison, D. R.

1985-01-01

136

Hydrodynamic behaviors in fermentative hydrogen bioreactors by pressure fluctuation analysis.  

PubMed

Three bioreactor configurations were employed in these investigations, which consisted of working volumes of 10, 1.2 and 1.2L. Power spectrum diagrams of bed pressure fluctuation were used with hydraulic retention times (HRT) and geometric factors to identify the flow regimes in the bioreactors, where HRT varied from 8 to 1h. It was found that the flow regimes in the bioreactors changed from a dispersed regime to coalesced and slugging regimes, when the biogas production rate (BPR) increased, as a result of decreasing the operating HRT. The flow regime was a dispersed bubble regime when the HRT was higher than 4h in the bioreactor, whereas when the HRT was 2h the coalesced bubble phenomena occurred in the bioreactor. A slugging regime was found when the HRT was lower than 1h in thinner bioreactor. PMID:21435862

Chu, Chen Y; Wu, Shu Y; Wu, Ying C; Lin, Chiu Y

2011-09-01

137

[Contrasting experiment of two types of MSW aerobic bioreactor landfill].  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfill is an emerging landfilling method, which represents the newest developing aspect of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) treatment. On basis of analyzing the merits and defects of present bioreactor landfilling methods, the paper improves these methods and combines organically aeration and leachate recirculation into a new reactor (called reactor A), which is contrasted with bare aerobic landfill (called reactor B). During the course of experiment, NH3, CH4, CO2, pH, temperature and electric conductivity in the two bioreactors were controlled and detected, meanwhile, COD, Fe3+, NH4(+) in the leachate were detected and analyzed. The paper researches on the wastes degradation and the COD, Fe3+ and NH4(+) removal of the two bioreactors, probes into the mechanics of wastes and leachate degradation. Finally the paper draws a conclusion that the effect of degrading wastes and leachate of bioreactor A is better than that of bioreactor B. PMID:16124495

Li, Bing; Dong, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Zhao, You-cai; Niu, Dong-jie

2005-05-01

138

Initiation of immersed granular avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ?0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

2014-05-01

139

Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

2013-03-01

140

Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

Wang, Kathleen

2009-01-01

141

Attention, Time Perception and Immersion in Games  

E-print Network

Attention, Time Perception and Immersion in Games A. Imran Nordin Department of Computer Science of games [3]. Studies on immersion have revealed that lots of factors influence it such as the touch University of York, UK imran@cs.york.ac.uk Jaron Ali Department of Computer Science University of York, UK

Cairns, Paul

142

Circle packing immersions form regularly exhaustible surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circle packing imbeddings determine quasiconformai mappings which, in certain situations, approximate conformal mappings. In the more general case of circle packing immersions, it has not been proven that the associated immersion mappings are again quasiregular (i.e., of bounded dilatation but not necessarily univalent). If this were true, then their muitisheeted image surfaces would be regularly exhaustible and consequently Ahlfors' value

Kevin Callahan; Burt Rodin

1993-01-01

143

The Immersion Characteristics of Industrial PRTs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion effects are one of the most significant sources of error in the use of industrial platinum resistance thermometers (IPRTs). This article combines the development of a mathematical model of immersion error and experimental measurements of the immersion characteristics of a range of IPRTs immersed in different fluids at different temperatures. The mathematical model relates the relative temperature error in the thermometer indication to two exponential terms, with one of the 1/e decay lengths three times the other. The experimental results show that both of the exponential terms are important for shallow immersion, but one is sufficient for long immersion. The decay length for the thermometers depends on the diameter of the probe and on the thermal environment into which it is immersed. For the thermometers evaluated here in mineral oil, silicon oil, and molten salt, the 1/e decay length is about three to four times the diameter of the thermometers. A simple rule of thumb for ensuring adequate immersion in calibration baths is developed.

White, D. R.; Jongenelen, C. L.

2010-09-01

144

Virtual Notepad: handwriting in immersive VR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Virtual Notepad, a collection of interface tools that allows the user to take notes, annotate documents and input text using a pen, while still immersed in virtual environments (VEs). Using a spatially-tracked, pressure-sensitive graphics tablet, pen and handwriting recognition software, Virtual Notepad explores handwriting as a new modality for interaction in immersive VEs. This paper reports details of

Ivan Poupyrev; Numada Tomokazu; Suzanne Weghorst

1998-01-01

145

Immersive Whiteboards In a Networked Collaborative Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An immersive whiteboard system is presented in a networked collaborative environment where users at multiple locations can communicate with each other. The immersive system consists of five major components: the network, the virtual environment, the avatar representation, the multimedia objects, and the shared whiteboards. The virtual environment is shared among multiple networked users and allows each user to interact independently

Belle L. Tseng; Zon-yin Shae; Wing Ho Leung; Tsuhan Chen

2001-01-01

146

Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-11-01

147

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1993-12-31

148

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

1993-06-01

149

Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

1974-01-01

150

Temporary workers: Employee rights and employer responsibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of temporary workers in the U.S. has increased dramatically over the past ten years, so, too, has social policy\\u000a concent over the rights of temporary employees in the workplace and the responsibilities of employing organizations to them.\\u000a This article first reviews the extent to which temporary workers can be considered “employees” of organizations and thereby\\u000a be extended

Daniel C. Feldman; Brian S. Klaas

1996-01-01

151

Experimental investigation of orbitally shaken bioreactor hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing interest in the use of orbitally shaken bioreactors for mammalian cells cultivation raises challenging hydrodynamic issues. Optimizations of mixing and oxygenation, as well as similarity relations between different culture scales are still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the relation between the shape of the free surface, the mixing process and the velocity fields, using specific image processing of high speed visualization and Laser Doppler velocimetry. Moreover, similarity parameters were identified for scale-up purposes.

Reclari, Martino; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

2010-11-01

152

Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

2006-01-01

153

7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary variances....

2012-01-01

154

7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.  

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary variances....

2014-01-01

155

7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary variances....

2013-01-01

156

Simulations of accidental coal immersion.  

PubMed

Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

2007-12-01

157

Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

2014-05-01

158

47 CFR 73.1635 - Special temporary authorizations (STA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Special temporary authorizations (STA). 73.1635 Section 73.1635 Telecommunication...1635 Special temporary authorizations (STA). (a) A special temporary authorization (STA) is the authority granted to a...

2010-10-01

159

47 CFR 73.1635 - Special temporary authorizations (STA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Special temporary authorizations (STA). 73.1635 Section 73.1635 Telecommunication...1635 Special temporary authorizations (STA). (a) A special temporary authorization (STA) is the authority granted to a...

2011-10-01

160

47 CFR 73.1635 - Special temporary authorizations (STA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Special temporary authorizations (STA). 73.1635 Section 73.1635 Telecommunication...1635 Special temporary authorizations (STA). (a) A special temporary authorization (STA) is the authority granted to a...

2012-10-01

161

47 CFR 73.1635 - Special temporary authorizations (STA).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Special temporary authorizations (STA). 73.1635 Section 73.1635 Telecommunication...1635 Special temporary authorizations (STA). (a) A special temporary authorization (STA) is the authority granted to a...

2013-10-01

162

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2012-07-01

163

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2013-07-01

164

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2011-07-01

165

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2010-07-01

166

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2013-04-01

167

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

168

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

...2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2014-04-01

169

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2012-04-01

170

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770...Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2011-04-01

171

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging may be furnished to...

2010-07-01

172

LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

173

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in recycled leachate of bioreactor landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill leachate needs sufficient treatment before safe disposal. Bioreactor landfill technology could effectively degrade the organic matters in recirculated leachate, hence leaving a leachate stream of low biodegradability. This study characterized the dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the leachate from simulated bioreactor landfill columns with or without presence of trace oxygen. The removal efficiencies of this DOM using coagulation–sedimentation or

Pin-jing He; Jun-feng Xue; Li-ming Shao; Guo-jian Li; Duu-Jong Lee

2006-01-01

174

Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in vitro culture of human hematopoietic stem cells in different types of bioreactors is reviewed. After a brief description of the hematopoiesis and stem cells biology, the selection of growth medium for stem cells is evaluated as well as the parameters to be controlled for ex vivo expansion and differentiation of stem cells. Several types of bioreactors for in

J. M. S. Cabral

2001-01-01

175

Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Modeling of a Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor: II. Model Parametric Sensitivity Eunsung Kan: The sensitivity of a conceptual model of a foam emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) used for the control of toluene vapors in air was examined. Model parametric sensitivity studies showed which parameters affect the removal

176

ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

177

The Procurement & Management of Temporary Workers  

E-print Network

Related policies: Temporary Employee Policy Temporary Workers Handbook Version History Version Author Nelson AWD T&Cs to be moved to Appendix 07/03/2012 0.6 Ed Nelson Sixth Draft 09/03/2012 Sign Off History by Unitemps on a trial basis, reviewable after 6 months. For the purposes of this policy, Surrey Sports Park

Doran, Simon J.

178

Immersive Representation of Building Information Model  

E-print Network

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is an emerging technology that utilizes 3D graphical representations to improve communication, collaboration, and data exchange. Immersive Visualization Environment (IVE) is another promising technology...

Nseir, Hussam

2012-07-16

179

Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

180

Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

1984-01-01

181

Parametric resonance in spherical immersed elastic shells  

E-print Network

We perform a stability analysis for a fluid-structure interaction problem in which a spherical elastic shell or membrane is immersed in a 3D viscous, incompressible fluid. The shell is an idealised structure having zero thickness, and has the same fluid lying both inside and outside. The problem is formulated mathematically using the immersed boundary framework in which Dirac delta functions are employed to capture the two-way interaction between fluid and immersed structure. The elastic structure is driven parametrically via a time-periodic modulation of the elastic membrane stiffness. We perform a Floquet stability analysis, considering the case of both a viscous and inviscid fluid, and demonstrate that the forced fluid-membrane system gives rise to parametric resonances in which the solution becomes unbounded even in the presence of viscosity. The analytical results are validated using numerical simulations with a 3D immersed boundary code for a range of wavenumbers and physical parameter values. Finally, ...

Ko, William

2014-01-01

182

3D engine for immersive virtual environments  

E-print Network

3D ENGINE FOR IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER DEAN ANDERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 2003 Major Subject: Visualization Sciences 3D ENGINE FOR IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER DEAN ANDERSON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...

Anderson, Christopher Dean

2005-02-17

183

Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

2008-03-01

184

Bioreactor and ex situ biological treatment technologies  

SciTech Connect

Although in situ approaches have been the focus of much of current bioremediation practice, many site- and waste stream-remediation challenges are best met by applying bioreactors and other ex-situ treatment technologies, either singly or sometimes in combination with other technologies. Such engineered systems for the treatment of vapor, water, slurries, and soils are the focus of this volume, which covers a number of treatment technologies such as slurry reactors, compost reactors, biopiles, packed-bed reactors, vapor-phase reactors, and biofilters. Articles cover a number of technologies and media, as well as a wide variety of contaminants, among them arsenic, TPHs, MTBE, heavy metals, solvents, and other wastes.

Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A. [eds.

1999-10-01

185

Disposable Bioreactors: Maturation into Pharmaceutical Glycoprotein Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.

Brecht, René

186

Development of bioreactor systems for decolorization of Orange II using white rot fungus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three different reactor configurations (continuous packed-bed bioreactor, fedbatch fluidized-bed bioreactor, and continuous fluidized-bed bioreactor) were designed and tested for decolorization of an azo dye, Orange II, with white rot fungus. All the bioreactors showed high and stable decolorization activity in long-term operation. The fedbatch fluidized-bed bioreactor was particularly suitable for Orange II decolorization since it showed very high decolorization efficiency

Fu-ming Zhang; Jeremy S. Knapp; Kelvin N. Tapley

1999-01-01

187

Immersion specific defect mechanisms: findings and recommendations for their control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defectivity has been one of the largest unknowns in immersion lithography. It is critical to understand if there are any immersion specific defect modes, and if so, what their underlying mechanisms are. Through this understanding, any identified defect modes can be reduced or eliminated to help advance immersion lithography to high yield manufacturing. Since February 2005, an ASML XT:1250Di immersion

Michael Kocsis; Dieter Van Den Heuvel; Roel Gronheid; Mireille Maenhoudt; Dizana Vangoidsenhoven; Greg Wells; Nickolay Stepanenko; Michael Benndorf; Hyun Woo Kim; Shinji Kishimura; Monique Ercken; Frieda Van Roey; S. O'Brien; Wim Fyen; Philippe Foubert; Richard Moerman; Bob Streefkerk

2006-01-01

188

A Bioreactor Model of Mouse Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

The present study represents an investigation of a novel stirred bioreactor for culture of a transformed cell line under defined hydrodynamic conditions in vitro. Cell colonies of the EL-4 mouse lymphoma cell line grown for the first time in a rotating disc bioreactor (RDB), were observed to undergo changes in phenotype in comparison to standard, static flask cultures. RDB cultures, with or without agitation, promoted the formation of adherent EL-4 cell plaques that merged to form contiguous tumor-like masses in longer-term cultures, unlike the unattached spheroid aggregates of flask cultures. Plaques grown under agitated conditions were further altered in morphology and distribution in direct response to fluid mechanical stimuli. Plaque colonies growth in RDBs with or without agitation also exhibited significant increases in production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and lactate, suggesting an inducible “Warburg effect.” Increases in cell biomass in RDB cultures were no different to flask cultures, though a trend toward a marginal increase was observed at specific rotational speeds. The RDB may therefore be a suitable alternative method to study mechanisms of tumor progression and invasiveness in vitro, under more complex physicochemical conditions that may approximate natural tissue environments. PMID:18288240

Thouas, George A.; Sheridan, John; Hourigan, Kerry

2007-01-01

189

Transmural Flow Bioreactor for Vascular Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Nutrient transport limitation remains a fundamental issue for in vitro culture of engineered tissues. In this study, perfusion bioreactor configurations were investigated to provide uniform delivery of oxygen to media equivalents (MEs) being developed as the basis for tissue-engineered arteries. Bioreactor configurations were developed to evaluate oxygen delivery associated with complete transmural flow (through the wall of the ME), complete axial flow (through the lumen), and a combination of these flows. In addition, transport models of the different flow configurations were analyzed to determine the most uniform oxygen profile throughout the tissue, incorporating direct measurements of tissue hydraulic conductivity, cellular O2 consumption kinetics, and cell density along with ME physical dimensions. Model results indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO) uniformity is improved when a combination of transmural and axial flow is implemented; however, detrimental effects could occur due to lumenal pressure exceeding the burst pressure or damaging interstitial shear stress imparted by excessive transmural flow rates or decreasing hydraulic conductivity due to ME compaction. The model was verified by comparing predicted with measured outlet DO concentrations. Based on these results, the combination of a controlled transmural flow coupled with axial flow presents an attractive means to increase the transport of nutrients to cells within the cultured tissue to improve growth (increased cell and extracellular matrix concentrations) as well as uniformity. PMID:19603425

Bjork, Jason W.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

2010-01-01

190

Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

2006-01-01

191

Human-Computer Interaction Technical Report 12-5-10 Development of Instruments to Measure ImmerseAbility of  

E-print Network

) interviewed Finnish children as they actively played video games with their parents watching. They identifiedAbility of Individuals and ImmersiveNess of Video Games Kent L. Norman Department of Psychology, University of Maryland) and the extent to which video games create a sense of presence (ING, ImmersiveNess of Games). Participants

Golbeck, Jennifer

192

Focus and dose characterization of immersion photoclusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process window for state of the art chip manufacturing continues to decrease, driven by higher NA exposure tools and lower k1 values. The benefits of immersion lithography for Depth of Focus (DoF) are well known. Yet even with this immersion boost, NA=1.35 tools can push DoF into sub-100nm territory. In addition, immersion processes are subject to new sources of dose and focus variation. In order to realize the full potential of immersion lithography, it is necessary to characterize, understand and attack all sources of process variation. Previous work has established our dose/focus metrology capability1, in which we expose Process Monitor Grating (PMG) targets with high sensitivity to focus, measure the PMGs using scatterometry, and use the Ausschnitt dose/focus deconvolution approach to determine focus errors to within a few nm and dose errors to within 0.1%. In this paper, we concentrate on applying this capability to the detailed measurements of immersion photoclusters utilizing ASML exposure tools. Results will include: • comparison of Twinscan 1700i and 1900i focus capability • effectiveness of the Reticle Shape Correction (RSC) for non-flat reticles • visualization of non-flat wafer chucks, tilted image planes, and other systematic focus error components • tracking of tool trends over time, using automated monitor wafer flows The highly systematic nature of the observed focus errors suggest potential for future improvements in focus capability.

Brunner, T. A.; Corliss, D.; Wiltshire, T.; Ausschnitt, C. P.

