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Sample records for temporary immersion bioreactor

  1. Improved mass multiplication of Rhodiola crenulata shoots using temporary immersion bioreactor with forced ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ying; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-03-01

    A temporary immersion bioreactor system was found to be suitable for mass shoot proliferation of Rhodiola crenulata. The shoot multiplication ratio and hyperhydration rate reached 46.8 and 35.4%, respectively, at a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 300 min. Forced ventilation was employed in the temporary immersion bioreactor culture in order to decrease the hyperhydration rate, improve shoot quality and enhance the multiplication ratio. The highest multiplication ratio of 55.7 was obtained under a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 180 min with the forced ventilation at an air flow rate of 40 l/h, and the hyperhydration rate was reduced to 26.1%. Forced ventilation also improved the subsequent elongation and rooting rate of these proliferated shoots, and the shoot cultures from the temporary immersion bioreactor formed complete plantlets when subcultured onto a rooting medium containing 5 μmol/l indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22238017

  2. A temporary immersion plant propagation bioreactor with decoupled gas and liquid flows for enhanced control of gas phase.

    PubMed

    Florez, Sergio L; Curtis, Matthew S; Shaw, Sydney E; Hamaker, Nathaniel K; Larsen, Jeffrey S; Curtis, Wayne R

    2016-03-01

    Temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs) are being used to propagate superior plant species on a commercial scale. We demonstrate a new TIB design, a Hydrostatic-driven TIB (Hy-TIB), where periodic raising and lowering the media reservoir maintains the advantages of temporary immersion of plant tissues without requiring large amounts of gas to move the media that is a characteristic of other TIB designs. The advantage of utilizing low volumes of gas mixtures (that are more expensive than air) is shown by a doubling of the growth rate of plant root cultures under elevated (40%) oxygen in air, and with CO2 supplementation showing improved phototrophic and photomixotrophic growth of seedless watermelon meristem cultures. The development of this bioreactor system involved overcoming contamination issues associated with utilizing very low gas flow rates and included utilizing microchip pressure sensors to diagnose unexpected changes in internal bioreactor pressure (± 20 Pa ∼0.0002 atm) caused by flexing of non-rigid plastic bag vessels. The overall design seeks to achieve versatility, scalability and minimum cost such that bioreactor technology can play an increasing role in the critical need to improve plant productivity in the face of increasing demand for food, reduced resources, and environmental degradation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:337-345, 2016. PMID:26698639

  3. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). PMID:17708453

  4. Production of galanthamine by Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in different bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Anika; Berkov, Strahil; Claus, Diana; Gerth, André; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2012-08-01

    The production of galanthamine by shoots of Leucojum aestivum grown in different bioreactor systems (shaking and nonshaking batch culture, temporary immersion system, bubble bioreactor, continuous and discontinuous gassing bioreactor) under different culture conditions was studied. The influence of the nutrient medium, weight of inoculum, and size of bioreactor on both growth and galanthamine production was studied. The maximal yield of galanthamine (19.416 mg) was achieved by cultivating the L. aestivum shoots (10 g of fresh inoculum) in a temporary immersion system in a 1-L bioreactor vessel which was used as an airlift culture vessel, gassing 12 times per day (5 min). PMID:22639366

  5. Optimal performance of an immersed membrane bioreactor equipped with a draft tube for domestic wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Bick, A; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the options to prevent membrane fouling is to implement air lifting that can improve the cake removal from the membrane surface. This study presents the results of tests that were carried out at the Institutes for Desert Research, Kiryat Sde-Boker, Israel, and focused on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on fouling in a pilot-scale immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 (Zenon Environmental, Canada) under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by one conical and four cylindrical draft-tubes. The relationship between the crossflow velocity and the aeration intensity, the influence of the crossflow on fouling rate under various hydrodynamic conditions were investigated and optimal operating conditions were obtained. Optimal operating conditions were reached during the long-term experiment period (70 days) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was stable without external chemical cleaning. The results showed that the permeate was of high quality, and the removal of COD and BOD was 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The crossflow near the membrane surface reveals a major contribution for minimizing membrane fouling, and could offer guidelines for future design of similar systems. PMID:17165458

  6. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  7. A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  18. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  1. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  8. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  9. Immersive video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  10. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  11. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  12. Bio-reactor chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

  13. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  14. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk…

  15. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  16. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Bioreactor design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowie, William

    1987-01-01

    Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

  18. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  19. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  20. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  1. A comparative study of leachate quality and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qiyong; Tian, Ying; Wang, Shen; Ko, Jae Hac

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Temporary aeration shortened the initial acid inhibition phase for methanogens. • COD decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactor than that in the anaerobic control. • Methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. • MSW settlement increased with increasing the frequency of intermittent aeration. - Abstract: Research has been conducted to compare leachate characterization and biogas generation in simulated anaerobic and hybrid bioreactor landfills with typical Chinese municipal solid waste (MSW). Three laboratory-scale reactors, an anaerobic (A1) and two hybrid bioreactors (C1 and C2), were constructed and operated for about 10 months. The hybrid bioreactors were operated in an aerobic–anaerobic mode with different aeration frequencies by providing air into the upper layer of waste. Results showed that the temporary aeration into the upper layer aided methane generation by shortening the initial acidogenic phase because of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) reduction and pH increase. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased faster in the hybrid bioreactors, but the concentrations of ammonia–nitrogen in the hybrid bioreactors were greater than those in the anaerobic control. Methanogenic conditions were established within 75 d and 60 d in C1 and C2, respectively. However, high aeration frequency led to the consumption of organic matters by aerobic degradation and resulted in reducing accumulative methane volume. The temporary aeration enhanced waste settlement and the settlement increased with increasing the frequency of aeration. Methane production was inhibited in the anaerobic control; however, the total methane generations from hybrid bioreactors were 133.4 L/kg{sub vs} and 113.2 L/kg{sub vs}. As for MSW with high content of food waste, leachate recirculation right after aeration stopped was not recommended due to VFA inhibition for methanogens.

  2. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  4. Diaphragmatic function during immersion.

    PubMed

    Minh, V D; Dolan, G F; Linaweaver, P G; Friedman, P J; Konopka, R G; Brach, B B

    1977-08-01

    Diaphragmatic function during immersion to midneck level was studied in upright mongrel dogs, using constant electrophrenic stimulation. Effectiveness of diaphragmatic contraction was analyzed in terms of inspired volume (VT) (with airways open), and change in intrathoracic pressure (Pmus) (with the respiratory system occluded). Hydrostatic compression of the immersed body decreased functional residual capacity (FRC) to 55% base-line value (FRCO), resulting in a 2.8-fold increase in Pmus. In spite of this Pmus increase, VT often decreased during immersion, averaging only 83% VTO (base-line value in air). Hence, immersion was associated with a marked stiffening of the respiratory system. The Pmus increase during immersion persisted after restoration of FRC to FRCO, and was related to diaphragmatic length being greater in water than in air under condition of iso-lung volume. In all, there were three factors affecting diaphragmatic function during immersion: FRC reduction, change in thoracic configuration, and stiffening of the respiratory system. PMID:893286

  5. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  6. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. BioReactor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-18

    BioReactor is a simulation tool kit for modeling networks of coupled chemical processes (or similar productions rules). The tool kit is implemented in C++ and has the following functionality: 1. Monte Carlo discrete event simulator 2. Solvers for ordinary differential equations 3. Genetic algorithm optimization routines for reverse engineering of models using either Monte Carlo or ODE representation )i.e., 1 or 2)

  8. French Immersion Weekends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mydlarski, Donna; Klinck, Pat

    1983-01-01

    Describes immersion weekends sponsored by the University of Calgary. The discussion includes examples from actual weekends to describe the planning and implementation. A qualitative evaluation is also discussed. (Author/AMH)

  9. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid

  10. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  11. Immersive cyberspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

  12. Microfluidic conductimetric bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Limbut, Warakorn; Loyprasert, Suchera; Thammakhet, Chongdee; Thavarungkul, Panote; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Asawatreratanakul, Punnee; Limsakul, Chusak; Wongkittisuksa, Booncharoen; Kanatharana, Proespichaya

    2007-06-15

    A microfluidic conductimetric bioreactor has been developed. Enzyme was immobilized in the microfluidic channel on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface via covalent binding method. The detection unit consisted of two gold electrodes and a laboratory-built conductimetric transducer to monitor the increase in the conductivity of the solution due to the change of the charges generated by the enzyme-substrate catalytic reaction. Urea-urease was used as a representative analyte-enzyme system. Under optimum conditions urea could be determined with a detection limit of 0.09 mM and linearity in the range of 0.1-10 mM (r=0.9944). The immobilized urease on the microchannel chip provided good stability (>30 days of operation time) and good repeatability with an R.S.D. lower than 2.3%. Good agreement was obtained when urea concentrations of human serum samples determined by the microfluidic flow injection conductimetric bioreactor system were compared to those obtained using the Berthelot reaction (P<0.05). After prolong use the immobilized enzyme could be removed from the PDMS microchannel chip enabling new active enzyme to be immobilized and the chip to be reused. PMID:17289366

  13. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  14. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Total Technology Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sandy

    2010-01-01

    Total technology immersion doesn't happen overnight, but with vision and determination, transformation can take hold and start to grow. Floydada Independent School District (FISD), winner of the 2010 Sylvia Charp Award for District Innovation in Technology, is a great example of what a district can achieve when starting with a modest tech…

  17. Evaluating Educative Temporary Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gary; Lamoureux, Marvin E.

    1975-01-01

    The framework of temporary systems theory was the basis for forming theoretical units and propositions pertaining to the outcomes of intensive adult education programs. Empirical indicators and research hypotheses were then developed and applied in the 1972 residential program of the Labour College of Canada. (Author)

  18. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  19. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  20. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  1. Tissue optical immersion clearing.

    PubMed

    Genina, Elina A; Bashkatov, Alexey N; Tuchin, Valery V

    2010-11-01

    In this article, we discuss the optical immersion method based on refractive index matching of scatterers (e.g., collagen, elastin fibers, cells and cell compartments) and the ground material (interstitial fluid and/or cytoplasm) of tissue and blood under the action of exogenous optical clearing agents. We analyze the optical clearing of fibrous and cell-structured tissues and blood from the point of view of receiving more valuable, normally hidden, information from spectroscopic and polarization measurements, confocal microscopy, optical coherence and optical projection tomography, as well as from nonlinear spectroscopies, such as two-photon fluorescence and second-harmonic generation techniques. Some important applications of the immersion technique to glucose sensing, drug delivery monitoring, improvements of image contrast and imaging depth, nondistortive delivery of laser radiation and precision tissue laser photodisruption, among others, are also described. PMID:21050092

  2. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  3. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  4. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  5. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  6. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management. PMID:27136151

  7. Effect of membrane bioreactor configurations on sludge structure and microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Clouzot, L; Roche, N; Marrot, B

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the effect of two different membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations (external/immersed) on sludge structure and microbial activity. Sludge structure was deduced from rheological measurements. The high shear stress induced by the recirculation pump in the external MBR was shown to result in decreasing viscosity due to activated sludge (AS) deflocculation. Besides, soluble microbial products (SMP) release was higher in the external MBR (5 mgCOD gMLVSS(-1)) than in the immersed configuration (2 mgCOD gMLVSS(-1)). Microbial activity was followed from respirometry tests by focusing on the distinction between heterotrophs and autotrophs. An easier autotrophic microbe development was then observed in the immersed MBR compared to the external one. However, the external MBR was shown to allow better heterotrophic microbe development. PMID:20947340

  8. Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulko, Oleksandra

    The present work describes a novel imaging technique for label-free no-UV vibration-insensitive imaging of live cells in an epi-illumination geometry. This technique can be implemented in a variety of imaging applications. For example, it can be used for cell targeting as a part of a platform for targeted cell irradiations - single-cell microbeam. The goal of microbeam facilities is to provide biological researchers with tools to study the effects of ionizing radiation on live cells. A common way of cell labeling - fluorescent staining - may alter cellular metabolism and UV illumination presents potential damage for the genetic material. The new imaging technique will allow the researchers to separate radiation-induced effects from the effects caused by confounding factors like fluorescent staining or UV light. Geometry of irradiation endstations at some microbeam facilities precludes the use of transmitted light, e.g. in the Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility microbeam endstation, where the ion beam exit window is located just below the sample. Imaging techniques used at such endstations must use epi-illumination. Mirau Interferometry is an epi-illumination, non-stain imaging modality suitable for implementation at a microbeam endstation. To facilitate interferometry and to maintain cell viability, it is desirable that cells stay in cell growth medium during the course of an experiment. To accommodate the use of medium, Immersion Mirau Interferometry has been developed. A custom attachment for a microscope objective has been designed and built for interferometric imaging with the possibility of immersion of the apparatus into cell medium. The implemented data collection algorithm is based on the principles of Phase-Shifting Interferometry. The largest limitation of Phase-Shifting Interferometry is its sensitivity to the vertical position of the sample. In environments where vibration isolation is difficult, this makes image

  9. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

  10. MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  11. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  12. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  13. Broadcasting presence: immersive television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

    2000-06-01

    Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

  14. French Immersion Program Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanaimo School District #68 (British Columbia).

