Sample records for temporary immersion bioreactor

  1. Production of pineapple transgenic plants assisted by temporary immersion bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Espinosa; J. Lorenzo; A. Iglesias; L. Yabor; E. Menéndez; J. Borroto; L. Hernández; A. Arencibia

    2002-01-01

    A procedure for producing pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.] transgenic plants was developed that involved selection by micropropagation in temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs). Pineapple calluses ranging in size from 1.5 mm to 2.0 mm that were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AT2260 (pIG121Hm) and LBA4404 (pTOK233) for 24 h produced the highest percentage (40%) of GUS+ calluses. Phosphinothricin and hygromycin,

  2. Improved mass multiplication of Rhodiola crenulata shoots using temporary immersion bioreactor with forced ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ying; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-03-01

    A temporary immersion bioreactor system was found to be suitable for mass shoot proliferation of Rhodiola crenulata. The shoot multiplication ratio and hyperhydration rate reached 46.8 and 35.4%, respectively, at a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 300 min. Forced ventilation was employed in the temporary immersion bioreactor culture in order to decrease the hyperhydration rate, improve shoot quality and enhance the multiplication ratio. The highest multiplication ratio of 55.7 was obtained under a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 180 min with the forced ventilation at an air flow rate of 40 l/h, and the hyperhydration rate was reduced to 26.1%. Forced ventilation also improved the subsequent elongation and rooting rate of these proliferated shoots, and the shoot cultures from the temporary immersion bioreactor formed complete plantlets when subcultured onto a rooting medium containing 5 ?mol/l indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22238017

  3. A new temporary immersion bioreactor system for micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Robert, Manuel L; Herrera-Herrera, José Luis; Herrera-Herrera, Gastón; Herrera-Alamillo, Miguel Angel; Fuentes-Carrillo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    A new type of bioreactor system for plant micropropagation is described that incorporates a number of features specifically designed to simplify its operation and reduce production costs. The BioMINT unit is a mid-sized (1.2 L) reactor that operates on the principle of temporary immersion. It is built of polypropylene and is translucent, autoclavable, and reusable. It consists of two vessels, one for the plant tissues and the other one for the liquid culture media coupled together through a perforated adaptor piece that permits the flow of the liquid media from one vessel to the other. This flux is driven by gravity through a see-saw movement provided by equipment (SyB) consisting of electric motor powered platforms that change position. The structural simplicity and the modular and independent nature of the bioreactors simplify their operation and reduce the amount of hand labor required for transfers, thereby reducing the cost of the whole micropropagation process. PMID:16673911

  4. Production of laccase and decolouration of the textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R in temporary immersion bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Couto, Susana

    2011-10-30

    Laccase production by Trametes pubescens grown on sunflower-seed shells (SS) under solid-state fermentation (SFF) conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors was studied. Three immersion cycles were considered: 1 min immersed and 9 min non-immersed, 1 min immersed and 30 min non-immersed and 1 min immersed and 60 min non-immersed. The latter led to the highest laccase activities (4000-6000 Ul(-1)). Also, the in vitro and in vivo decolouration of the recalcitrant textile dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) was assessed. It was found that RBBR (133.33 mg l(-1)) was efficiently decolourised by T. pubencens grown on SS under SSF conditions in temporary immersion bioreactors in five successive batches. The percentage of RBBR decolouration was higher than 55% in 4h and around 70% in 24h in all the batches. However, it was found that RBBR decolouration by the crude culture filtrates was more advantageous. Thus, an RBBR decolouration percentage of nearly 80% in 2h was obtained. PMID:21868156

  5. Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Alejandro; Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Gerth, Andre; Wilken, Dirk; Jordan, Miguel; Jiménez-González, Elio; Gomez-Kosky, Rafael; Mendoza, Elisa Quiala

    2007-01-01

    The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). PMID:17708453

  6. Production of leafy biomass using temporary immersion bioreactors: an alternative platform to express proteins in transplastomic plants with drastic phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Michoux, Franck; Ahmad, Niaz; Hennig, Anna; Nixon, Peter J; Warzecha, Heribert

    2013-03-01

    Chloroplast transformation technology is a promising approach for the production of foreign proteins in plants with expression levels of up to 70 % of total soluble protein (TSP) achieved in tobacco. However, expression of foreign protein in the chloroplast can lead to drastic or even lethal effects in transplastomic plants grown in soil, thereby potentially limiting the applicability of this technology. For instance, previous attempts to express the outer surface protein A (OspA) from Borrelia burgdorferi in tobacco chloroplasts led to plant death when expressed at 10 % TSP. We show here that this earlier transplastomic line, as well as a new plant line, OspA:YFP, expressing OspA fused to the yellow fluorescent protein, can be propagated in temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs) using AlkaBurst™ technology to produce leafy biomass that expressed OspA at levels of up to 7.6 % TSP, to give a maximum yield of OspA of about 108 mg/L. Our results show that TIBs provide an alternative method for the production of transplastomic biomass expressing proteins toxic for plants and is a particularly useful approach when 'absolute' containment is required. PMID:23262582

  7. Hydrogen peroxide induced phenylpropanoids pathway eliciting a defensive response in plants micropropagated in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs).

    PubMed

    Arencibia, Ariel D; Bernal, Aydiloide; Zayas, Carlos; Carmona, Elva; Cordero, Cecilia; González, Gloria; García, Rolando; Santana, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    The relation between the oxidative burst and phenylpropanoid pathways has been studied using the sugarcane cultivar C86-56, which does not release phenolics in agar-base micropropagation systems. In stationary liquid culture, a significant production of phenolic compounds and plant survival were determined in sugarcane plants treated with 5mM H(2)O(2). The spectrophotometer determinations and the gene expression analysis corroborated that releasing of phenolics and soluble ?-quinones was induced during the first 24h of treatment. In comparison with the control treatments, sugarcane plants treated with H(2)O(2) demonstrated differences in the micropropagation-related variables when multiplied in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs) supplemented with polyethyleneglycol (PEG 20%). Expression of selected genes related to photosynthesis, ethylene, auxins, oxidative burst, and defense pathways were confirmed during the entire PEG 20% stress in the plants coming from the 5mM H(2)O(2) treatment; whereas, much more heterogeneous expression patterns were evidenced in plants stressed with PEG but not previously treated with H(2)O(2). RT-PCR expression analysis supports the hypothesis that while H(2)O(2) induces the oxidative burst, the phenylpropanoids pathways elicit and maintain the defensive response mechanism in micropropagated sugarcane plants. PMID:22921000

  8. Regeneration of somatic embryos in Theobroma cacao L. in temporary immersion bioreactor and analyses of free amino acids in different tissues.

    PubMed

    Niemenak, Nicolas; Saare-Surminski, Katja; Rohsius, Christina; Ndoumou, Denis Omokolo; Lieberei, Reinhard

    2008-04-01

    The present study aimed at developing temporary immersion bioreactor techniques for multiplication of cacao somatic embryos. Temporary Immersion System (TIS), i.e. flooding of plant tissue at regular time intervals provides an efficient way to propagate plants. Somatic embryos were regenerated in twin flask bioreactors. The TIS proved to be suitable for mass regeneration of somatic embryos and for their subsequent direct sowing. The number of embryos after 3 months of culture was significantly higher in TIS cultures than in the solid medium variant. TIS also improved embryo development regarding the conversion to torpedo shaped forms. Matured embryos derived from TIS and pre-treated with 6% sucrose were converted into plants after direct sowing. Additionally to the influence of culture conditions on the development of somatic embryogenesis the content and composition of free amino acids were analysed. The content of free amino acids in somatic embryos rose as immersion frequency increased. The endogenous free GABA content in embryogenic callus was significantly higher than in non-embryogenic callus. PMID:18193427

  9. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) micropropagation in temporary immersion systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Escalona; J. C. Lorenzo; B. González; M. Daquinta; J. L. González; Y. Desjardins; C. G. Borroto

    1999-01-01

    A procedure for the mass propagation of pineapple plants (Ananas comosus L. Merr) using a temporary immersion technique is described. This procedure involved three distinct phases in the automated\\u000a temporary immersion system: shooting, bud differentiation and elongation. To establish this protocol, we used in vitro shoots\\u000a obtained from established liquid culture as starting materials. Three culture methods (solid, liquid and

  10. Sugarcane shoot formation in an improved temporary immersion system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Carlos Lorenzo; Boris Luis González; Maritza Escalona; Claude Teisson; Carlos Borroto

    1998-01-01

    A new protocol was established for sugarcane cv. C-1051-73 shoot formation in a temporary immersion system. The two-step protocol\\u000a involves shoot formation in 50 ml of culture medium per explant and 1.0 mg l-1 paclobutrazol for 30 days followed by shoot\\u000a elongation by exposure to 1.0 mg l-1 gibberellic acid for 15 days. The multiplication rate was doubled in comparison

  11. Galanthamine and related alkaloids production by Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture using a temporary immersion technology.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Georgiev, Milen; Ilieva, Mladenka; Pavlov, Atanas

    2011-01-01

    The process of galanthamine and related alkaloids production by Leucojum aestivum shoot culture in a temporary immersion system was studied. It was established that temporary immersion approach is prospective for development of a biosynthetic process for obtaining valuable Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Both immersion frequency and temperature had significant effect on biomass accumulation and the yields of galanthamine and related alkaloids. The maximal yield of galanthamine was achieved at the cultivation of L. aestivum shoot culture in temporary immersion RITA(®) system at immersion frequency 15 min flooding and 8 h stand-by periods, at 26 °C. Data on the relationships in the biological system "Nutrient medium-L. aestivum shoot culture-galanthamine" are presented as well. PMID:20680514

  12. Production of galanthamine by Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in different bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Anika; Berkov, Strahil; Claus, Diana; Gerth, André; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2012-08-01

    The production of galanthamine by shoots of Leucojum aestivum grown in different bioreactor systems (shaking and nonshaking batch culture, temporary immersion system, bubble bioreactor, continuous and discontinuous gassing bioreactor) under different culture conditions was studied. The influence of the nutrient medium, weight of inoculum, and size of bioreactor on both growth and galanthamine production was studied. The maximal yield of galanthamine (19.416 mg) was achieved by cultivating the L. aestivum shoots (10 g of fresh inoculum) in a temporary immersion system in a 1-L bioreactor vessel which was used as an airlift culture vessel, gassing 12 times per day (5 min). PMID:22639366

  13. Alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan; Georgiev, Vasil; Berkov, Strahil; Pavlov, Atanas

    2012-01-15

    The alkaloid patterns in Leucojum aestivum L. shoot culture cultivated at temporary immersion conditions were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 18 alkaloids were identified, and galanthamine, hamayne and lycorine were dominant. The L. aestivum 80 shoot culture, cultivated at temporary immersion conditions, is a prospective biological matrix for obtaining wide range Amaryllidaceae alkaloids, showing valuable biological and pharmacological activities. The temperature of cultivation influenced enzyme activities, catalyzing phenol oxidative coupling of 4'-O-methylnorbelladine and formation of the different groups Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Decreasing the temperature of cultivation of L. aestivum 80 shoot culture led to activation of para-ortho' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of galanthamine type alkaloids) and inhibited ortho-para' and para-para' phenol oxidative coupling (formation of lycorine and haemanthamine types alkaloids). PMID:22118817

  14. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  15. Application of bioreactor systems for large scale production of horticultural and medicinal plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Paek; D. Chakrabarty; E. J. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Automation of micropropagation via organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in a bioreactor has been advanced as a possible way of reducing costs. Micropropagation by conventional techniques is typically a labour-intensive means of clonal propagation. The paper describes lower cost and less labour-intensive clonal propagation through the use of modified air-lift, bubble column, bioreactors (a balloon-type bubble bioreactor), together with temporary immersion

  16. Elicitation of galanthamine production by Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in temporary immersion system.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Anika; Torras-Claveria, Laura; Berkov, Strahil; Claus, Diana; Gerth, André; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2013-01-01

    The influence of different elicitors (copper sulfate, silver nitrate, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate), on both the growth and alkaloid production of Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in a temporary immersion system was studied. Seven Amaryllidaceae alkaloids and three protoalkaloids were quantitatively determined by GC-MS analysis in leaves and bulblets, separately. Methyl jasmonate was found to significantly improve the production of galanthamine (GAL) in both leaves and bulblets. The content of GAL released to the liquid nutrient medium was also measured. The release of GAL into the liquid medium took place mainly in the first 2 weeks determined by harvesting the liquid nutrient medium after 2 weeks and measuring the GAL content (1st subculturing step). PMID:23225790

  17. Data envelopment analysis for assessing optimal operation of an immersed membrane bioreactor equipped with a draft tube for domestic wastewater reclamation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amos Bick; Fei Yang; Semion Shandalov; Gideon Oron

    2007-01-01

    Membrane fouling can be minimized by air lifting that plays a key role in cake removal from membrane surface. This study presents the results of tests that were carried out at Kiryat Sde-Boker, Israel, and focuses on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on membrane fouling in a pilot-scale Immersed Membrane Bio-Reactor (IMBR) using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10

  18. Disposable bioreactors for plant micropropagation and mass plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco. PMID:19475375

  19. Photoautotrophic culture of Coffea arabusta somatic embryos: development of a bioreactor for large-scale plantlet conversion from cotyledonary embryos.

    PubMed

    Afreen, F; Zobayed, S M A; Kozai, T

    2002-07-01

    Somatic embryos were developed from in vitro-grown leaf discs of Coffea arabusta in modified Murashige and Skoog medium under 30 micromol m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Cotyledonary stage embryos were selected from the 14-week-old cultures and were placed under a high (100 micromol m(-2) s(-1) PPF for 14 d. These pretreated embryos were grown photoautotrophically in three different types of culture systems: Magenta vessel; RITA-bioreactor (modified to improve air exchange); and a specially designed temporary root zone immersion bioreactor system (TRI-bioreactor) with forced ventilation. The aims of the study were to achieve large-scale embryo-to-plantlet conversion, and to optimize growth of plantlets under photoautotrophic conditions. The plantlet conversion percentage was highest (84 %) in the TRI-bioreactor and lowest in the modified RITA-bioreactor (20 %). Growth and survival of converted plantlets following 45 d of photoautotrophic culture in each of the three culture systems were studied. Fresh and dry masses of leaves and roots of plantlets developed in the TRI-bioreactor were significantly greater than those of plantlets developed in the modified RITA-bioreactor or Magenta vessel. The net photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll contents were also highest in plantlets grown in the TRI-bioreactor. Normal stomata were observed in leaves of plantlets grown in the TRI-bioreactor, whereas they could be abnormal in plantlets from the modified RITA-bioreactor. Survival of the plants after transfer from culture followed a similar pattern and was highest in the group grown in the TRI-bioreactor, followed by plants grown in the modified RITA-bioreactor and Magenta vessel. In addition, ex vitro growth of plants transferred from the TRI-bioreactor was faster than that of plants from the other culture systems. PMID:12125769

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  1. Immersed membrane activated sludge for the reuse of municipal wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Côté; Hervé Buisson; Charles Pound; Greg Arakaki

    1997-01-01

    The results of two pilot studies of an immersed membrane activated sludge process are presented. This process involves coupling a bioreactor with effluent separation by microfiltration hollow fibres immersed directly in the bioreactor. The two pilot studies were conducted at Valley Sanitary District, Indio, California, for 5 months and in Maisons-Laffitte, France, for 1 year. The objectives were to demonstrate

  2. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Temporary Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Max L.; Hazelbaker, Kim L.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the field of temporary employment. Topics covered include (1) the need for temporaries, (2) how the agency concept works, (3) why people become temporary employees, and (4) the types of occupations available on a temporary basis. (CH)

  10. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  13. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  15. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  16. Immersive video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  17. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  18. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  19. Instrumented Bioreactors BIOMATERIALS

    E-print Network

    ultrasonic imaging for determining extracellular matrix (ECM) content. Our bioreactor houses five cubic prepared reference samples with varying concentrations of the components of the extracellular matrix. We hydrogel-based engineered tissues. Ultrasonic sensors have been incorporated to monitor extracellular

  20. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  1. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  2. Bioreactors Stem Cells

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells and mechanical forces mediated to the cells by the matrix. The in vivo extracellular matrix constitutes

  3. Who are temporary nurses?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Goodman-Bacon; Yukako Ono

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the authors compare the characteristics of temporary and permanent registered nurses. They compare their findings for the nursing profession with characteristics of temporary and permanent workers in other occupations. They also look at the role of geography in a registered nurse’s decision to become a temporary worker.

  4. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  5. Sensing in tissue bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolfe, P.

    2006-03-01

    Specialized sensing and measurement instruments are under development to aid the controlled culture of cells in bioreactors for the fabrication of biological tissues. Precisely defined physical and chemical conditions are needed for the correct culture of the many cell-tissue types now being studied, including chondrocytes (cartilage), vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (blood vessels), fibroblasts, hepatocytes (liver) and receptor neurones. Cell and tissue culture processes are dynamic and therefore, optimal control requires monitoring of the key process variables. Chemical and physical sensing is approached in this paper with the aim of enabling automatic optimal control, based on classical cell growth models, to be achieved. Non-invasive sensing is performed via the bioreactor wall, invasive sensing with probes placed inside the cell culture chamber and indirect monitoring using analysis within a shunt or a sampling chamber. Electroanalytical and photonics-based systems are described. Chemical sensing for gases, ions, metabolites, certain hormones and proteins, is under development. Spectroscopic analysis of the culture medium is used for measurement of glucose and for proteins that are markers of cell biosynthetic behaviour. Optical interrogation of cells and tissues is also investigated for structural analysis based on scatter.