2009-03-01

193

15 CFR 766.24 - Temporary denials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...temporary denial orders were issued. Without limiting any other action BIS may take under the EAR with respect to any application...under investigation or charges is significant, deliberate, covert and/or likely to occur again, rather than...

2011-01-01

194

15 CFR 766.24 - Temporary denials.  

...temporary denial orders were issued. Without limiting any other action BIS may take under the EAR with respect to any application...under investigation or charges is significant, deliberate, covert and/or likely to occur again, rather than...

2014-01-01

195

15 CFR 766.24 - Temporary denials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...temporary denial orders were issued. Without limiting any other action BIS may take under the EAR with respect to any application...under investigation or charges is significant, deliberate, covert and/or likely to occur again, rather than...

2012-01-01

196

15 CFR 766.24 - Temporary denials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...temporary denial orders were issued. Without limiting any other action BIS may take under the EAR with respect to any application...under investigation or charges is significant, deliberate, covert and/or likely to occur again, rather than...

2013-01-01

197

49 CFR 1034.1 - Temporary authority.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS ROUTING OF TRAFFIC § 1034.1 Temporary authority...other carriers provided in the original routing. This authority may be exercised...must accept the traffic according to the routing originally designated. (c)...

2010-10-01

198

40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure § 280.70 Temporary closure. (a)...

2011-07-01

199

47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.833...temporary authority may be granted for low power auxiliary station...

2010-10-01

200

47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.833...temporary authority may be granted for low power auxiliary station...

2012-10-01

201

47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.833...temporary authority may be granted for low power auxiliary station...

2011-10-01

202

47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST...PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.833...temporary authority may be granted for low power auxiliary station...

2013-10-01

203

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances  

PubMed Central

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-01-01

204

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances.  

PubMed

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control 'bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-11-01

205

32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

2013-07-01

206

32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

2013-07-01

207

32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

2012-07-01

208

32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

2012-07-01

209

32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

2011-07-01

210

32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

2011-07-01

211

32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization...Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access...

2010-07-01

212

Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Muths, E.; Scherer, R.D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

2006-01-01

213

Tele-Immersive medical educational environment.  

PubMed

By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other. PMID:15458055

Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary

2002-01-01

214

Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

2012-01-01

215

Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography.  

PubMed

Water immersion in neonatal bereavement photography is a new technique intended to enhance the quality of the photographs provided to families following their loss. Water immersion appears to be most helpful following a second trimester fetal demise. This technique can be used by nurses, professional photographers and others in addition to more traditional neonatal bereavement photography. It does not require special skills or equipment and can be implemented in virtually any perinatal setting. The enhanced quality of photographs produced with this method can potentially provide a source of comfort to grieving families. PMID:25316544

Duffey, Heather

2014-10-01

216

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01

217

Optimization of cell adhesion environments for a liver cell bioreactor  

E-print Network

The MilliF bioreactor offers great potential for the formation of i vivo-like liver tissue outside the body, making it a valuable tool for applications such as drug toxicity models and biosensors. Cell adhesion is an ...

Wongchaowart, Michael B

2006-01-01

218

pH control in a miniaturized bioreactor  

E-print Network

A miniaturized bioreactor with a volume on the order of 100 [micro]l has been built with the aim of increasing the efficiency of the screening process for various microbial cultures. Unlike larger reactors currently in ...

Griswold, Aaron A. (Aaron Alexander), 1981-

2004-01-01

219

Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

220

Optical stirring in a droplet cell bioreactor  

PubMed Central

In the context of a bioreactor, cells are sensitive to cues from other cells and mechanical stimuli from movement. The ability to provide the latter in a discrete fluidic system presents a significant challenge. From a prior finding that the location of the focus of a laser below particles relative to the beam axis producing a pushing effect in a predominant lateral sense, we advance an approach here that generates a gentle and tunable stirring effect. Computer simulation studies show that we are able to characterize this effect from the parameters that govern the optical forces and the movement of the particles. Experimental results with polystyrene microbeads and red blood cells confirm the notions from the simulations. PMID:23082288

Muradoglu, Murat; Le, Thuong; Lau, Chun Yat; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

2012-01-01

221

Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

Schwarz, Ray P. (inventor); Wolf, David A. (inventor)

1991-01-01

222

Growth of fungi and bacteria in the reciprocating jet bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comprehensive study the properties of the reciprocating-jet-bioreactor have been investigated. Fermentations have been carried out with two fungi and one bacterium. The fungi were Cyathus striatus for the production of antibiotics and Aspergillus niger for the production of citric acid. The bacterium Zymomonas mobilis was used in an anaerobic fermentation for the production of ethanol. The reciprocating-jet-bioreactor showed

H. Brauer

1990-01-01

223

Novel developments in bioreactor design and separations technology  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in more efficient separation processes and advanced bioreactor concepts are discussed in this paper. Separation processes include solvent extraction, solid sorbents, and integrated processes. Advanced bioreactor systems include continuous columnar bioactors and immobilization of biocatalyst. These advanced technological approaches promise to increase productivity and decrease cost and energy requirements of biological processing systems. This is especially true for large-scale fermentation for commodity-type chemicals. 10 refs., 2 figs. (DMC)

Scott, C.D.

1984-01-01

224

Human hepatocyte functions in a crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important challenge in liver tissue engineering is the development of bioartificial systems that are able to favour the liver reconstruction and to modulate liver cell behaviour.A crossed hollow fiber membrane bioreactor was developed to support the long-term maintenance and differentiation of human hepatocytes. The bioreactor consists of two types of hollow fiber (HF) membranes with different molecular weight cut-off

Loredana De Bartolo; Simona Salerno; Efrem Curcio; Antonella Piscioneri; Maria Rende; Sabrina Morelli; Franco Tasselli; Augustinus Bader; Enrico Drioli

2009-01-01

225

An assessment of bioreactor landfill costs and benefits.  

PubMed

Because effective operation of bioreactor landfills involves careful operation and construction of infrastructure beyond that necessary in traditional landfills, upfront capital and operating costs are greater than those associated with traditional landfills. Prior to investing in bioreactor landfills, landfill owners must be convinced that larger short-term expenses (e.g., liquid and/or air injection infrastructure) will be balanced by future economic benefits (e.g., extension of landfill life, reduced leachate treatment costs, etc.). The purpose of this paper is to describe an economic model developed to evaluate the impact of various operational (anaerobic, aerobic, or hybrid) and construction (retrofit and as-built) bioreactor landfill strategies on project economics. Model results indicate retrofit bioreactor landfills are more expensive than traditional landfills, while both the as-built and aerobic bioreactor landfills are less costly. Simulation results indicate the parameters that influence bioreactor economics most significantly are airspace recovery, gas recovery and subsequent use to generate electricity, and savings resulting from reduced leachate treatment costs. PMID:19167875

Berge, Nicole D; Reinhart, Debra R; Batarseh, Eyad S

2009-05-01

226

Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

Esposito, Marie-Josee

2006-01-01

227

Teaching and Learning Immersion and Presence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known since Socrates that people learn better by experiencing a problem by themselves and by finding a (the) solution(s) by their own. It is however not always possible to offer such freedom to students when teaching the concepts of immersion and presence in virtual environments due to the technological complexity and the intrinsically subjective nature of these concepts.

Bruno Herbelin; Jan Cíger

2008-01-01

228

Hellenic Cultural Heritage through Immersive Virtual Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Reality is a novel and innovative technology which allows us, through its applications, to experience abstract concepts and ideas, visit spaces that are unreachable or no longer exist, and examine e objects from diverse and unique points of view. Virtual archaeology refers to the use of 3D computer models of ancient buildings and artifacts visualized through immersive technologies. In

Athanasios GAITATZES; Dimitrios CHRISTOPOULOS; Aimilia VOULGARI; Maria ROUSSOU

2000-01-01

229

TWO DIMENSIONAL COMPUTER SIMULATION OF PLASMA IMMERSION  

E-print Network

particles (B=0 T and =0) #12;Ion trajectories #12;Axial distribution of implantation current #12;Energy;Objectives · Development of realistic, particle-in-cell (PIC), computer simulation of plasma immersion ion confinement of the secondary electrons #12;2.5D computer simulation with code KARAT Spatial variables

230

Immersion Through Believability: Using Realistic Character  

E-print Network

behaviour ­The system is more flexible and responsive to the current state of the game ­It avoids exhaustiveImmersion Through Believability: Using Realistic Character Behaviours to Enhance Gameplay of Computer Science The University of Western Ontario #12;Presentation Title Goes In Here Outline 1

Katchabaw, Michael James

231

How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

Allery, Virginia

2009-01-01

232

Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

1998-01-01

233

Interpersonal Distance in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital immersive virtual environment technology (IVET) enables behavioral scientists to conduct ecologically realistic experiments with near-perfect experimental control. The authors employed IVET to study the interpersonal distance maintained between participants and virtual humans. In Study 1, partici- pants traversed a three-dimensional virtual room in which a vir- tual human stood. In Study 2, a virtual human approached participants. In both

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Jim Blascovich; Andrew C. Beall; Jack M. Loomis

2003-01-01

234

Learning in an immersive digital theater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Museum of Natural Science, in collaboration with Rice University has an outreach program taking portable digital theaters to schools and community sites for over five years and has conducted research on student learning in this immersive environment. By using an external independent evaluator, the effectiveness of NASA-funded Education and Public Outreach (EPO) projects can be assessed. This paper documents interactive techniques and learning strategies in full-dome digital theaters. The presentation is divided into Evaluation Strategies and Results and Interactivity Strategies and Results. All learners from grades 3-12 showed statistically significant short-term increase in knowledge of basic Earth science concepts after a single 22-min show. Improvements were more significant on items that were taught using more than one modality of instruction: hearing, seeing, discussion, and immersion. Thus immersive theater can be an effective as well as engaging teaching method for Earth and Space science concepts, particularly those that are intrinsically three-dimensional and thus most effectively taught in an immersive environment. The portable system allows taking the educational experience to rural and tribal sites where the underserved students could not afford the time or expense to travel to museums.

Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.; Weber, W.

2008-12-01

235

Immersive Electronic Books for Teaching Surgical Procedures  

E-print Network

with the use of immersive virtual reality technology for trauma surgery training. We discuss our technical for trauma surgery. We focus on a class of trauma injuries that are both potentially lethal and also particularly difficult to treat, namely blunt liver traumas. Today, the pace of surgical innovations has

Yang, Ruigang

236

[Temporary disability and its legal implications].  

PubMed

Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

2014-03-01

237

Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.  

PubMed

An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150mgL(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

2014-12-01

238

Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

2014-05-01

239

The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the simulated environment.

Park, Brian

2006-01-01

240

Immersion Benefits and Challenges: Does One Size Fit All?  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Decades of research on English-speaking immersion students of various academic abilities shows that these learners are capable of achieving high levels of functional proficiency in the immersion language while at the same time achieving academically at or above their non-immersion peers on standardized tests administered in English (Genesee, 1987; Genesee, forthcoming; Lambert & Tucker, 1972; Swain & Lapkin, 1982).

Tara W. Fortune; Diane J. Tedick

2007-01-01

241

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20

242

A pulsing device for packed-bed bioreactors: II. Application to alcoholic fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the immobilized cells are employed in packed-bed bioreactors several problems appear. To overcome these drawbacks, a new bioreactor based on the use of pulsed systems was developed [1]. In this work, we study the glucose fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a packed-bed bioreactor. A comparative study was then carried out for continuous fermentation in two packed-bed bioreactors, one

A. Sanromán; E. Roca; M. J. Núñez; J. M. Lema

1994-01-01

243

Friction and dilatancy in immersed granular matter  

E-print Network

The friction of a sliding plate on a thin immersed granular layer obeys Amonton-Coulomb law. We bring to the fore a large set of experimental results which indicate that, over a few decades of values, the effective dynamical friction-coefficient depends neither on the viscosity of the interstitial fluid nor on the size of beads in the sheared layer, which bears out the analogy with the solid-solid friction in a wide range of experimental parameters. We accurately determine the granular-layer dilatancy, which dependance on the grain size and slider velocity can be qualitatively accounted by considering the rheological behaviour of the whole slurry. However, additional results, obtained after modification of the grain surface by a chemical treatment, demonstrate that the theoretical description of the flow properties of granular matter, even immersed, requires the detailed properties of the grain surface to be taken into account.

Thibaut Divoux; Jean-Christophe Géminard

2008-06-10

244

Immersion in water in labour and birth  

PubMed Central

Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference ?32.4 minutes; 95% CI ?58.7 to ?6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight trials), use of oxytocin infusion (RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.28,five trials), perineal trauma or maternal infection. There were no differences for Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (RR 1.58; 95% CI 0.63 to 3.93, five trials), neonatal unit admissions (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.57, three trials), or neonatal infection rates (RR 2.00; 95% CI 0.50 to 7.94, five trials). Of the three trials that compared water immersion during the second stage with no immersion, one trial showed a significantly higher level of satisfaction with the birth experience (RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.80). A lack of data for some comparisons prevented robust conclusions. Further research is needed. Authors’ conclusions Evidence suggests that water immersion during the first stage of labour reduces the use of epidural/spinal analgesia and duration of the first stage of labour. There is limited information for other outcomes related to water use during the first and second stages of labour, due to intervention and outcome variability. There is no evidence of increased adverse effects to the fetus/neonate or woman from labouring in water or waterbirth. However, the studies are very variable and considerable heterogeneity was detected for some outcomes. Further research is needed. PMID:19370552

Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

2014-01-01

245

An Immersive VR System for Sports Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

246

Immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unique simulation technique has been developed capable of modeling electric field induced detection of biomolecules such as viruses, at room temperatures where thermal fluctuations must be considered. The proposed immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method couples electrokinetics with fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the motion and deformation of flexible objects immersed in a suspending medium under an applied electric field. The force induced on an arbitrary object due to an electric field is calculated based on the continuum electromechanics and the Maxwell stress tensor. The thermal fluctuations are included in the Navier-Stokes fluid equations via the stochastic stress tensor. Dielectrophoretic and fluctuating forces acting on the particle are coupled through the fluid-structure interaction force calculated within the surrounding environment. This method was used to perform concentration and retention efficacy analysis of nanoscale biosensors using gold particles of various sizes. The analysis was also applied to a human papillomavirus.

Kopacz, Adrian M.; Liu, Wing K.

2013-07-01

247

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2011-10-01

248

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2013-10-01

249

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

250

20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED...

2010-04-01

251

20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED...

2011-04-01

252

20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.  

...Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations § 655.55 Validity of temporary labor...

2014-04-01

253

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2012-10-01

254

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2011-10-01

255

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts...purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder...vegetative cover was disturbed by the construction or use of the road, as necessary to minimize...

2010-07-01

256

22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls is required for the temporary import and subsequent export of...

2010-04-01

257

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section 101...Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

2011-10-01

258

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section 101...Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile stations in the...

2012-10-01

259

Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

1998-03-01

260

Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with an internal membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Anaerobic treatment is growing very popular these days because of low sludge production compared to activated sludge processes. The drawback of the process is the risk of sludge washout, especially when the formation of granular sludge is not expected. By using an internal anaerobic bioreactor this problem can be overcome. A lab scale internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. to which brewery wastewater was fed (COD=2300 mg/l). Hollow fibres were inserted into the anaerobic bioreactor, from which the effluent was extracted by underpressure. The COD-removal was excellent and very constant at a value of 95%. No suspended solids were present in the effluent. The membrane permeability stabilised at relatively low value of 18 l/m2.h.bar due to an irreversible adhesion of constituents in the bioreactor. No growth of biomass was found during two months of operation. Inocculated granular sludge fell apart into loose flocs within several weeks of the startup, not affecting biological performance. The internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a promising new area within the field of wastewater treatment. It is expected that this process will have an important future. PMID:15954573

Cornelissen, E R; van Buggenhout, S; van Ermen, S; De Smedt, M; Van Impe, J; Koning, J

2001-01-01

261

Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

262

Ocean Immersion in K-12 Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California COSEE is working to create regional ocean education Centers focused on increasing awareness of K-12 schools and their communities to ocean-related issues and opportunities. The Ocean Immersion Centers provide numerous benefits both in the classroom and the community. This site includes information on the Centers and commentary on the implementation of the program in a local elementary school. Workshop information is also provided.

263

Numerical Simulations Using the Immersed Boundary Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immersed-boundary method can be used to simulate flows around complex geometries within a Cartesian grid. This method has been used quite extensively in low Reynolds-number flows, and is now being applied to turbulent flows more frequently. The technique will be discussed, and three applications of the method will be presented, with increasing complexity. to illustrate the potential and limitations of the method, and some of the directions for future work.