    The Nanaimo (British Columbia) school district's French immersion program is evaluated. An introductory section gives background on the evaluation, outlines the evaluation process used, and offers brief comments on its outcome. The second section describes the immersion program's history and its current status in terms of enrollment, class size,…

  15. Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoko; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were filled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non-immersed end and the set area was determined by subtracting the unset area from the sample thickness. To evaluate sealing ability, materials were filled into glass tubes and divided into four groups based on different immersion times. Thermal cycling and dye penetration were performed. At 7 days, the setting depths of HY-Seal and Caviton were almost equivalent to full sample thickness, while that of Lumicon was only half of full sample thickness (p < 0.01). On sealing ability, Lumicon ranked the highest followed by Caviton, whereas HY-Seal was unstable (p < 0.01). These results suggested that there was no correlation between setting progress and sealing ability. PMID:18972791

  16. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  17. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

    2000-06-20

    A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  18. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

  19. Use of flocculants for increasing permeate flux in anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Díaz, H; Azócar, L; Torres, A; Lopes, S I C; Jeison, D

    2014-01-01

    Biomass retention, required for high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment, can be accomplished coupling an anaerobic bioreactor with membrane filtration. However, low flux seems to be a common factor when operating anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). Modification of biomass properties may represent a strategy for improving membrane flux. The addition of flocculants was tested as a tool for flux increase. Six different products were tested in dead-end filtration experiments. Based on the results, two products were selected for cross-flow tests. The one presenting better performance (Nalco MPE50) was tested in a laboratory-scale continuous AnMBR. Results show that the flocculant was able to substantially increase flux. Indeed, the flux-increasing effect was observed for several weeks after flocculant addition. Therefore, the use of flocculants seems to be an interesting tool to cope with temporary increases in required flux. PMID:24901617

  20. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  1. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  2. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  3. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  4. The Effectiveness of a Novel Cartridge-Based Bioreactor Design in Supporting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of applications—ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing—that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0 × 108 cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture—sans bioreactor—and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions—reaching peak values of 170 ± 22 μg/106 cells/day and 195 ± 18 μg/106 cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84 ± 18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56

  5. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  6. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  7. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  8. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  9. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  10. Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Ronald II

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

  11. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  12. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  13. Strategies for Providing Low-Cost Water Immersion Therapy With Limited Resources.

    PubMed

    Brickhouse, Brenda; Isaacs, Christine; Batten, Meghann; Price, Amber

    At our university-affiliated medical center, a major renovation of the women's health and birthing unit resulted in the temporary loss of the permanent tub used for water immersion therapy during labor. Because 40 percent of the women in the nurse-midwifery practice utilize hydrotherapy, we undertook a rigorous search for an interim solution. We developed a safe and cost-effective strategy that can be easily replicated and utilized by others to provide hydrotherapy for laboring women. PMID:26682659

  14. Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

    2004-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ≈ 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water

  15. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  16. Immersion francaise precoce. Early French Immersion: Administrator's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy

    This handbook (in English) is part of a series of early French immersion program teaching guides--all written in French--and is designed to serve as a guide for administrators in schools with classes of students who are being instructed in French for a large part of their school program. It addresses itself to areas of concern which are unique to…

  17. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  19. Spatial Experiment Technologies Suitable for Unreturnable Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Weibo; Tong, Guanghui

    2016-07-01

    The system composition and main function of the bioreactor piggybacked on TZ cargo transport spacecraft are introduced briefly in the paper.The spatial experiment technologies which are suitable for unreturnable bioreactor are described in detail,including multi-channel liquid transportion and management,multi-type animal cells circuit testing,dynamic targets microscopic observation in situ etc..The feasibility and effectiveness of these technologies which will be used in space experiment in bioreactor are verified in tests and experiments on the ground.

  20. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  1. Learning immersion without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  2. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoacetica metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrei V; Sears, Jesse A; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R; Ahring, Birgitte K; Majors, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    An in situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600-MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol, and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process, enabling identification of intermediate and endpoint metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts. PMID:24946863

  3. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

    2014-06-20

    An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

  4. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  5. 48 CFR 1371.120 - Temporary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary services. 1371.120 Section 1371.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT....120 Temporary services. Insert clause 1352.271-89, Temporary Services, in all solicitations...

  6. 28 CFR 48.15 - Temporary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary approval. 48.15 Section 48.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) NEWSPAPER PRESERVATION ACT § 48.15 Temporary...) Upon the filing of a request for temporary approval, the applicants shall publish notice of...

  7. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... permanent or temporary. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(A). (b) The employer's need is considered temporary if... intermittent need, as defined by DHS. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B). Except where the employer's need is based on a...) § 655.6 Temporary need. (a) An employer seeking certification under this subpart must establish that...

  8. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permanent or temporary. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(A). (b) The employer's need is considered temporary if... intermittent need, as defined by DHS. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B). Except where the employer's need is based on a...) § 655.6 Temporary need. (a) An employer seeking certification under this subpart must establish that...

  9. 42 CFR 488.835 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.835 Section 488.835... Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.835 Temporary management. (a) Application. (1) CMS may impose temporary management of an HHA if it determines that an HHA has a...

  10. 42 CFR 488.835 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.835 Section 488.835... Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.835 Temporary management. (a) Application. (1) CMS may impose temporary management of an HHA if it determines that an HHA has a...

  11. 48 CFR 1371.120 - Temporary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary services. 1371.120 Section 1371.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT....120 Temporary services. Insert clause 1352.271-89, Temporary Services, in all solicitations...

  12. 48 CFR 1371.120 - Temporary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary services. 1371.120 Section 1371.120 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DEPARTMENT....120 Temporary services. Insert clause 1352.271-89, Temporary Services, in all solicitations...

  13. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary need. 655.6 Section 655.6 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other...

  14. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  15. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  16. Energy efficiency in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Barillon, B; Martin Ruel, S; Langlais, C; Lazarova, V

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption remains the key factor for the optimisation of the performance of membrane bioreactors (MBRs). This paper presents the results of the detailed energy audits of six full-scale MBRs operated by Suez Environnement in France, Spain and the USA based on on-site energy measurement and analysis of plant operation parameters and treatment performance. Specific energy consumption is compared for two different MBR configurations (flat sheet and hollow fibre membranes) and for plants with different design, loads and operation parameters. The aim of this project was to understand how the energy is consumed in MBR facilities and under which operating conditions, in order to finally provide guidelines and recommended practices for optimisation of MBR operation and design to reduce energy consumption and environmental impacts. PMID:23787304

  17. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  18. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in

  19. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  20. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  1. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  2. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  3. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  4. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  5. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels § 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  6. Design and test of a low-cost RGB sensor for online measurement of microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Vande Wouwer, Alain

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer. PMID:25730481

  7. Design and Test of a Low-Cost RGB Sensor for Online Measurement of Microalgae Concentration within a Photo-Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Wouwer, Alain Vande

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer. PMID:25730481

  8. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  9. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  10. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, John S.; Qiu, Brynan; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J.; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or a vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, the lenses rely on semispherical topographies and are nonplanar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in the material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  11. High efficiency germanium immersion gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Davis, Pete J.; Little, Steve L.; Little, Liesl M.; Bixler, Jay V.

    2006-06-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 104. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO II laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  12. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  13. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  14. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  15. High-n immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; Mulkens, Jan; Graeupner, Paul; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Donders, Sjoerd; Cortie, Rogier; Meijers, Ralph; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Samarakone, Nandarisi

    2008-03-01

    A two-year study on the feasibility of High-n Immersion Lithography shows very promising results. This paper reports the findings of the study. The evaluation shows the tremendous progress made in the development of second-generation immersion fluid technology. Candidate fluids from several suppliers have been evaluated. All the commercial fluids evaluated are viable, so there are a number of options. Life tests have been conducted on bench top fluid-handling systems and the results referenced to full-scale systems. Parameters such as Dose per Laser Pulse, Pulse Rate, Fluid Flow Rate, and Fluid Absorbency at 193nm, and Oxygen/Air Contamination Levels were explored. A detailed evaluation of phenomena such as Last Lens Element (LLE) contamination has been conducted. Lens cleaning has been evaluated. A comparison of High-n fluid-based technology and water-based immersion technology shows interesting advantages of High-n fluid in the areas of Defect and Resist Interaction. Droplet Drying tests, Resist Staining evaluations, and Resist Contrast impact studies have all been run. Defect-generating mechanisms have been identified and are being eliminated. The lower evaporation rate of the High-n fluids compared with water shows the advantages of High-n Immersion. The core issue for the technology, the availability of High-n optical material for use as the final lens element, is updated. Samples of LuAG material have been received from development partners and have been evaluated. The latest status of optical materials and the technology timelines are reported. The potential impact of the availability of the technology is discussed. Synergy with technologies such as Double Patterning is discussed. The prospects for <22nm (hp) are evaluated.

  16. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  17. Evaluation criteria and procedure for nuclear power plant temporary loads/temporary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, H.T.; Minichiello, J.C.; Olson, D.E.

    1996-12-01

    Operating nuclear power plants frequently encounter temporary loads/temporary conditions in plant normal operation and maintenance (O and M). The most obvious examples are installation of temporary shielding and scaffolding, or removal of certain supports, to facilitate plant refueling and maintenance outage activities. Short-term operability calls such as those due to snubber failures or unanticipated transients also create temporary loads/temporary conditions. These temporary situations often generate loads that are outside the original plant design basis. Consequently, separate evaluations are needed to ensure that plant structures, systems and components (SSCs) maintain their integrity and functionality while these temporary loads are active. Also, the temporary structures and components need to be evaluated to ensure their integrity during the temporary duration of use. Three types of approaches are normally adopted either individually or in combination to perform needed evaluations: relax the design allowables, use a more refined analysis model but retain the design basis acceptance criteria, or offset temporary loads by eliminating or reducing part of the design basis loads based on short duration considerations. This paper reviews temporary loading/temporary condition issues and the current industry criteria and procedures proposed in dealing with these issues. Where appropriate, regulatory positions on temporary loads/temporary conditions are discussed.

  18. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  19. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  20. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  1. Canoeists' disorientation following cold immersion

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S.; Atha, J.

    1981-01-01

    As an initial step to a broader study of the disorientating effects of cold water immersions on top class competitive canoeists a survey was made of the incidence of hazardous immersions amongst a majority sample of the better canoeists in the country. Virtually the entire entry to one of the most important national competitive meets was canvassed. A total of 288 canoeists in the 1st and 2nd divisions were identified and asked to participate. Replies were received from 247 (86%). All those responding had had extensive experience of canoeing in winter spate and were capable of fast and efficient first-time canoe rolls in cases of capsize. Particular interest was focussed on the 85 (34%) who had experienced at least one capsize in cold water during training or competition in mid-winter. Respondents viewed the winter capsize seriously. Despite their familiarity with the conditions in which they trained all 85, recalling their capsize experiences, reported being concerned, most (79%) only modestly so, but a significant proportion (21%) confessed to feelings of extreme alarm. A number of marked physical symptoms that regularly attend on a capsize were widely reported, the most usual of which was severe pain in the forehead (89%) and breathing and speaking difficulties when afloat (64%). Additionally 62% reported sensory problems including visual difficulties, dizziness and disorientation. Five canoeists admitted fainting. Despite these hazards few preventive measures were taken and clothing with negligible thermal insulation properties was commonly worn. It is concluded that transient cold immersions can be disturbing, and can disorientate the canoeist, but that although conscious of this and to his own potentially high cost, he takes little notice of it in his desire to compete successfully. Imagesp111-ap111-bp112-ap113-ap114-a PMID:7272652

  2. Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the

  3. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  4. Marginal accuracy of temporary composite crowns.

    PubMed

    Tjan, A H; Tjan, A H; Grant, B E

    1987-10-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to quantitatively compare the marginal adaptation of temporary crowns made from Protemp material with those made from Scutan, Provisional, and Trim materials. A direct technique was used to make temporary restorations on prepared teeth with an impression as a matrix. Protem, Trim, and Provisional materials produced temporary crowns of comparable accuracy. Crowns made from Scutan material had open margins. PMID:2959770

  5. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources especially in the context of Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Since bioreactor designs for terrestrial operation will not readily apply to conditions of microgravity, there is an urgent need to learn about the differences. These differences cannot be easily estimated due to the complex nature of the mass transport and mixing mechanisms in fermenters. Therefore, a systematic and expeditious experimental program must be undertaken to obtain the engineering data necessary to lay down the foundations of designing bioreactors for microgravity. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecrafts, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  6. Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

    1995-01-01

    A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

  7. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  8. Membrane bioreactors for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Tao, G; Kekre, K; Wei, Z; Lee, T C; Viswanath, B; Seah, H

    2005-01-01

    Singapore has been using dual membrane technology (MF/UF RO) to produce high-grade water (NEWater) from secondary treated sewage. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) has very high potential and will lead to the further improvement of the productivity and quality of high-grade water. This study was focused on the technical feasibility of MBR system for water reclamation in Singapore, making a comparison between various membrane systems available and to get operational experience in terms of membrane cleaning and other issues. Three MBR plants were built at Bedok Water Reclamation Plant with a design flow of 300 m3/day each. They were commissioned in March 2003. Three different types of submerged membranes were tested. They are Membrane A, plate sheet membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; Membrane B, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; and Membrane C, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.035 microm. The permeate quality of all the three MBR Systems were found equivalent to or better than that of the conventional tertiary treatment by ultrafiltration. MBR permeate TOC was about 2 mg/l lower than UF permeate TOC. GC-MS, GC-ECD and HPLC scan results show that trace organic contaminants in MBR permeate and UF permeate were in the same range. MBR power consumption can be less than 1 kwh/m3. Gel layer or dynamic membrane generated on the submerged membrane surface played an important role for the lower MBR permeate TOC than the supernatant TOC in the membrane tank. Intensive chemical cleaning can temporarily remove this layer. During normal operation conditions, the formation of dynamic membrane may need one day to obtain the steady low TOC levels in MBR permeate. PMID:16004005

  9. Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

  10. A multicommutated tester of bioreactors for flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Pokrzywnicka, Marta; Kamiński, Jacek; Michalec, Michał; Koncki, Robert; Tymecki, Łukasz

    2016-11-01

    Enzymes are often used in the modern analytical procedures allowing selective recognition and conversion of target analytes into easily detected products. In flow analysis systems, enzymes are predominantly applied in the immobilized forms as flow-through bioreactors. In this research the multicommutated flow analysis (MCFA) system for evaluation and comparison of analytical parameters of bioreactors has been developed. The MCFA manifold allows simultaneous testing up to four bioreactors, but if necessary their number can be easily increased. The system allows comparison of several parameters of tested bioreactors including activity, repeatability, reproducibility, operational and storage stability. The performance of developed bioreactor tester is presented using urea-urease model system based on plastic open-tubular bioreactor with covalently immobilized enzyme. Product of enzymatic reaction is detected using two different chemical methods and by dedicated optoelectronic ammonium detectors. Moreover, the utility of developed MCFA manifold for evaluation of other enzyme bioreactors is demonstrated. PMID:27591609

  11. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

  12. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... appropriate Federal agency for an access permit by providing the relevant information requested in the SF 299... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For...