  6. Vous avez dit "immersion?" (You Said "Immersion?").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajo, Laurent, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Articles on immersion and bilingual education include these: "Terminological Considerations Regarding Content and Language Integrated Learning" (Tarja Nikula, David Marsh); "Educazione bilingue e multiculturale, istruzione bilingue, immersione totale: quattro nozioni da definire" ("Bilingual and Multicultural Education, Bilingual Instruction,…

  7. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  8. Increased efficacy of immersion vaccination in fish with hyperosmotic pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Huising, Mark O; Guichelaar, Teun; Hoek, Casper; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M Lidy; Flik, Gert; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Rombout, Jan H W M

    2003-10-01

    Immersion vaccination is common practice in aquaculture, because of its convenience for mass vaccination with sufficient protection. However, the mechanisms of antigen uptake and presentation, resulting in a protective immune response and the role of the innate immune system therein are largely unknown. The impact of immersion vaccination on fish physiology and on the ensuing innate and specific immune response was characterized with fluorescently labeled particulate and soluble model antigens. Vaccination of common carp by direct immersion (DI) or hyperosmotic immersion (HI; direct immersion, preceded by a brief immersion in a hypertonic solution) greatly enhanced the uptake of soluble, but not particulate antigen through temporary disruption of the integrity of the epithelia of gills and skin. Damage induced is mild and does not impose additional stress over the handling associated with immersion vaccination. Especially HI briefly but strongly activates the innate immune system. We conclude that HI more effectively increased the uptake of vaccine and enhanced the efficacy by which vaccine components are processed and presented by the innate immune system, dually enhancing the mucosal immune response. Understanding the mechanisms involved in uptake and processing of vaccine in the early phase of the immune response will greatly benefit the design of immersion vaccination. PMID:14505897

  9. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  10. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  11. Deployable Temporary Shelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Joe R.; Headley, David E.

    1993-01-01

    Compact storable components expand to create large shelter. Fully deployed structure provides large, unobstructed bay. Deployed trusses support wall and roof blankets. Provides temporary cover for vehicles, people, and materials. Terrestrial version used as garage, hangar, or large tent.

  12. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  13. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  14. The Effectiveness of a Novel Cartridge-Based Bioreactor Design in Supporting Liver Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mei; Hammond, Paul

    2009-01-01

    There are a number of applications—ranging from temporary strategies for organ failure to pharmaceutical testing—that rely on effective bioreactor designs. The significance of these devices is that they provide an environment for maintaining cells in a way that allows them to perform key cellular and tissue functions. In the current study, a novel cartridge-based bioreactor was developed and evaluated. Its unique features include its capacity for cell support and the adaptable design of its cellular space. Specifically, it is able to accommodate functional and reasonably sized tissue (>2.0?×?108 cells), and can be easily modified to support a range of anchorage-dependent cells. To evaluate its efficacy, it was applied to liver support in the current study. This involved evaluating the performance of rat primary hepatocytes within the unique cartridges in culture—sans bioreactor—and after being loaded within the novel bioreactor. Compared to collagen sandwich culture functional controls, hepatocytes within the unique cartridge design demonstrated significantly higher albumin production and urea secretion rates when cultured under dynamic flow conditions—reaching peak values of 170?±?22??g/106 cells/day and 195?±?18??g/106 cells/day, respectively. The bioreactor's effectiveness in supporting live and functioning primary hepatocytes is also presented. Cell viability at the end of 15 days of culture in the new bioreactor was 84?±?18%, suggesting that the new design is effective in maintaining primary hepatocytes for at least 2 weeks in culture. Liver-specific functions of urea secretion, albumin synthesis, and cytochrome P450 activity were also assessed. The results indicate that hepatocytes are able to achieve good functional performance when cultured within the novel bioreactor. This is especially true in the case of cytochrome P450 activity, where by day 15 of culture, hepatocytes within the bioreactor reached values that were 56.6% higher than achieved by the collagen sandwich functional control cultures. The success of the novel cartridge-based bioreactor in supporting hepatocytes with good viability and functional performance suggests that it is an effective design for supporting anchorage-dependent cells. PMID:19271993

  15. Anaerobic Granular Sludge Bioreactor Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon McHugh; Caroline O'Reilly; Thérèse Mahony; Emer Colleran; Vincent O'Flaherty

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a mature wastewater treatment technology, with worldwide application. The predominantly applied bioreactor designs, such as the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed, are based on the spontaneous formation of granular sludge. Despite the exploitation of granular reactors at full-scale for more than two decades, the mechanisms of granulation are not completely understood and numerous

  16. A new temporary soft lining material.

    PubMed

    Jepson, N J; McCabe, J F; Basker, R M

    1995-04-01

    The viscoelastic properties of a new light-activated temporary denture soft lining material have been monitored in vitro using a force/distance probe. Its baseline behaviour was characteristic of an elastic material and its compliance considerably less than that of both a short-term and a long-term soft lining material which were used as controls. Sample thickness had no appreciable effect on this compliance. These results suggest that the new product is likely to be perceived as being significantly harder by a patient. Twenty-four weeks' immersion in distilled water had no significant effect on either the compliance or elasticity of the test material and would suggest an improved durability when compared to other conventional short-term resilient denture lining materials, albeit at the expense of compliance. PMID:7738269

  17. Use of flocculants for increasing permeate flux in anaerobic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Díaz, H; Azócar, L; Torres, A; Lopes, S I C; Jeison, D

    2014-01-01

    Biomass retention, required for high rate anaerobic wastewater treatment, can be accomplished coupling an anaerobic bioreactor with membrane filtration. However, low flux seems to be a common factor when operating anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). Modification of biomass properties may represent a strategy for improving membrane flux. The addition of flocculants was tested as a tool for flux increase. Six different products were tested in dead-end filtration experiments. Based on the results, two products were selected for cross-flow tests. The one presenting better performance (Nalco MPE50) was tested in a laboratory-scale continuous AnMBR. Results show that the flocculant was able to substantially increase flux. Indeed, the flux-increasing effect was observed for several weeks after flocculant addition. Therefore, the use of flocculants seems to be an interesting tool to cope with temporary increases in required flux. PMID:24901617

  18. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  19. Anomalies from Immersions

    E-print Network

    Ospina, J F

    2001-01-01

    Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.

  20. Anomalies from Immersions

    E-print Network

    Juan Ospina

    2001-08-15

    Two forms of anomalies for chiral spinors living on submanifolds of the spacetime are obtained from the integrality theorem for immersions. The first form of the chiral anomaly is the usual for chiral spinors living on D-brane and O-plane intersections, the second form is exotic.

  1. Membrane bioreactors for waste gas treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine W Reij; Jos T. F Keurentjes; Sybe Hartmans

    1998-01-01

    This review describes the recent development of membrane reactors for biological treatment of waste gases. In this type of bioreactor gaseous pollutants are transferred through a membrane to the liquid phase, where micro-organisms degrade the pollutants. The membrane bioreactor combines the advantages of membrane devices with the clean technology of biological air purification. Two types of membrane materials can be

  2. PORTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS TO IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS

    E-print Network

    Gruchalla, Kenny

    , virtual reality, software engineering, biology. Abstract: Immersive virtual environments are becomingPORTING LEGACY APPLICATIONS TO IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS A Case Study Kenny GruchallaMOL, into an immersive virtual environment. Presenting macromolecules inside an interactive immersive virtual environment

  3. Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Ronald II

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

  4. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve...the construction, maintenance or use of a temporary campsite, tent platform, shelter or other temporary facility or equipment directly and...

  5. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve...the construction, maintenance or use of a temporary campsite, tent platform, shelter or other temporary facility or equipment directly and...

  6. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve...the construction, maintenance or use of a temporary campsite, tent platform, shelter or other temporary facility or equipment directly and...

  7. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve...the construction, maintenance or use of a temporary campsite, tent platform, shelter or other temporary facility or equipment directly and...

  8. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve...the construction, maintenance or use of a temporary campsite, tent platform, shelter or other temporary facility or equipment directly and...

  9. Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yoko; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were filled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non-immersed end and the set area was determined by subtracting the unset area from the sample thickness. To evaluate sealing ability, materials were filled into glass tubes and divided into four groups based on different immersion times. Thermal cycling and dye penetration were performed. At 7 days, the setting depths of HY-Seal and Caviton were almost equivalent to full sample thickness, while that of Lumicon was only half of full sample thickness (p < 0.01). On sealing ability, Lumicon ranked the highest followed by Caviton, whereas HY-Seal was unstable (p < 0.01). These results suggested that there was no correlation between setting progress and sealing ability. PMID:18972791

  10. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoacetica metabolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrei V; Sears, Jesse A; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R; Ahring, Birgitte K; Majors, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    An in situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600-MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol, and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process, enabling identification of intermediate and endpoint metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts. PMID:24946863

  11. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

    2014-06-20

    An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

  12. Biohydrogen production with fixed-bed bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jo-Shu Chang; Kuo-Shing Lee; Pin-Jei Lin

    2002-01-01

    An investigation on anaerobic hydrogen production was conducted in fixed-bed bioreactors containing hydrogen-producing bacteria originated from domestic sewage sludge. Three porous materials, loofah sponge (LS), expanded clay (EC) and activated carbon (AC), were used as the support matrix to allow retention of the hydrogen-producing bacteria within the fixed-bed bioreactors. The carriers were assessed for their effectiveness in biofilm formation and

  13. Production of Phytochemicals in Plant Cell Bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saurabh Chattopadhyay; A. K. Srivastava; V. S. Bisaria

    Plant cell culture provides a viable alternative over whole plant cultivation for the production of useful phytochemicals.\\u000a In order to successfully cultivate the plant cells at large scale, some engineering parameters such as cell aggregation, mixing,\\u000a aeration and shear sensitivity are taken into account for selection of a suitable bioreactor. Increased productivity in a\\u000a bioreactor can be achieved by selection

  14. The development of a biofilm membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TorOve Leiknes; Hallvard Ødegaard

    2007-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are commonly understood as the combination of membrane filtration and biological treatment using activated sludge. Development of a biofilm-MBR has been investigated combining a moving-bed-biofilm reactor with a submerged membrane biomass separation reactor. Treatment efficiencies were found to be high with the production of a consistent high-quality effluent, irrespective of loading rates on the bioreactor or membrane

  15. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in the body. Experiments conducted by Johnson scientist Dr. Thomas Goodwin proved that the NASA bioreactor could successfully cultivate cells using simulated microgravity, resulting in three-dimensional tissues that more closely approximate those in the body. Further experiments conducted on space shuttle missions and by Wolf as an astronaut on the Mir space station demonstrated that the bioreactor s effects were even further expanded in space, resulting in remarkable levels of tissue formation. While the bioreactor may one day culture red blood cells for injured astronauts or single-celled organisms like algae as food or oxygen producers for a Mars colony, the technology s cell growth capability offers significant opportunities for terrestrial medical research right now. A small Texas company is taking advantage of the NASA technology to advance promising treatment applications for diseases both common and obscure.

  16. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  17. Employment Growth in the Temporary Help Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Max L.; Hazelbaker, Kim L.

    1986-01-01

    This article documents the job gains recently experienced in the temporary help industry, and discusses reasons for the increase in demand for temporary workers and factors leading to the growth in supply of workers for temporary jobs. It also discusses differences in the occupational segments of the temporary help market. (CT)

  18. French Immersion Programs in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five articles on issues associated with French immersion approaches and bilingual education within the Canadian educational system are presented. Topics include attitudes, impacts, children's reading processes, early versus late immersion programs in British Columbia, and a study of writing ability of English-speaking students in French-speaking…

  19. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  20. Design and Test of a Low-Cost RGB Sensor for Online Measurement of Microalgae Concentration within a Photo-Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Wouwer, Alain Vande

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer. PMID:25730481

  1. MODELING AND CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS BIOREACTOR WITH CROSSFLOW FILTRATION

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    MODELING AND CONTROL OF A CONTINUOUS BIOREACTOR WITH CROSS­FLOW FILTRATION Ying Zhao and Sigurd on an industrial application of a continuous bioreactor with cross­flow filtration. In this paper the general pHC LC X, rS L , rS Y Figure 1: A continuous bioreactor with cross­flow filtration. The operation

  2. An experimental analysis of membrane bioreactor performances with immobilized chymosin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Curcio; V Calabrò; G Iorio

    2000-01-01

    Aim of the present work is the experimental analysis of a continuos flow membrane bioreactor with immobilized chymosin for the hydrolysis of milk k-casein, one of the steps in the cheese production process. Chymosin has been immobilized on the bioreactor membrane by ultrafiltering under pressure its solutions, continuously fed to the system in a total recycle configuration. Bioreactor performances are

  3. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation improvement via a novel capsule bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. P. Chou; S. K. Tseng; C. M. Ho

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a capsule bioreactor made from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to entrap anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) bacteria for the removal of nitrogen from synthetic wastewater. Experimental results demonstrate that the ANAMMOX bacteria were entrapped inside the capsule and not washed out from the bioreactor. This method also avoids damaging the ANAMMOX bacteria during immobilization. The proposed bioreactor also has

  4. A urease bioreactor for water reclamation aboard manned spacecraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard J. Schussel; James E. Atwater

    1995-01-01

    Development of a fixed bed continuous flow bioreactor, utilizing urease immobilized on diatomaceous earth, for decomposition of aqueous urea in a spacecraft closed loop environmental life support system is described. The results of small scale bioreactor experiments investigating the effects of throughput, temperature, pH and conductivity are reported. The design and performance of a full scale bioreactor are also presented.

  5. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  6. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  7. Bacterial diversity in an industrial wastewater bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bramucci, M; Kane, H; Chen, M; Nagarajan, V

    2003-10-01

    Industrial wastewater bioreactors are potentially important sources of novel biocatalysts. However, the microbial populations in these bioreactors are not well characterized. The microbial community in an industrial wastewater bioreactor was surveyed by extracting DNA from a sample of activated sludge, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of cloned 16S rRNA genes. A total of 407 cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences were compared with 88 bacterial isolates cultured from the same sample of sludge using a variety of standard media. Most of the bacteria detected by the PCR-based approach were beta-subdivision Proteobacteria, whereas most of the cultured bacteria were gamma-subdivision Proteobacteria. Only a few types of bacteria were detected by both approaches. These observations indicate that multiple techniques are necessary to characterize the microbial diversity in any complex ecosystem. PMID:12827322

  8. Contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Tomljanovi?-Veselski, Mirna; Zilih-Ostoji?, Cecilija

    2006-01-01

    The development of contact hypersensitivity to temporary tattoos has been on an increase all over the world. Skin painting with henna is a traditional practice in the Moslems and Hindu, and has recently been increasingly used in western countries. Black henna is obtained by adding paraphenylenediamine to the natural occurring henna. The risk of sensitization increases with the length of contact and increase of the concentration. A case is presented of an 11-year-old boy who developed a severe reaction in the form of redness and edema accompanied by pruritus on the day following the application of a temporary tattoo. A year before, the patient had also developed a skin reaction following temporary tattooing, which had not been recognized as a contact dermatitis. Patch testing was positive for paraphenylenediamine and thiuram compounds. The patient was treated with medium-strength corticosteroids. PMID:17010265

  9. Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

    1995-01-01

    A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

  10. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  11. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...other party or of any child; (3) Excluding...party from removing a child from the jurisdiction...temporary maintenance or support in amounts and on terms...Does not prejudice the rights of the parties or the child which are to be...

  12. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...other party or of any child; (3) Excluding...party from removing a child from the jurisdiction...temporary maintenance or support in amounts and on terms...Does not prejudice the rights of the parties or the child which are to be...

  13. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...other party or of any child; (3) Excluding...party from removing a child from the jurisdiction...temporary maintenance or support in amounts and on terms...Does not prejudice the rights of the parties or the child which are to be...

  14. Analysis of ``Immersed'' Thermocouple Error

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Bauerle

    1961-01-01

    The error of an ``immersed'' thermocouple due to heat leaks through the thermocouple wires has been estimated by means of a simple model. The error is shown to decrease exponentially with quantity L1?l1, where L1 is the ``immersion'' depth of the thermocouple and l1 is a characteristic length depending on thermocouple parameters and the mode of heat transfer. It is

  15. Microfabricated silicon solid immersion lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Fletcher; Kenneth B. Crozier; Kathryn W. Guarini; Stephen C. Minne; Gordon S. Kino; Calvin F. Quate; Kenneth E. Goodson

    2001-01-01

    We present the microfabrication of a solid immersion lens from silicon for scanning near-field optical microscopy. The solid immersion lens (SIL) achieves spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit in air without the losses associated with tapered optical fibers. A 15-?m-diameter SIL is formed by reflowing photoresist in acetone vapor and transferring the shape into single-crystal Si with reactive ion

  16. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...temporary manager's salary— (1) Is paid directly by the facility while the temporary...following— (i) The prevailing salary paid by providers for positions of this...

  17. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES...temporary manager's salary— (1) Is paid directly by the facility while the temporary...following— (i) The prevailing salary paid by providers for positions of this...