Piomelli, Ugo; Balaras, Elias

1997-01-01

264

Tele-immersive gaming for everybody  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this demonstration, we present two 3D tele-immersive games: light-saber dual and block fencing that merge 3D video representations of participants in real-time to enable remote interactions in a virtual world. The light-saber dual arranges participants in a symmetric setup where both participants interact with each other in a virtual world with similar goals. On the other hand, the block

Ahsan Arefin; Zixia Huang; Raoul Rivas; Shu Shi; Wanmin Wu; Klara Nahrstedt

2011-01-01

265

Collaborating in context: immersive visualisation environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT As visualization s of large systems get more and more complex, larger collaborative spaces,are required so that a team,of designers may,work together while visualising their system. This paper describes the outfitting of a room,to turn it into an immersive,visualisation environment. The environment,consists of large display areas, onto which are projected high resolution visualisations of software systems. Specialised hardware,allows the

Ross Shannon; Aaron J. Quigley; Paddy Nixon

2006-01-01

266

First: Florida Ir Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FIRST silicon immersion grating spectrometer is being developed at UF to search for habitable Earth-like planets around M dwarfs and giant planets around young active stars. This compact cryogenic IR instrument is designed to have a spectral resolution of R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 µm with a silicon immersion grating and R=60K at 0.8-1.35 µm with an R4 echelle. The goal is to reach a long term Doppler precision of 1-3 m/s for bright M dwarfs. The FIRST silicon immersion grating, with 54.74 degree blaze angle and 16 l/mm groove density, has been fully characterized in the lab. The 50x50 mm square grating entrance pupil is coated with a single layer of anti-reflection coating resulting in a 2.1% measured reflection loss. The grating surface was coated with a gold layer to increase grating surface reflectivity. It has produced R=110,000 diffraction limited spectral resolution at 1.523 micron in a lab test spectrograph with 20 mm pupil diameter. The integrated scattered light is less than 0.2\\% and grating has no visible ghosts down to the measuring instrument noise level. The grating efficiency is 69\\% at the peak of the blaze. This silicon immersion grating is ready for scientific observations with FIRST. FIRST is scheduled to be integrated in the lab during the spring of 2012 and see the first light at an astronomical telescope (TBD) the summer of 2012.

Ge, Jian; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Wan, X.; Powell, S.

2012-01-01

267

Immersive Telecommunication Using Stereo Video Avatar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersive projection displays such as CABIN and COSMOS have been connected through a broadband network. This kind of network environment is expected to be used as a multimedia virtual laboratory. In particular, video avatar technology has been developed in order to realize high-presence communication in this multimedia virtual laboratory. A video avatar is a computer-synthesized 3D image created using live

Tetsuro Ogi; Toshio Yamada; Ken Tamagawa; Makoto Kano; Michitaka Hirose

2001-01-01

268

A perfusion air-lift bioreactor for high density plant cell cultivation and secreted protein production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bioreactor design that allows continuous perfusion cultivation of plant cell suspensions is described in this paper. This design incorporates an internal cell settling zone with an external-loop air-lift bioreactor. The settling zone is created by inserting a baffle plate into the upper portion of the downcomer. Using this bioreactor, Anchusa officinalis suspension culture was cultivated to a cell

Wei Wen Su; Bing Jun He; Hua Liang; Sam Sun

1996-01-01

269

Optimal Homogenization of Perfusion Flows in Microfluidic Bio-Reactors: A Numerical Study  

E-print Network

Optimal Homogenization of Perfusion Flows in Microfluidic Bio-Reactors: A Numerical Study Fridolin of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Abstract In recent years, the interest in small-scale bio-reactors microfluidic bio-reactors, we develop a general design of a continually feed bio- reactor with uniform

270

Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

2013-01-01

271

Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

2010-01-01

272

Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

Schlager, K. J.

1998-11-01

273

Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for CELSS applications.  

PubMed

An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion. PMID:11542606

Schlager, K J

1998-01-01

274

Development of cleaning process for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In immersion lithography, DI water fills the space between the resist surface and the last lens element. However water is also a good solvent for most of the leaching compounds from resists. The leaching materials from the resist and the original impurities in the water from pipelines pose a significant risk on bottom lens deterioration, wafer surface particles, and facility contamination. If the bottom lens surface deteriorates, it can cause flare and reduce transparency. Particles on the wafer surface can degrade image formation. In addition to contaminating the facility, the impurity inside the water can cause stains or defects after the water is evaporated from the wafer surface. In order to reduce the impact of such contamination, we have evaluated many chemicals for removing organic contamination as well as particles. We have collected and characterized immersion-induced particles from cleaning studies on bare silicon wafers. We have also used oxide wafers to simulate the lens damage caused by the cleaning chemicals. In case, a mega sonic power is not suitable for scanners last lens element in production FABs, the emulsion concept has also been adopted to remove the lens organic contaminants. We have studied many chemical and mechanical methods for tool cleaning, and identified those that possess good organic solubility and particle removal efficiency. These cleaning methods will be used in periodic maintenance procedures to ensure freedom from defects in immersion lithography.

Chang, Ching Yu; Yu, D. C.; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

2006-03-01

275

Temporary migration and capital market imperfections  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the temporary migration decision of workers who are credit constrained. As observed with data on Tunisia, migrants who invest after returning to their country have accumulated more savings and stayed longer abroad than salaried return migrants. To capture these features, we analyse the optimal migration duration and occupational choice of workers using a life-cycle maximisation model. An

Alice Mesnard

2004-01-01

276

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT POLICY  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF CHARLESTON TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT POLICY (Revised and Effective 7/1/04) THE LANGUAGE USED IN THIS DOCUMENT DOES NOT CREATE AN EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT BETWEEN THE EMPLOYEE AND THE AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT DOES TO OR INCONSISTENT WITH THE TERMS OF THIS PARAGRAPH CREATE ANY CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT. The purpose of employing

Kasman, Alex

277

Retirement Program Guidelines for Temporary Employees  

E-print Network

returning to work Select: the appropriate option on the Offer of Temporary Employment. As applicable in the future. Additionally, for retirees returning to work a $10,000 Earnings Limitation will apply if your), Active Incidental Death Benefit Beneficiary Designation Form (1106), & Chosen Vendor's Enrollment Form

Almor, Amit

278

Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

Wilemon, David L.

1973-01-01

279

43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...provided for in §§ 36.10 and 36.11. State and private landowners meeting the criteria of § 36.10(b) are directed to use the procedures of § 36.10 to obtain temporary access...information requested in the SF 299. (d) The...

2010-10-01

280

Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

2010-01-01

281

Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics Truman State University  

E-print Network

Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics Truman State University POSITION: Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics, beginning January 13, 2014. DESCRIPTION: Truman State University is seeking a Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics to teach two sections of Introduction to Linguistics

Gering, Jon C.

282

Temporary Agency Workers' Human Resource Management and Willingness to Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I conduct exploratory examinations on the factor of human re- source management which has an impact on temporary agency workers' will- ingness to work. Based on the characteristics of temporary agency work's em- ployment structure, I sort out human resource management functions by client firms and temporary agencies and statistically analyze the impact of these hu- man

Tomoyuki Shimanuki

283

The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of six hospitals and five auto parts suppliers showed that in high-skilled occupations, employers paid more to temporary agency help than regular staff. In low-skilled occupations, temporary agencies facilitated use of riskier workers. Temporaries may relieve pressure to raise wages in tight labor markets, perhaps contributing to…

Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

2003-01-01

284

A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

2008-01-01

285

Art, science, and immersion: data-driven experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This panel and dialog-paper explores the potentials at the intersection of art, science, immersion and highly dimensional, "big" data to create new forms of engagement, insight and cultural forms. We will address questions such as: "What kinds of research questions can be identified at the intersection of art + science + immersive environments that can't be expressed otherwise?" "How is art+science+immersion distinct from state-of-the art visualization?" "What does working with immersive environments and visualization offer that other approaches don't or can't?" "Where does immersion fall short?" We will also explore current trends in the application of immersion for gaming, scientific data, entertainment, simulation, social media and other new forms of big data. We ask what expressive, arts-based approaches can contribute to these forms in the broad cultural landscape of immersive technologies.

West, Ruth G.; Monroe, Laura; Ford Morie, Jacquelyn; Aguilera, Julieta

286

Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

1983-01-01

287

Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

2014-08-01

288

Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

2010-01-01

289

77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood Harvesting on Public...temporary closure to wood harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz...vehicle travel and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas...

2012-12-04

290

Bioconversion of waste cellulose by using an attrition bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

A new type of reactor, an attrition bioreactor, was tested to achieve a higher rate and extent of enzymatic saccharification of cellulose than is possible with conventional methods. The reactor consisted of a jacketted stainless-steel vessel with shaft, stirrer, and milling media, which combined the effect of the mechanical action of wet milling with cellulose hydrolysis. The substrates tested were newprint and white-pine heartwood. The performance of the reactor was excellent. The extent and rate of enzymatic hydrolysis could be markedly improved over other methods. The power consumption of the attrition bioreactor was also measured. The cellulase enzyme deactivation during attrition milling was not significant.

Ryu, S.K.; Lee, J.M.

1983-01-01

291

Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

1987-01-01

292

Gas phase acetaldehyde production in a continuous bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The gas phase continuous production of acetaldehyde was studied with particular emphasis on the development of biocatalyst (alcohol oxidase on solid phase support materials) for a fixed bed reactor. Based on the experimental results in a batch bioreactor, the biocatalysts were prepared by immobilization of alcohol oxidase on Amberlite IRA-400, packed into a column, and the continuous acetaldehyde production in the gas phase by alcohol oxidase was performed. The effects of the reaction temperature, flow rates of gaseous stream, and ethanol vapor concentration on the performance of the continuous bioreactor were investigated.

Hwang, Soon Ook (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Trantolo, D.J. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Biotechnology Engineering); Wise, D.L. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Center for Biotechnology Engineering)

1993-08-20

293

Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

2011-01-01

294

3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

2001-10-03

295

Immersing carbon nanotubes in cold atomic gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the sympathetic relaxation of a free-standing, vibrating carbon nanotube that is mounted on an atom chip and is immersed in a cloud of ultracold atoms. Gas atoms colliding with the nanotube excite phonons via a Casimir-Polder potential. We use Fermi's golden rule to estimate the relaxation rates for relevant experimental parameters and develop a fully dynamic theory of relaxation for the multimode phononic field embedded in a thermal atomic reservoir. Based on currently available experimental data, we identify the relaxation rates as a function of atom density and temperature that are required for sympathetic ground-state cooling of carbon nanotubes.

Weiß, C. T.; Mironova, P. V.; Fortágh, J.; Schleich, W. P.; Walser, R.

2013-10-01

296

The Feel Good Factor: Comparing Immersion by Design and Immersion by Default Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from an exploratory research project entitled "Gaelscoileanna and Multicultural classrooms: the potential for transfer to enhance L2 learning experiences". The project focussed on two language immersion contexts in Ireland which, despite obvious differences, share a range of significant commonalities. One…

Gallagher, Fiona; Leahy, Angela

2014-01-01

297

Immersion francaise precoce: Musique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Music for Grades 1-7).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide in music is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The program is presented as one that contributes to the development of the child, calls for flexibility and diversification, and requires a solid music education on the part of the teacher. The guide presents the following topics: (1) statements…

Burt, Andy; And Others

298

Defect transfer from immersion exposure process to etching process using novel immersion exposure and track system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For lithography technology to support the scaling down of semiconductor devices, 193-nm immersion exposure processing is being introduced to mass-production at a rapid pace. At the same time, there are still many unclear areas and many concerns to be addressed with regards to defects in 193-nm immersion lithography. To make 193-nm immersion lithography technology practical for mass production, it is essential that the defect problems be solved. Importance must be attached to understanding the conditions that give rise to defects and their transference in the steps between lithography and etching processes. It is apparent that double patterning (DP) will be the mainstream technology below 40nm node. It can be assumed that the risk of the defect generation will rise, because the number of the litho processing steps will be increased in DP. Especially, in the case of Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE) process, the concept of defect transfer becomes more important because etch processing is placed between each litho processing step. In this paper, we use 193-nm immersion lithography processing to examine the defect transference from lithography through the etching process for a representative 45nm metal layer substrate stack for device manufacturing. It will be shown which types of defects transfer from litho to etch and become killer defects.

Miyahara, Osamu; Kosugi, Hitoshi; Dunn, Shannon; van Dommelen, Youri; Grouwstra, Cedric

2008-11-01

299

Programme d'education de Maternelle--Immersion (Pre-School Education Program--Immersion).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The materials in this document discuss the Alberta (Canada) public school curriculum for French immersion instruction for 5-year olds in preschool, intended for implementation in September 2000. The first part outlines the rationale and organization of the curriculum model and its five guiding principles. The second part describes the seven…

Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

300

Evaluation of marginal leakage of different temporary restorative materials in Endodontics  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the coronal marginal leakage of three temporary restorative materials used for root canal sealing after endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 single-rooted teeth were submitted to biomechanical preparation and filled by lateral condensation technique. After obturation process, the teeth were randomly separated into four groups, being two teeth of each group used as positive and negative control. Temporary sealing was performed as follows: GI - Clip F (VOCO); GII - Bioplic (Biodin?mica); GIII - Vitremer (3M ESPE) and GIV - Ketak N100 (3M ESPE). Next, the specimens were immersed into Indian ink for 30 and 60- days, being 10 specimens for each time interval and then submitted to diaphanization to verify the amount of coronal leakage using a measuring microscope. Results: Leakage mean values within the 30-day period were as follows: Vitremer (0.3 mm), Ketak N100 and Clip F (0.6 mm) and Bioplic (1.7 mm). Within the 60-day period, leakage means were 1.1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: None of the materials was capable of preventing marginal leakage within the 30- and 60-day period. In both time intervals, Bioplic presented the highest mean of leakage and Vitremer the lowest. PMID:24403791

De Castro, Pedro Henrique Duarte FranCa; Pereira, Juliana Vianna; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, Andre Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas Da Fonseca Roberti

2013-01-01

301

LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

302

Pilot study: Fixed-film bioreactor to enhance carbon adsorption  

SciTech Connect

A pilot study was performed to evaluate a novel bioreactor for treatment of groundwater at a former wood-preserving facility. Groundwater, impacted with wood-treating preservatives, is currently being recovered and treated using chemical/physical pretreatment followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The bioreactor was evaluated to reduce GAC usage. The study tested AlliedSignal`s Immobilized Cell Bioreactor (ICB) on a sidestream from the groundwater treatment system. The ICB technology is a fixed-film, fixed-bed bioreactor that utilizes a dual microbe support media system consisting of (1) a patented, carbon-coated, polyurethane foam packing; and (2) conventional, random, plastic packing. The ICB was tested at four discrete operating conditions representing hydraulic retention times of 16.6, 8.3, 4.2, and 2.1 h. Influent and effluent samples collected at each condition were analyzed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenolics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Results indicated that a maximum removal of 86.9% for COD, 96.3% for total phenols, 98.9% for total PAHs, and 97.2% for BTEX. Based on these data, a full-scale ICB as a pretreatment step would decrease GAC usage by a factor of 3.5.

Gromicko, G.J. [Groundwater Technology, Inc., Moon Township, PA (United States); Smock, M.; Wong, A.D. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States); Sheridan, B. [AlliedSignal, Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

303

Ultrasound assisted production of a fibrinolytic enzyme in a bioreactor.  