  13. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate Federal agency for an access permit by providing the relevant information requested in the SF 299... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For...

  14. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  15. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  16. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  17. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  18. 27 CFR 6.85 - Temporary retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary retailers. 6.85 Section 6.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions § 6.85 Temporary retailers. (a) General. The furnishing of things of value to a...

  19. 29 CFR 503.5 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... certification under 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A must establish that its need for non-agricultural services or labor is temporary, regardless of whether the underlying job is permanent or temporary. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6... DHS. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B)....

  20. 29 CFR 503.5 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... certification under 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A must establish that its need for non-agricultural services or labor is temporary, regardless of whether the underlying job is permanent or temporary. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6... DHS. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B)....

  1. 29 CFR 503.5 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... certification under 20 CFR part 655, Subpart A must establish that its need for non-agricultural services or labor is temporary, regardless of whether the underlying job is permanent or temporary. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6... DHS. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B)....

  2. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... underlying job is permanent or temporary. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(A). (b) The employer's need is considered.... 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii). (b) The employer's need is considered temporary if justified to the Secretary... defined by the Department of Homeland Security. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B). (c) Except where the...

  3. 36 CFR 9.38 - Temporary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary approval. 9.38 Section 9.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.38 Temporary approval. (a) The Regional Director...

  4. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  5. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.833 Temporary authorizations....

  6. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations § 74.433 Temporary authorizations....

  7. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Aural Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.537 Temporary...

  8. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... advance deposit to cover fees as provided in § 180.33. (c) To obtain a temporary tolerance, a requestor... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary tolerances. 180.31 Section 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE...

  9. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii). (b) The employer's need is considered temporary if justified to the Secretary... defined by the Department of Homeland Security. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B). (c) Except where the employer's... need lasting more than 10 months. (d) The temporary nature of the work or services to be performed...

  10. Game engines and immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  11. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  12. Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.

  13. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: LANDFILL BIOREACTOR DESIGN AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    These proceedings are from a conference on the subject of municipal waste landfill (MSWLF) bioreactors that was held in Wilmington, Delaware on March 23-24, 199-5. iologically active landfill operation represents a fundamentally different operational technique foro MSWLFs because...

  14. Establishing Liver Bioreactors for In Vitro Research.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Costa, Rita; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro systems that can effectively model liver function for long periods of time are fundamental tools for preclinical research. Nevertheless, the adoption of in vitro research tools at the earliest stages of drug development has been hampered by the lack of culture systems that offer the robustness, scalability, and flexibility necessary to meet industry's demands. Bioreactor-based technologies, such as stirred tank bioreactors, constitute a feasible approach to aggregate hepatic cells and maintain long-term three-dimensional cultures. These three-dimensional cultures sustain the polarity, differentiated phenotype, and metabolic performance of human hepatocytes. Culture in computer-controlled stirred tank bioreactors allows the maintenance of physiological conditions, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, with minimal fluctuations. Moreover, by operating in perfusion mode, gradients of soluble factors and metabolic by-products can be established, aiming at resembling the in vivo microenvironment. This chapter provides a protocol for the aggregation and culture of hepatocyte spheroids in stirred tank bioreactors by applying perfusion mode for the long-term culture of human hepatocytes. This in vitro culture system is compatible with feeding high-throughput screening platforms for the assessment of drug elimination pathways, being a useful tool for toxicology research and drug development in the preclinical phase. PMID:26272143

  15. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

  16. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  17. HIGH-PERFORMANCE STEREOSPECIFIC ELASTOMERS FROM BIOREACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, 10 million tons of natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, will be produced for commercial use. Every molecule of that product will be produced in a microscopic bioreactor known as the rubber particle. These particles, suspended in an aqueous phase called latex, evolved to produce and store n...

  18. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  19. Immersive video for virtual tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Luis A.; Taibo, Javier; Seoane, Antonio J.

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes a new panoramic, 360 degree(s) video system and its use in a real application for virtual tourism. The development of this system has required to design new hardware for multi-camera recording, and software for video processing in order to elaborate the panorama frames and to playback the resulting high resolution video footage on a regular PC. The system makes use of new VR display hardware, such as WindowVR, in order to make the view dependent on the viewer's spatial orientation and so enhance immersiveness. There are very few examples of similar technologies and the existing ones are extremely expensive and/or impossible to be implemented on personal computers with acceptable quality. The idea of the system starts from the concept of Panorama picture, developed in technologies such as QuickTimeVR. This idea is extended to the concept of panorama frame that leads to panorama video. However, many problems are to be solved to implement this simple scheme. Data acquisition involves simultaneously footage recording in every direction, and latter processing to convert every set of frames in a single high resolution panorama frame. Since there is no common hardware capable of 4096x512 video playback at 25 fps rate, it must be stripped in smaller pieces which the system must manage to get the right frames of the right parts as the user movement demands it. As the system must be immersive, the physical interface to watch the 360 degree(s) video is a WindowVR, that is, a flat screen with an orientation tracker that the user holds in his hands, moving it like if it were a virtual window through which the city and its activity is being shown.

  20. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  1. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  2. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  3. The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2005-01-01

    Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a…

  4. Immersion Education in China: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip; Chi, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the views of immersion teachers in Hong Kong and Xi'an towards the immersion curriculum they are teaching. Teachers are important stakeholders in any curriculum implementation and their views are significant in both evaluating progress and determining future directions. The teachers' views were gathered from questionnaires…

  5. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed. PMID:21086871

  6. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  7. The Two-Way Immersion Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth; Sugarman, Julie; Perdomo, Marleny; Adger, Carolyn Temple

    2005-01-01

    This Toolkit is meant to be a resource for teachers, parents, and administrators involved with two-way immersion (TWI) programs, particularly those at the elementary level. Two-way immersion is a form of dual language instruction that brings together students from two native language groups for language, literacy, and academic content instruction…

  8. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  9. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  10. Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

    1974-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

  11. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  12. Reverse membrane bioreactor: Introduction to a new technology for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Amir; Ylitervo, Päivi; Doyen, Wim; De Wever, Heleen; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-01-01

    The novel concept of reverse membrane bioreactors (rMBR) introduced in this review is a new membrane-assisted cell retention technique benefiting from the advantageous properties of both conventional MBRs and cell encapsulation techniques to tackle issues in bioconversion and fermentation of complex feeds. The rMBR applies high local cell density and membrane separation of cell/feed to the conventional immersed membrane bioreactor (iMBR) set up. Moreover, this new membrane configuration functions on basis of concentration-driven diffusion rather than pressure-driven convection previously used in conventional MBRs. These new features bring along the exceptional ability of rMBRs in aiding complex bioconversion and fermentation feeds containing high concentrations of inhibitory compounds, a variety of sugar sources and high suspended solid content. In the current review, the similarities and differences between the rMBR and conventional MBRs and cell encapsulation regarding advantages, disadvantages, principles and applications for biofuel production are presented and compared. Moreover, the potential of rMBRs in bioconversion of specific complex substrates of interest such as lignocellulosic hydrolysate is thoroughly studied. PMID:27238291

  13. Bioreactor Development for Lung Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. Objective The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung. Methods A search using PubMed was done for published, peer-reviewed papers using the keywords “lung” AND “bioreactor” or “bioengineering” or “tissue engineering” or “ex vivo perfusion”. Main Results Many new bioreactors ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems have been developed by both academic and commercial entities. Microfluidic, lung-mimic and lung slice cultures have the advantages of cost-efficiency and high throughput analyses ideal for pharmaceutical and toxicity studies. Perfused/ventilated rodent whole lung systems can be adapted for mid-throughput studies of lung stem/progenitor cell development, cell behavior, understanding and treating lung injury and for preliminary work that can be translated to human lung bioengineering. Human-sized ex vivo whole lung bioreactors incorporating perfusion and ventilation are amenable to automation and have been used for whole lung decellularization and recellularization. Clinical scale ex vivo lung perfusion systems have been developed for lung preservation and reconditioning and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Conclusions Significant advances in bioreactors for lung engineering have been made at both the microfluidic and the macro scale. The most advanced are closed systems that incorporate pressure-controlled perfusion and ventilation and are amenable to automation. Ex vivo lung perfusion systems have advanced to clinical trials for lung preservation and reconditioning. The biggest

  14. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  15. Survey of projection-based immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Dan

    2000-05-01

    Projection-based immersive displays are rapidly becoming the visualization system of choice for applications requiring the comprehension of complex datasets and the collaborative sharing of insights. The wide variety of display configurations can be grouped into five categories: benches, flat-screen walls, curved-screen theaters, concave-screen domes and spatially-immersive rooms. Each have their strengths and weaknesses with the appropriateness of each dependent on one's application and budget. The paper outlines the components common to all projection-based displays and describes the characteristics of each particular category. Key image metrics, implementation considerations and immersive display trends are also considered.

  16. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  17. Use and Fabrication of Temporary Orthotics

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Denise L.

    1994-01-01

    Orthotics are effective for altering compensatory motions which result from abnormalities in the foot and lower extremity. In specific cases, temporary use of an orthosis is beneficial for reducing abnormal stresses while allowing involved structures to heal. Additionally, a temporary orthotic may provide a trial period to determine if the athlete would benefit from a permanent orthosis. A step-by-step procedure is presented for the fabrication of a temporary semirigid orthotic. Used as an adjunct to the treatment and rehabilitation program, temporary orthotics are effective in encouraging early weight-bearing tolerance, while placing the foot near the subtalar joint neutral position. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3.Fig 4.Fig 5.Fig 6.Fig 7.Fig 8. PMID:16558293

  18. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  19. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  20. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  1. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  2. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antônio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control. PMID:25903476

  3. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  4. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  5. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  6. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  7. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  8. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  9. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  10. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  11. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  12. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  13. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  14. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES § 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  15. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary registration numbers. 47.16... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.16 Temporary registration numbers. (a) Temporary registration numbers... Registry for as many temporary registration numbers as are necessary for his business. The application...

  16. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Conformal Visualization for Partially-Immersive Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhang, Min; Kaufman, Arie E.; Gu, Xianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Current immersive VR systems such as the CAVE provide an effective platform for the immersive exploration of large 3D data. A major limitation is that in most cases at least one display surface is missing due to space, access or cost constraints. This partially-immersive visualization results in a substantial loss of visual information that may be acceptable for some applications, however it becomes a major obstacle for critical tasks, such as the analysis of medical data. We propose a conformal deformation rendering pipeline for the visualization of datasets on partially-immersive platforms. The angle-preserving conformal mapping approach is used to map the 360°3D view volume to arbitrary display configurations. It has the desirable property of preserving shapes under distortion, which is important for identifying features, especially in medical data. The conformal mapping is used for rasterization, realtime raytracing and volume rendering of the datasets. Since the technique is applied during the rendering, we can construct stereoscopic images from the data, which is usually not true for image-based distortion approaches. We demonstrate the stereo conformal mapping rendering pipeline in the partially-immersive 5-wall Immersive Cabin (IC) for virtual colonoscopy and architectural review. PMID:26279083

  18. Human adaptation to repeated cold immersions.

    PubMed Central

    Golden, F S; Tipton, M J

    1988-01-01

    1. The present investigation was designed to examine human adaptation to intermittent severe cold exposure and to assess the effect of exercise on any adaptation obtained. 2. Sixteen subjects were divided into two equal groups. Each subject performed ten head-out immersions; two into thermoneutral water which was then cooled until they shivered vigorously, and eight into water at 15 degrees C for 40 min. During the majority of the 15 degrees C immersions, one group (dynamic group) exercised whilst the other (static group) rested. 3. Results showed that both groups responded to repeated cold immersions with a reduction in their initial responses to cold. The time course of these reductions varied, however, between responses. 4. Only the static group developed a reduced metabolic response to prolonged resting immersion. 5. It is concluded that repeated resting exposure to cold was the more effective way of producing an adaptation. The performance of exercise during repeated exposure to cold prevented the development of an adaptive reduction in the metabolic response to cold during a subsequent resting immersion. In addition, many of the adaptations obtained during repeated resting exposure were overridden or masked during a subsequent exercising immersion. PMID:3411500

  19. Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

  20. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  1. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  2. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  3. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  4. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  5. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  6. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  7. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  8. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  9. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  10. LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

  11. Denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate removal from tile drained cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors are a promising technology for mitigation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) losses in subsurface drainage water. Bioreactors are constructed with carbon substrates, typically wood chips, to provide a substrate for denitrifying microorganisms. Researchers in Iowa found that for ...

  12. Evaluation of woodchip bioreactors for improved water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woodchip bioreactors are gaining popularity with farmers because of their edge-of-field nitrate removal capabilities, which do not require changes in land management practices. However, limited research has been conducted to study the potential of these bioreactors to also reduce downstream transpor...