  18. Membrane bioreactors for water reclamation.

    PubMed

    Tao, G; Kekre, K; Wei, Z; Lee, T C; Viswanath, B; Seah, H

    2005-01-01

    Singapore has been using dual membrane technology (MF/UF RO) to produce high-grade water (NEWater) from secondary treated sewage. Membrane bioreactor (MBR) has very high potential and will lead to the further improvement of the productivity and quality of high-grade water. This study was focused on the technical feasibility of MBR system for water reclamation in Singapore, making a comparison between various membrane systems available and to get operational experience in terms of membrane cleaning and other issues. Three MBR plants were built at Bedok Water Reclamation Plant with a design flow of 300 m3/day each. They were commissioned in March 2003. Three different types of submerged membranes were tested. They are Membrane A, plate sheet membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; Membrane B, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.4 microm; and Membrane C, hollow fibre membrane with pore size of 0.035 microm. The permeate quality of all the three MBR Systems were found equivalent to or better than that of the conventional tertiary treatment by ultrafiltration. MBR permeate TOC was about 2 mg/l lower than UF permeate TOC. GC-MS, GC-ECD and HPLC scan results show that trace organic contaminants in MBR permeate and UF permeate were in the same range. MBR power consumption can be less than 1 kwh/m3. Gel layer or dynamic membrane generated on the submerged membrane surface played an important role for the lower MBR permeate TOC than the supernatant TOC in the membrane tank. Intensive chemical cleaning can temporarily remove this layer. During normal operation conditions, the formation of dynamic membrane may need one day to obtain the steady low TOC levels in MBR permeate. PMID:16004005

  19. Temporary Employee Requisition Please print

    E-print Network

    Carter, John

    Temporary Employee Requisition Please print Request Information Department and Budget number/Date/Year Provide a summary of duties or services covered by this agreement and any additional information: Title Manager Date Denied by Provost or VP Provost or Senior VP Date Applicant Information (to be completed

  20. WHY STUDY ECOLOGY IN TEMPORARY POOLS?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEON BLAUSTEIN; STEVEN S. SCHWARTZ

    2001-01-01

    Temporary pools, loosely and broadly defined in this journal issue to include all standing water bodies that intermittently dry, are collectively very com- mon worldwide and diverse in physical and biological characteristics. We outline four fundamental reasons to study ecology in temporary pools. First, lessons learned about the effects of ephemerality on biotic processes in temporary pools are not necessarily

  1. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization... § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  2. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization... § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  3. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization... § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  4. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization... § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  5. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization... § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q”...

  6. Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, H.; Hutmacher, D. W.

    The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.

  7. Bioreactor studies and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Hutmacher, D W

    2009-01-01

    The hydrodynamic environment "created" by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs. PMID:19290504

  8. Bisphenol A removal by a membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianhua Chen; Xia Huang; Duujong Lee

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are potentially harmful chemicals during wastewater reclamation. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a typical EDC, and its removal using a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. For comparison, a conventional activated sludge reactor (CASR) was simultaneously tested using the same BPA sludge loadings as the MBR. The results showed that MBR could remove BPA a little more

  9. Membrane bioreactor for lactic acid production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Moueddeb; J. Sanchez; C. Bardot; M. Fick

    1996-01-01

    A new type of membrane bioreactor is proposed for the transformation of lactose into lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The reactor is tubular and contains two coaxial porous alumina tubes. The internal one supports an alpha alumina membrane (mean pore size: 2.0 × 10?7 m) on its internal wall, the external one has the same membrane on its external face.

  10. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Guidi; G. Dubini; F. Tominetti; M. Raimondi

    2002-01-01

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and

  11. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal...or temporary support of a child of the marriage entitled...the other party or of any child; (3) Excluding a party from the family home or from the home of...Enjoining a party from removing a child from the jurisdiction of...or when the petition for dissolution or legal separation is......

  12. Isometric Immersions and Compensated Compactness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Slemrod, Marshall; Wang, Dehua

    2010-03-01

    A fundamental problem in differential geometry is to characterize intrinsic metrics on a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold {{mathcal M}^2} which can be realized as isometric immersions into {mathbb{R}^3}. This problem can be formulated as initial and/or boundary value problems for a system of nonlinear partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type whose mathematical theory is largely incomplete. In this paper, we develop a general approach, which combines a fluid dynamic formulation of balance laws for the Gauss-Codazzi system with a compensated compactness framework, to deal with the initial and/or boundary value problems for isometric immersions in {mathbb{R}^3}. The compensated compactness framework formed here is a natural formulation to ensure the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for approximate solutions, which yields the isometric realization of two-dimensional surfaces in {mathbb{R}^3}. As a first application of this approach, we study the isometric immersion problem for two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with strictly negative Gauss curvature. We prove that there exists a C 1, 1 isometric immersion of the two-dimensional manifold in {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our prescribed initial conditions. To achieve this, we introduce a vanishing viscosity method depending on the features of initial value problems for isometric immersions and present a technique to make the a priori estimates including the L ? control and H -1-compactness for the viscous approximate solutions. This yields the weak convergence of the vanishing viscosity approximate solutions and the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for the approximate solutions, hence the existence of an isometric immersion of the manifold into {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our initial conditions. The theory is applied to a specific example of the metric associated with the catenoid.

  13. Immersive haptic interaction with media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindar, N.; Tekalp, A. M.; Basdogan, C.

    2010-07-01

    New 3D video representations enable new modalities of interaction, such as haptic interaction, with 2D and 3D video for truly immersive media applications. Haptic interaction with video includes haptic structure and haptic motion for new immersive experiences. It is possible to compute haptic structure signals from 3D scene geometry or depth information. This paper introduces the concept of haptic motion, as well as new methods to compute haptic structure and motion signals for 2D video-plus-depth representation. The resulting haptic signals can be rendered using a haptic cursor attached to a 2D or 3D video display.

  14. From remote media immersion to Distributed Immersive Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Sawchuk; E. Chew; R. Zimmermann; C. Papadopoulos; C. Kyriakakis

    2003-01-01

    We present the architecture, technology and experimental applications of a real-time, multi-site, interactive and collaborative environment called Distributed Immersive Performance (DIP). The objective of DIP is to develop the technology for live, interactive musical performances in which the participants - subsets of musicians, the conductor and the audience - are in different physical locations and are interconnected by very high

  15. Phase II Clinical Immersion Clinical ImmersionTraining

    E-print Network

    Lotko, William

    experience in Phase I of the curriculum, will be one vehicle for this integration, while innovative online modalities will be another. The clinical immersion year will begin with a multidisciplinary Clinical Skills) in the simulation center. These OSCEs will include recognition and analysis of ethical issues. During

  16. Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that…

  17. Cell Separations in Microgravity and Development of a Space Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A bioreactor optimized for operations in space is now being developed. The current research is focused on determining the optimum cell-bead ratios, medium content and proper maintenance conditions required to keep living cell specimens alive and healthy for the entire flight. The bioreactor development project has recently added a microprocessor/computer to the JSC prototype for control and data analysis. Appropriate new technology is being combined with the current bioreactor designs and tested to determine what specific features must be included in the fabrication of a bioreactor designed to operate for STS demonstration tests. Considerations include: (1) circulation and resupply of culture media; (2) sensors required to monitor temperature, cell growth, mass transport, and oxygen consumption; and (3) inflight control of shear stress on cells, gas transfer in microgravity, diffusion, and intracellular transport. These data and results from the JSC prototype bioreactor test will be used for the design and construction of a small space bioreactor for the Orbiter middeck.

  18. Squeeze pressure bioreactor: a hydrodynamic bioreactor for noncontact stimulation of cartilage constructs.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Carmelo; Giusti, Serena; Mazzei, Daniele; Crawford, Aileen; Ahluwalia, Arti

    2011-07-01

    A novel squeeze pressure bioreactor for noncontact hydrodynamic stimulation of cartilage is described. The bioreactor is based on a small piston that moves up and down, perpendicular to a tissue construct, in a fluid-filled chamber. Fluid displaced by the piston generates a pressure wave and shear stress as it moves across the sample, simulating the dynamic environment of a mobile joint. The fluid dynamics inside the squeeze pressure bioreactor was modeled using analytical and computational methods to simulate the mechanical stimuli imposed on a construct. In particular, the pressure, velocity field, and wall shear stress generated on the surface of the construct were analyzed using the theory of hydrodynamic lubrication, which describes the flow of an incompressible fluid between two surfaces in relative motion. Both the models and in-situ pressure measurements in the bioreactor demonstrate that controlled cyclic stresses of up to 10?kPa can be applied to tissue constructs. Initial tests on three-dimensional scaffolds seeded with chondrocytes show that glycosaminoglycan production is increased with regard to controls after 24 and 48?h of cyclic noncontact stimulation in the bioreactor. PMID:21410315

  19. Deciphering Active Estrogen-Degrading Microorganisms in Bioreactors 

    E-print Network

    Roh, Hyung Keun

    2010-10-12

    in biological wastewater treatment processes. This dissertation investigated factors affecting estrogen biodegradation in bioreactors. Specifically, research efforts were placed on characterization of several bacterial estrogen degraders (model strains...

  20. Learning immersion without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  1. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  2. Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

  3. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  4. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  5. Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, N.; Franco, J.P.; Suidan, M.T. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Urbain, V. [Centre International de Recherche Sur l`Eau et l`Environnement, Le Pecq (France)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor sufficiently purified simulated municipal wastewater for indirect recharge to groundwater or nonpotable uses. Throughout more than 500 days of steady-state operation, total organic carbon concentrations of <1.1 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand of <3.5 mg/L were consistently achieved. No suspended solids were detected in the effluent during this period. The treated water was fully nitrified, resulting in low ammonia and organic nitrogen concentrations but high nitrate concentrations. Cyclic oxic-anoxic operation of an additional denitrification process would be necessary to meet potable water reuse standards. Phosphorus was fully used in the bioreactor for biological growth. Heterotrophic bacteria and MS-2 viruses were completely retained by the membrane system, reducing the extent of final disinfection required.

  6. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  7. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  8. Plant Safety and Risk with Temporary Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2006-12-01

    Temporary equipment may be brought onto a plant site for a variety of process needs. The risk profile of the facility is altered by use of such temporary equipment, but since the time durations of temporary equipment usage are generally small, usually fewer than 90 days per year, the risk increase is also small and is typically not modeled in a probabilistic risk assessment. This article describes some risk issues with temporary equipment in long-term use, gives a case study of a temporary, diesel-driven air compressor under extended use at the Idaho National Laboratory, and suggests the need to model temporary equipment in the facility risk assessment if the equipment is used more than a few months.

  9. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  10. Attention, Time Perception and Immersion in Games

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    gamers claim that they are losing track of time while they are immersed in the game. In this work of games [3]. Studies on immersion have revealed that lots of factors influence it such as the touch of the said consequences of immersion is gamers losing track of time [9]. This being said, however

  11. Morality in Tele-immersive Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn Y. Segovia; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Benoit Monin

    Humans are spending an increasing amount of time in tele- immersive environments interacting with avatars or virtual human bodies. Additionally, human behavior and cognition are affected by experiences in tele-immersive environments. Although there is substantial psychological work surrounding the notion of morality, there is little work that examines the interplay of immersive digital environments and the moral identity of the

  12. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States); Department of Engineering and Physics, University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK 73034-5209 (United States); Dillon, Robert [Department of Mathematics, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-3113 (United States); Dutta, Prashanta, E-mail: dutta@mail.wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface–immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  13. Bioreactors for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Sergei A; Weaver, Paul F

    2008-03-01

    Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H(2) production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H(2) (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubble-train bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N(2)) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1)) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) of H(2) production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days. PMID:18425614

  14. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398

  15. Study on hydraulic characteristics in a submerged membrane bioreactor process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui Liu; Xia Huang; Chengwen Wang; Lvjun Chen; Yi Qian

    2000-01-01

    Hydraulic characteristics in a membrane bioreactor are of significance for retarding membrane fouling and maintaining stable operation. Cross flow velocity along the membrane surface and its effect on transmembrane pressure change were experimentally investigated using two pilot-scale submerged membrane bioreactors. A simulation model for calculating cross flow velocity was then developed. Cross flow velocity was a function of aeration intensity.

  16. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

  17. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  18. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    E-print Network

    Ho, John S; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S Y

    2015-01-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, they rely on semispherical topographies and are non-planar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  19. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 655...Certification Determinations § 655.55 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  20. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 655...Certification Determinations § 655.55 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  1. 29 CFR 503.18 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 503...NATIONALITY ACT Enforcement § 503.18 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  2. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 655...Certification Determinations § 655.55 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  3. 29 CFR 503.18 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 503...NATIONALITY ACT Enforcement § 503.18 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  4. 29 CFR 503.18 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 503...NATIONALITY ACT Enforcement § 503.18 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities...STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance...

  6. 8 CFR 1244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. 1244.14 Section 1244...EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION...REGULATIONS TEMPORARY PROTECTED STATUS FOR NATIONALS OF DESIGNATED...Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status. (a) Authority of...

  7. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Validity of temporary labor certifications. 655.34 Section 655.34 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Application for Temporary Employment Certification § 655.34 Validity of temporary labor certifications....

  8. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  9. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  10. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  11. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  12. 29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

  13. Disposable bioreactors for inoculum production and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Eibl, Regine; Löffelholz, Christian; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable bioreactors have been increasingly implemented over the past ten years. This relates to both R & D and commercial manufacture, in particular, in animal cell-based processes. Among the numerous disposable bioreactors which are available today, wave-mixed bag bioreactors and stirred bioreactors are predominant. Whereas wave-mixed bag bioreactors represent the system of choice for inoculum production, stirred systems are often preferred for protein expression. For this reason, the authors present protocols instructing the reader how to use the wave-mixed BIOSTAT CultiBag RM 20 L for inoculum production and the stirred UniVessel SU 2 L for recombinant protein production at benchtop scale. All methods described are based on a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) suspension cell line expressing the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP). PMID:24297422

  14. Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

  15. Age changes in the viscoelasticity of a temporary soft lining material.

    PubMed

    Jepson, N J; McCabe, J F; Storer, R

    1993-08-01

    The viscoelastic properties of a widely used temporary soft lining material have been monitored in vivo and in vitro using a force distance probe. Over a period of 8 weeks' clinical use, Coe Soft demonstrated a significant and continued reduction in compliance with time, the reduction being particularly rapid over the first week. These changes were not associated with a reduction in measured lining thickness for which significant changes were not found. In vitro immersion in water, saline or artificial saliva was characterized by a rapid and significant reduction in compliance values over the first week. Further continued reductions in compliance values were only observed in artificial saliva over 8 weeks, and on prolonged immersion in distilled water over 96 weeks. All reductions in compliance were significantly less than those seen clinically. PMID:8354751

  16. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings...special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. ...immediate or temporary use of station in the Wireless Telecommunications...

  17. Bioreactor and ex situ biological treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A. [eds.

    1999-10-01

    Although in situ approaches have been the focus of much of current bioremediation practice, many site- and waste stream-remediation challenges are best met by applying bioreactors and other ex-situ treatment technologies, either singly or sometimes in combination with other technologies. Such engineered systems for the treatment of vapor, water, slurries, and soils are the focus of this volume, which covers a number of treatment technologies such as slurry reactors, compost reactors, biopiles, packed-bed reactors, vapor-phase reactors, and biofilters. Articles cover a number of technologies and media, as well as a wide variety of contaminants, among them arsenic, TPHs, MTBE, heavy metals, solvents, and other wastes.

  18. Bioreactor and ex situ biological treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-11-01

    Although in situ approaches have been the focus of much of current bioremediation practice, many site- and wastestream-remediation challenges are best met by applying bioreactors and other ex-situ treatment technologies, either singly or sometimes in combination with other technologies. Such engineered systems for the treatment of vapor, water, slurries, and soils are the focus of this volume, which covers a number of treatment technologies such as slurry reactors, compost reactors, biopiles, packed-bed reactors, vapor-phase reactors, and biofilters. Articles cover a number of technologies and media, as well as a wide variety of contaminants, among them arsenic, TPHs, MTBE, heavy metals, solvents, and other wastes.

  19. Bioreactor and ex situ biological treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, B.C.; Leeson, A.

    1999-01-01

    Although in situ approaches have been the focus of much of current bioremediation practice, many site- and wastestream-remediation challenges are best met by applying bioreactors and other ex-situ treatment technologies, either singly or sometimes in combination with other technologies. Such engineered systems for the treatment of vapor, water, slurries, and soils are the focus of this volume, which covers a number of treatment technologies such as slurry reactors, compost reactors, biopiles, packed-bed reactors, vapor-phase reactors, and biofilters. Articles cover a number of technologies and media, as well as a wide variety of contaminants, among them arsenic, TPHs, MTBE, heavy metals, solvents, and other wastes.

  20. Extended storage time of poly(3-hexylthiophene) field-effect transistors via immersion in common solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, L. A.; Song, A. M.

    2007-10-01

    The influence of storage in three different commonly used solvents on the stability of bottom-contact organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using poly(3-hexylthiophene)-2,5-diyl (P3HT) as the active layer was studied. It is demonstrated that the immersion in a nonpolar solvent, cyclohexane, caused the devices to degrade rapidly. In contrast, the immersion of the devices in two polar solvents, acetone and water, did not significantly affect the performance of these OFETs for periods as long as 20h. Due to the significantly extended device stability in comparison with that in ambient air, de-ionized water might be a convenient storage medium for P3HT OFETs during device fabrication if a temporary isolation from ambient atmosphere is required.

  1. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  2. Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2014-07-15

    : In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 °C. PMID:25022362

  3. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

  4. Enhanced membrane bioreactor process without chemical cleaning.

    PubMed

    Krause, S; Zimmermann, B; Meyer-Blumenroth, U; Lamparter, W; Siembida, B; Cornel, P

    2010-01-01

    In membrane bioreactors (MBR) for wastewater treatment, the separation of activated sludge and treated water takes place by membrane filtration. Due to the small footprint and superior effluent quality, the number of membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment is rapidly increasing. A major challenge in this process is the fouling of the membranes which results in permeability decrease and the demand of chemical cleaning procedures. With the objective of a chemical-free process, the removal of the fouling layer by continuous physical abrasion was investigated. Therefore, particles (granules) were added to the activated sludge in order to realise a continuous abrasion of the fouling layer. During operation for more than 8 months, the membranes showed no decrease in permeability. Fluxes up to 40 L/(m(2) h) were achieved. An online turbidity measurement was installed for the effluent control and showed no change during this test period. For comparison, a reference (standard MBR process without granules) was operated which demonstrated permeability loss at lower fluxes and required chemical cleaning. Altogether with this process an operation at higher fluxes and no use of cleaning chemicals will increase the cost efficiency of the MBR-process. PMID:20453330

  5. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  6. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

  7. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification....

  8. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification....

  9. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification....