PubMed

The present work illustrates ultrasound assisted production of a fibrinolytic enzyme at 1L bioreactor scale from Bacillus sphaericus MTCC 3672. To alleviate the shortcomings of one factor at a time method of optimization, central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology was employed for optimization of ultrasound assisted production. Different process parameters such as irradiation time, duty cycle and power of ultrasound were varied in 3 different levels in 11 experimental runs. For evaluating mass transfer enhancement effect of ultrasonication on production, control non sonicated fermentation was optimized by varying different agitation speed (300-500rpm) and aeration rate (8.33-33.33cc/s). Optimized ultrasonication protocol resulted in 1.48-fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme yield as compared to non sonicated fermentation, which comprised of ultrasound irradiation at 25kHz for 10min with 40% duty cycle and 160W power on 12h of growth phase in 1L bioreactor operated at 400rpm agitation speed and 16.66cc/s aeration rate. Declined glucose concentration from 0.1% w/v (non sonicated control run) to 0.05% w/v and breakage of cells cluster emphasized on increased substrate utilization potential and enhanced convection of ultrasound assisted fermentation in a bioreactor. Deliverables of current studies will provide significant insights for enhancement of productivity of various enzymes at a bioreactor level. PMID:24889547

Avhad, Devchand N; Rathod, Virendra K

2015-01-01

304

Integration of Solar Photocatalysis and Membrane Bioreactor for Pesticides Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wastewater containing recalcitrant contaminants as pesticides can be treated by a coupled system which consists of a solar photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a biological oxidation process. Membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is particularly suitable for advanced biological treatment of wastewater containing biorecalcitrant compounds and shows a variety of advantages that make it a good alternative to be coupled with photo-Fenton, especially

J. L. Casas López; A. Cabrera Reina; E. Ortega Gómez; M. M. Ballesteros Martín; S. Malato Rodríguez; J. A. Sánchez Pérez

2010-01-01

305

Microbial Community Structure and Activity in a Compartmentalized, Anaerobic Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate staging and its effects on reactor performance in a compartmentalized bioreactor, designated the anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR). The AMBR was operated by reversing the flow several times per day, which allowed for substantial biomass migration without biomass accumulation in the final compartment. During reactor startup, the structures of the microbial communities

Largus T. Angenent; Dandan Zheng; Shihwu Sung; Lutgarde Raskin

306

Membrane Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been extensively employed for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional technologies. To provide current state and development trends of MBR technology used for industrial wastewater treatments, more than 300 scientific publications have been reviewed and analysed. This paper presents an overview of the most recent development of MBR technology for

HONGJUN LIN; WEIJUE GAO; FANGANG MENG; BAO-QIANG LIAO; KAM-TIN LEUNG; LEIHONG ZHAO; JIANRONG CHEN; HUACHANG HONG

2011-01-01

307

Membrane Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been extensively employed for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional technologies. To provide present state and development trends of MBR technology used for industrial wastewater treatments, the authors reviewed and analyzed more than 300 scientific publications. They present an overview of the most recent development of MBR technology for treatment

Hongjun Lin; Weijue Gao; Fangang Meng; Bao-Qiang Liao; Kam-Tin Leung; Leihong Zhao; Jianrong Chen; Huachang Hong

2012-01-01

308

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment: feasibility and potential applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomass retention is a necessary feature for the successful application of anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment. Biofilms and granule formation are the traditional way to achieve such retention, enabling reactor operation at  high biomass concentrations, and therefore at high organic loading rates. Membrane filtration represents an alternative way to achieve biomass retention. In membrane bioreactors, complete biomass retention can be

D. A. Jeison

2007-01-01

309

Approaches to membrane fouling control in anaerobic membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various fouling control methods were investigated for polymeric and ceramic microfiltration membranes in the anaerobic membrane bioreactors where inorganic precipitates and\\/or fine colloids have been recently known as the most significant foulants: (i) Substantial improvement of flux was achieved by backfeeding of acidic wastewater through the membrane module. The backfeeding mode formed an acidic environment around the membrane pores and

S. Adiya; C. H. Lee

2000-01-01

310

Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can no longer be considered as a novel process. This reliable and efficient technology has become a legitimate alternative to conventional activated sludge processes and an option of choice for many domestic and industrial applications. However, membrane fouling and its consequences in terms of plant maintenance and operating costs limit the widespread application of MBRs. To

Pierre Le-Clech; Vicki Chen; Tony A. G. Fane

2006-01-01

311

Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition

Sarina J. Ergas; Michael S. McGrath

1997-01-01

312

Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in a production-scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-compartment model for the liquid flow and the oxygen transfer into the liquid phase of a large-scale bioreactor is presented. The aim of the model is to predict the following reactor operating variables: 1) the overall oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor; 2) the local liquid dissolved oxygen concentrations, for estimation of bad aerated zones which can introduce negative

N. M. G. Oosterhuis; N. W. F. Kossen

1984-01-01

313

Continuous lipolysis in a reversed micellar membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzymatic hydrolysis of olive oil using Chromobacterium viscosum lipase B encapsulated in reversed micelles of AOT in isooctane was carried out in a continous reversed micellar membrane bioreactor. A tubular ceramic membrane installed in an ultrafiltration module was used to retain the lipase and separate the products from the reaction media. Water filled micelles were supplemented to the reactor

D. M. F. Prazeres; F. A. P. Garcia; J. M. S. Cabral

1994-01-01

314

Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

2006-01-01

315

Continuous Operation of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactors Treating Toluene Vapors  

E-print Network

.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/bit.20619 Abstract: Continuous operation of a new bioreactor for air pollution control Periodicals, Inc. Keywords: VOC control; biofilter; air pollution control; toluene; biologically activated effectiveness for the control of odors and volatile organic compounds, especially in high flow rates

316

Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

317

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

318

Expression systems and species used for transgenic animal bioreactors.  

PubMed

Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

2013-01-01

319

REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

320

Effect of ferric chloride on fouling in membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane fouling has been the main obstacle to the wide application of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ferric chloride on retarding membrane fouling in MBRs. Changes in the modified fouling index (MFI) and the zeta potential of sludge flocs were used to determine the optimal concentration of Fe(III). The optimal Fe(III)

Hai-feng Zhang; Bao-sheng Sun; Xin-hua Zhao; Zheng-hong Gao

2008-01-01

321

Selective fengycin production in a modified rotating discs bioreactor.  

PubMed

Production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in rotating discs bioreactor was studied. The effects of rotation velocity and the addition of agitators between the discs on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k L a were firstly studied in model media. Then the production of lipopeptides was also studied at different agitation conditions in the modified bioreactor (with agitators). The effect of agitation on dissolved oxygen, on submerged and immobilized biomass, on lipopeptide concentrations and yields and on the selectivity of the bioreaction was elucidated and discussed. The proposed modified rotating discs bioreactor allowed to obtain high fengycin concentrations (up to 787 mg L(-1)), but also better selectivity of the bioreaction towards fengycin (up to 88%) and better yields of fengycin per glucose (up to 62.9 mg g(-1)), lipopeptides per glucose (up to 71.5 mg g(-1)), fengycin per biomass (up to 309 mg g(-1)) and lipopeptides per biomass (up to 396 mg g(-1)) than those reported in the literature. Highest fengycin production and selectivity were obtained at agitation velocity of 30 min(-1). The proposed non-foaming fermentation process could contribute to the scale-up of lipopeptide fermentors and promote the industrial production of fengycin. The proposed bioreactor and bioprocess could be very useful also for the production of other molecules using bioprocesses requiring bubbleless oxygen supply. PMID:23694986

Chtioui, Omar; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Gancel, Frédérique; Dhulster, Pascal; Nikov, Iordan

2014-02-01

322

TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS  

EPA Science Inventory

A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

323

Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-04-01

324

Criteria for diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strict criteria for the diagnosis of temporary gluten intolerance are formulated in the light of the case of an 8-week-old infant with severe diarrhoea and failure to thrive, who recovered on an elimination diet that was gluten-free. 8 weeks later an oral challenge with 2.5 g twice daily of powdered gluten for one day produced diarrhoea, weight loss, and impaired

A S McNeish; C J Rolles; L J Arthur

1976-01-01

325

Study on the reduction of defects in immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ArF Immersion lithography is expected to be a production-worthy technology for sub-60nm DRAM. It gives wider process window and better CD uniformity at the cost of defects and overlay accuracy. It is generally mentioned that immersion defects are generated during exposure and removed through pre-soak and post-soak process. A lot of efforts are being made towards less defect generation during exposure and more defect removal through pre-soak and postsoak process. We have experienced a variety of immersion defects and classified them into four types: bubble defect, water mark defect (T-top & Stain), swelling defect and bridge defect (Macro & Micro). We have worked very hard to reduce each immersion defects with immersion exposure and system. In this paper, we investigate method to reduce each immersion defects: bubble, water mark, swelling and bridge through our experiment.

Ban, Keundo; Park, Sarohan; Bok, Cheolkyu; Lim, Heeyoul; Heo, Junggun; Chun, Hyunsook; Kang, Junghyun; Moon, Seungchan

2007-03-01

326

Visuospatial astronomy education in immersive digital planetariums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Even simple concepts in astronomy are notoriously difficult for the general public to understand. Many ideas involve three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among astronomical objects. However much of the traditional teaching materials used in astronomy education are two-dimensional (2D) in nature, while studies show that visualising mental rotations and perspective changes can be difficult for many. The simplifications that occur when explaining one phenomenon may lead to new misconceptions in other concepts. Properly constructed 3D simulations can provide students with the multiple perspectives necessary for understanding. As a venue for virtual astronomical environments, the new class of digital video planetariums that are appearing in museums and science centres have the potential to bridge the comprehension gap in astronomy learning. We describe a research project which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of visualisations in both immersive and non-immersive settings, by using freshmen undergraduate students from a four-year college. The retention of students over the course of a semester for this study means that student misconceptions can be tracked and recorded weekly via curriculum tests.

Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.

2008-06-01

327

Temporary Impairments A temporary impairment (e.g., broken arm or leg, surgery and recovering from surgery, etc) "does not constitute a  

E-print Network

Temporary Impairments A temporary impairment (e.g., broken arm or leg, surgery and recovering from, Assistant Director, Business & Contract Services. (414) 229-5141 #12;Academic Needs If you have a temporary

Saldin, Dilano

328

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering of Cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix production using confined and unconfined systems. Development of automatic culture systems and noninvasive monitoring of matrix production will take place during the next few years in order to improve the cost affectivity of tissue-engineered products.

Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.

329

Bioreactors for tissue engineering of cartilage.  

PubMed

The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix production using confined and unconfirmed systems. Development of automatic culture systems and noninvasive monitoring of matrix production will take place during the next few years in order to improve the cost affectivity of tissue-engineered products. PMID:19290500

Concaro, S; Gustavson, F; Gatenholm, P

2009-01-01

330

Reconstruction of liver organoid using a bioreactor  

PubMed Central

AIM: To develop the effective technology for reconstruction of a liver organ in vitro using a bio-artificial liver. METHODS: We previously reported that a radial-flow bioreactor (RFB) could provide a three-dimensional high-density culture system. We presently reconstructed the liver organoid using a functional human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (FLC-5) as hepatocytes together with mouse immortalized sinusoidal endothelial cell (SEC) line M1 and mouse immortalized hepatic stellate cell (HSC) line A7 as non parenchymal cells in the RFB. Two x 107 FLC-5 cells were incubated in the RFB. After 5 d, 2 x 107 A7 cells were added in a similar manner followed by another addition of 107 M1 cells 5 d later. After three days of perfusion, some cellulose beads with the adherent cells were harvested. The last incubation period included perfusion with 200 nmol/L swinholide A for 2 h and then the remaining cellulose beads along with adherent cells were harvested from the RFB. The cell morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). To assess hepatocyte function, we compared mRNA expression for urea cycle enzymes as well as albumin synthesis by FLC-5 in monolayer cultures compared to those of single-type cultures and cocultures in the RFB. RESULTS: By transmission electron microscopy, FLC-5, M1, and A7 were arranged in relation to the perfusion side in a liver-like organization. Structures resembling bile canaliculi were seen between FCL-5 cells. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated fenestrae on SEC surfaces. The number of vesiculo-vacuolar organelles (VVO) and fenestrae increased when we introduced the actin-binding agent swinholide-A in the RFB for 2h. With respect to liver function, urea was found in the medium, and expression of mRNAs encoding arginosuccinate synthetase and arginase increased when the three cell types were cocultured in the RFB. However, albumin synthesis decreased. CONCLUSION: Co-culture in the RFB system can dramatically change the structure and function of all cell types, including the functional characteristics of hepatocytes. Our system proves effective for reconstruction of a liver organoid using a bio-artificial liver. PMID:16609994

Saito, Masaya; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Masaki, Takahiro; Maehashi, Haruka; Shimizu, Keiko; Hataba, Yoshiaki; Iwahori, Tohru; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Braet, Filip

2006-01-01

331

Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor system is used to grow and enrich the microorganisms mediating AOM coupled to SR. Four reactors were inoculated with sediment sampled in the Eckernförde Bay (Baltic Sea) and operated at a methane and sulfate loading rate of 4.8 L L(-1) day(-1) (196 mmol L(-1) day(-1)) and 3.0 mmol L(-1) day(-1). Two bioreactors were controlled at 15 degrees C and two at 30 degrees C, one reactor at 30 degrees C contained also anaerobic granular sludge. At 15 degrees C, the volumetric AOM and SR rates doubled approximately every 3.8 months. After 884 days, an enrichment culture was obtained with an AOM and SR rate of 1.0 mmol g(volatile suspended solids) (-1) day(-1) (286 micromol g(dry weight) (-1) day(-1)). No increase in AOM and SR was observed in the two bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C. The microbial community of one of the 15 degrees C reactors was analyzed. ANME-2a became the dominant archaea. This study showed that sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor is possible in well-mixed bioreactors and that the submerged-membrane bioreactor system is an excellent system to enrich slow-growing microorganisms, like methanotrophic archaea. PMID:19544305

Meulepas, Roel J W; Jagersma, Christian G; Gieteling, Jarno; Buisman, Cees J N; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L

2009-10-15

332

Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas  

E-print Network

rrodriguez@aldine.k12.tx.us Leo Gomez, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Associate Dean College of Education University of Pan American Edinburgh, Texas Two-way Immersion 2 Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas In the 2000... rrodriguez@aldine.k12.tx.us Leo Gomez, Ph.D. Associate Professor and Associate Dean College of Education University of Pan American Edinburgh, Texas Two-way Immersion 2 Two-way Immersion Bilingual Programs in Texas In the 2000...

Galloway, Martha; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly J.; Rodriguez, Linda; Gomez, Leo

2010-10-22

333

Virtual Worlds: A Performative Perspective on Globally Distributed, Immersive Work  

E-print Network

Virtual worlds are immersive, simulated, persistent, and dynamic environments that include rich graphical three dimensional spaces, high fidelity audio, motion, viewpoint, and interactivity. Initially dismissed as environments ...

Schultze, Ulrike

334

Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated "Pyrene Group 2" were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

Singleton, David R; Richardson, Stephen D; Aitken, Michael D

2011-11-01

335

Hepatocyte function within a stacked double sandwich culture plate cylindrical bioreactor for bioartificial liver system.  

PubMed

Bioartificial liver (BAL) system is promising as an alternative treatment for liver failure. We have developed a bioreactor with stacked sandwich culture plates for the application of BAL. This bioreactor design addresses some of the persistent problems in flat-bed bioreactors through increasing cell packing capacity, eliminating dead flow, regulating shear stress, and facilitating the scalability of the bioreactor unit. The bioreactor contained a stack of twelve double-sandwich-culture plates, allowing 100 million hepatocytes to be housed in a single cylindrical bioreactor unit (7 cm of height and 5.5 cm of inner diameter). The serial flow perfusion through the bioreactor increased cell-fluid contact area for effective mass exchange. With the optimal perfusion flow rate, shear stress was minimized to achieve high and uniform cell viabilities across different plates in the bioreactor. Our results demonstrated that hepatocytes cultured in the bioreactor could re-establish cell polarity and maintain liver-specific functions (e.g. albumin and urea synthesis, phase I&II metabolism functions) for seven days. The single bioreactor unit can be readily scaled up to house adequate number of functional hepatocytes for BAL development. PMID:22889484

Xia, Lei; Arooz, Talha; Zhang, Shufang; Tuo, Xiaoye; Xiao, Guangfa; Susanto, Thomas Adi Kurnia; Sundararajan, Janani; Cheng, Tianming; Kang, Yuzhan; Poh, Hee Joo; Leo, Hwa Liang; Yu, Hanry

2012-11-01

336

Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil  

PubMed Central

Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

2011-01-01

337

Liquid refractometer based on immersion diffractometry.  

PubMed

This study presents a laser diffractometric refractometer for measuring the refractive index of liquids. The refractive index is determined by rotating a reflection grating that is immersed in the fluid under test, and measuring the first-order Littrow diffraction angle. The Littrow angle is easily detected form the interferogram formed by the diffracted beam from the grating and the reflected beam from the liquid surface. No special cell for liquids is required. The alignment and measuring processes are simpler than those of other refractometers. The results of a feasibility experiment reveal that the accuracy of the proposed approach is about 0.003 for a refractive index of around 1.3. PMID:19547294

Lu, Sheng-Hua; Pan, Shang-Peng; Liu, Tzong-Shi; Kao, Ching-Fen

2007-07-23

338

Motion parallax in immersive cylindrical display systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion parallax is a crucial visual cue produced by translations of the observer for the perception of depth and selfmotion. Therefore, tracking the observer viewpoint has become inevitable in immersive virtual (VR) reality systems (cylindrical screens, CAVE, head mounted displays) used e.g. in automotive industry (style reviews, architecture design, ergonomics studies) or in scientific studies of visual perception. The perception of a stable and rigid world requires that this visual cue be coherent with other extra-retinal (e.g. vestibular, kinesthetic) cues signaling ego-motion. Although world stability is never questioned in real world, rendering head coupled viewpoint in VR can lead to the perception of an illusory perception of unstable environments, unless a non-unity scale factor is applied on recorded head movements. Besides, cylindrical screens are usually used with static observers due to image distortions when rendering image for viewpoints different from a sweet spot. We developed a technique to compensate in real-time these non-linear visual distortions, in an industrial VR setup, based on a cylindrical screen projection system. Additionally, to evaluate the amount of discrepancies tolerated without perceptual distortions between visual and extraretinal cues, a "motion parallax gain" between the velocity of the observer's head and that of the virtual camera was introduced in this system. The influence of this artificial gain was measured on the gait stability of free-standing participants. Results indicate that, below unity, gains significantly alter postural control. Conversely, the influence of higher gains remains limited, suggesting a certain tolerance of observers to these conditions. Parallax gain amplification is therefore proposed as a possible solution to provide a wider exploration of space to users of immersive virtual reality systems.