  13. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  14. Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

  15. Learning Environments in Immersion and Non-Immersion Classrooms: Are They Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Viviane; Rehorick, Sally

    1990-01-01

    A study compared immersion and nonimmersion learning environments, as perceived by students, in 95 New Brunswick grade 6, 7, and 9 classes. In grade 6, no significant differences in perception were found; in grade 7, immersion students see their environment more positively; and in grade 9, the differences seem to disappear. (25 references)…

  16. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    PubMed

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

  17. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  18. Shear and Compression Bioreactor for Cartilage Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Kifah; Doran, Pauline M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical forces, including hydrodynamic shear, hydrostatic pressure, compression, tension, and friction, can have stimulatory effects on cartilage synthesis in tissue engineering systems. Bioreactors capable of exerting forces on cells and tissue constructs within a controlled culture environment are needed to provide appropriate mechanical stimuli. In this chapter, we describe the construction, assembly, and operation of a mechanobioreactor providing simultaneous dynamic shear and compressive loading on developing cartilage tissues to mimic the rolling and squeezing action of articular joints. The device is suitable for studying the effects of mechanical treatment on stem cells and chondrocytes seeded into three-dimensional scaffolds. PMID:26445842

  19. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  20. Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support

    PubMed Central

    Saffarzadeh, Areo

    2015-01-01

    Temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) refers to a group of devices generally used for less than 30 days to maintain adequate organ perfusion by compensating for a failure of the pumping mechanism of the heart. The increased availability and rapid adoption of new temporary MCS strategies necessitate physicians to become familiar with devices placed both percutaneously and via median sternotomy. This review will examine the different options for commonly used temporary MCS devices including intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), veno-arterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), TandemHeart® (CardiacAssist, Pittsburg, PA, USA) Impella® and BVS 5000® (both Abiomed Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), CentriMag® and Thoratec percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD)® (both Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA). A specific emphasis will be made to describe relevant mechanisms of action, standard placement strategies, hemodynamic effects, relevant contraindications and complications, and important daily management considerations. PMID:26793330

  1. A case study: Immersion coatings test program

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The performance of several coating systems were tested for immersion exposure in potable water storage tank service. Tests were performed for a period of several months in-situ by application of coating systems test patches to a tank interior and was examined periodically during normal service operation. Concurrent with test patches, prepared test panels were placed in the immersion and vapor zones of the tank. Also, test panels were subjected to immersion and condensing humidity in a laboratory environment. All systems were applied in accordance with the respective manufacturers recommendations. Two levels of abrasive blast surface preparation were employed, SSPC-SP10 and SSPC-SP6. Coal slag and sodium bicarbonate were used as blast media. Additionally, some panels and selected tank areas were intentionally subjected to surface contamination in the form of soluble salts to assess the relative tolerance of the selected system to such steel substrate contamination.

  2. Ventilatory drive during face immersion in man.

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, M R; Patrick, J M

    1986-01-01

    Four series of experiments have been performed in normal subjects to determine whether face immersion gives rise to a reduction in ventilatory drive. Such a response might be advantageous, like the cardiovascular components of the 'diving response', in prolonging breath-hold diving. In the first series, ventilatory drive was measured indirectly as the maximal voluntary breath-holding time, starting each breath-hold at the same alveolar partial pressures and at the same lung volume. When the face was immersed in cold water, breath-holding times were increased by 14%. The breaking point occurred at a higher alveolar PCO2 and the rate of rise of PCO2 was not affected. Control immersions in warm water had no effect. In the second and third series, subjects lay prone and breathed either air or 5% CO2 through a valve in the bottom of a bowl. Minute ventilation was measured before, during and after 5 min of face immersion in cold water. Transient hypoventilations of 13% and 10% respectively were seen, accompanied by small rises in alveolar PCO2. In control experiments, immersion of the forearm in cold water produced the opposite responses. In the fourth series, a cold wet pack was applied to the face during moderate steady-state exercise. A small irregular hypoventilation was seen, but not in control experiments when a warm pack was applied. Face temperatures fell by about 10 degrees C in these experiments. No material changes were found in the temperatures of the inspired air or of the aural canal. It is concluded that face immersion in cold water causes a modest reduction in ventilatory drive in man. This appears to be a component of the 'diving response'. PMID:3083097

  3. Cultural Immersion as a Strategy for Empowerment.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jennell P

    2015-01-01

    Cultural immersion experiences offered through study abroad opportunities for nursing students have been increasing in recent years. Examining the impact of these experiences has largely focused on students and not on the faculty leading the experiences. It is important to understand the impact of these experiences on all participants. Exploring the literature on empowerment provides some clarity on the relationship between studying abroad and its impact on participants. Further research linking cultural immersion experiences with empowerment is needed to better understand this relationship and the possibilities of empowering both students and faculty engaged in these exciting opportunities. PMID:26376576

  4. Subwavelength-size solid immersion lens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myun-Sik; Scharf, Toralf; Haq, Mohammad Tahdiul; Nakagawa, Wataru; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2011-10-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale solid immersion lenses (nano-SILs) with sizes down to a subwavelength range. Submicrometer-scale cylinders fabricated by electron-beam lithography are thermally reflowed to form a spherical shape. Subsequent soft lithography leads to nano-SILs on transparent substrates for optical characterization. The optical characterization is performed using a high-resolution interference microscope with illumination at 642 nm wavelength. The focal spots produced by the nano-SILs show both spot-size reduction and enhanced optical intensity, which are consistent with the immersion effect. PMID:21964145

  5. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.

    2016-01-01

    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  6. Immobilized microbe bioreactors for waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Portier, R J; Miller, G P

    1991-10-01

    The application of adapted microbial populations immobilized on a porous diatomaceous earth carrier to pre-treat and reduce toxic concentration of volatile organics, pesticides, petroleum aliphatics and aromatics has been demonstrated for several industrial sites. In the pre-treatment of industrial effluents and contaminated groundwaters, these bioreactors have been used to optimize and reduce the cost of conventional treatment systems, i.e. steam stripping, carbon adsorption and traditional biotreatment. Additionally, these systems have been employed as seeding devices for larger biotreatment systems. The cost effective utilization of an immobilized microbe reactor system for water supply regeneration in a microgravity environment is presented. The feasibility of using immobilized biomass reactors as an effluent treatment technology for the biotransformation and biodegradation of phenols, chlorinated halocarbons, residual oils and lubricants was evaluated. Primary biotransformation tests of two benchmark toxicants, phenol and ethylene dichloride at concentrations expected in life support effluents were conducted. Biocatalyst supports were evaluated for colonization potential, surface and structural integrity, and performance in continuous flow bioreactors. The implementation of such approaches in space will be outlined and specific areas for interfacing with other non-biological treatment approaches will be considered for advanced life support, tertiary waste water biotreatment. PMID:11537697

  7. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  8. Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-01-01

    In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 °C. PMID:25022362

  9. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

  10. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary tolerances. 180.31 Section 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... period designed to allow the orderly marketing of the raw agricultural commodities produced while...

  11. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  12. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary exemptions. 82.65 Section 82.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban...

  13. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary exemptions. 82.65 Section 82.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential Products Containing...

  14. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary exemptions. 82.65 Section 82.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential Products Containing...

  15. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  16. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  17. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  18. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  19. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  20. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS §...

  1. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS §...

  2. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS §...

  3. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS §...

  4. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS §...

  5. Temporary School Facilities. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isler, Norman P.

    Covered are references to documents received and processed to date by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Facilities concerned with temporary, portable, or mobile schools and classrooms. Documents include publications by state departments of education, Educational Facilities Laboratories, the Association of School Business Officials, and the…

  6. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Row crop farmers have been reluctant to use broiler litter on their crops because of the difficulty getting it transported and spread at planting time in the spring. Temporary field storage near the site of spreading will help with this problem and encourage more row crop farmers to use poultry lit...

  7. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... transmitting equipment utilized is not licensed to the user, the user shall nevertheless have full control...

  8. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... property. (e) The user shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it...

  9. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... nevertheless have full control over the use of the equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  10. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... transmitting equipment utilized is not licensed to the user, the user shall nevertheless have full control...

  11. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.633...

  12. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... transmitting equipment utilized is not licensed to the user, the user shall nevertheless have full control...

  13. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... property. (e) The user shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it...

  14. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... property. (e) The user shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it...

  15. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... nevertheless have full control over the use of the equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  16. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  17. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... nevertheless have full control over the use of the equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  18. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... nevertheless have full control over the use of the equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  19. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... transmitting equipment utilized is not licensed to the user, the user shall nevertheless have full control...

  20. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  1. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... property. (e) The user shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it...

  2. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  3. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... shall have full control over the transmitting equipment during the period it is operated. (f)...

  4. 14 CFR 65.13 - Temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary certificate. 65.13 Section 65.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... review of his application and supplementary documents and the issue of the certificate and ratings...

  5. 14 CFR 63.13 - Temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary certificate. 63.13 Section 63.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN... his application and supplementary documents and the issue of the certificate for which he applied....

  6. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM...

  7. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Private International Law only if it is granted temporary accreditation by the deadline for initial... applicant for temporary accreditation in a timely fashion. The accrediting entity must use its best...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  9. 47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1031 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper application therefor, authorize the construction and operation of temporary fixed stations in...

  10. 47 CFR 22.1031 - Temporary fixed stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE SERVICES Offshore Radiotelephone Service § 22.1031 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper application therefor, authorize the construction and operation of temporary fixed stations in...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  12. Temporary epicardial pacing wire placement in totally endoscopic cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoshen; Huang, Keli

    2016-07-01

    Temporary epicardial pacing wire placement is a common procedure in cardiac surgery. However, it is difficult to perform in totally endoscopic cardiac surgery. We describe a simple new technique to place temporary epicardial pacing wires quickly and safely. PMID:27130494

  13. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... issue a license for the temporary export of unclassified defense articles (DSP-73). Such licenses...

  14. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate § 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  18. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.931 Application for special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. (1) In circumstances requiring immediate or temporary use of station in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, carriers...

  19. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284

  20. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  1. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  2. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  3. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  4. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  5. How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allery, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

  6. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  7. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  8. Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

  9. Language and Culture Immersion: A Winning Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Raymond

    A second language program developed at Wilson College (Chambersburg, Pennsylvania) with a federal grant uses the Rassias Method of theatrical, dramatic language saturation. In the first application of the program at the college, peer tutors (who would be assistant teachers in the subsequent immersion program) were trained in a three-day workshop.…

  10. Learning in an immersive digital theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.; Weber, W.

    2008-12-01

    The Houston Museum of Natural Science, in collaboration with Rice University has an outreach program taking portable digital theaters to schools and community sites for over five years and has conducted research on student learning in this immersive environment. By using an external independent evaluator, the effectiveness of NASA-funded Education and Public Outreach (EPO) projects can be assessed. This paper documents interactive techniques and learning strategies in full-dome digital theaters. The presentation is divided into Evaluation Strategies and Results and Interactivity Strategies and Results. All learners from grades 3-12 showed statistically significant short-term increase in knowledge of basic Earth science concepts after a single 22-min show. Improvements were more significant on items that were taught using more than one modality of instruction: hearing, seeing, discussion, and immersion. Thus immersive theater can be an effective as well as engaging teaching method for Earth and Space science concepts, particularly those that are intrinsically three-dimensional and thus most effectively taught in an immersive environment. The portable system allows taking the educational experience to rural and tribal sites where the underserved students could not afford the time or expense to travel to museums.

  11. Immersion Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Strategies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    Researchers worked with French, Japanese, and Spanish immersion teachers in metropolitan Washington, DC elementary schools (grades 1-6) to implement language learning strategies in their classrooms. Workshops, materials, and observations were provided for professional support. Teachers were debriefed on the effectiveness of the teacher training…

  12. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  13. Immersion Calorimetry: Molecular Packing Effects in Micropores.

    PubMed

    Madani, S Hadi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Biggs, Mark J; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-21

    Repeated and controlled immersion calorimetry experiments were performed to determine the specific surface area and pore-size distribution (PSD) of a well-characterized, microporous poly(furfuryl alcohol)-based activated carbon. The PSD derived from nitrogen gas adsorption indicated a narrow distribution centered at 0.57±0.05 nm. Immersion into liquids of increasing molecular sizes ranging from 0.33 nm (dichloromethane) to 0.70 nm (α-pinene) showed a decreasing enthalpy of immersion at a critical probe size (0.43-0.48 nm), followed by an increase at 0.48-0.56 nm, and a second decrease at 0.56-0.60 nm. This maximum has not been reported previously. After consideration of possible reasons for this new observation, it is concluded that the effect arises from molecular packing inside the micropores, interpreted in terms of 2D packing. The immersion enthalpy PSD was consistent with that from quenched solid density functional theory (QSDFT) analysis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherm. PMID:26394883

  14. Beyond Language in Indigenous Language Immersion Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stairs, Arlene; Peters, Margaret; Perkins, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The Akwesasne Freedom School, on the Akwesasne Mohawk reservation (New York and Canada), is an independent immersion school that preserves not only the Mohawk language but also socialization patterns, styles of interpersonal relations, ethical principles, and aesthetic sensibilities. The curriculum is based on the Iroquoian Thanksgiving Address,…

  15. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small

  16. 32 CFR 147.29 - Temporary eligibility for access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND CIVILIAN ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.29 Temporary eligibility for access. Based on a justified need meeting... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access. 147.29...

  17. 32 CFR 147.29 - Temporary eligibility for access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND CIVILIAN ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.29 Temporary eligibility for access. Based on a justified need meeting... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access. 147.29...

  18. 48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.120, insert the following clause: Temporary Services (APR 2010) (a) Temporary services are services incidental to the performance of work which are required in the schedule or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary services....

  19. 38 CFR 60.3 - Other donated temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.3 Other donated temporary lodging. Whenever VA receives, from a source other than the Fisher House Foundation, an undesignated donation of lodging to be used on a temporary basis, the lodging will be designated as if it were Fisher House lodging or...

  20. 38 CFR 60.3 - Other donated temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.3 Other donated temporary lodging. Whenever VA receives, from a source other than the Fisher House Foundation, an undesignated donation of lodging to be used on a temporary basis, the lodging will be designated as if it were Fisher House lodging or...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  2. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  3. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  6. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  7. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  8. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  9. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  10. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112... Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries, for a short time, selected emergency loads while an emergency power source of larger capacity is...