  10. Flexible Community Structure Correlates with Stable Community Function in Methanogenic Bioreactor Communities Perturbed by Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Ana S.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Dollhopf, Sherry L.; Raskin, Lutgarde; Glagoleva, Olga; Dazzo, Frank B.; Hickey, Robert F.; Criddle, Craig S.; Tiedje, James M.

    2000-01-01

    Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDRA), and partial sequencing of SSU rDNA clones. One set of replicated communities, designated the high-spirochete (HS) set, was characterized by good replicability, a high proportion of spiral and short thin rod morphotypes, a dominance of spirochete-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosarcina-related SSU rRNA. The second set of communities, designated the low-spirochete (LS) set, was characterized by incomplete replicability, higher morphotype diversity dominated by cocci, a predominance of Streptococcus-related and deeply branching Spirochaetales-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosaeta-related SSU rRNA. In the HS communities, glucose perturbation caused a dramatic shift in the relative abundance of fermentative bacteria, with temporary displacement of spirochete-related ribotypes by Eubacterium-related ribotypes, followed by a return to the preperturbation community structure. The LS communities were less perturbed, with Streptococcus-related organisms remaining prevalent after the glucose shock, although changes in the relative abundance of minor members were detected by morphotype analysis. A companion paper demonstrates that the more stable LS communities were less functionally stable than the HS communities (S. A. Hashsham, A. S. Fernandez, S. L. Dollhopf, F. B. Dazzo, R. F. Hickey, J. M. Tiedje, and C. S. Criddle, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4050–4057, 2000). PMID:10966429

  11. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

  12. Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

  13. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Television Broadcast Auxiliary Stations § 74.633 Temporary authorizations...authority may be granted for TV broadcast auxiliary station operation which cannot...

  14. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM...DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power Auxiliary Stations § 74.833 Temporary...authority may be granted for low power auxiliary station operation which...

  15. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...evidencing the temporary need and be prepared to submit this documentation in response to a Request for Further Information (RFI) from the CO prior to rendering a Final Determination or in the event of an audit examination. The documentation required...

  16. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...evidencing the temporary need and be prepared to submit this documentation in response to a Request for Further Information (RFI) from the CO prior to rendering a Final Determination or in the event of an audit examination. The documentation...

  17. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...evidencing the temporary need and be prepared to submit this documentation in response to a Request for Further Information (RFI) from the CO prior to rendering a Final Determination or in the event of an audit examination. The documentation required...

  18. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

  19. Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  20. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

  1. Development of a Perfusion Fed Bioreactor for Embryonic Stem

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Development of a Perfusion Fed Bioreactor for Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Generation. Embryonic stem (ES) cells may be a promising source for therapeutic applications, potentially providing design; stem cells; cardiomyocytes; oxygen; tissue engineering INTRODUCTION Adult cardiomyocytes

  2. Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

  3. g:\\reference\\supv notes\\temporary period employees.doc Revised August 2013 TEMPORARY/PERIODIC EMPLOYEES

    E-print Network

    Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

    g:\\reference\\supv notes\\temporary period employees.doc Revised August 2013 TEMPORARY/PERIODIC-term operational needs. Temporary/periodic employees are not eligible for benefits and do not have the policy rights enjoyed by continuous, regular employees of the University. A temporary/periodic employee

  4. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access... § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

  5. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access... § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

  6. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access... § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

  7. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access... § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

  8. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. The pleasure principle: immersion, engagement, flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yellowlees Douglas; Andrew Hargadon

    2000-01-01

    While few critics writing on readers and hypertext have focused on the affective pleasures of reading hypertext fiction or interactive narratives like Myst, those who assess the experience of reading them tend to assume interactive texts should be either immersive or engaging. This study uses schema theory to define the characteristics of immersion and engagement in both conventional and new

  10. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  11. French Immersion in Canada: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel

    1991-01-01

    Reviews the theoretical foundations of French immersion programs in Canada, which are based on early exposure, creation of a natural imitative environment, cross-language interference and support, contextualized learning, and a communicative approach. Describes the practical applications of the theories, immersion program teachers and their roles,…

  12. French Immersion: Bilingual Education and Unilingual Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel

    1992-01-01

    Focuses on the question of administration when French language immersion programs are integrated into English instruction schools. It is argued that bilingual administration would be better than unilingual in fulfilling immersion teachers' needs, helping lessen conflict, and provide the leadership needed for program integration into the school…

  13. Immersion Education in China: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip; Chi, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the views of immersion teachers in Hong Kong and Xi'an towards the immersion curriculum they are teaching. Teachers are important stakeholders in any curriculum implementation and their views are significant in both evaluating progress and determining future directions. The teachers' views were gathered from questionnaires…

  14. Original article Immersion in bovine insulin stimulates

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Immersion in bovine insulin stimulates growth of tilapia CF Chang SJ Lin 1 insulin on growth responses in tilapia. Juvenile hybrid male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x 0 aurea; n each. The fish were immersed into 1 of 2 doses (10 and 100 pg/100 ml water) of insulin or no hormone

  15. Late Immersion in Perspective: The Peel Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Presents the 1979 evaluation of the Peel County (Ontario) late immersion French program, in the context of some current issues in second language education in Canada. These include the comparative effectiveness of early and late immersion, the importance of intense exposure, and total accumulated hours of instruction. (Author/AMH)

  16. Conformal visualization for partially-immersive platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaloian Petkov; Charilaos Papadopoulos; Min Zhang; Arie E. Kaufman; Xianfeng Gu

    2011-01-01

    Current VR systems such as the CAVE provide an effective platform for the immersive exploration of large 3D data. A major limitation is that in most cases at least one display surface, such as a ceiling or a back wall, is missing due to space, access or cost constraints. This partially-immersive visualization results in a substantial loss of visual information

  17. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  18. THE SURFACE DIFFUSION FLOW FOR IMMERSED HYPERSURFACES

    E-print Network

    Simonett, Gieri

    ); t 0} of smooth immersed orientable hypersurfaces satisfying the following evolution equation: V (t. Furthermore, we provide numerical simulations showing the creation of singularities for immersed curves. Key) = (t)H(t) , (0) = 0 .(1.1) Here V (t) denotes the velocity in the normal direction of at time t, while

  19. Immersion and Presence Daniel R Mestre

    E-print Network

    & Riva, 2003). Presence is indeed, historically, at the core of Virtual Reality (VR). Presence has often of skills or knowledge learned in a VE to the real world. 1- Immersion and Presence Virtual reality.laps.univ-mrs.fr/~mestre/mestre.htm Abstract: In a Virtual Environment (VE), Immersion, defined in technical terms, is capable of producing

  20. Studies of a membrane aerated bioreactor for wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Semmens; Denise Hanus

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken specifically to collect engineering and process performance information on the behaviour of a membrane supported bio-film in a well-characterised bioreactor. A novel membrane aerated bioreactor has been tested in the laboratory on synthetic sewage, and also piloted for the treatment of primary effluent at a local municipal wastewater treatment plant. The reactor's design employs gas-permeable, hollow-fibre

  1. Treatment of oil contaminated wastewater in a membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Scholz; W. Fuchs

    2000-01-01

    Activated sludge processes are frequently applied to treat industrial effluents. The membrane-bioreactor (MBR) is a modification of this conventional process, where the activated sludge is concentrated in a bioreactor which is connected to a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane unit. Trials in a MBR with a high activated sludge concentration of up to 48 g l?1, showed that oily wastewater also containing surfactants

  2. Greywater treatment in a submerged membrane bioreactor with gravitational filtration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mona Lamine; Dalila Samaali; Ahmed Ghrabi

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the practical performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor treating low-load greywater. A 17?L laboratory-scale bioreactor with a flat-plate microfiltration membrane (polyethylene; pore size 0.4??m) was operated to treat the effluent from the showers of the student housing complex at the Tunis Agriculture University (Tunisia). Permeate was intermittently withdrawn at constant transmembrane pressure induced by water level difference.

  3. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  4. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ? 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

  5. Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited Victoria Interrante

    E-print Network

    Interrante, Victoria

    Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited Victoria Interrante 1 , Lee experiments in which we assess egocentric distance perception in a high fidelity, low latency, immersive perception appears not to be significantly compressed in the immersive virtual environment, relative

  6. 7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. ...TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules. ...4 inches below the water's surface in a hot water immersion treatment tank...

  7. A microleakage study of temporary restorative materials used in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Bobotis, H G; Anderson, R W; Pashley, D H; Pantera, E A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the sealing properties of various temporary restorative materials used in standard endodontic access preparations by using a newly introduced fluid filtration method. The materials tested were Cavit, Cavit-G, TERM, glass ionomer cement, zinc phosphate cement, polycarboxylate cement, and IRM. Extracted human incisor, canine, and premolar teeth were used, and each tooth served as its own control by testing for microleakage prior to access preparation. Following access preparation, cotton pellets were placed in the pulp chamber so that the space remaining for the restoration was 4 mm. Immediately after placement of the restoration, the teeth were immersed in Ringer's solution and incubated at 37 degrees C. Microleakage was measured after various time intervals. The results indicated that Cavit, Cavit-G, TERM, and glass ionomer cement provided leakproof seals during the 8-wk testing period, while leakage was observed in 4 of the 10 teeth restored with zinc phosphate cement. IRM and polycarboxylate cement were the least effective of the materials tested for preventing microleakage. PMID:2639956

  8. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    PubMed

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

  9. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  10. [Temporary tatooing: black henna or harkous?].

    PubMed

    Kharfi, M; El Fekih, N; Zayan, F; Mrad, S; Kamoun, M R

    2009-10-01

    Contact sensitization to natural henna (Lawsonia inermis) long used as a skin dye in powder or paste form has rarely, if ever, been observed. Recently a number of anaphylactoid reactions to PPD contained in paints used for temporary tattoos have been described. The purpose of this article is to present 8 cases involving 4 children and 4 adults who developed contact dermatitis after temporary tattoo using "harkous" that contains no henna. The authors review the literature about temporary tattooing. "Harkous" is a mixture of nut gall and clove to which PPD is sometimes added. Many reports have described cases of contact dermatitis due to "black henna". Most of these cases have involved tourists returning from trips. PMID:20025192

  11. Temporary stent scaffolding during aneurysm coiling.

    PubMed

    Zumofen, Daniel W; Sahasrabudhe, Nikhil; Riina, Howard A; Raz, Eytan; Shapiro, Maksim; Becske, Tibor; Nelson, Peter K

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of temporary Solitaire FR stent (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) scaffolding to reduce coil herniation during embolization of a large neck anterior communicating artery aneurysm. In contrast to classic stent-assisted coiling, the fully retrievable stent is recaptured prior to detachment of the last coil. The presented technical nuance hence does not require institution of prolonged antiplatelet coverage. But the door is left open for coil-repositioning in case of coil basket instability. Permanent stent redeployment remains a fall-back option if critical hardware conflict occurs. In comparison to classic balloon remodeling, the presented method may offer easier distal access, particularly in tortuous arterial anatomy. Temporary occlusion of the parent artery, side branches, and perforators is also avoided. Given its specific potential advantages, temporary stent scaffolding using the fully retrievable Solitaire FR device may find its niche as a bailout option, primarily in a very specific subset of distally located wide neck aneurysms. PMID:24331624

  12. Bioreactor design via spreadsheet––a study on the monosodium glutamate (MSG) process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jolius Gimbun; A. B. Dayang Radiah; T. G. Chuah

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary design calculation of a unit operation is always necessary to determine an order of magnitude of the proposed chemical plant. This paper describes an application of a spreadsheet in preliminary design of a bioreactor. There are a few steps in bioreactor design which are mass\\/mole balances and energy balances calculations before carrying out the bioreactor sizing. A spreadsheet was

  13. A perfusion air-lift bioreactor for high density plant cell cultivation and secreted protein production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Wen Su; Bing Jun He; Hua Liang; Sam Sun

    1996-01-01

    A new bioreactor design that allows continuous perfusion cultivation of plant cell suspensions is described in this paper. This design incorporates an internal cell settling zone with an external-loop air-lift bioreactor. The settling zone is created by inserting a baffle plate into the upper portion of the downcomer. Using this bioreactor, Anchusa officinalis suspension culture was cultivated to a cell

  14. Two Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide Following Contained Fumigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2002-12-01

    The continued use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity or structural fumigant is in question because its release to the atmosphere contributes to depletion of stratospheric ozone. However, no single alternative to the use of MeBr as a fumigant has been identified. Nonetheless, future regulation of the amount of MeBr released by structural and commodity fumigations is likely. Hence, if MeBr use is to continue, it is imperative to lower the amount released to the atmosphere by collecting the gas following fumigation for eventual recycling or destruction. We report here on two bioreactors that remove MeBr from waste air streams. The bioreactors utilize the enzymatic activity of a previously described, methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, to oxidize MeBr directly during growth. The first bioreactor, operated as a closed system, consisted of 0.5 L of growing culture of strain IMB-1 which removed MeBr (>2,500 ppm) from re-circulating air. Strain IMB-1 grew to high cell densities in this bioreactor by using pulsed additions of MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr) which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Addition of oxygen was required for long-term (>30 days) operation of the closed-system bioreactor. Strain IMB-1 was capable of oxidizing large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 days). The second bioreactor, operated as an open system, consisted of a 10-L flow-through fermenter, in which strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (5,000 ppm in air). NaOH was added by pH stat to maintain neutrality. Growth was continuous and 500 mmol (46 g) of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 days. Bioreactors using strain IMB-1 can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr. Considerable range in the inlet concentration of MeBr can be tolerated, however very high concentrations of MeBr (>10,000 ppm) are toxic to the organisms comprising the bioreactor. Strategies for limiting the range of inlet concentrations may include load dampening by adsorption of MeBr on solids such as activated charcoal or zeolite, followed by desorption and subsequent controlled introduction of MeBr, along with a supply of air, into the bioreactor.

  15. 3D engine for immersive virtual environments 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Christopher Dean

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this project is to develop a software framework, a 3D engine, which will generate images to be projected onto facets of a spatially immersive display (SID). The goal is to develop a software library to support ...

  16. Transparent fluids for 157-nm immersion lithography

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Lawrence, Massachusetts 01843 Abstract. More than 50 fluorocarbon liquids are measured for transpar- ency for use in 157-nm liquid immersion lithography. Purification methods such as degasification, distillation resonance spectroscopy (for molecular structure), gel permeation chromatography (for molecular weight), Karl

  17. Culture of human septal chondrocytes in a rotary bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, Marsha S.; Briggs, Kristen K.; Wong, Van W.; Chang, Angela A.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.; Watson, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To show that extracellular matrix deposition is possible in 3-dimensional culture of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a rotary bioreactor as well as in static conditions. 2) To demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a bioreactor and static culture amplify with time. Study Design Prospective, basic science Setting Research laboratory Methods Human septal chondrocytes from nine donors were expanded in monolayer and seeded in alginate beads. The beads were cultured in a rotary bioreactor for 21 days in media supplemented with growth factors and human serum, using static culture as the control. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the beads were measured. Results Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation significantly increased during two measured time intervals, zero to 10 days and 10 to 21 days (p<0.01). No significant difference was seen between the static and bioreactor conditions. However, substantial type II collagen production was demonstrated in the beads terminated at day 21 of culture in both conditions. In addition, the biomechanical properties of the beads were enhanced at 21 days in comparison to beads from days 0 and 10. Conclusion Human septal chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads exhibit significant matrix deposition and improved biomechanical properties after 21 days. Enhanced matrix deposition during bead culture will expectantly lead to formation of neocartilage that is comparable to native tissue. Matrix production in beads is supported by the use of a rotary bioreactor. PMID:22597575

  18. The Envirostat - a new bioreactor concept.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Hendrik; Chasanis, Paris; Blank, Lars M; Franzke, Joachim; Kenig, Eugeny Y; Schmid, Andreas

    2009-02-21

    One major goal of biology is to provide a quantitative description of cellular physiology. This task is complicated by population effects, which perturb culture conditions and mask the behavior of the individual cell. To overcome these limitations, the construction and operation of a microfluidic bioreactor is presented. The new reactor concept guarantees constant environmental conditions and single cell resolution, thus it was named Envirostat (environment, constant). In the Envirostat, cells are contactless trapped by negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) and cultivated in a constant medium flow. To control chip temperature, a Peltier device was constructed. Joule heating by nDEP was quantified with Rhodamine B in dependence of applied voltage, field mode, medium conductivity, and flow velocity. The integration of the Joule heating effect in the temperature control allowed setting and maintaining the cultivation temperature. For single cell cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, medium composition changes below 0.001% were estimated by computational fluid dynamic simulation. These changes were considered not to influence cell physiology. Finally, single S. cerevisiae cells were cultivated for more than four generations in the Envirostat, thus showing the applicability of the new reactor concept. The Envirostat facilitates single cell research and might simplify the investigation of hitherto difficult to access biological phenomena such as the true regulatory and physiological response to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19190793

  19. Hydrodynamics of an electrochemical membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399

  20. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    DOEpatents

    Zaluski, Marek H. (Butte, MT); Manchester, Kenneth R. (Butte, MT)

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  1. Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, K. J.

    1998-11-01

    An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

  2. [Production of ligninolytic enzymes in bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Qian, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Production of ligninolytic enzymes under nitrogen limited conditions(C/N = 56/2.2) was studied in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor with a working volume of 2 L for obtaining higher production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and its control strategy. Results show that the manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac) reached peak at the sixth day and the seventh day, respectively, and the variation of them with time in a batch cultivation are similar to the results by agitated Erlenmeyer flasks; however higher enzyme activity was not achieved by applying a fed-batch strategy, in which nitrogen limited medium was fed to the reactor. In addition, variation of pH during cultivation was related to the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during both batch and fed-batch cultivation. The pH value of liquid medium began to decline when the enzyme activity occurred in the system, and the decline became more and more slow along with the decrease of enzyme activity at the end of fermentation. So, pH would be as a control parameter to find out the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during incubating P. chrysosporium. However, fed-batch strategy still need further study. PMID:16686200

  3. Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

  4. A sharp interface immersed boundary method for compressible viscous flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ghias; R. Mittal; H. Dong

    2007-01-01

    An immersed boundary method for computing viscous, subsonic compressible flows with complex shaped stationary immersed boundaries is presented. The method employs a ghost-cell technique for imposing the boundary conditions on the immersed boundaries. The current approach leads to a sharp representation of the immersed boundaries, a property that is especially useful for flow simulations at high Reynolds numbers. Another unique

  5. Story immersion in a health videogame for childhood obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion’s role in health video games among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed...