Filliard, N.; Reymond, G.; Kemeny, A.; Berthoz, A.

2012-03-01

339

Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N(2)O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO(2), CH(4) and N(2)O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N(2)O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N(2)O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N(2)O releases: 8.1 +/- 0.16 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 384), 4.2 +/- 0.14 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 132) and 1.9 +/- 0.10 mg m(-2) d(-1) (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N(2)O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N(2)O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection. PMID:19297142

Tallec, G; Bureau, C; Peu, P; Benoist, J C; Lemunier, M; Budka, A; Presse, D; Bouchez, T

2009-07-01

340

Clinical scale rapid expansion of lymphocytes for adoptive cell transfer therapy in the WAVE® bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Background To simplify clinical scale lymphocyte expansions, we investigated the use of the WAVE®, a closed system bioreactor that utilizes active perfusion to generate high cell numbers in minimal volumes. Methods We have developed an optimized rapid expansion protocol for the WAVE bioreactor that produces clinically relevant numbers of cells for our adoptive cell transfer clinical protocols. Results TIL and genetically modified PBL were rapidly expanded to clinically relevant scales in both static bags and the WAVE bioreactor. Both bioreactors produced comparable numbers of cells; however the cultures generated in the WAVE bioreactor had a higher percentage of CD4+ cells and had a less activated phenotype. Conclusions The WAVE bioreactor simplifies the process of rapidly expanding tumor reactive lymphocytes under GMP conditions, and provides an alternate approach to cell generation for ACT protocols. PMID:22475724

2012-01-01

341

Tennis Space: An Interactive and Immersive Environment for Tennis Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the design and implementation of an interactive and immersive environment (IIE) for tennis simulation. The presented design layout, named Tennis Space, provides the necessary immersive experience without overly restricting the player. To address the instability problem of real-time tracking of fast moving objects, a hybrid tracking solution integrating optical tracking and ultrasound-inertial tracking technologies is developed. An

Shuhong Xu; Peng Song; Ching-Ling Chin; Gim Guan Chua; Zhiyong Huang; Susanto Rahardja

2009-01-01

342

Investigating Real World Dissociation in Computer Game Immersion  

E-print Network

indicated in the thesis. Although some of this research has been published with my supervisors Anna L. Cox of play and can provide a sense of escapism due to their immersive characteristics, motivating players.g. education, and limiting immersion in situations where RWD is dangerous, e.g. game addiction. This thesis

Cairns, Paul

343

IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

2010-11-01

344

Measuring Player Immersion in the Computer Game Narrative  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to measure player immersion in the computer game narrative, this study explores and analyzes factors of the computer game narrative that influence players who are immersed in the game story world. Originally a questionnaire consisting of six dimensions—Curiosity, Concentration, Challenge, Control, Comprehension, and Empathy—was proposed. To evaluate the questionnaire, two surveys were conducted on the Internet, and data

Hua Qin; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy

2009-01-01

345

Access grid: Immersive group-to-group collaborative visualization  

SciTech Connect

Immersive projection displays have played an important role in enabling large-format virtual reality systems such as the CAVE and CAVE like devices and the various immersive desks and desktop-like displays. However, these devices have played a minor role so far in advancing the sense of immersion for conferencing systems. The Access Grid project led by Argonne is exploring the use of large-scale projection based systems as the basis for building room oriented collaboration and semi-immersive visualization systems. The authors believe these multi-projector systems will become common infrastructure in the future, largely based on their value for enabling group-to-group collaboration in an environment that can also support large-format projector based visualization. Creating a strong sense of immersion is an important goal for future collaboration technologies. Immersion in conferencing applications implies that the users can rely on natural sight and audio cues to facilitate interactions with participants at remote sites. The Access Grid is a low cost environment aimed primarily at supporting conferencing applications, but it also enables semi-immersive visualization and in particular, remote visualization. In this paper, they describe the current state of the Access Grid project and how it relates and compares to other environments. They also discuss augmentations to the Access Grid that will enable it to support more immersive visualizations. These enhancements include stereo, higher performance rendering support, tracking and non-uniform projection surface.

Childers, L.; Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Papka, M. E.; Stevens, R.; Udeshi, T.

2000-07-12

346

The Immersion Experience in Multicultural Counselor Training: Confronting Covert Racism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on and discusses the use of the immersion experience in a multicultural counseling course as a means of confronting unacknowledged racism on the part of White students. An abbreviated version of weekly journal entries from an immersion experience is presented, and the racial identity challenges faced are discussed.

DeRicco, Judith Nihill; Sciarra, Daniel T.

2005-01-01

347

Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

Makropoulos, Josee

2010-01-01

348

Linguistic and Metalinguistic Outcomes of Intense Immersion Education: How Bilingual?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after 5 years of immersion education in French.…

Hermanto, Nicola; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

2012-01-01

349

Immersion specific defect mechanisms: findings and recommendations for their control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defectivity has been one of the largest unknowns in immersion lithography. It is critical to understand if there are any immersion specific defect modes, and if so, what their underlying mechanisms are. Through this understanding, any identified defect modes can be reduced or eliminated to help advance immersion lithography to high yield manufacturing. Since February 2005, an ASML XT:1250Di immersion scanner has been operational at IMEC. A joint program was established to understand immersion defectivity by bringing together expertise from IMEC, ASML, resist vendors, IC manufactures, TEL, and KLA-Tencor. This paper will cover the results from these efforts. The new immersion specific defect modes that will be discussed are air bubbles in the immersion fluid, water marks, wafer edge film peeling, and particle transport. As part of the effort to understand the parameters that drive these defects, IMEC has also developed novel techniques for characterizing resist leaching and water uptake. The findings of our investigations into each immersion specific defect mechanism and their influencing factors will be given in this paper, and an attempt will be made to provide recommendations for a process space to operate in to limit these defects.

Kocsis, Michael; Van Den Heuvel, Dieter; Gronheid, Roel; Maenhoudt, Mireille; Vangoidsenhoven, Dizana; Wells, Greg; Stepanenko, Nickolay; Benndorf, Michael; Kim, Hyun Woo; Kishimura, Shinji; Ercken, Monique; Van Roey, Frieda; O'Brien, S.; Fyen, Wim; Foubert, Philippe; Moerman, Richard; Streefkerk, Bob

2006-03-01

350

"Immersed in Learning": Supporting Creative Practice in Virtual Worlds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Immersed in Learning" project began in 2007 to evaluate the use of 3D virtual worlds as a teaching and learning tool in undergraduate programmes in digital media at the University of Wolverhampton, UK. A question that the research set out to explore was what were the benefits of integrating 3D immersive learning with face-to-face learning for…

Doyle, Denise

2010-01-01

351

Machinima Interventions: Innovative Approaches to Immersive Virtual World Curriculum Integration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational value of Immersive Virtual Worlds (IVWs) seems to be in their social immersive qualities and as an accessible simulation technology. In contrast to these synchronous applications this paper discusses the use of educational machinima developed in IVW virtual film sets. It also introduces the concept of media intervention, proposing…

Middleton, Andrew John; Mather, Richard

2008-01-01

352

Critical Factors in Cultural Immersion: A Synthesis of Relevant Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This synthesis of the literature on cross-cultural immersion experiences gives emphasis to the need for effective pedagogy for enhancing multicultural counseling competency, with cultural immersion being a potentially valuable training tool. The authors examine the empirical literature towards identifying both helpful and hindering structural and…

Barden, Sejal M.; Cashwell, Craig S.

2013-01-01

353

How Deep Is Your Commitment? Crossing Borders via Cultural Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural immersion experiences have been used in multicultural counselor training courses to address racism. Cultural immersion experiences include activities designed to provide concentrated, direct, substantial, and meaningful interactions with multiple elements of a target culture for the purpose of promoting crosscultural competency. In this…

Streets, Barbara Faye

2011-01-01

354

The Effect of Language Immersion on Second Language Intonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of language immersion in an English-speaking environment on the production of intonational features in L2 English sentences. It was hypothesized that the Korean group who had been immersed in the English language as children would have intonation patterns more similar to native English speakers than a nonimmersed…

Kang, Seokhan

2013-01-01

355

Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy.  

PubMed

Background and purpose - For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods - 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10-16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results - The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9-4.5) cm to 0.8 (-1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven's zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation - Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

2014-12-01

356

Moving temporary wall in microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

This paper describes the formation of a temporary wall between two fluid streams in a microfluidic channel. Diffusion of ions from one fluid stream into a costreaming thermally responsive polymer solution is used to lower the local gelation temperature of the polymer, leading to formation of a gel wall in the center of the flow channel. The mechanisms driving either the generation or removal of the wall on its both sides are described and discussed. This wall allows well-controlled transport of particles from one stream into the other. PMID:19256941

Bazargan, Vahid; Stoeber, Boris

2008-12-01

357

Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal  

DOEpatents

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

1989-01-01

358

Disposable bioreactors: the current state-of-the-art and recommended applications in biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposable bioreactors have increasingly been incorporated into preclinical, clinical, and production-scale biotechnological\\u000a facilities over the last few years. Driven by market needs, and, in particular, by the developers and manufacturers of drugs,\\u000a vaccines, and further biologicals, there has been a trend toward the use of disposable seed bioreactors as well as production\\u000a bioreactors. Numerous studies documenting their advantages in use

Regine Eibl; Stephan Kaiser; Renate Lombriser; Dieter Eibl

2010-01-01

359

Perchlorate remediation using packed-bed bioreactors and electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two pilot-scale fixed bed bioreactors were operated in continuous mode in order to treat groundwater contaminated by perchlorate. The bioreactors were constructed and operated side-by-side at the Texas Street Well Facility in Redlands, California. Each reactor was packed with either sand or plastic media. A perchlorate-reducing bacterium, Dechlorosoma sp. KJ, was used to inoculate the bioreactors. Perchlorate was successfully removed

Booki Min

2005-01-01

360

Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

361

Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

362

High-throughput miniaturized bioreactors for cell culture process development: reproducibility, scalability, and control.  

PubMed

Decreasing the timeframe for cell culture process development has been a key goal toward accelerating biopharmaceutical development. Advanced Microscale Bioreactors (ambr™) is an automated micro-bioreactor system with miniature single-use bioreactors with a 10-15 mL working volume controlled by an automated workstation. This system was compared to conventional bioreactor systems in terms of its performance for the production of a monoclonal antibody in a recombinant Chinese Hamster Ovary cell line. The miniaturized bioreactor system was found to produce cell culture profiles that matched across scales to 3 L, 15 L, and 200 L stirred tank bioreactors. The processes used in this article involve complex feed formulations, perturbations, and strict process control within the design space, which are in-line with processes used for commercial scale manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals. Changes to important process parameters in ambr™ resulted in predictable cell growth, viability and titer changes, which were in good agreement to data from the conventional larger scale bioreactors. ambr™ was found to successfully reproduce variations in temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH conditions similar to the larger bioreactor systems. Additionally, the miniature bioreactors were found to react well to perturbations in pH and DO through adjustments to the Proportional and Integral control loop. The data presented here demonstrates the utility of the ambr™ system as a high throughput system for cell culture process development. PMID:24449637

Rameez, Shahid; Mostafa, Sigma S; Miller, Christopher; Shukla, Abhinav A

2014-01-01

363

Optimization of biological sulfide removal in a CSTR bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, biological sulfide removal from natural gas in a continuous bioreactor is investigated for estimation of the optimal operational parameters. According to the carried out reactions, sulfide can be converted to elemental sulfur, sulfate, thiosulfate, and polysulfide, of which elemental sulfur is the desired product. A mathematical model is developed and was used for investigation of the effect of various parameters on elemental sulfur selectivity. The results of the simulation show that elemental sulfur selectivity is a function of dissolved oxygen, sulfide load, pH, and concentration of bacteria. Optimal parameter values are calculated for maximum elemental sulfur selectivity by using genetic algorithm as an adaptive heuristic search. In the optimal conditions, 87.76% of sulfide loaded to the bioreactor is converted to elemental sulfur. PMID:22252421

Roosta, Aliakbar; Jahanmiri, Abdolhossein; Mowla, Dariush; Niazi, Ali; Sotoodeh, Hamidreza

2012-08-01

364

Effect of Immersion Time on the Mechanical Properties of S135 Drill Pipe Immersed in H2S Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During drilling process, if oil and gas overflow containing H2S enters drilling fluids, the performance of drill pipes will decline significantly within a short time. In this paper, S135 drill pipe specimen was immersed in the saturated solution of H2S at room temperature for 6, 12, 18, and 24 h, respectively. The tensile properties and impact properties of S135 drill pipe were determined before and after immersion for comparison. In addition, the S135 specimens were immersed for 3 days at 80 °C to determine the changes in fatigue performance. The test results indicated that the yield strength of S135 material fluctuated with immersion time increasing and the tensile strength slightly varied with immersion time. But the plasticity index of S135 decreased significantly with the increase in immersion time. The impact energy of S135 steel also fluctuated with the increase in immersion time. After 3-day immersion at 80 °C, the fatigue properties of S135 steel decreased, and fatigue life showed the one order of magnitude difference under the same stress conditions. Moreover, fatigue strength was also decreased by about 10%. The study can guide security management of S135 drill pipe under the working conditions with oil and gas overflow containing H2S, reduce drilling tool failures, and provide technical support for drilling safety.