  11. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  12. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  13. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according to its terms but not later than...

  14. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  15. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  16. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  17. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  18. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  19. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  20. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  1. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities....

  2. 76 FR 68192 - Temporary Certification Program; Notice of Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...) published a final rule (75 FR 36158) to establish a temporary certification program for health information... published a final rule (76 FR 1262) to establish a permanent certification program for health information... discussed in the temporary certification program final rule (75 FR 36184), the temporary...

  3. 12 CFR 308.125 - Temporary suspension of deposit insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of Directors may issue a Temporary Order Suspending Deposit Insurance, pending completion of the proceedings under section 8(a)(2) of the FDIA (12 U.S.C. 1818(a)(2)). (b) The temporary order shall be served... appropriate State banking supervisor. (c) The temporary order shall become effective ten days from the date...

  4. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that...

  5. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary emergency loads. 112.15-1 Section 112.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-1 Temporary emergency loads. On vessels required by § 112.05-5(a) to have a temporary emergency...

  6. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency loads. 112.15-1 Section 112.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-1 Temporary emergency loads. On vessels required by § 112.05-5(a) to have a temporary emergency...

  7. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section 2582... AND REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding... deemed to be in compliance with the bonding requirements of section 8478 of FERSA if he or she is...

  8. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section 2582... AND REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding... deemed to be in compliance with the bonding requirements of section 8478 of FERSA if he or she is...

  9. 48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... services. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.120, insert the following clause: Temporary Services (APR 2010) (a) Temporary services are services incidental to the performance of work which are required in the schedule or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary services....

  10. 48 CFR 1352.271-89 - Temporary services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... services. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.120, insert the following clause: Temporary Services (APR 2010) (a) Temporary services are services incidental to the performance of work which are required in the schedule or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary services....

  11. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  12. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1167 - Temporary absences and deeming rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary absences and deeming rules. 416.1167 Section 416.1167 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1167 Temporary absences and deeming rules. (a) General. During a temporary absence,...

  14. A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

  15. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary registration numbers. 47.16 Section 47.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.16 Temporary registration numbers. (a) Temporary registration...

  16. Temporary Work and Insecurity in Britain: A Problem Solved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Temporary workers in Britain experience lower job quality. However, the proportion of employees on temporary contracts has fallen since a decade ago to just 5.5% in 2005. There have also been qualitative improvements. Many temporary workers now fall under the protection of the Fixed Term Employees' (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment)…

  17. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses. (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  18. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses. (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  19. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5... DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses. (a) The Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  20. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that...

  1. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that...

  2. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that...

  3. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certifications. 655.34 Section 655.34 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process and Enforcement of Attestations for Temporary Employment...

  4. Effect of sludge characteristics on membrane fouling during start-up of a tertiary submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Oliver; Vera, Luisa; González, Enrique; García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Sevilla, Juan

    2016-05-01

    In membrane bioreactors applied to wastewater treatment, fouling is typically a complex function of sludge characteristics. A pilot-scale tertiary submerged membrane bioreactor (tMBR) was continuously operated for over 200 days to assess the effect of biomass physiological state and environmental stress on process performance. Sludge characteristics were evaluated in terms of suspended solid concentration (MLSS and MLVSS), apparent viscosity, bioflocculation state, filterability, bioactivity, biopolymeric clusters (BPCs) and soluble microbial products. During the initial period of the tMBR start-up, when MLSS was below 3000 mg/L, the biomass was found to be very sensitive to environmental stress by sudden oxygen increase or organic shock loading, resulting in temporary biomass deflocculation and BPC release, and consequently, severe induced membrane fouling. However, at higher MLSS values, low stable biomass growth (0.04 ± 0.002 kg MLVSS/kg COD) was measured, regardless of organic overloading shocks or feeding failures. This period was also characterised by low bioactivity, BPC content and membrane fouling. Statistical analysis showed that BPCs have an important role when compared with other sludge properties as indicators of its fouling potential. PMID:26822213

  5. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both

  6. Immersion mode ice nucleation measurements with the new Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (PIMCA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Monika; Lohmann, Ulrike; Welti, André; Kanji, Zamin A.

    2016-05-01

    The new Portable Immersion Mode Cooling chAmber (PIMCA) has been developed for online immersion freezing of single-immersed aerosol particles. PIMCA is a vertical extension of the established Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC). PIMCA immerses aerosol particles into cloud droplets before they enter PINC. Immersion freezing experiments on cloud droplets with a radius of 5-7 μm at a prescribed supercooled temperature (T) and water saturation can be conducted, while other ice nucleation mechanisms (deposition, condensation, and contact mode) are excluded. Validation experiments on reference aerosol (kaolinite, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate) showed good agreement with theory and literature. The PIMCA-PINC setup was tested in the field during the Zurich AMBient Immersion freezing Study (ZAMBIS) in spring 2014 in Zurich, Switzerland. Significant concentrations of submicron ambient aerosol triggering immersion freezing at T > 236 K were rare. The mean frozen cloud droplet number concentration was estimated to be 7.22·105 L-1 for T < 238 K and determined from the measured frozen fraction and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations predicted for the site at a typical supersaturation of SS = 0.3%. This value should be considered as an upper limit of cloud droplet freezing via immersion and homogeneous freezing processes. The predicted ice nucleating particle (INP) concentration based on measured total aerosol larger than 0.5 μm and the parameterization by DeMott et al. (2010) at T = 238 K is INPD10=54 ± 39 L-1. This is a lower limit as supermicron particles were not sampled with PIMCA-PINC during ZAMBIS.

  7. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  8. Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  9. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

  10. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  11. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  12. Hairy root culture: bioreactor design and process intensification.

    PubMed

    Stiles, Amanda R; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of hairy roots for the production of secondary metabolites offers numerous advantages; hairy roots have a fast growth rate, are genetically stable, and are relatively simple to maintain in phytohormone free media. Hairy roots provide a continuous source of secondary metabolites, and are useful for the production of chemicals for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food additives. In order for hairy roots to be utilized on a commercial scale, it is necessary to scale-up their production. Over the last several decades, significant research has been conducted on the cultivation of hairy roots in various types of bioreactor systems. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various bioreactor systems, the major factors related to large-scale bioreactor cultures, process intensification technologies and overview the mathematical models and computer-aided methods that have been utilized for bioreactor design and development. PMID:23604206

  13. The Potential for Microalgae as Bioreactors to Produce Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Yan, Na; Fan, Chengming; Chen, Yuhong; Hu, Zanmin

    2016-01-01

    As photosynthetic organisms, microalgae can efficiently convert solar energy into biomass. Microalgae are currently used as an important source of valuable natural biologically active molecules, such as carotenoids, chlorophyll, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and enzymes. Significant advances have been achieved in microalgae biotechnology over the last decade, and the use of microalgae as bioreactors for expressing recombinant proteins is receiving increased interest. Compared with the bioreactor systems that are currently in use, microalgae may be an attractive alternative for the production of pharmaceuticals, recombinant proteins and other valuable products. Products synthesized via the genetic engineering of microalgae include vaccines, antibodies, enzymes, blood-clotting factors, immune regulators, growth factors, hormones, and other valuable products, such as the anticancer agent Taxol. In this paper, we briefly compare the currently used bioreactor systems, summarize the progress in genetic engineering of microalgae, and discuss the potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. PMID:27322258

  14. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2015-12-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, Hw, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small Hw, the AMF effect dominates. As Hw increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  15. The status of membrane bioreactor technology.

    PubMed

    Judd, Simon

    2008-02-01

    In this article, the current status of membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology for wastewater treatment is reviewed. Fundamental facets of the MBR process and membrane and process configurations are outlined and the advantages and disadvantages over conventional suspended growth-based biotreatment are briefly identified. Key process design and operating parameters are defined and their significance explained. The inter-relationships between these parameters are identified and their implications discussed, with particular reference to impacts on membrane surface fouling and channel clogging. In addition, current understanding of membrane surface fouling and identification of candidate foulants is appraised. Although much interest in this technology exists and its penetration of the market will probably increase significantly, there remains a lack of understanding of key process constraints such as membrane channel clogging, and of the science of membrane cleaning. PMID:18191260

  16. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  17. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  18. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior

  19. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...: 14X1125] Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood... harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz Ranch Estates (TRE) and Preacher fires burn... and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas burned by the TRE and...

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in an immobilized cell airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kermanshahi pour, A; Karamanev, D; Margaritis, A

    2005-09-01

    An "immobilized cell airlift bioreactor", was used for the aerobic bioremediation of simulated diesel fuel contaminated groundwater and tested with p-xylene and naphthalene in batch and continuous regimes. The innovative design of the experiments consists of two stages. At the first stage "immobilized soil bioreactor" (ISBR) was used to develop an efficient microbial consortium from the indigenous microorganisms, which exist in diesel fuel contaminated soil. The concept of ISBR relies on the entrapment of the soil particles into the pores of a semi-permeable membrane, which divides the bioreactor into two aerated and non-aerated portions. The second stage involves inoculating the "immobilized cell air lift bioreactor" with the cultivated microbial consortia of the first stage. Immobilized cell airlift bioreactor has the same configuration as ISBR except that in this bioreactor instead of soil, microorganisms were immobilized on the fibers of the membrane. The performance of a 0.83 L immobilized cell airlift bioreactor was investigated at various retention time (0.5-6 h) and concentrations of p-xylene (15, 40 and 77 mg/L) and naphthalene (8, 15 and 22 mg/L) in the continuous operation. In the batch regime, 0.9L bioreactor was operated at various biodegradation times (15-135 min) and concentrations of p-xylene (13.6, 44.9 and 67.5 mg/L) and naphthalene (1.5 and 3.8 mg/L). Under the conditions of the complete biodegradation of p-xylene and naphthalene, the obtained volumetric biodegradation rates at biomass density of 720 mg/L were 15 and 16 mg/L h, respectively. PMID:16095655

  1. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  2. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  3. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  4. 46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys. 108.649... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion... with the appropriate symbol from IMO Resolution A.760(18). (c) Each immersion suit or...

  5. Two-Way Immersion: A Key to Global Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of two-way immersion education to provide students with opportunities to understand and appreciate other countries and cultures. The main features of two-way immersion education are bilingual language instruction, cross-cultural understanding, and international exchanges. Includes case study of two-way immersion at the Alicia…

  6. Immersive Training Systems: Virtual Reality and Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psotka, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Describes virtual reality (VR) technology and VR research on education and training. Focuses on immersion as the key added value of VR, analyzes cognitive variables connected to immersion, how it is generated in synthetic environments and its benefits. Discusses value of tracked, immersive visual displays over nonimmersive simulations. Contains 78…

  7. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  8. French Immersion in Canada: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obadia, Andre A.

    This brochure, intended for the parents of current and prospective French immersion students, answers commonly-asked questions about immersion education, including who should participate, how good the child's French will be, whether immersion students are likely to lose ground in English or academic subjects, how parents can provide support at…

  9. 7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305.22... Hot water immersion treatment schedules. (a) T102-d. (1) Fruit must be grown and treated in Hawaii. (2) Fruit must be submerged at least 4 inches below the water's surface in a hot water immersion...

  10. Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

    1983-07-18

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

  11. Life in Language Immersion Classrooms. Multilingual Matters 86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhardt, Elizabeth B., Ed.

    In contrast to other volumes on language immersion programs that have discussed language outcomes, this book focuses on how teachers and school administrators implement and carry on the daily operations of immersion schooling. It chronicles a 2-year research project that involved the staff and principals of two immersion schools in the midwest, in…

  12. The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the

  13. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  14. An Immersive VR System for Sports Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

    The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

  15. Immersed Boundary Simulations of Active Fluid Droplets.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Carl A; Hawkins, Rhoda J

    2016-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of active fluid droplets immersed in an external fluid in 2-dimensions using an Immersed Boundary method to simulate the fluid droplet interface as a Lagrangian mesh. We present results from two example systems, firstly an active isotropic fluid boundary consisting of particles that can bind and unbind from the interface and generate surface tension gradients through active contractility. Secondly, a droplet filled with an active polar fluid with homeotropic anchoring at the droplet interface. These two systems demonstrate spontaneous symmetry breaking and steady state dynamics resembling cell motility and division and show complex feedback mechanisms with minimal degrees of freedom. The simulations outlined here will be useful for quantifying the wide range of dynamics observable in these active systems and modelling the effects of confinement in a consistent and adaptable way. PMID:27606609

  16. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference −32.4 minutes; 95% CI −58.7 to −6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight

  17. Temporary restorations: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover endodontic temporary restorations. PMID:18457691

  18. Liquid immersion apparatus for minute articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. G., Jr.; Hollis, B. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for immersing minute integrated circuit chips in an etching solution in manufacturing integrated circuits during research and development. The apparatus includes a holder, having a handle and basket support for carrying a removable unitary basket and lid structure where fluid flow-through passages are formed, and wherein graduated openings in the handle provide for adjustably supporting the basket in a breaker at a desired level.

  19. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition. PMID:26224273

  20. Immersion pulmonary oedema and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrew; Edmonds, Carl

    2015-12-01

    A 67-year-old female scuba diver developed a typical immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE), but investigations strongly indicated Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). The cardiac abnormalities included increased cardiac enzymes, electrocardiographic anomalies and echocardiographic changes, all reverting to normal within days. This case demonstrates a similarity and association between IPE and TC, and the importance of prompt cardiac investigations both in the investigation of IPE and in making the diagnosis of TC. PMID:26687314

  1. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P.

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  2. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  3. Development of cleaning process for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ching Yu; Yu, D. C.; Lin, John C.; Lin, Burn J.