  6. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Temporary workers and trainees. 41.53 Section 41.53 Foreign...Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees. (a) Requirements for H classification...classification as approved. (e) “Trainee” defined. The term...

  7. 22 CFR 41.53 - Temporary workers and trainees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Temporary workers and trainees. 41.53 Section 41.53 Foreign...Visas § 41.53 Temporary workers and trainees. (a) Requirements for H classification...classification as approved. (e) “Trainee” defined. The term...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown...such as polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a permanent...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown...such as polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a permanent...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown...such as polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a permanent...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown...such as polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a permanent...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown...such as polymethylmethacrylate, intended to make a temporary prosthesis, such as a crown or bridge, for use until a permanent...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  17. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  18. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  19. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

  20. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings...special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. ...immediate or temporary use of station in the Wireless Telecommunications...

  1. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings...special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. ...immediate or temporary use of station in the Wireless Telecommunications...

  2. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings...special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. ...immediate or temporary use of station in the Wireless Telecommunications...

  3. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...States (H-2B Workers) Assurances and Obligations § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment...

  4. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment...

  5. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Supporting evidence for temporary need. 655.21 Section 655.21 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...States (H-2B Workers) Assurances and Obligations § 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary need....

  6. 20 CFR 655.20 - Applications for temporary employment certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Applications for temporary employment certification. 655.20 Section 655.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.20 Applications for temporary employment...

  7. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Supporting evidence for temporary need. 655.21 Section 655.21 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING...Registered Nursing in the United States (H-2B Workers) § 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary need....

  8. TEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    , of the following courses; social psychology, personality, developmental psychology, and abnormal psychology, personality, developmental psychology, APA-accredited clinical psychology, or APA-accredited counselingTEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant

  9. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  10. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  11. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  12. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls is required for the temporary import and subsequent export of...

  13. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls is required for the temporary import and subsequent export of...

  14. 22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A license (DSP-61) issued by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls is required for the temporary import and subsequent export of...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

  16. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Notification of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.101 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of...

  17. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.97 Application...

  18. 22 CFR 96.96 - Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation. 96.96 Section 96.96 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.96 Eligibility...

  19. 22 CFR 96.104 - Performance standards for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Performance standards for temporary accreditation. 96.104 Section 96.104 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.104 Performance...

  20. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.97 Application...

  1. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for...

  2. 22 CFR 96.96 - Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation. 96.96 Section 96.96 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.96 Eligibility...

  3. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of...

  4. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of...

  5. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Notification of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.101 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of...

  6. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for...

  7. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.97 Application...

  8. 22 CFR 96.96 - Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation. 96.96 Section 96.96 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.96 Eligibility...

  9. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Notification of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.101 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of...

  10. 22 CFR 96.104 - Performance standards for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Performance standards for temporary accreditation. 96.104 Section 96.104 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.104 Performance...

  11. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.97 Application...

  12. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false Notification of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.101 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of...

  13. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for...

  14. 22 CFR 96.96 - Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation. 96.96 Section 96.96 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.96 Eligibility...

  15. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of...

  16. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for...

  17. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Notification of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.101 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of...

  18. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of...

  19. 22 CFR 96.104 - Performance standards for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Performance standards for temporary accreditation. 96.104 Section 96.104 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.104 Performance...

  20. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of...

  1. 22 CFR 96.96 - Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Eligibility requirements for temporary accreditation. 96.96 Section 96.96 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.96 Eligibility...

  2. 22 CFR 96.97 - Application procedures for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Application procedures for temporary accreditation. 96.97 Section 96.97 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.97 Application...

  3. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for...

  4. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  5. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

  6. Hosting the plant cells in vitro: recent trends in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Milen I; Eibl, Regine; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2013-05-01

    Biotechnological production of high-value metabolites and therapeutic proteins by plant in vitro systems has been considered as an attractive alternative of classical technologies. Numerous proof-of-concept studies have illustrated the feasibility of scaling up plant in vitro system-based processes while keeping their biosynthetic potential. Moreover, several commercial processes have been established so far. Though the progress on the field is still limited, in the recent years several bioreactor configurations has been developed (e.g., so-called single-use bioreactors) and successfully adapted for growing plant cells in vitro. This review highlights recent progress and limitations in the bioreactors for plant cells and outlines future perspectives for wider industrialization of plant in vitro systems as "green cell factories" for sustainable production of value-added molecules. PMID:23504061

  7. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Long; Wang, Zhao

    2005-09-10

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice straw was used for the culture of yeast Candida arborea AS1.257. The influences of gas flow rate, initial liquid volume, hole diameter of gas sparger and numbers of sieve plates on microbial biomass production were examined. The best results in the external-loop airlift bioreactor were obtained under 9.0 L initial liquid volume, 1.1 (v/v)/min gas flow rate during culture time of 0-24 h and 1.4 (v/v)/min gas flow rate of 24-48 h at 29+/-1 degrees C. The addition of the sieve plates in the riser of the external-loop airlift bioreactor increased productivity. After 48 h, under optimized operation conditions, crude protein productivity with one sieve and two sieves were 13.6 mg/mL and 13.7 mg/mL, respectively, comparing 12.7 mg/mL without sieves in the airlift bioreactor and 11.7 mg/mL in the in the 10-L mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It is feasible to operate the external-loop airlift bioreactors and possible to reduce the production cost for microbial biomass production from the rice straw hydrolysate. PMID:15978690

  8. Temporary carbon storage and discount rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn L. Hean; Oscar J. Cacho; Kenneth M. Menz

    2003-01-01

    Several approaches have been proposed for accounting for temporary carbon sequestration in land-use change and forestry projects that are implemented to offset permanent emissions of carbon dioxide from the energy sector. In a previous paper, we evaluated the incentives provided by some of these approaches. In this paper, we investigate further what we call the “ideal” accounting system, where the

  9. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  10. Quality of life with a temporary stoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Gooszen; R. H. Geelkerken; J. Hermans; M. B. Lagaay; H. G. Gooszen

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: The hypothesis is that the impact of a temporary stoma on a patient's daily life is determined by complications and related stoma care problems. METHOD: A prospective clinical trial was performed, studying complications and social well-being of 37 patients with loop ileostomy and 39 patients with a loop colostomy (randomly assigned comparison). Patients were categorized according to degree of

  11. 8 CFR 244.14 - Withdrawal of Temporary Protected Status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...eligibility for Temporary Protected Status in deportation or exclusion...be forwarded to the AAU for review and decision pursuant to the...2). Temporary Protected Status benefits will be extended during...withdraw Temporary Protected Status is entered by the AAU,...

  12. Temporary Work and Insecurity in Britain: A Problem Solved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Temporary workers in Britain experience lower job quality. However, the proportion of employees on temporary contracts has fallen since a decade ago to just 5.5% in 2005. There have also been qualitative improvements. Many temporary workers now fall under the protection of the Fixed Term Employees' (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment)…

  13. A Look into the Temporary Employment Industry and Its Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a brief overview of the contingent worker industry and its employees. In addition to defining temporary worker, the authors describe the importance of the temporary worker industry to the U.S. economy and the forces that have driven this industry's rapid growth. The changing profile of temporary workers, the benefits and…

  14. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary...

  15. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary...

  16. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary...

  17. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary...

  18. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98...STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS...and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary...

  19. Computer control of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The initial steps taken in developing a completely menu driven and totally automated computer control system for a bioreactor are discussed. This bioreactor is an electro-mechanical cell growth system cell requiring vigorous control of slowly changing parameters, many of which are so dynamically interactive that computer control is a necessity. The process computer will have two main functions. First, it will provide continuous environmental control utilizing low signal level transducers as inputs and high powered control devices such as solenoids and motors as outputs. Secondly, it will provide continuous environmental monitoring, including mass data storage and periodic data dumps to a supervisory computer.

  20. Hydrodynamics of bioreactor systems for liquid-liquid contacting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Tsouris; H. M. Lizama; M. A. Spurrier; T. L. Takeuchi; T. C. Scott

    1996-01-01

    Two liquid-liquid bioreactors, a stirred-tank and a novel electrostatic-dispersion system, are being used to investigate biodesulfurization\\u000a of oil by sulfatereducing bacteria (SRB). The hydrodynamic behavior of both bioreactors under various operating conditions\\u000a is discussed in this article. The total liquid volume of the stirred-tank system is 1 L in a 1.5-L cylindrical tank equipped\\u000a with two baffles and two Rushton-type

  1. Immersive Well-Path Editing: Investigating the Added Value of Immersion Kenny Gruchalla

    E-print Network

    Gruchalla, Kenny

    for Visualization Computer Science Department University of Colorado at Boulder gruchall@colorado.edu Abstract The benefits of immersive visualization are primarily anecdotal; there have been few controlled user studies barriers in promot- ing immersive technology to industry is that the benefits are primarily anecdotal

  2. Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D M; Erith, S J; Griffin, P J; Dowson, A; Brewer, D S; Gant, N; Williams, C

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of cold-water immersion (cryotherapy) on indices of muscle damage following a bout of prolonged intermittent exercise. Twenty males (mean age 22.3 years, s = 3.3; height 1.80 m, s = 0.05; body mass 83.7 kg, s = 11.9) completed a 90-min intermittent shuttle run previously shown to result in marked muscle damage and soreness. After exercise, participants were randomly assigned to either 10 min cold-water immersion (mean 10 degrees C, s = 0.5) or a non-immersion control group. Ratings of perceived soreness, changes in muscular function and efflux of intracellular proteins were monitored before exercise, during treatment, and at regular intervals up to 7 days post-exercise. Exercise resulted in severe muscle soreness, temporary muscular dysfunction, and elevated serum markers of muscle damage, all peaking within 48 h after exercise. Cryotherapy administered immediately after exercise reduced muscle soreness at 1, 24, and 48 h (P < 0.05). Decrements in isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the knee flexors were reduced after cryotherapy treatment at 24 (mean 12%, s(x) = 4) and 48 h (mean 3%, s(x) = 3) compared with the control group (mean 21%, s(x) = 5 and mean 14%, s(x) = 5 respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise-induced increases in serum myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity peaked at 1 and 24 h, respectively (P < 0.05). Cryotherapy had no effect on the creatine kinase response, but reduced myoglobin 1 h after exercise (P < 0.05). The results suggest that cold-water immersion immediately after prolonged intermittent shuttle running reduces some indices of exercise-induced muscle damage. PMID:17654228

  3. Insect cells respiratory activity in bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Pamboukian, Marilena Martins; Jorge, Soraia Athie Calil; Santos, Mariza Gerdulo; Yokomizo, Adriana Yurie; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Tonso, Aldo

    2008-05-01

    Specific respiration rate ( [Formula: see text]) is a key parameter to understand cell metabolism and physiological state, providing useful information for process supervision and control. In this work, we cultivated different insect cells in a very controlled environment, being able to measure [Formula: see text]. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been used through virus infection as host for foreign protein expression and bioinsecticide production. Transfected Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells can be used to produce different proteins. The objective of this work is to investigate respiratory activity and oxygen transfer during the growth of different insect cells lines as Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), Drosophila melanogaster (S2) wild and transfected for the expression of GPV and EGFP. All experiments were performed in a well-controlled 1-L bioreactor, with SF900II serum free medium. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells reached 10.7 x 10(6) cells/mL and maximum specific respiration rate ([Formula: see text]) of 7.3 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s. Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells achieved 51.2 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] of 3.1 x 10(-18) molO(2)/cell s. S2AcGPV (expressing with rabies virus glycoprotein) reached 24.9 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] of 1.7 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s, while S2MtEGFP (expressing green fluorescent protein) achieved 15.5 x 10(6) cells/mL and [Formula: see text] = 1.9 x 10(-17) molO(2)/cell s. Relating to the Sf9, S2 cells reached higher maximum cell concentrations and lower specific respiration rate, which can be explained by its smaller size. These results presented useful information for scale-up and process control of insect cells. PMID:19003170

  4. Immersion effects on lithography system performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagahara, Seiji; Pollentier, Ivan; Machida, Takahiro; O'Brien, Sean; Jacobs, Eric; Schaap, Charles; Leray, Philippe; Storms, Greet; Nafus, Kathleen; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

    2006-03-01

    The immersion effects on lithography-system performance have been investigated using a ASML TWINSCAN XT:1250Di immersion-ArF scanner (NA=0.85) and Tokyo Electron CLEAN TRACK ACT12 at IMEC. Effects of immersion-induced-temperature change and effects of material-top surface are discussed in this paper. The wafer-stage temperature is measured during the leveling-verification tests and compared with the observed residual-focus-error change. The results indicate that stage-temperature change under an immersion environment can induce a focus change. In this paper, it was proved that the improved-temperature-control stage is effective to mitigate the immersion-specific focus change. The immersion effect on overlay is also investigated as a function of material top surface. It was demonstrated that the effect of material-receding-contact angles on the grid-residual errors (non-correctable errors) is small in the latest-immersion-hardware configuration of the scanner. However, there was a tendency that material with a smaller-receding-contact angle has a larger-wafer scaling although it is a correctable parameter. This can be caused by the first-layer wafer shrinkage due to more water evaporation on the more-hydrophilic surface. The immersion effect on scanner-dynamic performance is then investigated by changing the material-top surface and the scan speed of the scanner. It was turned out that the scan synchronization is not much affected by differences of material receding-contact-angles for the new configuration of the scanner. Moving-standard deviation of the synchronization error in scanning direction (y-direction) is slightly more affected by increased scanning speed, although it stays within specification even at a maximum scan speed of 500 mm/sec. Finally the immersion effects on resist-profile uniformity are examined. It was found that lower-leaching-film stacks (with a top coat or a lower leaching resist) seem to mitigate the variation of resist-profile uniformity.

  5. Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven G.; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

    1998-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

  6. Tele-Immersive medical educational environment.

    PubMed

    Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary

    2002-01-01

    By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other. PMID:15458055

  7. NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

  8. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Operation of Membrane Bioreactor with Powdered Activated Carbon Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choon Aun Ng; Darren Sun; Anthony G. Fane

    2006-01-01

    The effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition to the activated sludge (AS) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) has been investigated. The long term nature of the tests allowed the PAC to gradually incorporate into the biofloc forming biologically activated carbon (BAC). One series of tests involved 4 bench scale (2 L) MBRs operated at sludge retention times (SRTs) of 30

  10. BAFFLED MEMBRANE BIOREACTOR FOR SIMULTANEOUS NITRIFICATION AND DENITRIFICATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. P. Oliveira-Esquerre; Y. Watanabe

    This paper presents the results of bench-scale experiments with a novel aerobic and anoxic membrane bio-reactor (MBR). The creation of alternative aerobic and anoxic regions by surrounding the membrane module with baffles allowed denitrification to occur simultaneously to nitrification in a single reactor. The efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium removal was more than 99% at up to

  11. Drinking water denitrification by a membrane bio-reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper Nuhoglu; Turgay Pekdemir; Ergun Yildiz; Bulent Keskinler; Galip Akay

    2002-01-01

    Drinking water denitrification performance of a bench scale membrane bio-reactor (MBR) was investigated as function of hydraulic and biological parameters. The reactor was a stirred tank and operated both in batch and continuous mode. The mixed denitrifying culture used in the batch mode tests was derived from the mixed liquor of a wastewater treatment plant in Erzincan province in Turkey.

  12. A load dampening system for vapor phase bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rayes, A.W.; Kinney, K.A.; Seibert, F.; Corsi, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    Vapor phase bioreactors have been used extensively to control odorous gases and are receiving increased attention as an efficient and cost-effective treatment method for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, an important issue related to bioreactors is their high sensitivity to shock loads and periods of process shutdown, which can significantly reduce treatment efficiency. The focus of this paper is the use of a novel closed absorption and humidification system to dampen dynamic loads of toluene, methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE), and acetone, and to reduce their detrimental effect on a downstream bioreactor. A model based on the mass transfer characteristics of target pollutants was developed and takes into account the closed water recirculation loop that minimizes fugitive emissions and simultaneously humidifies the influent gas stream. When water is used as the scrubbing liquid, model and experimental results indicate that the system effectively dampens hydrophilic compounds and segregates them from the hydrophobic compounds in the waste gas stream. The response of a vapor phase bioreactor to the pretreated stream has also been assessed and shows that the system works effectively with hydrophilic, but not hydrophobic, VOCs.

  13. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  14. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  15. Development of a Novel Bioreactor System for Treatment of

    E-print Network

    Daugulis, Andrew J.