Dezhi, Zeng; Gang, Tian; Junying, Hu; Zhi, Zhang; Taihe, Shi; Wanying, Liu; Qiang, Lu; Shaobo, Feng

2014-08-01

365

Predictors of temporary epicardial pacing wires use after valve surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Although temporary cardiac pacing is infrequently needed, temporary epicardial pacing wires are routinely inserted after valve surgery. As they are associated with infrequent, but life threatening complications, and the decreased need for postoperative pacing in a group of low risk patients; this study aims to identify the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing after valve surgery. Methods A retrospective analysis of data collected prospectively on 400 consecutive valve surgery patients between May 2002 and December 2012 was performed. Patients were grouped according to avoidance or insertion of temporary pacing wires, and were further subdivided according to temporary cardiac pacing need. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of temporary cardiac pacing. Results 170 (42.5%) patients did not have insertion of temporary pacing wires and none of them needed temporary pacing. 230 (57.5%) patients had insertion of temporary pacing wires and among these, only 55 (23.9%) required temporary pacing who were compared with the remaining 175 (76.1%) patients in the main analysis. The determinants of temporary cardiac pacing (adjusted odds ratios; 95% confidence interval) were as follows: increased age (1.1; 1.1, 1.3, p?=?0.002), New York Heart Association class III- IV (5.6; 1.6, 20.2, p?=?0.008) , pulmonary artery pressure???50 mmHg (22.0; 3.4, 142.7, p?=?0.01), digoxin use (8.0; 1.3, 48.8, p?=?0.024), multiple valve surgery (13.5; 1.5, 124.0, p?=?0.021), aorta cross clamp time???60 minutes (7.8; 1.6, 37.2, p?=?0.010), and valve annulus calcification (7.9; 2.0, 31.7, p?=?0.003). Conclusion Although limited by sample size, the present results suggest that routine use of temporary epicardial pacing wires after valve surgery is only necessary for high risk patients. Preoperative identification and aggressive management of predictors of temporary cardiac pacing and the possible modulation of intraoperative techniques can decrease the need of temporary cardiac pacing. Prospective randomized controlled studies on a larger number of patients are necessary to draw solid conclusions regarding the selective use of temporary epicardial pacing wires in valve surgery. PMID:24521215

2014-01-01

366

Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

2003-01-01

367

Transport Advances in Disposable Bioreactors for Liver Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F.; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

368

Microbial community dynamics in replicate membrane bioreactors – Natural reproducible fluctuations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We operated 4 replicate membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in parallel to test if an acclimated seed inoculum would evolve similarly following even distribution into replicates. A cloning and sequencing library of 16S rRNA genes was obtained from the seed inoculum complemented with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; n=18 per reactor) analysis over the study period (n=113d) that targeted the 16S

Michael W. Falk; Kyung-Guen Song; Michael G. Matiasek; Stefan Wuertz

2009-01-01

369

Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor

Roel J. W. Meulepas; Christian G. Jagersma; Jarno Gieteling; Cees J. N. Buisman; Alfons J. M. Stams; Piet N. L. Lens

2009-01-01

370

Fuel gases from organic wastes using membrane bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way to produce fuel gases is using bioreactors producing CH4\\/CO2, H2\\/CO2 and CH4\\/H2\\/CO2 gas mixtures. This method has many advantages; for example, low energy consumption, high ecological efficiency, utilization of organic wastes, accessibility and simplicity of hardware implementation. The results of organic waste bioconversion into methane and hydrogen by using an active membrane system integrated with aerobic and anaerobic

L. G. Gassanova; Alexander I. Netrusov; V. V. Teplyakov; M. Modigell

2006-01-01

371

Structure of cake layer in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory-scale submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) was used for thermomechanical pulping whitewater treatment. Sludge cake formation on membrane surfaces was identified as the dominant mechanism of membrane fouling. The spatial distribution of physical, chemical and microbiological structure of cake layers was characterized by various analytical techniques, including micro-tome slicing technique, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), conventional optical microscopy (COM),

W. J. Gao; H. J. Lin; K. T. Leung; H. Schraft; B. Q. Liao

2011-01-01

372

Aerobic nitrate respiration in a nitrite-oxidising bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of heterotrophic bacteria in a nitrite-oxidising bioreactor to respire with nitrate as an electron acceptor was examined. Approximately 70% of 1000 heterotrophic isolates were able to express a nitrate reductase. A detailed survey of 15 isolates showed that five expressed the azide-insensitive nitrate reductase encoded by the napA gene. A two-round PCR amplification of the napA gene using

Christopher McDevitt; Paul Burrell; Linda L. Blackall; Alastair G. McEwan

2000-01-01

373

Oxygen transfer in membrane bioreactors treating synthetic greywater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass transfer coefficients (kLa) were studied in two pilot scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) with different setup configurations treating 200L\\/h of synthetic greywater with mixed liquor suspended solids' (MLSS) concentrations ranging from 4.7 to 19.5g\\/L. Besides the MLSS concentration, mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and anionic surfactants of the sludge

Jochen Henkel; Mladen Lemac; Martin Wagner; Peter Cornel

2009-01-01

374

Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre – Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic\\u000a embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have\\u000a been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative\\u000a propagation of

Jean-Paul Ducos; Bénédicte Terrier; Didier Courtois

2010-01-01

375

Derivation of iPSCs in stirred suspension bioreactors.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are typically derived in adherent culture. Here we report fast and efficient derivation of mouse iPSCs in stirred suspension bioreactors, with and without the use of c-Myc. Suspension-reprogrammed cells expressed pluripotency markers, showed multilineage differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and contributed to the germline in chimeric mice. Suspension reprogramming has the potential to accelerate and standardize iPSC research. PMID:22484846

Shafa, Mehdi; Day, Brad; Yamashita, Akihiro; Meng, Guoliang; Liu, Shiying; Krawetz, Roman; Rancourt, Derrick E

2012-05-01

376

Construction and characterization of a novel vocal fold bioreactor.  

PubMed

In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:25145349

Zerdoum, Aidan B; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

2014-01-01

377

Immersive training and mentoring for laparoscopic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe in this paper a training system for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) that creates an immersive training simulation by recording the pathways of the instruments from an expert surgeon while performing an actual training task. Instrument spatial pathway data is stored and later accessed at the training station in order to visualize the ergonomic experience of the expert surgeon and trainees. Our system is based on tracking the spatial position and orientation of the instruments on the console for both the expert surgeon and the trainee. The technology is the result of recent developments in miniaturized position sensors that can be integrated seamlessly into the MIS instruments without compromising functionality. In order to continuously monitor the positions of laparoscopic tool tips, DC magnetic tracking sensors are used. A hardware-software interface transforms the coordinate data points into instrument pathways, while an intuitive graphic user interface displays the instruments spatial position and orientation for the mentor/trainee, and endoscopic video information. These data are recorded and saved in a database for subsequent immersive training and training performance analysis. We use two 6 DOF DC magnetic trackers with a sensor diameter of just 1.3 mm - small enough for insertion into 4 French catheters, embedded in the shaft of a endoscopic grasper and a needle driver. One sensor is located at the distal end of the shaft while the second sensor is located at the proximal end of the shaft. The placement of these sensors does not impede the functionally of the instrument. Since the sensors are located inside the shaft there are no sealing issues between the valve of the trocar and the instrument. We devised a peg transfer training task in accordance to validated training procedures, and tested our system on its ability to differentiate between the expert surgeon and the novices, based on a set of performance metrics. These performance metrics: motion smoothness, total path length, and time to completion, are derived from the kinematics of the instrument. An affine combination of the above mentioned metrics is provided to give a general score for the training performance. Clear differentiation between the expert surgeons and the novice trainees is visible in the test results. Strictly kinematics based performance metrics can be used to evaluate the training progress of MIS trainees in the context of UCLA - LTS.

Nistor, Vasile; Allen, Brian; Dutson, E.; Faloutsos, P.; Carman, G. P.

2007-04-01

378

Hydrodynamics of soil immobilization in the immobilized soil bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The hydrodynamic characteristics of a new type of reactor, the immobilized soil bioreactor, were studied. This apparatus is a practical new engineering concept (soil immobilization) based on entrapment of soil particles, which contain pollutant-degrading microorganisms, in the pores of a geotextile to activate the indigenous microorganisms. The soil immobilization is the third on the size scale of immobilization processes, coming after (1) that of molecules in heterogeneous catalysis (in Angstrom) and (2) that of microbial cells and their fragments in immobilized cells and enzymes biocatalysis (in micron). The size of immobilized soil particles is in the range of a millimeter. A mathematical model of liquid flow within the reactor is proposed, which qualitatively explains the distribution of the immobilized soil in space. The dynamics of soil immobilization within the bioreactor has been studied as a function of the particle size, initial slurry concentration and air flow rate. A mathematical model of the process of soil immobilization was proposed based on deep filter mechanics. The process can be described by a second-order kinetic model. This study will be of great importance for the design of immobilized soil bioreactors for degradation of recalcitrant soil pollutants.

Karamanev, D.G.; Chavarie, C.; Samson, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-05-01

379

Sulfur formation and recovery in a thiosulfate-oxidizing bioreactor.  

PubMed

This work describes the design and performance of a thiosulfate-oxidizing bioreactor that allowed high elemental sulfur production and recovery efficiency. The reactor system, referred to as a Supernatant-Recycling Settler Bioreactor (SRSB), consisted of a cylindrical upflow reactor and a separate aeration vessel. The reactor was equipped with an internal settler and packing material (structured corrugated PVC sheets) to facilitate both cell retention and the settling of the formed elemental sulfur. The supernatant from the reactor was continuously recirculated through the aerator. An inlet thiosulfate concentration of 100 mmol l(-1) was used. The reactor system was fed with 89 mmol l(-1) d(-1) thiosulfate reaching 98 to 100% thiosulfate conversion with an elemental sulfur yield of 77%. Ninety-three percent of the produced sulfur was harvested from the bottom of the reactor as sulfur sludge. The dry sulfur sludge contained 87% elemental sulfur. The inclusion of an internal settler and packing material in the reactor system resulted in an effective retention of sulfur and biomass inside the bioreactor, preventing the oxidation of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfate in the aerator and, therefore, improving the efficiency of elemental sulfur formation and recovery. PMID:18724639

González-Sánchez, A; Meulepas, R; Revah, S

2008-08-01

380

Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2014-01-01

381

Hollow fibre membrane bioreactors for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Hollow fibre membrane bioreactors (HFB) provide a novel approach towards tissue engineering applications in the field of regenerative medicine. For adherent cell types, HFBs offer an in vivo-like microenvironment as each fibre replicates a blood capillary and the mass transfer rate across the wall is independent from the shear stresses experienced by the cell. HFB also possesses the highest surface area to volume ratio of all bioreactor configurations. In theory, these factors enable a high quantity of the desired cellular product with less population variation, and favourable operating costs. Experimental analyses of different cell types and bioreactor designs show encouraging steps towards producing a clinically relevant device. This review discusses the basic HFB design for cell expansion and in vitro models; compares data produced on commercially available systems and addresses the operational differences between theory and practice. HFBs are showing some potential for mammalian cell culture but further work is needed to fully understand the complexities of cell culture in HFBs and how best to achieve the high theoretical cell yields. PMID:25064452

Wung, Nelly; Acott, Samuel M; Tosh, David; Ellis, Marianne J

2014-12-01

382

Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO/sub 3//sup -//K/sub s/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m/sup 3/-min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m/sup 3/ for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued.

Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

1981-03-01

383

In vivo engineering of organs: The bone bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Treatment of large defects requires the harvest of fresh living bone from the iliac crest. Harvest of this limited supply of bone is accompanied by extreme pain and morbidity. This has prompted the exploration of other alternatives to generate new bone using traditional principles of tissue engineering, wherein harvested cells are combined with porous scaffolds and stimulated with exogenous mitogens and morphogens in vitro and/or in vivo. We now show that large volumes of bone can be engineered in a predictable manner, without the need for cell transplantation and growth factor administration. The crux of the approach lies in the deliberate creation and manipulation of an artificial space (bioreactor) between the tibia and the periosteum, a mesenchymal layer rich in pluripotent cells, in such a way that the body's healing mechanism is leveraged in the engineering of neotissue. Using the “in vivo bioreactor” in New Zealand White rabbits, we have engineered bone that is biomechanically identical to native bone. The neobone formation followed predominantly an intramembraneous path, with woven bone matrix subsequently maturing into fully mineralized compact bone exhibiting all of the histological markers and mechanical properties of native bone. We harvested the bone after 6 weeks and transplanted it into contralateral tibial defects, resulting in complete integration after 6 weeks with no apparent morbidity at the donor site. Furthermore, in a proof-of-principle study, we have shown that by inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting a more hypoxic environment within the “in vivo bioreactor space,” cartilage formation can be exclusively promoted. PMID:16055556

Stevens, Molly M.; Marini, Robert P.; Schaefer, Dirk; Aronson, Joshua; Langer, Robert; Shastri, V. Prasad

2005-01-01

384

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2011-10-01

385

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2010-10-01

386

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2012-10-01

387

46 CFR 131.875 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. 131.875 Section...VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment...Lifejackets, immersion suits, and ring buoys. (a) Each lifejacket, immersion suit, and ring life buoy must be marked...

2013-10-01

388

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and scope of temporary labor certifications. (a...period . A temporary labor certification is valid for the duration of the job opportunity for which...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...used for the certified job opportunities of...

2013-04-01

389

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

...and scope of temporary labor certifications. (a...period. A temporary labor certification is valid for the duration of the job opportunity for which...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...used for the certified job opportunities of...

2014-04-01

390

38 CFR 21.6001 - Temporary vocational training program for certain pension recipients.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Temporary vocational training program for certain pension...EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients... § 21.6001 Temporary vocational training program for certain...

2012-07-01

391

38 CFR 21.6001 - Temporary vocational training program for certain pension recipients.  

...2014-07-01 false Temporary vocational training program for certain pension...EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training for Certain New Pension Recipients... § 21.6001 Temporary vocational training program for certain...

2014-07-01

392

48 CFR 215.101-70. - Best value when acquiring tents or other temporary structures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...when acquiring tents or other temporary structures. 215.101-70. Section 215...when acquiring tents or other temporary structures. (a) In accordance with section...when acquiring tents or other temporary structures for use by the Armed Forces, the...

2013-10-01

393

78 FR 13544 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Acquisition of Tents and Other Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...tents and other temporary structures. DATES: Effective February...tents and other temporary structures, regardless of whether purchased...ensures clarity that the phrase ``structural components...Tents and Other Temporary Structures Question: Does the...

2013-02-28

394

77 FR 40884 - Office of the Chief Information Officer; Information Collection; Temporary Contractor Information...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet AGENCY: Identity, Credential, and...regarding temporary contractor information worksheet. GSA requires OMB approval for this...the Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet and the FBI Form FD-258...

2012-07-11

395

77 FR 63835 - Office of the Chief Information Officer; Submission for OMB Review; Temporary Contractor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet AGENCY: Identity, Credential, and...regarding temporary contractor information worksheet. A notice was published in the Federal...the Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet and the FBI Form FD-258...

2012-10-17

396

76 FR 34080 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...other forms of information technology. Temporary Marketing Permit Applications...collection of information. The estimated...of temporary marketing permit applications...for temporary marketing permits. Based on this information, we...

2011-06-10

397

Early Fluid and Protein Shifts in Men During Water Immersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High precision blood and plasma densitometry was used to measure transvascular fluid shifts during water immersion to the neck. Six men (28-49 years) undertook 30 min of standing immersion in water at 35.0 +/- 0.2 C; immersion was preceded by 30 min control standing in air at 28 +/- 1 C. Blood was sampled from an antecubital catheter for determination of Blood Density (BD), Plasma Density (PD), Haematocrit (Ht), total Plasma Protein Concentration (PPC), and Plasma Albumin Concentration (PAC). Compared to control, significant decreases (p less than 0.01) in all these measures were observed after 20 min immersion. At 30 min, plasma volume had increased by 11.0 +/- 2.8%; the average density of the fluid shifted from extravascular fluid into the vascular compartment was 1006.3 g/l; albumin moved with the fluid and its albumin concentration was about one-third of the plasma protein concentration during early immersion. These calculations are based on the assumption that the F-cell ratio remained unchanged. No changes in erythrocyte water content during immersion were found. Thus, immersion-induced haemodilution is probably accompanied by protein (mainly albumin) augmentation which accompanies the intra-vascular fluid shift.

Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Harrison, M. H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1987-01-01

398

Temporary Assistant Professor of Philosophy & Religion Truman State University  

E-print Network

Temporary Assistant Professor of Philosophy & Religion Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant Professor of Philosophy & Religion starting August 2014. This is a full-time, nine which courses they are prepared to offer and what their qualifications are for doing so, including

Gering, Jon C.

399

Temporary Assistant Professor of Philosophy & Religion Truman State University  

E-print Network

Temporary Assistant Professor of Philosophy & Religion Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant Professor of Philosophy & Religion starting August 2013. This is a fulltime, nine month clearly indicate which courses they are prepared to offer and what their qualifications are for doing so

Gering, Jon C.

400

26 CFR 20.2032-1T - Alternate valuation (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Alternate valuation (temporary). 20.2032-1T Section...Estate § 20.2032-1T Alternate valuation (temporary). (a) through (e...value of the property as of the alternate valuation date. For example, assume...

2010-04-01

401

Looking for Part-Time or Temporary Work  

E-print Network

Scheme To apply for jobs at open days and recruitment events at both Manchester and Cheshire campuses-time, temporary jobs and work placement opportunities. These employers are specifically looking to recruit MMU.thisisstaffordshire.co.uk/home For Crewe based students. 5. Recruitment Agencies As part of your strategy for finding a local temporary job

402

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2012-07-01

403

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2013-07-01

404

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2011-07-01

405

PERSONAL DAYS EMPLOYEES IN TEMPORARY GRANT FUNDED POSITIONS  

E-print Network

PERSONAL DAYS for EMPLOYEES IN TEMPORARY GRANT FUNDED POSITIONS Employees who are in temporary grant positions will earn one and one-half days of Grant Personal Leave per month for a total of eighteen (18) personal days per year. Eligible part-timers will earn Grant Personal days on a pro rata

Duchowski, Andrew T.

406

The "Contingent" Workforce: Temporary Phenomenon or Permanent Fixture?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although conventional wisdom indicates that temporary workers are becoming the norm and full-time workers are becoming an anachronism, statistics do not bear this position out. The truth includes the following facts: (1) companies are using more temporary workers, but these new employment arrangements provide new entry points into the labor market…

Workforce Economics, 1996

1996-01-01

407

How do fish exploit temporary waters throughout a flooding episode?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary waters are important habitats for many fish species. Nevertheless, determination of which species colonise these habitats, when this occurs and where fish distribute themselves within the temporary waters are rare. The fish assemblage on a temporarily flooded grassland and its adjacent permanent canal, together with environmental variables, were monitored throughout an entire flooding event from February to May 2006

J. C UCHEROUSSET; A. C ARPENTIER

408

Temporary Buildings: Where are They Going, Where Have They Been?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There's a whole lot of movement going on out there! This paper looks at the theme of movement in the human landscape as it is expressed by the phenomenon of temporary buildings. Temporary buildings, for whatever their use, come and go like the wind. But they contain a signature that nearly always conveys information about who made them and why.