    2006-03-01

    In immersion lithography, DI water fills the space between the resist surface and the last lens element. However water is also a good solvent for most of the leaching compounds from resists. The leaching materials from the resist and the original impurities in the water from pipelines pose a significant risk on bottom lens deterioration, wafer surface particles, and facility contamination. If the bottom lens surface deteriorates, it can cause flare and reduce transparency. Particles on the wafer surface can degrade image formation. In addition to contaminating the facility, the impurity inside the water can cause stains or defects after the water is evaporated from the wafer surface. In order to reduce the impact of such contamination, we have evaluated many chemicals for removing organic contamination as well as particles. We have collected and characterized immersion-induced particles from cleaning studies on bare silicon wafers. We have also used oxide wafers to simulate the lens damage caused by the cleaning chemicals. In case, a mega sonic power is not suitable for scanners last lens element in production FABs, the emulsion concept has also been adopted to remove the lens organic contaminants. We have studied many chemical and mechanical methods for tool cleaning, and identified those that possess good organic solubility and particle removal efficiency. These cleaning methods will be used in periodic maintenance procedures to ensure freedom from defects in immersion lithography.

  4. Respiratory drive during sudden cold water immersion.

    PubMed

    Mekjavić, I B; La Prairie, A; Burke, W; Lindborg, B

    1987-10-01

    Sudden decreases in cutaneous temperature induce an immediate ventilatory response, which has been termed the inspiratory or 'gasp' reflex. This respiratory response has been implicated as a contributing factor to cold water immersion drowning. In the present study, five subjects wearing either shorts or a variety of thermal protective apparel were immersed on separate occasions in 10 degrees C water. The observed peak mean skin temperature cooling rates (dTs/dt) for the different conditions varied from 6.9 +/- 2.1 degrees C/min for the shorts condition to 1.8 +/- 0.3 degrees C/min for a helicopter pilot suit made of cotton ventile material. During the immersion, recordings were made of respiratory drive, as indicated by the mouth occlusion pressure at 100 msec following the onset of inspiration (P0.1). The respiratory drive, an indicator of central inspiratory activity, correlated well with peak dTs/dt. The slope P0.1/(dTs/dt) was subject dependent and did not appear to be related to body composition. The substantial intersubject variability in the respiratory response is suggested to result from differences in the central integration of thermoafferent information. It is concluded that the inspiratory reflex is the result of cutaneous thermoreceptor activity. PMID:3659607

  5. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  6. Skin Microcirculatory Dysfunction Induced by 7 Days of Dry Immersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navasiolava, N. M.; Tsvirkun, D. V.; Pastushkova, L. Kh.; Larina, I. M.; Dobrokhotov, I. V.; Fortrat, J. O.; Gharib, G.; Gauquelin-Koch, G.; Custaud, M.-A.

    2008-06-01

    To study the effects of microgravity on the skin microcirculatory function, basal blood flow and stimulated vasodilation were determined at the calf level by laser Doppler flowmetry in 8 male subjects before, during and after 7 days of dry immersion. Endothelium-dependent and - independent vasodilation was assessed using iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, respectively. Basal blood flow was significantly reduced on the third day of immersion (13 ± 1 arbitrary units (AU) vs. 33 ± 8 AU pre-immersion level, p < 0.05) and rested decreased up to the end of immersion. Endothelium dependent vasodilation was significantly decreased on the seventh day of immersion in comparison with pre-immersion values (12 ± 6% vs. 29 ± 6% of max vasodilation, p < 0.05). Our results support the idea that dry immersion induces changes in skin microcirculation with impairment of endothelial functions. Microcirculatory impairment should be considered as an important factor of the cardiovascular deconditioning.

  7. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  8. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions in a membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewater contaminated by hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Giorgio; Cosenza, Alida; Di Trapani, Daniele; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Morici, Claudia; Ødegaard, Hallvard

    2016-11-01

    The joint effect of wastewater salinity and hydrocarbons on nitrous oxide emission was investigated. The membrane bioreactor pilot plant was operated with two phases: i. biomass acclimation by increasing salinity from 10gNaClL(-1) to 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase I); ii. hydrocarbons dosing at 20mgL(-1) with a constant salt concentration of 20gNaClL(-1) (Phase II). The Phase I revealed a relationship between nitrous oxide emissions and salinity. During the end of the Phase I, the activity of nitrifiers started to recover, indicating a partial acclimatization. During the Phase II, the hydrocarbon shock induced a temporary inhibition of the biomass with the suppression of nitrous oxide emissions. The results revealed that the oxic tank was the major source of nitrous oxide emission, likely due to the gas stripping by aeration. The joint effect of salinity and hydrocarbons was found to be crucial for the production of nitrous oxide. PMID:27498010

  10. Simulating Woodchip Bioreactor Performance Using a Dual-Porosity Model.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, Dan B; Moorman, Tom B; Parkin, Timothy B; Kaspar, Tom C

    2016-05-01

    There is a general understanding in the scientific community as to how denitrifying bioreactors operate, but we lack a quantitative understanding of the details of the denitrification process acting within them and comprehensive models for simulating their performance. We hypothesized that nitrate transport through woodchip bioreactors would be best described by a dual-porosity transport model where the bioreactor water is divided into a mobile domain (i.e., the water between the woodchips where it is free to flow and solute movement is by advection and dispersion) and an immobile domain of water (i.e., the water mostly within the woodchips that is stagnant and where solute movement is by diffusion alone). We calibrated the dual-porosity model contained in the HYDRUS model for a woodchip bioreactor using the results of a Br breakthrough experiment where we treated Br as a conservative nonadsorbing tracer. We then used the resulting model parameters to describe 2 yr of NO transport and denitrification within a bioreactor supplied by tile drainage. The only model parameters fitted to the NO data were either the zero- or first-order denitrification rate and its temperature dependence. The bioreactor denitrified 2.23 kg N (38%) of the NO entering it in 2013 and 3.73 kg N (49%) of the NO that entered it in 2014. The dual-porosity model fit the NO data very well, with fitted zero-order reaction rates of 8.7 and 6.8 mg N L d in 2013 and 2014, respectively, and corresponding first-order reaction rates of 0.99 and 1.02 d. For the 2-yr data set, both reaction rate models fit the data equally well. Consistent model parameters fitted for the 2 yr indicated that the model used was robust and a promising approach for modeling fate and transport of NO in woodchip bioreactors. PMID:27136148

  11. A versatile miniature bioreactor and its application to bioelectrochemistry studies.

    PubMed

    Kloke, A; Rubenwolf, S; Bücking, C; Gescher, J; Kerzenmacher, S; Zengerle, R; von Stetten, F

    2010-08-15

    Often, reproducible investigations on bio-microsystems essentially require a flexible but well-defined experimental setup, which in its features corresponds to a bioreactor. We therefore developed a miniature bioreactor with a volume in the range of a few millilitre that is assembled by alternate stacking of individual polycarbonate elements and silicone gaskets. All the necessary supply pipes are incorporated as bore holes or cavities within the individual elements. Their combination allows for a bioreactor assembly that is easily adaptable in size and functionality to experimental demands. It allows for controlling oxygen transfer as well as the monitoring of dissolved oxygen concentration and pH-value. The system provides access for media exchange or sterile sampling. A mass transfer coefficient for oxygen (k(L)a) of 4.3x10(-3) s(-1) at a flow rate of only 15 ml min(-1) and a mixing time of 1.5s at a flow rate of 11 ml min(-1) were observed for the modular bioreactor. Single reactor chambers can be interconnected via ion-conductive membranes to form a two-chamber test setup for investigations on electrochemical systems such as fuel cells or sensors. The versatile applicability of this modular and flexible bioreactor was demonstrated by recording a growth curve of Escherichia coli (including monitoring of pH and oxygen) saturation, and also as by two bioelectrochemical experiments. In the first electrochemical experiment the use of the bioreactor enabled a direct comparison of electrode materials for a laccase-catalyzed oxygen reduction electrode. In a second experiment, the bioreactor was utilized to characterize the influence of outer membrane cytochromes on the performance of Shewanella oneidensis in a microbial fuel cell. PMID:20537883

  12. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Noah, Karl S.; Sayer, Raymond L.; Thompson, David N.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

  13. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

  14. Energy-positive food wastewater treatment using an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR).

    PubMed

    Galib, Mohamed; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Reid, Robertson; Hussain, Abid; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2016-11-01

    An immersed-membrane anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) achieved 88-95% of COD removal for meat-processing wastewater at organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.4-3.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1). Membrane flux was stable for low OLR (0.4 and 1.3 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1)), but irrecoverable fouling occurred at high OLR of 3.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1). Methane gas yield of 0.13-0.18 LCH4 g(-1)CODremoved was obtained, which accounted for 33-38% of input COD, the most significant electron sink. Dissolved methane was only 3.4-11% of input COD and consistently over-saturated at all OLR conditions. The least accumulation of dissolved methane (25 mg L(-1) and saturation index 1.3) was found for the highest OLR of 3.2 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1) where biogas production rate was the highest. Energy balances showed that AnMBR produced net energy benefit of 0.16-1.82 kWh m(-3), indicating the possibility of energy-positive food wastewater treatment using AnMBRs. PMID:27526085

  15. Strategies for improving the functionality of an affinity bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tanya; Yang, Zhiqiang; Emregul, Emel; David, Allan; Balthasar, Joseph P; Liang, Junfeng; Yang, Victor C

    2005-12-01

    Heparin employed in extracorporeal blood circulation (ECBC) procedures (e.g. open heart operations) often leads to a high incidence of bleeding complications. Protamine employed in heparin neutralization, on the other hand, can cause severe adverse reactions. We previously developed an approach that could prevent both heparin- and protamine-induced toxic side effects concomitantly. This approach consisted of placing a hollow fiber-based bioreactor device containing immobilized protamine (termed a "protamine bioreactor") at the distal end of the ECBC procedure. This protamine bioreactor would remove heparin after heparin served its anticoagulant purpose in the ECBC device, thereby eliminating heparin-induced bleeding risks. In addition, this protamine bioreactor would prevent protamine from entering the patients, thereby aborting any protamine-induced toxic effects. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. Despite promises, early findings also revealed two shortcomings that must be overcome for the protamine bioreactor to be applied clinically. The first drawback was that the cyanate ester linkages, involved in conjugating protamine to the bioreactor device, were unstable and prone to hydrolysis, resulting in the leakage of a significant amount of protamine into circulation during application of the protamine bioreactor. The second deficiency was that the capacity of the protamine bioreactor in heparin removal was rather low, owing to the limited surface area of the hollow fibers for protamine immobilization and subsequently heparin adsorption. In this paper, we present novel strategies to overcome these two limitations. A new conjugation method based on the use of 4-(oxyacetyl)phenoxyacetic acid (OAPA) as the activating reagent was employed to yield stable linkages, via the abundant arginine residues of protamine, onto the hollow fibers. Results showed that while the amount of protamine immobilized on each

  16. Bioreactors for connective tissue engineering: design and monitoring innovations.

    PubMed

    El Haj, A J; Hampson, K; Gogniat, G

    2009-01-01

    The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropriate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these developments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications. PMID:19290498

  17. Bioreactor technology for production of valuable algal products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guo-Cai; Cao, Ying

    1998-03-01

    Bioreactor technology has long been employed for the production of various (mostly cheap) food and pharmaceutical products. More recently, research has been mainly focused on the development of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high—value products. This paper reports the employment of novel bioreactor technology for the production of high-value biomass and metabolites by microalgae. These high-value products include microalgal biomass as health foods, pigments including phycocyanin and carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. The processes involved include heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultures using organic substrates as the carbon source. We have demonstrated that these bioreactor cultivation systems are particularly suitable for the production of high-value products from various microalgae. These cultivation systems can be further modified to improve cell densities and productivities by using high cell density techniques such as fed-batch and membrane cell recycle systems. For most of the microalgae investigated, the maximum cell concentrations obtained using these bioreactor systems in our laboratories are much higher than any so far reported in the literature.

  18. Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Christian, David; Wong, Edmund; Crawford, Ronald L; Cheng, I Francis; Hess, Thomas F

    2010-12-14

    Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field-scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory-scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar mine runoff water. In general both reactors were efficient in removing most of the metals assayed, Al, As, Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, with the exception of Mn. Both systems showed evidence of bacterial-mediated sulphate reduction and concomitant metal sulphide complexes. However, the experimental laboratory bioreactor showed greater proportions of immobile metals reductions than did the ML bioreactor, presumably due to the greater action of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The major metal removal mechanism in the ML bioreactor was surmised to be adsorption. Differences in metal removal mechanisms between the reactors were hypothesized to be due to fluctuating hydraulic residence times at the ML site, in turn, due to unregulated runoff flow. PMID:21275250

  19. New pulsatile bioreactor for fabrication of tissue-engineered patches.

    PubMed

    Sodian, R; Lemke, T; Loebe, M; Hoerstrup, S P; Potapov, E V; Hausmann, H; Meyer, R; Hetzer, R

    2001-01-01

    To date, one approach to tissue engineering has been to develop in vitro conditions to ultimately fabricate functional cardiovascular structures prior to final implantation. In our current experiment, we developed a new pulsatile flow system that provides biochemical and biomechanical signals to regulate autologous patch-tissue development in vitro. The newly developed patch bioreactor is made of Plexiglas and is completely transparent (Mediport Kardiotechnik, Berlin). The bioreactor is connected to an air-driven respirator pump, and the cell culture medium continuously circulates through a closed-loop system. We thus developed a closed-loop, perfused bioreactor for long-term patch-tissue conditioning, which combines continuous, pulsatile perfusion and mechanical stimulation by periodically stretching the tissue-engineered patch constructs. By adjusting the stroke volume, the stroke rate, and the inspiration/expiration time of the ventilator, it allows various pulsatile flows and different levels of pressure. The whole system is a highly isolated cell culture setting, which provides a high level of sterility, gas supply, and fits into a standard humidified incubator. The bioreactor can be sterilized by ethylene oxide and assembled with a standard screwdriver. Our newly developed bioreactor provides optimal biomechanical and biodynamical stimuli for controlled tissue development and in vitro conditioning of an autologous tissue-engineered patch. PMID:11410898

  20. Bioreactor design for clinical-grade expansion of stem cells.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Francisco F; Andrade, Pedro Z; da Silva, Cláudia Lobato; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2013-06-01

    The many clinical trials currently in progress will likely lead to the widespread use of stem cell-based therapies for an extensive variety of diseases, either in autologous or allogeneic settings. With the current pace of progress, in a few years' time, the field of stem cell-based therapy should be able to respond to the market demand for safe, robust and clinically efficient stem cell-based therapeutics. Due to the limited number of stem cells that can be obtained from a single donor, one of the major challenges on the roadmap for regulatory approval of such medicinal products is the expansion of stem cells using Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)-compliant culture systems. In fact, manufacturing costs, which include production and quality control procedures, may be the main hurdle for developing cost-effective stem cell therapies. Bioreactors provide a viable alternative to the traditional static culture systems in that bioreactors provide the required scalability, incorporate monitoring and control tools, and possess the operational flexibility to be adapted to the differing requirements imposed by various clinical applications. Bioreactor systems face a number of issues when incorporated into stem cell expansion protocols, both during development at the research level and when bioreactors are used in on-going clinical trials. This review provides an overview of the issues that must be confronted during the development of GMP-compliant bioreactors systems used to support the various clinical applications employing stem cells. PMID:23625834

  1. Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

    The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

  2. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-05-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment.