    Development of a Novel Bioreactor System for Treatment of Gaseous Benzene Sung-Ho Yeom,1,2 Andrew J is believed to be very practical for the treatment of high concentrations of gaseous pollutants and Devinny, 1995). Biological treatment using mi- croorganisms has the potential of not producing secondary

  16. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

  17. Membrane bioreactors for waste water treatment: reduction of sludge production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Goma; Jean Luc Rols; Alain Pareilleux

    1997-01-01

    In order to reduce the excess sludge produced by Activated Sludge (AS) wastewater treatment plants, studies have been carried out with a Membrane BioReactor (MBR) to study the maintenance and cryptic growth phenomena of Pseudomonas fluorescens cultures. Experiments with various imposed wasting rates showed that viability and sludge production yield decreased when sludge age increased.A continuous sludge thermal treatment system

  18. Membrane Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongjun Lin; Weijue Gao; Fangang Meng; Bao-Qiang Liao; Kam-Tin Leung; Leihong Zhao; Jianrong Chen; Huachang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been extensively employed for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional technologies. To provide present state and development trends of MBR technology used for industrial wastewater treatments, the authors reviewed and analyzed more than 300 scientific publications. They present an overview of the most recent development of MBR technology for treatment

  19. Membrane Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment: A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HONGJUN LIN; WEIJUE GAO; FANGANG MENG; BAO-QIANG LIAO; KAM-TIN LEUNG; LEIHONG ZHAO; JIANRONG CHEN; HUACHANG HONG

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology has been extensively employed for various industrial wastewater treatments due to its distinct advantages over conventional technologies. To provide current state and development trends of MBR technology used for industrial wastewater treatments, more than 300 scientific publications have been reviewed and analysed. This paper presents an overview of the most recent development of MBR technology for

  20. Integration of Solar Photocatalysis and Membrane Bioreactor for Pesticides Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Casas López; A. Cabrera Reina; E. Ortega Gómez; M. M. Ballesteros Martín; S. Malato Rodríguez; J. A. Sánchez Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater containing recalcitrant contaminants as pesticides can be treated by a coupled system which consists of a solar photo-Fenton pretreatment followed by a biological oxidation process. Membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) is particularly suitable for advanced biological treatment of wastewater containing biorecalcitrant compounds and shows a variety of advantages that make it a good alternative to be coupled with photo-Fenton, especially

  1. Membrane bioreactors: Two decades of research and implementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Santos; W. Ma; S. J. Judd

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactor technology is widely recognised as offering a key option for enhanced wastewater treatment or reuse. This brief review of the technology incorporates four key aspects: (a) market growth, (b) research areas, (c) product supply diversity and specifications, and (d) practitioner needs. Market growth and research topics were assessed through an examination of the appropriate literature and databases, specifically

  2. Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

  3. Phase separated membrane bioreactor: Results from model system studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Petersen; P. K. Seshan; E. H. Dunlop

    1989-01-01

    The operation and evaluation of a bioreactor designed for high intensity oxygen transfer in a microgravity environment is described. The reactor itself consists of a zero headspace liquid phase separated from the air supply by a long length of silicone rubber tubing through which the oxygen diffuses in and the carbon dioxide diffuses out. Mass transfer studies show that the

  4. TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

  5. Comparative Study of Immobilized Cell Bioreactors for Industrial Wastewater Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Jena; G. K. Roy; B. C. Meikap

    The sources of occurrence of various pollutants from chemical process industries and there harmful effects have been highlighted. Typical composition of wastewater from various sources presented. The methods of treatment of wastewater briefly discussed. Special attention has been paid to the biological treatment mentioning the drawbacks of the traditional methods. The relative advantages of various modern bioreactors working on immobilization

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

  7. Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Le-Clech; Vicki Chen; Tony A. G. Fane

    2006-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can no longer be considered as a novel process. This reliable and efficient technology has become a legitimate alternative to conventional activated sludge processes and an option of choice for many domestic and industrial applications. However, membrane fouling and its consequences in terms of plant maintenance and operating costs limit the widespread application of MBRs. To

  8. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  9. Application of submerged membrane bioreactor for aquaculture effluent reuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pulefou; V. Jegatheesan; C. Steicke; Seung-Hyun Kim

    2008-01-01

    Discharging the nutrient rich aquaculture effluents into inland water bodies and oceans is becoming a serious concern due to the adverse effect that brings in the form of eutrophication and subsequent damages to those waters. A laboratory scale biological reactor consisting of a denitrifying compartment followed by a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) compartment was used to treat 40 L d?1

  10. Characterisation and modelling of fouling in membrane bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ognier; C. Wisniewski; A. Grasmick

    2002-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor used for denitrification of a synthetic substrate was studied in term of membrane fouling. For standard pH and temperature conditions, subcritical conditions were defined to ensure the process stability. The stepwise method was used to determine the critical flux for the deposition of colloidal particles. Under standard physicochemical conditions, only a low and constant fouling resistance was

  11. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

  12. Quantitative analysis of microbial biomass yield in aerobic bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Osamu; Isoda, Satoru

    2013-12-01

    We have studied the integrated model of reaction rate equations with thermal energy balance in aerobic bioreactor for food waste decomposition and showed that the integrated model has the capability both of monitoring microbial activity in real time and of analyzing biodegradation kinetics and thermal-hydrodynamic properties. On the other hand, concerning microbial metabolism, it was known that balancing catabolic reactions with anabolic reactions in terms of energy and electron flow provides stoichiometric metabolic reactions and enables the estimation of microbial biomass yield (stoichiometric reaction model). We have studied a method for estimating real-time microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during food waste decomposition by combining the integrated model with the stoichiometric reaction model. As a result, it was found that the time course of microbial biomass yield in the bioreactor during decomposition can be evaluated using the operational data of the bioreactor (weight of input food waste and bed temperature) by the combined model. The combined model can be applied to manage a food waste decomposition not only for controlling system operation to keep microbial activity stable, but also for producing value-added products such as compost on optimum condition. PMID:25078821

  13. Temporal variation of foulant characteristics in membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rupak Aryal; Julie Lebegue; Ho Kyong Shon; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Jaya Kandasamy; Alain Grasmick

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed to analyse the influence of compounds present in different fractions of the membrane foulants. The aim of this study was to reveal the changing chemistry of compounds present in membrane foulant with the evolution of time. Membrane fouling in a side stream membrane bioreactor (MBR) reactor was investigated. Constant flux filtration was employed in an

  14. Retention of soluble microbial products in submerged membrane bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Mao Wang; T. David Waite

    2009-01-01

    The retention of soluble microbial products (SMP) is significant for the operation of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) from the aspect of both effluent quality and membrane fouling. Constant flux stirred dead-end filtration of a MBR sludge supernatant was conducted. The SMP retention by the membrane is dynamic rather than consistent during filtration. Polysaccharides and proteins are the major components of SMP

  15. Allergic contact dermatitis from temporary henna tattoo.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dragan L; Slavkovic-Jovanovic, Maja R

    2009-01-01

    Temporary henna tattooing has been very popular during recent years. Henna (Lawsonia inermis) is a plant from the Lythraceae family. For henna tattooing, henna dye is used. It is a dark green powder, made from the leaves of the plant, used for hair dyeing and body tattooing. Very often, para-phenylenediamine (PPD) is added to henna dye to make color blacker and to speed up dyeing. PPD may be a very potent contact sensitizer. We report a 9-year-old boy with allergic contact dermatitis due to temporary henna tattooing. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to PPD. After the treatment with topical corticosteroid and oral antihistamines, the lesion cleared with discrete residual hypopigmentation. PMID:19207440

  16. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  17. Dealing with resistance in temporary agency nurses.

    PubMed

    Cicellin, Mariavittoria; Pezzillo Iacono, Mario; Berni, Alessia; Esposito, Vincenza

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to interpret employees' resistance using the perspective of a Foucaultian/post-structuralist approach in critical management studies. The authors examine the relationship between management of diversity, based on employment contract, emotional construction of identity and processes of resistance. The authors explore the ways in which temporary agency nurses understand and experience their contract, respond to tensions regarding temporary employment, develop collective emotions and show processes of resistance. Design/methodology/approach - The study adopted an interpretive and qualitative approach. The authors analysed empirical material collected in the Haematology Department of a hospital in Naples, Italy, to illustrate actual experiences in the workplace. Findings - Fear turns out to be the discursive resource through which resistance is actually exerted. Through emotions, temporary nurses build a community of coping and enhance their collective identity. They use fear to develop solidarity and to mobilize collective resistance in the workplace. Although no traditional resistance behaviours are reported, they aim to undermine the reputation of top managers and challenge and re-write the prevailing discourses of the organization. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the critical literature because the authors analysed a relationship that is rarely theoretically and empirically examined in literature, that between employment contract, collective identity-building dynamics and processes of resistance. We showed that the creation of a community of coping enabled minorities to voice their distance from and opposition to management. PMID:25970526

  18. Electron beam brightness with field immersed emission

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1985-12-03

    The beam quality or brightness of an electron beam produced with field immersed emission is studied with two models. First, an envelope formulation is used to determine the scaling of brightness with current, magnetic field and cathode radius, and examine the equilibrium beam radius. Second, the DPC computer code is used to calculate the brightness of two electron beam sources.

  19. Immersion Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Strategies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Capital Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    Researchers worked with French, Japanese, and Spanish immersion teachers in metropolitan Washington, DC elementary schools (grades 1-6) to implement language learning strategies in their classrooms. Workshops, materials, and observations were provided for professional support. Teachers were debriefed on the effectiveness of the teacher training…

  20. Water Immersion Reduced-Gravity Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto F. Trout; William J. Bruchey

    1969-01-01

    A water immersion technique for simulating zero- and partial-gravity conditions has been developed and employed to examine several extravehicular task areas in space. The technique allows the pressure-suited subject to move in six degrees of freedom unencumbered by connecting supports and simulates his biomechanical performance in weightless space. The technique is useful in examining the astronaut's capability to execute extravehicular

  1. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  2. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

  3. Hellenic Cultural Heritage through Immersive Virtual Archaeology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Athanasios GAITATZES; Dimitrios CHRISTOPOULOS; Aimilia VOULGARI; Maria ROUSSOU

    2000-01-01

    Virtual Reality is a novel and innovative technology which allows us, through its applications, to experience abstract concepts and ideas, visit spaces that are unreachable or no longer exist, and examine e objects from diverse and unique points of view. Virtual archaeology refers to the use of 3D computer models of ancient buildings and artifacts visualized through immersive technologies. In

  4. Collaboration and learning within immersive virtual reality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randolph L. Jackson; Eileen Fagan

    2000-01-01

    We are studying collaboration and learning within immersive virtual reality (IVR) using a head-mounted display technology. This research, supported by the College of Education and Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the University of Washington, is currently concerned with the activities of 56 ninth grade students at work in a public school environment. Subjects worked as individuals and in pairs while

  5. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284

  6. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... An immersion hydrobath is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of water agitators and that may include a tub to be filled with water. The water temperature may be measured by a gauge. It is used in hydrotherapy to relieve pain...

  7. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

  8. Study on a fixed zeolite bioreactor for anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine wastes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinghong; Yang, Yingnan; Yu, Cang; Huang, He; Kim, Mijung; Feng, Chuanping; Zhang, Zhenya

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a fixed zeolite bioreactor was developed for the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine wastes (NH(4)(+)-N=3770 mg/l). To investigate the performance of the reactor, a sunken zeolite bioreactor and a bioreactor without zeolite were used as controls. The new bioreactor exhibited good performance, with startup time on the 14th day and methane production of 178.5 ml/g-VS during all 32 days of the experiment at 35°C. This bioreactor significantly shortened startup time, enhanced methane gas yield more than twofold and made COD removal more efficient than under the other models. Furthermore, it reduced the inhibition of high ammonium concentration during the anaerobic digestion of ammonium-rich swine wastes via effective ammonium removal and the immobilisation of microorganisms. Because of its simple structure and good performance, the fixed zeolite bioreactor can be recommended for future use. PMID:21592787

  9. Insect cells respiratory activity in bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Soraia Athie Calil; Santos, Mariza Gerdulo; Yokomizo, Adriana Yurie; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Tonso, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Specific respiration rate ( \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} }} $$\\end{document}) is a key parameter to understand cell metabolism and physiological state, providing useful information for process supervision and control. In this work, we cultivated different insect cells in a very controlled environment, being able to measure \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} }} $$\\end{document}. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells have been used through virus infection as host for foreign protein expression and bioinsecticide production. Transfected Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells can be used to produce different proteins. The objective of this work is to investigate respiratory activity and oxygen transfer during the growth of different insect cells lines as Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), Drosophila melanogaster (S2) wild and transfected for the expression of GPV and EGFP. All experiments were performed in a well-controlled 1-L bioreactor, with SF900II serum free medium. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells reached 10.7 × 106 cells/mL and maximum specific respiration rate (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} \\max }} $$\\end{document}) of 7.3 × 10?17 molO2/cell s. Drosophila melanogaster (S2) cells achieved 51.2 × 106 cells/mL and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} \\max }} $$\\end{document} of 3.1 × 10–18 molO2/cell s. S2AcGPV (expressing with rabies virus glycoprotein) reached 24.9 × 106 cells/mL and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} \\max }} $$\\end{document} of 1.7 × 10–17 molO2/cell s, while S2MtEGFP (expressing green fluorescent protein) achieved 15.5 × 106 cells/mL and \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document}$$ Q_{{{\\text{O}}_{2} \\max }} $$\\end{document} = 1.9 × 10?17 molO2/cell s. Relating to the Sf9, S2 cells reached higher maximum cell concentrations and lower specific respiration rate, which can be explained by its smaller size. These results presented useful information for scale-up and process control of insect cells. PMID:19003170

  10. A Hybrid Immersed Boundary-Immersed Interface Method for Cell Tracking in Microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Mohammad; Dutta, Prashanta; Dillon, Robert

    2011-11-01

    The manipulation of cells in microfluidic devices has become routine for biomedical applications such as cell sorting and trapping. To date most of the designs used for cell manipulation are based on experimental trial and error. A fast and accurate numerical algorithm can provide important insight into the design of these devices. In this study, a hybrid immersed boundary-immersed interface method is developed to study the complex behavior of cells in liquid. The immersed boundary method provides an accurate prediction of particle motion in a fluid while the immersed interface method gives second-order accurate solutions for the ion concentrations and electrostatic potential in the presence of moving cells. Both methods employ a fixed computational grid without the need for remeshing at each time step. Cells of different size, shape and charge are allowed to move under both hydrodynamic and electrokinetic forces. Moreover different channel geometries are considered to obtain the best trapping and separation performance. The present immersed boundary-immersed interface model is particularly suitable for bioMEMS devices as this method can accurately predict viscous and electrostatic forces as well as particle velocity, location, and particle membrane deflection.

  11. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO/sub 3//sup -/ and as large as 2000 m/sup 3//d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/m/sup 3/ by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m/sup 3/. A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m/sup 3/ and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO/sub 3//sup -/)/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation.

  12. Porting legacy applications to immersive virtual environments - a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenny Gruchalla; Jonathan Marbach; Mark Dubin

    2007-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments are becoming increasingly common, driving the need to develop new software or adapt existing software to these environments. We discuss some of the issues and limitations of porting an existing molecular graphics system, PyMOL, into an immersive virtual environment. Presenting macromolecules inside an interactive immersive virtual environment may provide unique insights into molecular structure and improve the

  13. Earthquake-resistant design features of immersed tunnels in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Kiyomiya

    1995-01-01

    The main external force in the structural design of immersed tunnels in Japan is earthquake load, because of the vigorous earthquake activity in this region of the world. Many immersed tunnels have been constructed in soft ground at port areas, where the response of both the soft ground and the immersed tunnels are amplified during earthquakes. To estimate sectional force

  14. Perchlorate and Nitrate Remediation Efficiency and Microbial Diversity in a Containerized Wetland Bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Krauter; Bill Daily Jr; Valerie Dibley; Holly Pinkart; Tina Legler

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a method to remove perchlorate (14–27 ?g\\/L) and nitrate (48 mg\\/L) from contaminated groundwater using a wetland bioreactor. The bioreactor has operated continuously in a remote field location for more than 2 yr with a stable ecosystem of indigenous organisms. This study assesses the bioreactor for long-term perchlorate and nitrate remediation by evaluating influent and effluent groundwater

  15. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kengo Sasaki; Daisuke Sasaki; Masahiko Morita; Shin-ichi Hirano; Norio Matsumoto; Naoya Ohmura; Yasuo Igarashi

    2010-01-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production.\\u000a However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the\\u000a bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing\\u000a hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The

  16. Validation of an optical sensor-based high-throughput bioreactor system for mammalian cell culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xudong Ge; Michael Hanson; Hong Shen; Yordan Kostov; Kurt A. Brorson; Douglas D. Frey; Antonio R. Moreira; Govind Rao

    2006-01-01

    Cell culture optimization is a labor-intensive process requiring a large number of experiments to be conducted under varying conditions. Here we describe a high-throughput bioreactor system that allows 12 mini stirred-tank bioreactors to be operated simultaneously. All bioreactors are monitored by low-cost minimally invasive optical sensors for pH and dissolved oxygen. The sensors consist of single-use patches affixed inside the

  17. Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

    1987-09-14

    A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

  19. Spermine-induced morphogenesis and effect of partial immersion system on the shoot cultures of banana.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-12-01

    Contribution of exogenous polyamines (PAs) and polyamine-inhibitors on plantlet regeneration patterns of banana (cv. Nanjanagudu Rasabale-AAB) was studied and the performance of regenerated shoots in temporary immersion system was evaluated. The rhizome explants (without shoot bud) of in vitro shoots produced a mixture of embryogenic and nonembryogenic calli on modified MS medium. The analyses of endogenous pools of polyamines showed higher levels of PAs in embryogenic than in nonembryogenic calli. Supplementation of various levels of (10-50 microM) spermine (Spm), spermidine (Spd), and putrescine (Put) to cultures with secondary embryogenesis showed that about 50% of embryogenic calli rapidly produced secondary embryos only in the presence 40 microM Spm but not in other treatments. The crucial role of Spm was further confirmed by the use of 0.1 mM each of alpha-DL-Difluromethylornithine and alpha-DL-Difluromethylarginine along with Spm where the presence of inhibitors concomitantly inhibited the secondary embryogenesis. The shoots obtained from the embryogenic cultures were checked for their performance on solid medium (SM) and partial immersion system (PIS). The rate of shoot multiplication was higher in PIS than in SM throughout 6 weeks culture period. Uniformity in elongation of all the shoot buds was observed in PIS but not in SM. Evaluation for the acclimatization, survival under greenhouse conditions revealed the better performance of PIS-derived plants than those from SM. PMID:18543117

  20. After the sunset: the residual effect of temporary legislation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Fagan

    The difference between permanent legislation and temporary legislation is the default rule of termination: permanent legislation\\u000a governs perpetually, while temporary legislation governs for a limited time. Recent literature on legislative timing rules\\u000a considers the effect of temporary legislation to stop at the moment of expiration. When the law expires, so does its regulatory\\u000a effect. This article extends that literature by

  1. Type IV hypersensitivity reaction to a temporary tattoo.

    PubMed

    Sonnen, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy developed a skin eruption 10 days after application of a temporary tattoo advertised as a "natural black henna tattoo." The eruption was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the tattoo ink. The textile dye paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common industrial allergen and can be found in some temporary tattoo inks. This case describes the reaction and reviews the international literature pertaining to PPD and temporary tattoos. PMID:17256041

  2. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false What are temporary emergency measures? 310.10...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY...LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO...