Stephen Straight; Myles Mustoe

1996-01-01

409

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2011-04-01

410

Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre*  

E-print Network

1 Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre* & Boubaker Hlaimi Abstract: This study analyses gender differences in fixed term contracts in 19 European countries, using to be more feminized and that gender differences in temporary employment can arise from a female specific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

411

TEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University  

E-print Network

, of the following courses; social psychology, personality, developmental psychology, and abnormal psychologyTEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant Professor in Psychology (two positions). These are full-time, nine-month appointments with a possibility

Gering, Jon C.

412

A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic  

E-print Network

A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor

413

Surface flashover breakdown mechanisms on liquid immersed dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flashover formation and expansion mechanisms on the surfaces of different dielectrics immersed in transformer oil have been numerically analyzed. Streamers emanating from a needle electrode tend to transform to surface flashovers if the immersed dielectric permittivity is higher than the liquid permittivity and/or the dielectric interfacial surface cuts the path of the streamer. Perpendicular interface of the immersed dielectric impedes the breakdown by deflecting the streamer and slowing down the surface flashover. The parallel dielectric interface, however, assists the breakdown by regulating the surface flashover velocity to an approximately constant value (˜10 km/s).

Jadidian, Jouya; Zahn, Markus; Lavesson, Nils; Widlund, Ola; Borg, Karl

2012-04-01

414

Containerized Wetland Bioreactor Evaluated for Perchlorate and Nitrate Degradation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) designed and constructed an innovative containerized wetlands (bioreactor) system that began operation in November 2000 to biologically degrade perchlorate and nitrate under relatively low-flow conditions at a remote location at Site 300 known as Building 854. Since initial start-up, the system has processed over 3,463,000 liters of ground water and treated over 38 grams of perchlorate and 148 kilograms of nitrate. Site 300 is operated by the University of California as a high-explosives and materials testing facility supporting nuclear weapons research. The 11-square mile site located in northern California was added to the NPL in 1990 primarily due to the presence of elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water. At the urging of the regulatory agencies, perchlorate was looked for and detected in the ground water in 1999. VOCs, nitrate and perchlorate were released into the soil and ground water in the Building 854 area as the result of accidental leaks during stability testing of weapons or from waste discharge practices that are no longer permitted at Site 300. Design of the wetland bioreactors was based on earlier studies showing that indigenous chlorate-respiring bacteria could effectively degrade perchlorate into nontoxic concentrations of chlorate, chlorite, oxygen, and chloride. Studies also showed that the addition of organic carbon would enhance microbial denitrification. Early onsite testing showed acetic acid to be a more effective carbon source than dried leaf matter, dried algae, or milk replacement starter; a nutrient and carbon source used in a Department of Defense phytoremediation demonstration. No inocula were added to the system. Groundwater was allowed to circulate through the bioreactor for three weeks to acclimate the wetland plants and to build a biofilm from indigenous flora. Using solar energy, ground water is pumped into granular activated carbon canisters to remove VOCs (Figure x). Following solar treatment, ground water containing approximately 46 mg/L of nitrate and 13 {micro}g/L of perchlorate is gravity-fed continuously into two parallel series of two-1,900 liter tank bioreactors. Each bioreactor contains coarse, aquarium-grade gravel and locally-obtained plant species such as cattails (Typha spp.), sedges (Cyperus spp.), and indigenous denitrifying microorganisms. No inocula were added to the system. Groundwater was allowed to circulate through the bioreactor for three weeks to acclimate the wetland plants and to build a biofilm from indigenous flora. Sodium acetate is added to the first bioreactor in each of the two series to promote growth and metabolic activity of rhizome microorganisms. The split flow from each series is combined, and flows through two back-up ion exchange columns to assure complete perchlorate removal. Effluent from the ground water treatment system is monitored and discharged an infiltration trench in accordance with the Substantive Requirements for Waste Discharge issued by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board.

Dibley, V R; Krauter, P W

2004-12-02

415

Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR  

SciTech Connect

The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications.

Hondorp, H.L.

1981-02-01

416

Temporary anion states of three herbicide families.  

PubMed

Electron scattering studies are used to locate the energies of temporary negative ion states of three chloro-substituted molecular families of herbicidal importance: salicylic and phenoxyacetic acids and acetamides. The correlation between these energies and the computed virtual orbital energies of the compounds is examined and used to put the latter on an absolute energy scale. Such scaling of orbital energies permits the anion states of other members of these families, for which experimental data may not be available, to be estimated from the calculated orbital energies. Studies of electron reduction rates often rely on calculated LUMO energies as molecular descriptors. The use of measured anion energies as well as appropriately scaled orbital energies should serve to improve such studies in these and in related herbicides. PMID:24261843

Scheer, A M; Aflatooni, K; Gallup, G A; Burrow, P D

2014-09-01

417

Ultrafiltration of activated sludge with ceramic membranes in a cross-flow membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-flow membrane bioreactor (MBR) for raw municipal wastewater treatment, consisting of a suspended growth bioreactor and a ceramic membrane ultrafiltration unit, was run over a period of more than 300 days in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Sludge Retention Times (SRT) of 20, 10 and 5 days, respectively, and Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT) of 15 and 7.5 hours were

V. Urbain; Y. Qian; J. Manem; Conselheiro Borja

418

Effect of sludge retention time on microbial behaviour in a submerged membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on performance and microbial behaviour in a submerged membrane bioreactor for the treatment of domestic wastewater, four runs of a laboratory scale reactor with hydraulic retention time of 5 h and SRTs of 5, 10, 20 and 40 days, respectively, were conducted. The membrane bioreactor process was capable of achieving over

Xia Huang; Ping Gui; Yi Qian

2001-01-01

419

Long-term pilot scale investigation of novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactors  

E-print Network

. � FO water flux was maintained constant for more than four months with the UFO-MBR. G R A P H I C A L membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and a novel hybrid ultrafiltration OMBR (UFO-MBR) were investigated for extended bioreactor (UFO-MBR). Results from long-term OMBR and UFO-MBR investigations revealed that the overall

420

Realistic model of a solid substrate fermentation packed-bed pilot bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

For any given large-scale solid substrate fermentation (SSF) bioreactor, to assess how well a control system will work in practice requires the most realistic model possible. This model needs to account fully for complicated dynamic reactor behaviour and, in addition, has to include a specific noise model that is capable of reproducing the disturbances observed in SSF bioreactor measurements. In

Mario Fernández-Fernández; J. Ricardo Pérez-Correa

2007-01-01

421

Effects of aeration on suction pressure in a submerged membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A membrane bioreactor (MBR) is one of the application of membrane technology to wastewater treatments. A submerged MBR is a type of MBR in which membrane modules are directly submerged into a bioreactor. Because the uplifting air flow is assigned the role of cake removal in a submerged MBR, aeration could affect the cake-removing efficiency and hence suction pressure. This

Tatsuki Ueda; Kenji Hata; Yasuto Kikuoka; Osamu Seino

1997-01-01

422

Evaluation of Landfill Gas Decay Constant for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated as Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important for the optimization of energy recovery and for estimating greenhouse gas emissions. To improve the predictability of gas production, landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rates were monitored for 4 yr from one conventional and two bioreactor landfill cells at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY. The

Thabet M. Tolaymat; Roger B. Green; Gary R. Hater; Morton A. Barlaz; Paul Black; Doug Bronson; Jon Powell; Darko Koracin; L.-W. Chen; David Dubois; Ramesh Vellore; John Watson; Naresh Kumar; Eladio Knipping; Neil Wheeler; Kenneth Craig; Stephen Reid; Douglas Lowenthal; Ta-Yuan Chang; Shen-Ju Lin; Ruei-Hao Shie; Shih-Wei Tsai; Hui-Tsung Hsu; Ching-Tsan Tsai; Hsien-Wen Kuo; Chow-Feng Chiang; Jim-Shoung Lai; Xiaosheng Qin; Guohe Huang; Lei Liu; Xiaohan Chen; Natalia Schmid; Lijuan Wang; Nigel Clark; Pablo Ruiz; Claudia Toro; Jorge Caceres; Gianni pez; Pedro Oyola; Petros Koutrakis

2010-01-01

423

In situ nitrogen removal from leachate by bioreactor landfill with limited aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in a bioreactor landfill with limited aeration was assessed. Three column reactors, simulating bioreactor landfill operations under anaerobic condition (as reference), intermittent forced aeration and enhanced natural aeration were hence established, where aerated columns passed through two phases, i.e., fresh landfill and well-decomposed landfill. The experimental results show that limited aeration decreased nitrogen

Li-Ming Shao; Pin-Jing He; Guo-Jian Li

2008-01-01

424

PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

425

Cultivation of Mammalian Cells Using a Single-use Pneumatic Bioreactor System.  

PubMed

Recent advances in mammalian, insect, and stem cell cultivation and scale-up have created tremendous opportunities for new therapeutics and personalized medicine innovations. However, translating these advances into therapeutic applications will require in vitro systems that allow for robust, flexible, and cost effective bioreactor systems. There are several bioreactor systems currently utilized in research and commercial settings; however, many of these systems are not optimal for establishing, expanding, and monitoring the growth of different cell types. The culture parameters most challenging to control in these systems include, minimizing hydrodynamic shear, preventing nutrient gradient formation, establishing uniform culture medium aeration, preventing microbial contamination, and monitoring and adjusting culture conditions in real-time. Using a pneumatic single-use bioreactor system, we demonstrate the assembly and operation of this novel bioreactor for mammalian cells grown on micro-carriers. This bioreactor system eliminates many of the challenges associated with currently available systems by minimizing hydrodynamic shear and nutrient gradient formation, and allowing for uniform culture medium aeration. Moreover, the bioreactor's software allows for remote real-time monitoring and adjusting of the bioreactor run parameters. This bioreactor system also has tremendous potential for scale-up of adherent and suspension mammalian cells for production of a variety therapeutic proteins, monoclonal antibodies, stem cells, biosimilars, and vaccines. PMID:25349946

Obom, Kristina M; Cummings, Patrick J; Ciafardoni, Janelle A; Hashimura, Yasunori; Giroux, Daniel

2014-01-01

426

Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compost bioreactor (“anaerobic cell”) components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in

D. Barrie Johnson; Kevin B. Hallberg

2005-01-01

427

Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors, Constructed Wetlands, and Outreach  

E-print Network

Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors chip tile bioreactors to reduce nitrate losses in the upper Embarras River watershed in east-central Illinois, a dominantly tile-drained, agricultural watershed. We have an 18 year record of riverine nitrate

David, Mark B.

428

Use of a rotary bioreactor for growth and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone graft generation in vitro is limited by slow nutrient-waste exchange through thick scaffolds and insufficient mechanical stimuli required for induction and differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells, often requiring the use of suitable bioreactors to circumvent these limitations. In this study, we test the suitability of a modified rotary miniPERM¿ bioreactor system in inducing proliferation and osteodifferentiation of human foetal mesenchymal

X. S. Teh; Y. C. Chng; W. S. Chong; T. T. Foo

2009-01-01

429

Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture  

E-print Network

Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture of hematopoietic stem cell HSC cultures. Exploring a wide range of experimental conditions at the microliter scale-scale bioreactors for stem cell production at the clinical level. The controlled stirring inside the wells

Meinhart, Carl

430

Comparison of the filtration characteristics between attached and suspended growth microorganisms in submerged membrane bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attached growth bioreactor was designed to minimize the effect of suspended microorganisms on membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor. Comparison of mixed liquor from attached and suspended growth systems was made to elucidate major factors giving rise to different filtration characteristics. Unexpectedly, the rate of membrane fouling of the attached growth system was about 7 times higher than that

Jungmin Lee; Won-Young Ahn; Chung-Hak Lee

2001-01-01

431

Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors  

EPA Science Inventory

Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

432

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil...

2012-10-01

433

46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil...

2013-10-01

434

Comparative study on collaborative interaction in non-immersive and immersive systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research studies the Virtual Reality simulation for collaborative interaction so that different people from different places can interact with one object concurrently. Our focus is the real-time handling of inputs from multiple users, where object's behavior is determined by the combination of the multiple inputs. Issues addressed in this research are: 1) The effects of using haptics on a collaborative interaction, 2) The possibilities of collaboration between users from different environments. We conducted user tests on our system in several cases: 1) Comparison between non-haptics and haptics collaborative interaction over LAN, 2) Comparison between non-haptics and haptics collaborative interaction over Internet, and 3) Analysis of collaborative interaction between non-immersive and immersive display environments. The case studies are the interaction of users in two cases: collaborative authoring of a 3D model by two users, and collaborative haptic interaction by multiple users. In Virtual Dollhouse, users can observe physics law while constructing a dollhouse using existing building blocks, under gravity effects. In Virtual Stretcher, multiple users can collaborate on moving a stretcher together while feeling each other's haptic motions.

Shahab, Qonita M.; Kwon, Yong-Moo; Ko, Heedong; Mayangsari, Maria N.; Yamasaki, Shoko; Nishino, Hiroaki

2007-09-01

435

Photonic bandgap examination in an immersed synthetic opal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We inspected photonic bandgap (stop-zone) in a synthetic opal (photonic crystal) immersed with different liquids. Dependences of the bandgap depth and spectral position on the immersed liquid refractive index were measured in the case of normal light incidence to the (111) face. An explanation of the observed spectral displacement of the bandgap is given on the basis of interaction between forward-propagating wave affected by Bragg diffraction and phase-shifted back-scattered wave.

Vasnetsov, Mikhail V.; Orlova, Tatiana N.; Bazhenov, Vladimir Yu.; Shevchuk, Aleksey S.; Kudryavtseva, Anna D.; Tcherniega, Nikolay V.

2014-09-01

436

Sub-?/10 spot size in semiconductor solid immersion lens microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The angular spectrum of radially polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beams was tailored by an annular aperture in a semiconductor solid immersion lens microscope. The radii of two concentric rings in the amplitude aperture were optimized by a multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm. A GaAs solid immersion lens with NA=3.4 was used in the numerical calculation and a spot size of 98 nm (

Banaee, Mohamadreza G.; Selim Ünlü, M.; Goldberg, Bennett B.

2014-03-01

437

Facial immersion bradycardia in teenagers and adults accustomed to swimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared heart rate and breath-hold duration during facial immersion in teenagers, 11–14 years (N=6), 15–18 years (N=6) and adults, 33–48 years (N=11). The subjects were members of a competitive swimming club, and were familiar with facial immersion. In contrast to the results of a previous study (J. Appl. Physiol. 63 (1987) 665) in which na??ve subjects were used, the

N. H West; P. F McCulloch; P. M Browne

2001-01-01

438

Changes in Landing Mechanics after Cold-Water Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cold-water immersion on kinematics and kinetics during a drop-landing task. On four separate occasions, 9 men performed drop-landings from a 0.6-m platform to a force platform following 30-min immersion to the hip-joint in thermoneutral water (control; 34 [degrees]C) and in cold water…

Wang, He; Toner, Michael M.; Lemonda, Thomas J.; Zohar, Mor

2010-01-01

439

Mass transfers in a fluidized bed bioreactor using alginate beads for a future bioartificial liver.  

PubMed

Fluidized bed bioreactor with alginate beads may be an alternative to hollow fiber cartridge to host hepatocytes for bioartificial liver purposes. After the bioreactor design and the characterization of fluid mechanics, the present study was aimed at analyzing bi-directional mass transfers of calibrated species between external fluid and empty beads. Static (batch) and dynamic (fluidized bed bioreactor) experimental conditions were analyzed. A simple modelling approach permitted the definition of mass transfer coefficients. The motion of beads within the bioreactor clearly enhanced mass transfer kinetics, but did not alter the amount exchanged. The shear enhanced diffusion coefficient for VitB12 was 20 times higher in the fluidized bed bioreactor than under batch conditions, proving the efficiency of such a device. PMID:15163062

David, B; Doré, E; Jaffrin, M Y; Legallais, C

2004-04-01

440

Measuring the effectiveness of a pilot scale bioreactor for removing Microcystis in an outdoor pond system.  