  3. The cost of a small membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lo, C H; McAdam, E; Judd, S

    2015-01-01

    The individual cost contributions to the mechanical components of a small membrane bioreactor (MBR) (100-2,500 m3/d flow capacity) are itemised and collated to generate overall capital and operating costs (CAPEX and OPEX) as a function of size. The outcomes are compared to those from previously published detailed cost studies provided for both very small containerised plants (<40 m3/day capacity) and larger municipal plants (2,200-19,000 m3/d). Cost curves, as a function of flow capacity, determined for OPEX, CAPEX and net present value (NPV) based on the heuristic data used indicate a logarithmic function for OPEX and a power-based one for the CAPEX. OPEX correlations were in good quantitative agreement with those reported in the literature. Disparities in the calculated CAPEX trend compared with reported data were attributed to differences in assumptions concerning cost contributions. More reasonable agreement was obtained with the reported membrane separation component CAPEX data from published studies. The heuristic approach taken appears appropriate for small-scale MBRs with minimal costs associated with installation. An overall relationship of net present value=(a tb)Q(-c lnt+d) was determined for the net present value where a=1.265, b=0.44, c=0.00385 and d=0.868 according to the dataset employed for the analysis. PMID:26540534

  4. Proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Taro; Nagai, Yuhei; Aizawa, Tomoyasu; Kimura, Katsuki; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the details of proteins causing membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating real municipal wastewater were investigated. Two separate pilot-scale MBRs were continuously operated under significantly different operating conditions; one MBR was a submerged type whereas the other was a side-stream type. The submerged and side-stream MBRs were operated for 20 and 10 days, respectively. At the end of continuous operation, the foulants were extracted from the fouled membranes. The proteins contained in the extracted foulants were enriched by using the combination of crude concentration with an ultrafiltration membrane and trichloroacetic acid precipitation, and then separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). The N-terminal amino acid sequencing analysis of the proteins which formed intensive spots on the 2D-PAGE gels allowed us to partially identify one protein (OmpA family protein originated from genus Brevundimonas or Riemerella anatipestifer) from the foulant obtained from the submerged MBR, and two proteins (OprD and OprF originated from genus Pseudomonas) from that obtained from the side-stream MBR. Despite the significant difference in operating conditions of the two MBRs, all proteins identified in this study belong to β-barrel protein. These findings strongly suggest the importance of β-barrel proteins in developing membrane fouling in MBRs. PMID:26360742

  5. The Envirostat - a new bioreactor concept.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Hendrik; Chasanis, Paris; Blank, Lars M; Franzke, Joachim; Kenig, Eugeny Y; Schmid, Andreas

    2009-02-21

    One major goal of biology is to provide a quantitative description of cellular physiology. This task is complicated by population effects, which perturb culture conditions and mask the behavior of the individual cell. To overcome these limitations, the construction and operation of a microfluidic bioreactor is presented. The new reactor concept guarantees constant environmental conditions and single cell resolution, thus it was named Envirostat (environment, constant). In the Envirostat, cells are contactless trapped by negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) and cultivated in a constant medium flow. To control chip temperature, a Peltier device was constructed. Joule heating by nDEP was quantified with Rhodamine B in dependence of applied voltage, field mode, medium conductivity, and flow velocity. The integration of the Joule heating effect in the temperature control allowed setting and maintaining the cultivation temperature. For single cell cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, medium composition changes below 0.001% were estimated by computational fluid dynamic simulation. These changes were considered not to influence cell physiology. Finally, single S. cerevisiae cells were cultivated for more than four generations in the Envirostat, thus showing the applicability of the new reactor concept. The Envirostat facilitates single cell research and might simplify the investigation of hitherto difficult to access biological phenomena such as the true regulatory and physiological response to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19190793

  6. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    DOEpatents

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  7. Hydrodynamics of an electrochemical membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399

  8. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  9. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  10. Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, K. J.

    1998-11-01

    An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

  11. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399

  12. Performance of anaerobic membrane bioreactor during digestion and thickening of aerobic membrane bioreactor excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Hafuka, Akira; Mimura, Kazuhisa; Ding, Qing; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Hisashi; Watanabe, Yoshimasa

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor in terms of digestion and thickening of excess sludge from an aerobic membrane bioreactor. A digestion reactor equipped with an external polytetrafluoroethylene tubular microfiltration membrane module was operated in semi-batch mode. Solids were concentrated by repeated membrane filtration and sludge feeding, and their concentration reached 25,400mg/L after 92d. A high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, i.e., 98%, was achieved during operation. A hydraulic retention time of 34d and a pulse organic loading rate of 2200mg-COD/(L-reactor) gave a biogas production rate and biogas yield of 1.33L/(reactor d) and 0.08L/g-CODinput, respectively. The external membrane unit worked well without membrane cleaning for 90d. The transmembrane pressure reached 25kPa and the filtration flux decreased by 80% because of membrane fouling after operation for 90d. PMID:27394993

  13. Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods — 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10–16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results — The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9–4.5) cm to 0.8 (–1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven’s zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation — Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

  14. 3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting

    SciTech Connect

    Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

    2001-10-03

    Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

  15. Cavitation Inception in Immersed Jet Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ndamuso, N.; Price, R.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation inception occurring in immersed jets was investigated in a purpose-built mechanical flow rig. The rig utilized custom-built cylindrical and conical nozzles to direct high-velocity jets of variable concentration n-octane-hexadecane mixtures into a fused silica optically accessible receiver. The fluid pressure upstream and down-stream of the nozzles were manually controlled. The study employed a variety of acrylic and metal nozzles. The results show that the critical upstream pressure to downstream pressure ratio for incipient cavitation decreases with increasing n-octane concentration for the cylindrical nozzles, and increases with increasing n-octane concentration for the conical nozzle.

  16. Film stacking architecture for immersion lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Tamada, Osamu; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary due to film peeling. However, the architecture will restrict lithographic area within a wafer due to top side EBR accuracy In this paper, we report an effective film stacking architecture that also allows maximum lithographic area. This study used a new bevel rinse system on RF3 for all materials to make suitable film stacking on the top side bevel. This evaluation showed that the new bevel rinse system allows the maximum lithographic area and a clean wafer edge. Patterning defects were improved with suitable film stacking.

  17. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction to a temporary tattoo

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed a skin eruption 10 days after application of a temporary tattoo advertised as a “natural black henna tattoo.” The eruption was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the tattoo ink. The textile dye paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common industrial allergen and can be found in some temporary tattoo inks. This case describes the reaction and reviews the international literature pertaining to PPD and temporary tattoos. PMID:17256041

  18. 38 CFR 21.6505 - Participation in the temporary program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Temporary Program of Vocational Training and... work periods and vocational rehabilitation is limited to qualified veterans. (Authority: 38 U.S.C....

  19. 2. Photocopy of Photograph, 1893 (Moore Memorial Library) TEMPORARY SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Photograph, 1893 (Moore Memorial Library) TEMPORARY SUPPORT SYSTEM DURING CONSTRUCTION - Christiana Borough Bridge, Bridge Street over Pennsylvania Railroad, Christiana, Lancaster County, PA

  20. Immersion francaise precoce: Musique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Music for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide in music is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The program is presented as one that contributes to the development of the child, calls for flexibility and diversification, and requires a solid music education on the part of the teacher. The guide presents the following topics: (1) statements…

  1. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

  2. The Feel Good Factor: Comparing Immersion by Design and Immersion by Default Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Fiona; Leahy, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory research project entitled "Gaelscoileanna and Multicultural classrooms: the potential for transfer to enhance L2 learning experiences". The project focussed on two language immersion contexts in Ireland which, despite obvious differences, share a range of significant commonalities. One…

  3. The CPF Immersion Registry, 1996. A Guide to French Immersion Programs throughout Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Judy, Ed.

    The directory lists French immersion programs at the elementary and secondary school levels in each province and territory of Canada. They are arranged alphabetically by province or territory, then by city or town within those categories. Data pertain to the 1995-96 school year. Information provided for each region includes general information on…

  4. Vesicle electrohydrodynamic simulations by coupling immersed boundary and immersed interface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei-Fan; Lai, Ming-Chih; Seol, Yunchang; Young, Yuan-Nan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we develop a coupled immersed boundary (IB) and immersed interface method (IIM) to simulate the electrodeformation and electrohydrodynamics of a vesicle in Navier-Stokes leaky dielectric fluids under a DC electric field. The vesicle membrane is modeled as an inextensible elastic interface with an electric capacitance and an electric conductance. Within the leaky dielectric framework and the piecewise constant electric properties in each fluid, the electric stress can be treated as an interfacial force so that both the membrane electric and mechanical forces can be formulated in a unified immersed boundary method. The electric potential and transmembrane potential are solved simultaneously via an efficient immersed interface method. The fluid variables in Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a projection method on a staggered MAC grid while the electric potential is solved at the cell center. A series of numerical tests have been carefully conducted to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the present method to simulate vesicle electrohydrodynamics. In particular, we investigate the prolate-oblate-prolate (POP) transition and the effect of electric field and shear flow on vesicle electrohydrodynamics. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained in previous work using different numerical algorithms.

  5. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  6. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  7. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  8. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  9. Characteristics of metabolism during prolonged water immersion.

    PubMed

    Tigranyan, R A

    1975-01-01

    The effect on the organism of a 12-day stay in a water immersion medium (head on the water surface) was studied on 10 subjects. The condition of the metabolic processes in the subjects was judged from the investigation of the parameters of protein and carbohydrate metabolism, acid-base equilibrium, the activity of a number of enzymes and steroid hormones. The venous blood and diurnal urine served as the material for conducting the corresponding biochemical determinations. The stay in an immersion medium is accompanied by a significant increase in the content of residual nitrogen in the blood, by a reduction of the creatinine content in the blood and by an increase of the creatine content of the blood with the simultaneous increase of the excretion of creatinine and creatine with the urine, by a significant increase of the glucose and lactate content in the blood, by the development of acidosis of a respiratory and metabolic character, as well as by a significant increase of the activity of creatine phosphokinase and the isoenzyme fraction of lactate dehydrogenase3. In all the subjects, an expressed intensification of the glucocorticoid and androgenic functions of the adrenal cortex is noted during the experimental period. PMID:11887912

  10. Immersed boundary methods for viscoelastic particulate flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sreenath; Shaqfeh, Eric; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    Viscoelastic particulate suspensions play key roles in many energy applications. Our goal is to develop a simulation-based tool for engineering such suspensions. This study is concerned with fully resolved simulations, wherein all flow scales associated with the particle motion are resolved. The present effort is based on Immersed Boundary methods, in which the domain grids do not conform to particle geometry. In this approach, the conservation of momentum equations, which include both Newtonian and non-Newtonian stresses, are solved over the entire domain including the region occupied by the particles. The particles are defined on a separate Lagrangian mesh that is free to move over an underlying Eulerian grid. The development of an immersed boundary forcing technique for moving bodies within an unstructured-mesh, massively parallel, non-Newtonian flow solver is thus developed and described. The presentation will focus on the numerical algorithm and measures taken to enable efficient parallelization and transfer of information between the underlying fluid grid and the particle mesh. Several validation test cases will be presented including sedimentation under orthogonal shear - a key flow in drilling muds and fracking fluids.

  11. An immersed boundary method for endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-09-01

    Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

  12. Visuospatial astronomy education in immersive digital planetariums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.

    2008-06-01

    Even simple concepts in astronomy are notoriously difficult for the general public to understand. Many ideas involve three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among astronomical objects. However much of the traditional teaching materials used in astronomy education are two-dimensional (2D) in nature, while studies show that visualising mental rotations and perspective changes can be difficult for many. The simplifications that occur when explaining one phenomenon may lead to new misconceptions in other concepts. Properly constructed 3D simulations can provide students with the multiple perspectives necessary for understanding. As a venue for virtual astronomical environments, the new class of digital video planetariums that are appearing in museums and science centres have the potential to bridge the comprehension gap in astronomy learning. We describe a research project which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of visualisations in both immersive and non-immersive settings, by using freshmen undergraduate students from a four-year college. The retention of students over the course of a semester for this study means that student misconceptions can be tracked and recorded weekly via curriculum tests.