  3. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false What are temporary emergency measures? 310.10...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY...LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO...

  4. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false What are temporary emergency measures? 310.10...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY...LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO...

  5. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false What are temporary emergency measures? 310.10...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY...LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO...

  6. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false What are temporary emergency measures? 310.10...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY...LOCAL GOVERNMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO...

  7. Temporary satellite capture of comets by Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emel'yanenko, N. Yu.

    2012-05-01

    This paper studies the dynamical evolution of 97 Jupiter-family comets over an 800-year time period. More than two hundred encounters with Jupiter are investigated, with the observed comets moving during a certain period of time in an elliptic jovicentric orbit. In most cases this is an ordinary temporary satellite capture of a comet in Everhart's sense, not associated with a transition of the small body into Jupiter's family of satellites. The phenomenon occurs outside the Hill sphere with comets with a high Tisserand constant relative to Jupiter; the comets' orbits have a small inclination to the ecliptic plane. An analysis of 236 encounters has allowed the determination within the planar pair two-body problem of a region of orbits in the plane ( a, e) whose semimajor axes and eccentricities contribute to the phenomenon under study. Comets with orbits belonging to this region experience a temporary satellite capture during some of their encounters; the jovicentric distance function has several minima; and the encounters are characterized by reversions of the line of apsides and some others features of their combination that are intrinsic to comets in this region. Therefore, this region is called a region of comets with specific features in their encounters with Jupiter. Twenty encounters (out of 236), whereby the comet enters an elliptic jovicentric orbit in the Hill sphere, are identified and investigated. The size and shape of the elliptic heliocentric orbits enabling this transition are determined. It is found that in 11 encounters the motion of small bodies in the Hill sphere has features the most important of which is multiple minima of the jovicentric distance function. The study of these 20 encounters has allowed the introduction of the concept of temporary gravitational capture of a small body into the Hill sphere. An analysis of variations in the Tisserand constant in these (20) encounters of the observable comets shows that their motion is unstable in Hill's sense.

  8. Using computational fluid dynamics to characterize and improve bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Kelly, William J

    2008-04-01

    CFD (computational fluid dynamics) has been used to model upstream bioprocessing steps such as fermentation and homogenization. The focus of these studies has oftentimes been to characterize single-phase (liquid) flow and hydrodynamic shear. In the actual bioprocessing operations, however, there are at least two phases (cells and liquid) present. In the bioreactor, the gas bubbles constitute a third phase. More recent CFD models have considered the momentum and mass transfer that occurs between the phases. This review summarizes studies from the biochemical and biomedical literature relating to the use of CFD to model the performance of a variety of bioreactor types. Particular emphasis will be placed on describing current methods for handling multi-phase flow involving animal cells and/or gas bubbles. PMID:18338979

  9. The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goochee, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

  10. Bioreactor Cultivation of Anatomically Shaped Human Bone Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Joshua P.; Yeager, Keith; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Grayson, Warren L.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a method for engineering bone grafts in vitro with the specific geometry of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condyle. The anatomical geometry of the bone grafts was segmented from computed tomography (CT) scans, converted to G-code, and used to machine decellularized trabecular bone scaffolds into the identical shape of the condyle. These scaffolds were seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using spinner flasks and cultivated for up to 5 weeks in vitro using a custom-designed perfusion bioreactor system. The flow patterns through the complex geometry were modeled using the FloWorks module of SolidWorks to optimize bioreactor design. The perfused scaffolds exhibited significantly higher cellular content, better matrix production, and increased bone mineral deposition relative to non-perfused (static) controls after 5 weeks of in vitro cultivation. This technology is broadly applicable for creating patient-specific bone grafts of varying shapes and sizes. PMID:24014312

  11. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  12. Two-phase partitioning bioreactors in environmental biotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Quijano; María Hernandez; Frédéric Thalasso; Raúl Muñoz; Santiago Villaverde

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase partitioning bioreactors (TPPBs) in environmental biotechnology are based on the addition of a non-aqueous phase\\u000a (NAP) into a biological process in order to overcome both mass-transfer limitations from the gas to aqueous phase and pollutant-mediated\\u000a inhibitions. Despite constituting a robust and reliable technology in terms of pollutant biodegradation rates and process\\u000a stability in wastewater, soil, and gas treatment applications,

  13. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederico de Araujo Kronemberger; Lidia Maria Melo Santa Anna; Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito Fernandes; Reginaldo Ramos de Menezes; Cristiano Piacsek Borges; Denise Maria Guimarães Freire

    2008-01-01

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production\\u000a of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on

  14. Containerized Wetland Bioreactor Evaluated for Perchlorate and Nitrate Degradation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V R Dibley; P W Krauter

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) designed and constructed an innovative containerized wetlands (bioreactor) system that began operation in November 2000 to biologically degrade perchlorate and nitrate under relatively low-flow conditions at a remote location at Site 300 known as Building 854. Since initial start-up, the system has processed over 3,463,000 liters of ground water

  15. Construction and characterization of a novel vocal fold bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zerdoum, Aidan B; Tong, Zhixiang; Bachman, Brendan; Jia, Xinqiao

    2014-01-01

    In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:25145349

  16. Monitoring of Leachate Recirculation in a Bioreactor Using Electrical Resistivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Grellier; N. Bureau; H. Robain; A. Tabbagh; C. Camerlynck; R. Guerin

    2004-01-01

    The bioreactor is a concept of waste landfill management consisting in speeding up the biodegradation by optimizing the moisture content through leachate recirculation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is carried out with fast resistivity-meter (Syscal Pro, IRIS Instruments, developed in the framework of the research project CERBERE 01V0665-69, funded by the French Research Ministry) to monitor leachate recirculation. During a recirculation

  17. Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Summary\\u000a\\u000aOf the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li\\u000a\\u000aThe work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and IBOS program. The aim of this cluster project was

  18. Membrane bioreactors and their uses in wastewater treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Le-Clech

    2010-01-01

    With the current need for more efficient and reliable processes for municipal and industrial wastewaters treatment, membrane\\u000a bioreactor (MBR) technology has received considerable attention. After just a couple of decades of existence, MBR can now\\u000a be considered as an established wastewater treatment system, competing directly with conventional processes like activated\\u000a sludge treatment plant. However, MBR processes still suffer from major

  19. Selection and Design of Membrane Bioreactors in Environmental Bioengineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Guglielmi; Gianni Andreottola

    \\u000a The membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is nowadays widely considered as one of the most important innovations in the field\\u000a of wastewater treatment in the last decades. MBRs couple suspended growth wastewater treatment with membrane filtration, and\\u000a early applications were presented in late 1960s. However, the actual popularity occurred during the 1990s, with a higher and\\u000a higher interest in the relevant

  20. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Guo Zheng; Xiao-Long Chen; Zhao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice

  1. Denitrification 'Woodchip' Bioreactors for Productive and Sustainable Agricultural Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, L. E.; Summerfelt, S.; Sharrer, K.; Lepine, C.; Helmers, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Growing alarm about negative cascading effects of reactive nitrogen in the environment has led to multifaceted efforts to address elevated nitrate-nitrogen levels in water bodies worldwide. The best way to mitigate N-related impacts, such as hypoxic zones and human health concerns, is to convert nitrate to stable, non-reactive dinitrogen gas through the natural process of denitrification. This means denitrification technologies need to be one of our major strategies for tackling the grand challenge of managing human-induced changes to our global nitrogen cycle. While denitrification technologies have historically been focused on wastewater treatment, there is great interest in new lower-tech options for treating effluent and drainage water from one of our largest reactive nitrogen emitters -- agriculture. Denitrification 'woodchip' bioreactors are able to enhance this natural N-conversion via addition of a solid carbon source (e.g., woodchips) and through designs that facilitate development of anoxic conditions required for denitrification. Wood-based denitrification technologies such as woodchip bioreactors and 'sawdust' walls for groundwater have been shown to be effective at reducing nitrate loads in agricultural settings around the world. Designing these systems to be low-maintenance and to avoid removing land from agricultural production has been a primary focus of this "farmer-friendly" technology. This presentation provides a background on woodchip bioreactors including design considerations, N-removal performance, and current research worldwide. Woodchip bioreactors for the agricultural sector are an accessible new option to address society's interest in improving water quality while simultaneously allowing highly productive agricultural systems to continue to provide food in the face of increasing demand, changing global diets, and fluctuating weather.

  2. Hydrodynamic Evaluation of a Bioreactor for Tissue Engineering Heart Valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Bowles; S. E. P. New; R. Van Loon; S. A. Dreger; G. Biglino; C. Chan; K. H. Parker; A. H. Chester; M. H. Yacoub; P. M. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The principal objective was to develop an autoclavable pulsatile bioreactor capable of subjecting disc-shaped or trileaflet\\u000a valve tissue constructs to prescribed, reproducible hydrodynamic profiles. The pump actuator consisted of: a computer-controlled\\u000a stepper motor and a lead-screw attached to the piston of a water filled cylinder which was connected to the outer chamber\\u000a of a pulsatile sac ventricular assist device with

  3. Ice-Water Immersion and Cold-Water Immersion Provide Similar Cooling Rates in Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Julie M.; Casa, Douglas J.; Knight, J. Chad; McClung, Joseph M.; Blake, Alan S.; Meenen, Paula M.; Gilmer, Allison M.; Caldwell, Kellie A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether ice-water immersion or cold-water immersion is the more effective treatment for rapidly cooling hyperthermic runners. Design and Setting: 17 heat-acclimated highly trained distance runners (age = 28 ± 2 years, height = 180 ± 2 cm, weight = 68.5 ± 2.1 kg, body fat = 11.2 ± 1.3%, training volume = 89 ± 10 km/wk) completed a hilly trail run (approximately 19 km and 86 minutes) in the heat (wet-bulb globe temperature = 27 ± 1°C) at an individually selected “comfortable” pace on 3 occasions 1 week apart. The random, crossover design included (1) distance run, then 12 minutes of ice-water immersion (5.15 ± 0.20°C), (2) distance run, then 12 minutes of cold-water immersion (14.03 ± 0.28°C), or (3) distance run, then 12 minutes of mock immersion (no water, air temperature = 28.88 ± 0.76°C). Measurements: Each subject was immersed from the shoulders to the hip joints for 12 minutes in a tub. Three minutes elapsed between the distance run and the start of immersion. Rectal temperature was recorded at the start of immersion, at each minute of immersion, and 3, 6, 10, and 15 minutes postimmersion. No rehydration occurred during any trial. Results: Length of distance run, time to complete distance run, rectal temperature, and percentage of dehydration after distance run were similar (P > .05) among all trials, as was the wet-bulb globe temperature. No differences (P > .05) for cooling rates were found when comparing ice-water immersion, cold-water immersion, and mock immersion at the start of immersion to 4 minutes, 4 to 8 minutes, and the start of immersion to 8 minutes. Ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion cooling rates were similar (P > .05) to each other and greater (P < .05) than mock immersion at 8 to 12 minutes, the start of immersion to 10 minutes, and the start of immersion to every other time point thereafter. Rectal temperatures were similar (P > .05) between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion at the completion of immersion and 15 minutes postimmersion, but ice-water immersion rectal temperatures were less (P < .05) than cold-water immersion at 6 and 10 minutes postimmersion. Conclusions: Cooling rates were nearly identical between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion, while both were 38% more effective in cooling after 12 minutes of immersion than the mock-immersion trial. Given the similarities in cooling rates and rectal temperatures between ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion, either mode of cooling is recommended for treating the hyperthermic individual. PMID:12937427

  4. An Immersive VR System for Sports Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

    The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

  5. High temperature immersion type ultrasonic imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-04-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, are operated in the pulse-echo mode. The operating temperature is up to 215 °C and there is no need for a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is attached with a piezoelectric transducer and the other end is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape that provides the focus. The operating frequency is 5 MHz. Ultrasonic images produced using mechanical raster scan and the measurements, when the probes are fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  6. Ultrasonic probes for high temperature immersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-03-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, and may be operated in the pulse echo mode. The probes can operate to temperatures as high as 215 °C without requiring a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape, of which the purpose is to focus the ultrasound. The operating frequency is between 5 and 9 MHz. Ultrasonic images, produced using a mechanical raster scan with the probes fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  7. Simulation of three-phase fluidized bioreactors for denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, A.V.; Dolan, J.F.; Wong, E.W.

    1981-03-01

    Fluidized-bed bioreactors were developed and operated at three scales (diameters of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 m) by the Chemical Technology Division. The performance of these reactors in denitrification was simulated using the following modified form of Monod kinetics to describe the reaction kinetics: rate = V/sub max/ (NO/sub 3//sup -//K/sub s/ + NO/sub 3//sup -/) (% biomass). In the fluids-movement portion of the simulation the tanks-in-series approximation to backmixing was used. This approach yielded a V/sub max/ of 3.5 g/m/sup 3/-min (% biomass) and a K/sub s/ of 163 g/m/sup 3/ for the 0.5-m bioreactor. Values of V/sub max/ and K/sub s/ were also determined for data derived from the 0.1-m bioreactor, but inadequate RTD data reduced the confidence level in these results. A complication in denitrification is the multi-step nature of the reduction from nitrate to nitrite to hyponitrite and finally to nitrogen. An experimental study of the effect of biomass loading upon denitrification was begun. It is recommended that the experimental work be continued.

  8. Growing Three-Dimensional Corneal Tissue in a Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glen F.; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Aten, Laurie; Prewett, Tacey; Fitzgerald, Wendy S.; OConnor, Kim; Caldwell, Delmar; Francis, Karen M.

    2003-01-01

    Spheroids of corneal tissue about 5 mm in diameter have been grown in a bioreactor from an in vitro culture of primary rabbit corneal cells to illustrate the production of optic cells from aggregates and tissue. In comparison with corneal tissues previously grown in vitro by other techniques, this tissue approximates intact corneal tissue more closely in both size and structure. This novel three-dimensional tissue can be used to model cell structures and functions in normal and abnormal corneas. Efforts continue to refine the present in vitro method into one for producing human corneal tissue to overcome the chronic shortage of donors for corneal transplants: The method would be used to prepare corneal tissues, either from in vitro cultures of a patient s own cells or from a well-defined culture from another human donor known to be healthy. As explained in several articles in prior issues of NASA Tech Briefs, generally cylindrical horizontal rotating bioreactors have been developed to provide nutrient-solution environments conducive to the 30 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 growth of delicate animal cells, with gentle, low-shear flow conditions that keep the cells in suspension without damaging them. The horizontal rotating bioreactor used in this method, denoted by the acronym "HARV," was described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May, 1992), page 150.

  9. Promoting Metacognition in Immersive Cultural Learning Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    Metacognition, defined as active control over cognitive processes during learning, is a critical component in the development\\u000a of intercultural competence. Progression through stages of intercultural development requires self-assessment, self-monitoring,\\u000a predictive, planning, and reflection skills. Modern virtual learning environments now provide a level of immersion that enable\\u000a meaningful practice of cultural skills, both in terms of visual and experiential fidelity. This

  10. First: Florida Ir Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Wan, X.; Powell, S.

    2012-01-01

    The FIRST silicon immersion grating spectrometer is being developed at UF to search for habitable Earth-like planets around M dwarfs and giant planets around young active stars. This compact cryogenic IR instrument is designed to have a spectral resolution of R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 µm with a silicon immersion grating and R=60K at 0.8-1.35 µm with an R4 echelle. The goal is to reach a long term Doppler precision of 1-3 m/s for bright M dwarfs. The FIRST silicon immersion grating, with 54.74 degree blaze angle and 16 l/mm groove density, has been fully characterized in the lab. The 50x50 mm square grating entrance pupil is coated with a single layer of anti-reflection coating resulting in a 2.1% measured reflection loss. The grating surface was coated with a gold layer to increase grating surface reflectivity. It has produced R=110,000 diffraction limited spectral resolution at 1.523 micron in a lab test spectrograph with 20 mm pupil diameter. The integrated scattered light is less than 0.2\\% and grating has no visible ghosts down to the measuring instrument noise level. The grating efficiency is 69\\% at the peak of the blaze. This silicon immersion grating is ready for scientific observations with FIRST. FIRST is scheduled to be integrated in the lab during the spring of 2012 and see the first light at an astronomical telescope (TBD) the summer of 2012.

  11. Numerical Simulations Using the Immersed Boundary Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piomelli, Ugo; Balaras, Elias

    1997-01-01

    The immersed-boundary method can be used to simulate flows around complex geometries within a Cartesian grid. This method has been used quite extensively in low Reynolds-number flows, and is now being applied to turbulent flows more frequently. The technique will be discussed, and three applications of the method will be presented, with increasing complexity. to illustrate the potential and limitations of the method, and some of the directions for future work.