PubMed

A pilot scale fluidized bed bioreactor to control the cyanobacterium, Microcystis, was tested in an outdoor experimental pond system (28 m3) over a 57 day period. The pond system was inoculated with a wild bloom of Microcystis, and the bioreactor was preinoculated with an oligochaete, Aeolosoma hemprichi, which is known to prey on colonial Microcystis. This and other Microcystis predators such as the rotifer, Philodina erythrophthalma were observed to colonize the bioreactor during the experiment. The bioreactor performance in removing Microcystis was estimated using a mathematical model and a multiple regression analysis of the chlorophyll-a concentration, which was a satisfactory surrogate for the Microcystis cell density in the ponds. The estimated specific decrease in chlorophyll-a concentration due to bioreactor treatment was 0.04 day-1, which was equal to the net removal of 4.3 x 10(11) Microcystis cells day(-1) from the treated pond. PMID:19068838

Itayama, Tomoaki; Iwami, Norio; Koike, Mitsuyo; Kuwabara, Takashi; Whangchai, Niwooti; Inamori, Yuhei

2008-11-15

441

Cerium treatments for temporary protection of electroplated steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work aims at evaluating the corrosion performance of a cerium immersion treatment on zinc electroplated. For comparison, zinc coatings pretreated with a commercial chromate treatment were also examined. The corrosion behaviour of pretreated zinc surfaces under immersion in sodium chloride was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization to evaluate the effect of cerium on the oxygen reduction reaction. The influence

C. Motte; N. Maury; M.-G. Olivier; J.-P. Petitjean; J.-F. Willem

2005-01-01

442

Basic studies of overlay performance on immersion lithography tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography with ArF light and Ultra Pure Water (UPW) is the most promising technology for semiconductor manufacturing with 65 nm hp design and below. Since Nikon completed the first full-field immersion scanner, the Engineering Evaluation Tool (EET, NA=0.85) at the end of 2004, Toshiba and Nikon have investigated overlay accuracy with the EET which uses the local fill nozzle. EET successfully demonstrated immersion tools are comparable in single machine overlay accuracy to dry tools, and immersion-dry matching has the same level overlay matching accuracy as dry-dry matching. EET also made it clear that overlay accuracy is independent of scanning speed, and both solvent-soluble topcoats, as well as developer-soluble topcoats can be used without degradation of overlay accuracy. We investigated the impact of the thermal environment on overlay accuracy also, assuming that a key technology of overlay with immersion tools must achieve thermal stabilities similar to dry tools. It was found that the temperature of supply water and loading wafer are stable enough to keep the overlay accuracy good. As for evaporation heat, water droplets on the backside of the wafer lead to overlay degradation. We have decided to equip the wafer holder of S609B, the first immersion production model, with an advanced watertight structure.

Shiraishi, Ken-ichi; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Tanizaki, Hirokazu; Ishii, Yuuki; Kono, Takuya; Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Higashiki, Tatsuhiko

2006-03-01

443

Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic microalgae have received much attention as a microbial source of diverse useful biomaterials through CO(2) fixation and various types of photo-bioreactors have been developed for efficient microalgal cultivation. Herein, we developed a novel thin-film photo-bioreactor, which was made of cast polypropylene film, considering outdoor mass cultivation. To develop optimal design of photo-bioreactor, we tested performance of three shapes of thin-film photo-bioreactors (flat, horizontal and vertical tubular shapes) and various parts in the bioreactor. Collectively, vertical tubular bioreactor with H/D ratio 6:1 and cylindrical stainless steel spargers showed the most outstanding performance. Furthermore, the photo-bioreactor was successfully applied to the cultivation of other microalgae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. The scalability of photo-bioreactor was confirmed by gradually increasing culture volume from 4 to 25 L and the biomass productivity of each reactor was quite consistent (0.05-0.07 g/L/day) during the cultivation of H. pluvialis under indoor and outdoor conditions. Especially, we also achieved dry cell weight of 4.64 g/L and astaxanthin yield of 218.16 mg/L through long-term cultivation (100 days) under outdoor condition in 15 L photo-bioreactor using Haematococcus pluvialis, which means that the astaxanthin yield from outdoor cultivation is equal or superior to that obtained from controlled indoor condition. Therefore, these results indicate that we can apply this approach to development of optimal photo-bioreactor for the large-scale culture of microalgae and production of useful biomaterials under outdoor condition. PMID:23361185

Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Jaoon Y H; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

2013-06-01

444

Performance of aerobic granular sludge in different bioreactors.  

PubMed

Inoculated sludge from the Brewery wastewater treatment plant was cultured in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The granular sludge was then used to process the artificial simulation wastewater to compare the performance and efficiency of the granular sludge in organic matter removal by using SBR and granular membrane bioreactor (GMBR). Results showed that the granular sludge in the SBR exhibited desirable characteristics and good removal efficiency. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and the sludge volume index (SVI) were approximately 2.56 g/L and 78.13 mL/g, respectively, and it exhibited a satisfactory settling ability. The removal efficiency of the resulting chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N and total phosphorus (TP) reached 89.35%, 96.49% and 83.76%, respectively. The removal efficiency of both nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen (TN) reached 90%. The performance of the granular sludge as well as the removal efficiency of the organic matter in the GMBR was subsequently observed. Results showed that the process influenced the characteristics and microbial biomass of the granular sludge. The SVI and the MLSS were about 175.82 mL/g and 1.14 g/L, respectively. The removal efficiency of COD and TP increased to 93.17% and 90.42%, respectively. The removal efficiency of NH3-N was slightly affected, whereas that of both nitrate nitrogen and TN increased to 95%. In this study, the physical properties and the removal efficiency of granular sludge in different bioreactors were compared. The comparison demonstrated that granulation membrane bioreactors perform more efficiently compared with SBR in wastewater treatment for organic matter removal. PMID:24645477

Zhao, Xia; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Xiaochun

2014-01-01

445

Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

Parks, Kelsey

2009-01-01

446

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

447

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

448

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by  

E-print Network

Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

Ribak, Erez

449

Effect of hydration on plasma volume and endocrine responses to water immersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of hydration status on early endocrine responses and on osmotic and intravascular volume changes during immersion was determined in humans undergoing successive periods of dehydration, immersion, rehydration, and immersion. Immersion caused an isotonic expansion of plasma volume, as well as suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone, which all occurred independently of hydration status. On the other hand, the concentration of plasma vasopressin (PVP) was found to decrease during dehydrated immersion, but not during rehydrated immersion. It is concluded that plasma tonicity is not a factor influencing PVP suppression during water immersion.

Harrison, M. H.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Silver, J. E.; Geelen, G.

1986-01-01

450

The temporary help industry: A response to the dual internal labor market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the rapidly growing temporary help industry draws on Commerce Department data and the results of the authors' national mail survey of employers. The authors also conducted interviews in the San Francisco area with employers of temporary help and with representatives of temporary help agencies and labor unions. They provide a taxonomy of employer responses to temporary increases

Garth L. Mangum; Donald Mayall; Kristin Nelson

1985-01-01

451

40 CFR 264.553 - Temporary Units (TU).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...264.553 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...protect human health and the environment. (b) Any temporary...facility which may influence the migration of any potential releases...threat to human health and the environment; and (2)...

2010-07-01

452

10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.  

...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

2014-01-01

453

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2013-10-01

454

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2011-10-01

455

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2012-10-01

456

48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...271-89 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-89 Temporary services. As prescribed in 48...

2010-10-01

457

46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...door holding and release system. (l) Supply to motor generator or other conversion equipment if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current is necessary for essential communication systems...

2010-10-01

458

18 CFR 367.1850 - Account 185, Temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1850 Account 185, Temporary facilities. This account must include amounts...

2013-04-01

459

18 CFR 367.1850 - Account 185, Temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1850 Account 185, Temporary facilities. This account must include amounts...

2012-04-01

460

18 CFR 367.1360 - Account 136, Temporary cash investments.  

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1360 Account 136, Temporary cash investments. (a) This...

2014-04-01

461

18 CFR 367.1850 - Account 185, Temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Deferred Debits § 367.1850 Account 185, Temporary facilities. This account must include amounts...

2010-04-01

462

21 CFR 872.4770 - Temporary mandibular condyle reconstruction plate.  

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...that is intended to stabilize mandibular bone and provide for temporary reconstruction...of the mandibular condyle and mandibular bone. This device is not intended for...

2014-04-01

463

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Columbia Operations Center at 9200 Farmhouse Lane, Columbia, Maryland 21046, and to the licensees of all terrestrial facilities lying within the coordination contour of the proposed temporary fixed earth station site before beginning transmissions:...

2010-10-01

464

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Columbia Operations Center at 9200 Farmhouse Lane, Columbia, Maryland 21046, and to the licensees of all terrestrial facilities lying within the coordination contour of the proposed temporary fixed earth station site before beginning transmissions:...

2013-10-01

465

Indications, Management, and Complications of Temporary Inferior Vena Cava Filters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis. Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis. Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Innenstadt, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Nussbaumstrasse 20, D-80336 Munich (Germany)

1998-11-15

466

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...examinations provided at a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care...

2012-07-01

467

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...examinations provided at a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care...

2011-07-01

468

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

...highest number of permanent Schedule C positions filled by that agency...in unusual circumstances. (c) Individual appointments under...temporary transitional Schedule C position has been encumbered...Source: 77 FR 28213, May 11, 2012, unless otherwise...

2014-01-01

469

26 CFR 1.355-2T - Limitations (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-2T Limitations (temporary...to a transaction which is— (i) Made pursuant to an agreement which was binding on December 15, 2008, and at all...

2011-04-01

470

26 CFR 1.355-2T - Limitations (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-2T Limitations (temporary...to a transaction which is— (i) Made pursuant to an agreement which was binding on December 15, 2008, and at all...

2010-04-01

471

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance during gas pipeline systems repair/alteration, or for other short term applications need not meet the requirements of this part...

2010-10-01

472

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...similar lights shall be installed at each such level. These temporary warning lights shall be displayed nightly from sunset to sunrise until the permanent obstruction lights have been installed and placed in operation, and shall be positioned so as to...

2012-10-01

473

47 CFR 17.45 - Temporary warning lights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...similar lights shall be installed at each such level. These temporary warning lights shall be displayed nightly from sunset to sunrise until the permanent obstruction lights have been installed and placed in operation, and shall be positioned so as to...

2011-10-01

474

HELP DESK SUPPORT TECHNICIAN TEMPORARY, PART-TIME POSITION  

E-print Network

Dow Pharmaceutical Sciences, Inc. is seeking a temporary, part-time Help Desk Support Technician to effectively problem solve and communicate with users. Dow Pharmaceutical Sciences, Inc. is a dynamic

Ravikumar, B.

475

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2012-07-01

476

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2011-07-01

477

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2010-07-01

478

30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...reel equipment. Temporary splices in trailing cables shall be made in a workmanlike manner and shall...mechanically strong and well insulated. Trailing cables or hand cables which have exposed wires or which have splices that heat or spark...

2013-07-01

479

Immersion freezing on mineral dust particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust is considered to play a major role in ice cloud nucleation in the troposphere. More than 1.000 Tg of mineral dust are aerosolized from the ground every year, 1-10% of these reach the upper troposphere [1]. At an altitude of about 8 km ice residual particle analysis has shown that about 50% of all ice nuclei (IN) are mineral dust[2]. In principle, natural occurring dusts may either be IN-active themselves or are carriers of organic and/or biological IN. Up to now the ice nucleation, i.e. cloud glaciation, has not been quantized. However, different authors report a high IN-activity for many mineral dust samples, although a systematic comparison between different minerals is still missing. Therefore, we studied selected mineral dust samples which were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy before use. Oil immersion measurements were performed on the most common minerals, clay materials and volcanic ash. The median freezing temperatures range from -21°C up to homogenous freezing at 38°C. Even though quite a few dust samples show a reasonable high IN-activity, their median freezing temperatures are low compared to biological samples [3, 4]. Furthermore, heat treatment of the dusts was applied in order to decompose and to denaturize organic and/or biological surfactants. Finally, some dust samples had a high loss of activity and thus were subjects of further experiments. These mineral dust particles were suspended in water and after an incubation time were removed. In some cases the washing water had become IN-active, but lost its activity after enzymatic treatment. The observed high IN-activity can thus be explained by adsorbed biological materials. The results suggest that some mineral dusts are IN-active, and if it is not intrinsic they may even enhance IN-activity of organic and biological IN if these are adsorbed on the dust particle surface. A relatively high IN-activity of the pure mineral dusts was only observed in quartz, clays, and mixed natural dusts (ATD), which are mainly composed of SiO2 and clays. References. [1] C. S. Zender, R. L. Miller and I. Tegen, Eos Trans. AGU, 2004,85, 509. [2] K. A. Pratt, P. J. DeMott, J. R. French, Z. Wang, D. L. Westphal, A. J. Heymsfield, C. H. Twohy, A. J. Prenni, K. A. Prather, Nat. Geosci., 2009, 2, 397-400. [3] B. Pummer, H. Bauer, J. Bernardi, S. Bleicher and H. Grothe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2012, 12, 2541-2550. [4] V. T. J. Phillips, C. Andronache, B. Christner, C. E. Morris, D. C. Sands, A. Bansemer, A. Lauer, C. McNaughton and C. Seman, Biogeosciences, 2009, 6, 987-1014.

Zolles, Tobias; Grothe, Hinrich; Pummer, Bernhard

2013-04-01

480

On the value of temporary carbon: a comment on Kirschbaum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent paper by Miko Kirschbaum (Mitigat Adapt Strategies Glob Change 11(5–6):1151–1164, 2006) argues that temporary carbon (C) storage has “virtually no climate-change mitigation value.” However, temporary carbon has\\u000a value in delaying global warming that needs to be recognized in carbon accounting methodologies. The conclusions reached are\\u000a very sensitive to any value that is attached to time. Basing analysis exclusively

Philip M. Fearnside

2008-01-01

481

Quality of Life of Stoma Patients: Temporary Ileostomy versus Colostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a Ileostomy for proximal diversion as a preferred option over colostomy has been a recent topic of interest. Our study evaluated\\u000a the quality of life (QOL) of patients with a temporary ileostomy and compared it with that of patients with a temporary colostomy.\\u000a The QOL of 25 patients with an ileostomy (median age 42 years, range 22–76 years) was compared

Michael Anthony Silva; Geethani Ratnayake; Kemal I. Deen

2003-01-01

482

A Good Neighborhood for Cells: Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Good neighborhoods help you grow. As with a city, the lives of a cell are governed by its neighborhood connections Connections that do not work are implicated in a range of diseases. One of those connections - between prostate cancer and bone cells - will be studied on STS-107 using the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS-05). To improve the prospects for finding novel therapies, and to identify biomarkers that predict disease progression, scientists need tissue models that behave the same as metastatic or spreading cancer. This is one of several NASA-sponsored lines of cell science research that use the microgravity environment of orbit in an attempt to grow lifelike tissue models for health research. As cells replicate, they "self associate" to form a complex matrix of collagens, proteins, fibers, and other structures. This highly evolved microenvironment tells each cell who is next door, how it should grow arid into what shapes, and how to respond to bacteria, wounds, and other stimuli. Studying these mechanisms outside the body is difficult because cells do not easily self-associate outside a natural environment. Most cell cultures produce thin, flat specimens that offer limited insight into how cells work together. Ironically, growing cell cultures in the microgravity of space produces cell assemblies that more closely resemble what is found in bodies on Earth. NASA's Bioreactor comprises a miniature life support system and a rotating vessel containing cell specimens in a nutrient medium. Orbital BDS experiments that cultured colon and prostate cancers have been highly promising.

Chung, Leland W. K.; Goodwin, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

483

Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in Bioreactor Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation was to examine microbial communities of simulated wastewater effluent from hollow fiber membrane bioreactors collected from the Space Life Science Laboratory and Texas Technical University. Microbes were characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction where a total count of bacteria and fungi were determined. The primers that were used to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi were targeted for 16S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye and a melting curve analysis was performed to identify unique melt profiles resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the community. Results from both the total bacteria and total fungi count assays showed that distinct populations were present in isolates from these bioreactors. This was exhibited by variation in the number of peaks observed on the melting curve analysis graph. Further analysis of these results using species-specific primers will shed light on exactly which microbes are present in these effluents. Information gained from this study will enable the design of a system that can efficiently monitor microbes that play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in wastewater on the International Space Station to assist in the design of a sustainable system capable of converting this nutrient.

Flowe, Candice

2013-01-01

484

Ultrasonic Bioreactor as a Platform for Studying Cellular Response  

PubMed Central

The need for tissue-engineered constructs as replacement tissue continues to grow as the average age of the world's population increases. However, additional research is required before the efficient production of laboratory-created tissue can be realized. The multitude of parameters that affect cell growth and proliferation is particularly daunting considering that optimized conditions are likely to change as a function of growth. Thus, a generalized research platform is needed in order for quantitative studies to be conducted. In this article, an ultrasonic bioreactor