  13. Immersive STEM: From Fulldome to VR Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    For more than 15 years, fulldome video technology has transformed planetariums worldwide, using data-driven visualizations to support science storytelling. Fulldome video shares significant technical infrastructure with emerging VR headset technologies, and these personalized VR experiences allow for new audiences and new experiences of an existing library of context—as well as affording new opportunities for fulldome producers to explore. At the California Academy of Sciences, we are translating assets for our planetarium shows into immersive experiences for a variety of HR headsets. We have adapted scenes from our four award-wining features—Fragile Planet (2008), Life: A Cosmic Story (2010), Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet (2012), and Habitat Earth (2015)—to place viewers inside a virtual planetarium viewing the shows. Similarly, we have released two creative-commons mini-shows on various VR outlets. This presentation will also highlight content the Academy will make available from our upcoming 2016 planetarium show about asteroids, comets, and solar system origins, some of which has been formatted for a full four-pi-steradian perspective. The shared immersive environment of digital planetariums offers significant opportunities for education and affective engagement of STEM-hungry audiences—including students, families, and adults. With the advent of VR technologies, we can leverage the experience of fulldome producers and planetarium professionals to create personalized home experiences that allow new ways to experience their content.

  14. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues.

    PubMed

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D

    2016-01-01

    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines. PMID:27232665

  15. Temporary inhibition of permanently implanted demand pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Latif, P; Ewy, G A

    1977-01-01

    Temporary inhibition of permanently implanted demand pacemakers has been previously described. Demand pacemakers may be inhibited by waving a magnet over the region of the pacemaker generator or by chest wall stimulation. The former may not inhibit most of the bipolar pacemakers, whereas the latter may be time consuming and may casue patient discomfort. Another method is described which utilized a commercially available Cordis Omnicor Programmer, Model 166-B, to temporarily inhibit bipolar and unipolar pacemakers. By placing the programmer over the skin where the pacemaker generator is implanted and/or over the area of the subcutaneous pervenous lead and activating the programmer multiple times at a rate faster then the pacing rate, the demand pacemakers are inhibited. After testing the efficacy in vitro, the method was successfully tried on 45 patients. Fifteen of these patients had unipolar pacemakers. Pacemakers marketed by Medtronic, Cordis, Starr-Edwards, C.P.I., and Arco were tested. Temporary inhibition of permanent demand pacemakers is desirable under various clinical situations. The method herein described has the advantages of being simple, quick, painless, and is effective for both unipolar and bipolar pacemakers. PMID:830215

  16. Immersion defectivity study with volume production immersion lithography tool for 45 nm node and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Katsushi; Nagaoka, Shiro; Yoshida, Masato; Iriuchijima, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Tomoharu; Shiraishi, Kenichi; Owa, Soichi

    2008-03-01

    Volume production of 45nm node devices utilizing Nikon's S610C immersion lithography tool has started. Important to the success in achieving high-yields in volume production with immersion lithography has been defectivity reduction. In this study we evaluate several methods of defectivity reduction. The tools used in our defectivity analysis included a dedicated immersion cluster tools consisting of a Nikon S610C, a volume production immersion exposure tool with NA of 1.3, and a resist coater-developer LITHIUS i+ from TEL. In our initial procedure we evaluated defectivity behavior by comparing on a topcoat-less resist process to a conventional topcoat process. Because of its simplicity the topcoatless resist shows lower defect levels than the topcoat process. In a second study we evaluated the defect reduction by introducing the TEL bevel rinse and pre-immersion bevel cleaning techniques. This technique was shown to successfully reduce the defect levels by reducing the particles at the wafer bevel region. For the third defect reduction method, two types of tool cleaning processes are shown. Finally, we discuss the overall defectivity behavior at the 45nm node. To facilitate an understanding of the root cause of the defects, defect source analysis (DSA) was applied to separate the defects into three classes according to the source of defects. DSA analysis revealed that more than 99% of defects relate to material and process, and less than 1% of the defects relate to the exposure tool. Material and process optimization by collaborative work between exposure tool vendors, track vendors and material vendors is a key for success of 45nm node device manufacturing.

  17. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    PubMed

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  18. Impact resistance of oil-immersed lignum vitae

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Wei; Shan, Lei; Lu, Hongyu; Zheng, Yelong; Han, Zhiwu; Tian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biological materials immersed in vegetable and mineral oil, such as rattan armor and wooden sleepers, have been extensively used since ancient times because of their excellent mechanical properties. This study quantitatively investigated the viscoelasticity and tribological performance of lignum vitae immersed in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and tung oils (Aleuritesfordii Hemsl.) to reveal the mechanism of impact resistance. The acceleration of samples immersed in tung oil was higher than that of dry and PAO-immersed samples in the first impact. The elastic modulus of the samples immersed in tung oil increased slightly. The impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was reduced because of the low friction coefficient (0.07) resulted in a low wear rate. The extent of impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was approximately 34% and 58% lower than that on the dry and PAO oil-immersed samples, respectively, under an angle of 20° and a height of 10 cm. The impact damage on the PAO-immersed samples was reduced because of low friction coefficient. However, impact damage increased because of large elastic modulus. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for the application of modified biological materials with high strength and wear resistance. PMID:27425829

  19. Impact resistance of oil-immersed lignum vitae.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei; Shan, Lei; Lu, Hongyu; Zheng, Yelong; Han, Zhiwu; Tian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biological materials immersed in vegetable and mineral oil, such as rattan armor and wooden sleepers, have been extensively used since ancient times because of their excellent mechanical properties. This study quantitatively investigated the viscoelasticity and tribological performance of lignum vitae immersed in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO) and tung oils (Aleuritesfordii Hemsl.) to reveal the mechanism of impact resistance. The acceleration of samples immersed in tung oil was higher than that of dry and PAO-immersed samples in the first impact. The elastic modulus of the samples immersed in tung oil increased slightly. The impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was reduced because of the low friction coefficient (0.07) resulted in a low wear rate. The extent of impact damage on the samples immersed in tung oil was approximately 34% and 58% lower than that on the dry and PAO oil-immersed samples, respectively, under an angle of 20° and a height of 10 cm. The impact damage on the PAO-immersed samples was reduced because of low friction coefficient. However, impact damage increased because of large elastic modulus. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for the application of modified biological materials with high strength and wear resistance. PMID:27425829

  20. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

  1. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Treffel, Loïc; Dmitrieva, Liubov; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Blanc, Stéphane; Gharib, Claude; Millet, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity. PMID:26913867

  2. Solving Fluid Structure Interaction Problems with an Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barad, Michael F.; Brehm, Christoph; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be used for moving boundary problems as well as fully coupled fluid-structure interaction is presented. The underlying Cartesian immersed boundary method of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) framework, based on the locally stabilized immersed boundary method previously presented by the authors, is extended to account for unsteady boundary motion and coupled to linear and geometrically nonlinear structural finite element solvers. The approach is validated for moving boundary problems with prescribed body motion and fully coupled fluid structure interaction problems. Keywords: Immersed Boundary Method, Higher-Order Finite Difference Method, Fluid Structure Interaction.

  3. Computer control of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The initial steps taken in developing a completely menu driven and totally automated computer control system for a bioreactor are discussed. This bioreactor is an electro-mechanical cell growth system cell requiring vigorous control of slowly changing parameters, many of which are so dynamically interactive that computer control is a necessity. The process computer will have two main functions. First, it will provide continuous environmental control utilizing low signal level transducers as inputs and high powered control devices such as solenoids and motors as outputs. Secondly, it will provide continuous environmental monitoring, including mass data storage and periodic data dumps to a supervisory computer.

  4. Gas phase acetaldehyde production in a continuous bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Soon Ook . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Trantolo, D.J. . Center for Biotechnology Engineering); Wise, D.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA . Center for Biotechnology Engineering)

    1993-08-20

    The gas phase continuous production of acetaldehyde was studied with particular emphasis on the development of biocatalyst (alcohol oxidase on solid phase support materials) for a fixed bed reactor. Based on the experimental results in a batch bioreactor, the biocatalysts were prepared by immobilization of alcohol oxidase on Amberlite IRA-400, packed into a column, and the continuous acetaldehyde production in the gas phase by alcohol oxidase was performed. The effects of the reaction temperature, flow rates of gaseous stream, and ethanol vapor concentration on the performance of the continuous bioreactor were investigated.

  5. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  6. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated

  7. Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Fletcher, Adam; Wan, Xiaoke; Chang, Liang; Jakeman, Hali; Koukis, Dimitrios; Tanner, David B.; Ebbets, Dennis; Weinberg, Jonathan; Lipscy, Sarah; Nyquist, Rich; Bally, John

    2012-09-01

    Silicon immersion gratings (SIGs) offer several advantages over the commercial echelle gratings for high resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy: 3.4 times the gain in dispersion or ~10 times the reduction in the instrument volume, a multiplex gain for a large continuous wavelength coverage and low cost. We present results from lab characterization of a large format SIG of astronomical observation quality. This SIG, with a 54.74 degree blaze angle (R1.4), 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area, was developed for high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~70,000) in the near IR (1.1-2.5 μm). Its entrance surface was coated with a single layer of silicon nitride antireflection (AR) coating and its grating surface was coated with a thin layer of gold to increase its throughput at 1.1-2.5 μm. The lab measurements have shown that the SIG delivered a spectral resolution of R=114,000 at 1.55 μm with a lab testing spectrograph with a 20 mm diameter pupil. The measured peak grating efficiency is 72% at 1.55 μm, which is consistent with the measurements in the optical wavelengths from the grating surface at the air side. This SIG is being implemented in a new generation cryogenic IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectrometer (FIRST), to offer broad-band high resolution IR spectroscopy with R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 um under a typical seeing condition in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array at the robotically controlled Tennessee State University 2-meter Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. FIRST is designed to provide high precision Doppler measurements (~4 m/s) for the identification and characterization of extrasolar planets, especially rocky planets in habitable zones, orbiting low mass M dwarf stars. It will also be used for other high resolution IR spectroscopic observations of such as young stars, brown dwarfs, magnetic fields, star formation and interstellar mediums. An optimally designed

  8. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels...

  9. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels...

  10. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels...

  11. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels...

  12. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels...

  13. 26 CFR 1.1502-13T - Intercompany transactions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intercompany transactions (temporary). 1.1502-13T Section 1.1502-13T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Computation of Separate Taxable Income § 1.1502-13T Intercompany transactions (temporary). (a) through...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-5T - Definitions (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions (temporary). 1.1092(b)-5T Section 1.1092(b)-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-5T Definitions (temporary)....

  15. 26 CFR 51.2T - Explanation of terms (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Explanation of terms (temporary). 51.2T Section 51.2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUG FEE § 51.2T Explanation of terms (temporary). (a) In general. This section explains the...

  16. 47 CFR 101.31 - Temporary and conditional authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary and conditional authorizations. 101.31 Section 101.31 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Applications and Licenses General Filing Requirements § 101.31 Temporary and conditional authorizations....

  17. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  18. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  19. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  20. 26 CFR 1.181-2T - Election (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election (temporary). 1.181-2T Section 1.181-2T...) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.181-2T Election (temporary). (a) Time and manner of making election. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of this...

  1. 26 CFR 1.181-2T - Election (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Election (temporary). 1.181-2T Section 1.181-2T... Election (temporary). (a) Time and manner of making election. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (e) of...) and (e) of this section, the election must be made by the due date (including extensions) for...

  2. 42 CFR 488.54 - Temporary waivers applicable to hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary waivers applicable to hospitals. 488.54... Requirements § 488.54 Temporary waivers applicable to hospitals. (a) General provisions. If a hospital is found to be out of compliance with one or more conditions of participation for hospitals, as specified...

  3. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  4. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  5. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  6. 43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES General Provisions § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal severance....

  7. 26 CFR 1.846-4T - Effective dates (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates (temporary). 1.846-4T Section 1.846-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-4T Effective dates (temporary). (a) . For...

  8. 18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided that the temporary compressor facilities shall not be used to increase the volume or service above that rendered by the involved existing permanent compressor unit(s). (b) Reporting requirements. As... and number of compressor units; (2) The location at which temporary compression was...

  9. Report of the Task Force on Temporary Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ. and Colleges, Long Beach.

    Phase I of the Task Force on Temporary Faculty study of the utilization of full- and part-time temporary faculty in the California State University and Colleges (CSUC) is presented. The study, which involved the gathering and analysis of data, the identification of problems--many of them detrimental to faculty morale--and the development of…

  10. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General... a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph (d) of this section. For purposes of...

  11. 8 CFR 245a.2 - Application for temporary residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application for temporary residence. 245a.2 Section 245a.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSONS ADMITTED FOR TEMPORARY OR PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS UNDER SECTION 245A OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...

  12. 8 CFR 245a.2 - Application for temporary residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Application for temporary residence. 245a.2 Section 245a.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSONS ADMITTED FOR TEMPORARY OR PERMANENT RESIDENT STATUS UNDER SECTION 245A OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY...

  13. 26 CFR 1.163-9T - Personal interest (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... than the trade or business of performing services as an employee), (ii) Any investment interest (within... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Personal interest (temporary). 1.163-9T Section...-9T Personal interest (temporary). (a) In general. No deduction under any provision of Chapter 1...

  14. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for special temporary authority. 1... Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.931 Application for special temporary authority. (a) Wireless...

  15. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for special temporary authority. 1... Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.931 Application for special temporary authority. (a) Wireless...

  16. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for special temporary authority. 1... Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.931 Application for special temporary authority. (a) Wireless...

  17. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for special temporary authority. 1... Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures § 1.931 Application for special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. (1) In...

  18. 47 CFR 76.29 - Special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special temporary authority. 76.29 Section 76.29 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Registration Statements § 76.29 Special temporary authority....

  19. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41,...

  20. 19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary identification cards. 112.49 Section 112... THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Identification Cards § 112.49 Temporary identification cards. (a) Issuance. When an identification card is required by the port director under § 112.41,...