  12. Multirate adaptive filtering for immersive audio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong-soong Lim; Chris Kyriakakis

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a method for implementing immersive audio rendering filters for single or multiple listeners and loudspeakers. In particular, the paper is focused on the case of single or two listeners with different loudspeaker arrays to determine the weighting vectors for the necessary FIR and IIR filters using the LMS (least-mean-squares) adaptive inverse algorithm. It describes transform-domain LMS adaptive

  13. Creative engagement in interactive immersive environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ceri Williams

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two independent case studies selected from n = 11, an 11-year-old male with Down's Syndrome and another 12-year-old male with Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD). An audiovisual immersive interactive environment was developed to encourage creative interaction and expression from the participants. The feedback was via a microphone attached to a sound processor to capture any vocal utterances or

  14. The immersive spatiotemporal hallucination model of dreaming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Windt

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a minimal definition of dreaming in terms of immersive spatiotemporal hallucination (ISTH) occurring in\\u000a sleep or during sleep–wake transitions and under the assumption of reportability. I take these conditions to be both necessary\\u000a and sufficient for dreaming to arise. While empirical research results may, in the future, allow for an extension of the concept\\u000a of dreaming beyond

  15. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  16. The immersed boundary method: A projection approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Kunihiko; Colonius, Tim

    2007-08-01

    A new formulation of the immersed boundary method with a structure algebraically identical to the traditional fractional step method is presented for incompressible flow over bodies with prescribed surface motion. Like previous methods, a boundary force is applied at the immersed surface to satisfy the no-slip constraint. This extra constraint can be added to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by introducing regularization and interpolation operators. The current method gives prominence to the role of the boundary force acting as a Lagrange multiplier to satisfy the no-slip condition. This role is analogous to the effect of pressure on the momentum equation to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. The current immersed boundary method removes slip and non-divergence-free components of the velocity field through a projection. The boundary force is determined implicitly without any constitutive relations allowing the present formulation to use larger CFL numbers compared to some past methods. Symmetry and positive-definiteness of the system are preserved such that the conjugate gradient method can be used to solve for the flow field. Examples show that the current formulation achieves second-order temporal accuracy and better than first-order spatial accuracy in L2-norms for one- and two-dimensional test problems. Results from two-dimensional simulations of flows over stationary and moving cylinders are in good agreement with those from previous experimental and numerical studies.

  17. A comparison study on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    This study compared membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) based on sludge properties when treating synthetic domestic wastewater. In the CMBR, soluble microbial products (SMP) in activated sludge were a major contributor for initial membrane fouling and presented higher concentration in membrane cake layer. Afterwards, membrane fouling was mainly governed by bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge, containing lower proteins but significantly higher polysaccharides. Sponge addition could prevent cake formation on membrane surface and pore blocking inside membrane, thereby alleviating membrane fouling. The SSMBR exhibited not only less growth of the biomass and filamentous bacteria, but also lower cake layer and pore blocking resistance due to lower bound EPS concentrations in activated sludge. Less membrane fouling in SSMBR were also attributed to larger particle size, higher zeta potential and relative hydrophobicity of sludge flocs. PMID:24661815

  18. [Temporary henna tattoos: Sometimes serious side effects].

    PubMed

    Kluger, Nicolas; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Guillot, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Temporary henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular among Western tourists during summer holidays, especially children, teenagers and young adults. Natural henna takes several hours to be absorbed into the skin, imparts a brownish-orange color, and causes very few allergic reactions. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a powerful allergen, is added to henna tattoo mixtures (black henna tattoo) to decrease application time and intensify the color. It is responsible for most of the complications reported after henna tattoos: localized or generalized contact dermatitis, hypertrophic or keloid scars, and temporary or permanent hyper- or hypopigmentation. More rarely, type I hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, angioedema, or anaphylaxis) with potentially lethal outcomes have been reported. PPD allergy can induce cross-reactivity with other substances, such as hair dyes and textile azo dyes. Patch testing for PPD must be performed at a very diluted concentration (0.01% in vaseline) to avoid unnecessarily strong reactions and sensitization to PPD. In the absence of any legal control of henna tattooing practices, prevention requires the annual provision of information to Western consumers, especially young people and their parents. PMID:18329233

  19. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  20. 20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications...States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1310 Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications. (a) Validity period . A temporary labor...

  1. 20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications...States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1310 Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications. (a) Validity period . A temporary labor...

  2. 20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications...States (H-2A Workers) § 655.1310 Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor...

  3. 19 CFR 210.69 - Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of complainant's temporary relief bond. (a) In accordance...Commission before the temporary relief sought by the complainant...about the surety's assets, liabilities, net worth, real estate...bond is approved and temporary relief is issued, if any...

  4. 75 FR 22656 - Order Extending Temporary Conditional Exemptions Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Temporary Conditional Exemptions Under the Securities...CDS can play an important role in reducing...temporary conditional exemptions from certain...Federal securities laws, is in the public...of temporary exemption will provide important risk...

  5. 12 CFR 652.30 - Temporary regulatory waivers or modifications for extraordinary situations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Temporary regulatory waivers or modifications...CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Investment Management § 652.30 Temporary regulatory waivers or modifications...necessitates a temporary regulatory waiver or...

  6. 5 CFR 300.503 - Conditions for using private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Conditions for using private sector temporaries. 300.503 Section...REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.503 Conditions for using private sector temporaries. An agency...

  7. 5 CFR 300.503 - Conditions for using private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Conditions for using private sector temporaries. 300.503 Section...REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Use of Private Sector Temporaries § 300.503 Conditions for using private sector temporaries. An agency...

  8. 48 CFR 37.112 - Government use of private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...37.112 Government use of private sector temporaries. Contracting...intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries. Services...criteria, and conditions of 5 CFR part 300, subpart E, Use of Private Sector Temporaries, and...

  9. 48 CFR 37.112 - Government use of private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...37.112 Government use of private sector temporaries. Contracting...intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries. Services...criteria, and conditions of 5 CFR part 300, subpart E, Use of Private Sector Temporaries, and...

  10. 76 FR 34080 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ...Collection; Comment Request; Temporary Marketing Permit Applications AGENCY: Food and...existing FDA regulations governing temporary marketing permit applications. DATES: Submit...of information technology. Temporary Marketing Permit Applications--21 CFR...

  11. 18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Temporary certificates-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57... § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies. The Federal Power...enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be the...

  12. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  13. How do fish exploit temporary waters throughout a flooding episode?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C UCHEROUSSET; A. C ARPENTIER

    Temporary waters are important habitats for many fish species. Nevertheless, determination of which species colonise these habitats, when this occurs and where fish distribute themselves within the temporary waters are rare. The fish assemblage on a temporarily flooded grassland and its adjacent permanent canal, together with environmental variables, were monitored throughout an entire flooding event from February to May 2006

  14. PERSONAL DAYS EMPLOYEES IN TEMPORARY GRANT FUNDED POSITIONS

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    PERSONAL DAYS for EMPLOYEES IN TEMPORARY GRANT FUNDED POSITIONS Employees who are in temporary grant positions will earn one and one-half days of Grant Personal Leave per month for a total of eighteen (18) personal days per year. Eligible part-timers will earn Grant Personal days on a pro rata

  15. Temporary shape development in shape memory nanocomposites using magnetic force

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atefeh Golbang; Mehrdad Kokabi

    2011-01-01

    Direct mechanical force is used to create a temporary shape in shape memory polymers. This can become difficult in situations where the sample is not directly accessible such as interior in the body. In these cases it is not possible to use a direct mechanical force to deform the sample into temporary shape; therefore other alternative routes should be proposed.

  16. Temporary PartTime Lecturer in Nursing (Clinical Instruction)

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    program. Teaching responsibilities may include nursing content and clinical areas, uch as medicalTemporary PartTime Lecturer in Nursing (Clinical Instruction) Truman State University is seeking nursing faculty member(s) for temporary parttime (grantfunded) position(s) r its CCNEaccredited BSN

  17. 26 CFR 1.7519-3T - Effective date (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effective date (temporary). 1.7519-3T Section 1.7519-3T...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) The Tax Court § 1.7519-3T Effective date (temporary). The provisions of §§...

  18. 26 CFR 1.7519-3T - Effective date (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effective date (temporary). 1.7519-3T Section 1.7519-3T...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) The Tax Court § 1.7519-3T Effective date (temporary). The provisions of §§...

  19. 26 CFR 1.7519-3T - Effective date (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date (temporary). 1.7519-3T Section 1.7519-3T...INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES The Tax Court § 1.7519-3T Effective date (temporary). The provisions of §§...

  20. 26 CFR 1.7519-3T - Effective date (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effective date (temporary). 1.7519-3T Section 1.7519-3T...CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) The Tax Court § 1.7519-3T Effective date (temporary). The provisions of §§...

  1. 26 CFR 1.444-2T - Tiered structure (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tiered structure (temporary). 1.444-2T Section...Accounting Periods § 1.444-2T Tiered structure (temporary). (a) General rule...corporation that is a member of a tiered structure on the date specified in paragraph...

  2. HOMELESSNESS IN TEMPORARY\\/PERMANENT HOUSING CONCEPTS: QUESTIONING SUSTAINABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tarek A. El-Sheikh

    The paper discusses current condition of temporary housing settlements in Cairo that developed over a decade to meet the urgent housing needs of poor families. The paper asesses the changing daily life, shelter conditions of temporary\\/permanent housing from the user's point of view during transition between both conditions. A house is more than shelter for mostly deprived people and the

  3. 29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

  4. 29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

  5. 29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

  6. 29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

  7. 29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

  8. CFD simulations of membrane filtration zone in a submerged hollow fibre membrane bioreactor using a porous media approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Wang; Matthew Brannock; Shane Cox; Greg Leslie

    2010-01-01

    The current membrane bioreactor (MBR) design methods and the popular bio-kinetic models rely on the assumption that membrane bioreactor is completely mixed, neglecting the real hydrodynamic condition within the reactor. MBRs differ from conventional reactors in so far as the spatial distribution of reactor discharge points is very broad for an MBR compared with a conventional bioreactor. Computational Fluid Dynamics

  9. Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors, Constructed Wetlands, and Outreach

    E-print Network

    David, Mark B.

    Reducing Agricultural Nitrate Losses in the Embarras River Watershed through Bioreactors chip tile bioreactors to reduce nitrate losses in the upper Embarras River watershed in east-central Illinois, a dominantly tile-drained, agricultural watershed. We have an 18 year record of riverine nitrate

  10. Effects of aeration on suction pressure in a submerged membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsuki Ueda; Kenji Hata; Yasuto Kikuoka; Osamu Seino

    1997-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) is one of the application of membrane technology to wastewater treatments. A submerged MBR is a type of MBR in which membrane modules are directly submerged into a bioreactor. Because the uplifting air flow is assigned the role of cake removal in a submerged MBR, aeration could affect the cake-removing efficiency and hence suction pressure. This

  11. Comparison of the filtration characteristics between attached and suspended growth microorganisms in submerged membrane bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungmin Lee; Won-Young Ahn; Chung-Hak Lee

    2001-01-01

    An attached growth bioreactor was designed to minimize the effect of suspended microorganisms on membrane fouling in submerged membrane bioreactor. Comparison of mixed liquor from attached and suspended growth systems was made to elucidate major factors giving rise to different filtration characteristics. Unexpectedly, the rate of membrane fouling of the attached growth system was about 7 times higher than that

  12. Dissipation of atrazine, enrofloxacin, and sulfamethazine in wood chip bioreactors and impact on denitrification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wood chip bioreactors are receiving increasing attention as a means of reducing nitrate in subsurface tile drainage systems. Agrochemicals in tile drainage water entering wood chip bioreactors can be retained or degraded and may impact denitrification. The degradation of 5 mg L-1 atrazine, enrofloxa...

  13. Theoretical and experimental representation of a submerged membrane bio-reactor system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J Judd; P Le-Clech; T Taha; Z. F Cui

    2001-01-01

    The impact of introducing ‘slug’ flow into a tubular ‘in-to-out’ membrane bio-reactor is discussed in this article. Data are presented from both a theoretical hydrodynamic model of slug flow through a tube, and from a practical experiment based on a hybrid membrane bio-reactor which incorporates submerged and cross-flow membrane elements.

  14. Laser-machined microfluidic bioreactors with printed scaffolds and integrated optical waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael N. Nguyen; Heather D. Fahlenkamp; Russell G. Higbee; Anatoly M. Kachurin; Kenneth H. Church; William L. Warren

    2004-01-01

    Laser micromachining combined with digital printing allows rapid prototyping of complex bioreactors with reduced fabrication times compared to multi-mask photolithography. Microfluidic bioreactors with integrated optical waveguides for diagnostics have been fabricated via ultrashort pulse laser micromachining and digital printing. The microfluidic channels are directly laser machined into poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) silicone elastomer. Multimode optical waveguides are formed by coating the PDMS

  15. Photoautotrophic high-density cultivation of vegetative cells of Haematococcus pluvialis in airlift bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamonpan Kaewpintong; Artiwan Shotipruk; Sorawit Powtongsook; Prasert Pavasant

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effects of the bioreactor configurations and their design variables on the cultivation of vegetative cells Haematococcus pluvialis to achieve sustainable high cell density. The addition of vitamin B to F1 growth medium could appreciably enhance the final cell density. Employing this medium, the cultivation in the airlift bioreactor was demonstrated to outperform the bubble

  16. Monitoring of biofiltration efficiency of bioreactor exhaust air by an electronic nose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Martinelli; G. Pennazza; R. Paolesse; E. Milian; J. Albiol; F. Godia; N. Van Ras; J. Van der Waarde; D. Demey; C. Di Natale; A. D'Amico

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the application of an electronic nose to monitor the efficiency of a bioreactor odour removal by a biological air filter (BAF) is presented. The bioreactor studied is part of a regenerative biological life support system for long term manned space missions in development by the European Space Agency. Results show that the array of metalloporphyrins coated thickness

  17. Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture

    E-print Network

    Meinhart, Carl

    Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture of hematopoietic stem cell HSC cultures. Exploring a wide range of experimental conditions at the microliter scale-scale bioreactors for stem cell production at the clinical level. The controlled stirring inside the wells

  18. Optimal control of a fed-batch bioreactor based upon an augmented recurrent neural network model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan Tian; Jie Zhang; Julian Morris

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a structured approach to building neural network models for a fed batch bioreactor to allow the development of reactor optimal control policy. Since the ultimate interest in batch bioreactor control is on the end-of-batch product quality, accurate long range predictions are essential in developing optimal control policy. To address the long range prediction issue, an augmented recurrent

  19. Ultrafiltration of activated sludge with ceramic membranes in a cross-flow membrane bioreactor process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Urbain; Y. Qian; J. Manem; Conselheiro Borja

    A cross-flow membrane bioreactor (MBR) for raw municipal wastewater treatment, consisting of a suspended growth bioreactor and a ceramic membrane ultrafiltration unit, was run over a period of more than 300 days in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Sludge Retention Times (SRT) of 20, 10 and 5 days, respectively, and Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT) of 15 and 7.5 hours were

  20. Bioconversion of High Concentrations of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur in Airlift Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Monaem Zytoon, Mohamed; Ahmad AlZahrani, Abdulraheem; Hamed Noweir, Madbuli; Ahmed El-Marakby, Fadia

    2014-01-01

    Several bioreactor systems are used for biological treatment of hydrogen sulfide. Among these, airlift bioreactors are promising for the bioconversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur. The performance of airlift bioreactors is not adequately understood, particularly when directly fed with hydrogen sulfide gas. The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of an airlift bioreactor fed with high concentrations of H2S with special emphasis on the effect of pH in combination with other factors such as H2S loading rate, oxygen availability, and sulfide accumulation. H2S inlet concentrations between 1,008?ppm and 31,215?ppm were applied and elimination capacities up to 113?g?H2S?m?3?h?1 were achieved in the airlift bioreactor under investigation at a pH range 6.5–8.5. Acidic pH values reduced the elimination capacity. Elemental sulfur recovery up to 95% was achieved under oxygen limited conditions (DO < 0.2?mg/L) and at higher pH values. The sulfur oxidizing bacteria in the bioreactor tolerated accumulated dissolved sulfide concentrations >500?mg/L at pH values 8.0–8.5, and near 100% removal efficiency was achieved. Overall, the resident microorganisms in the studied airlift bioreactor favored pH values in the alkaline range. The bioreactor performance in terms of elimination capacity and sulfur recovery was better at pH range 8–8.5. PMID:25147857

  1. A simple eccentric stirred tank mini-bioreactor: mixing characterization and mammalian cell culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Bulnes-Abundis, David; Carrillo-Cocom, Leydi M; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; García-Ulloa, Alfonso; Granados-Pastor, Marisa; Sánchez-Arreola, Pamela B; Murugappan, Gayathree; Alvarez, Mario M

    2013-04-01

    In industrial practice, stirred tank bioreactors are the most common mammalian cell culture platform. However, research and screening protocols at the laboratory scale (i.e., 5-100 mL) rely primarily on Petri dishes, culture bottles, or Erlenmeyer flasks. There is a clear need for simple-easy to assemble, easy to use, easy to clean-cell culture mini-bioreactors for lab-scale and/or screening applications. Here, we study the mixing performance and culture adequacy of a 30 mL eccentric stirred tank mini-bioreactor. A detailed mixing characterization of the proposed bioreactor is presented. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computations are used to identify the operational conditions required for adequate mixing. Mammalian cell culture experiments were conducted with two different cell models. The specific growth rate and the maximum cell density of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultures grown in the mini-bioreactor were comparable to those observed for 6-well culture plates, Erlenmeyer flasks, and 1 L fully instrumented bioreactors. Human hematopoietic stem cells were successfully expanded tenfold in suspension conditions using the eccentric mini-bioreactor system. Our results demonstrate good mixing performance and suggest the practicality and adequacy of the proposed mini-bioreactor. PMID:23124589

  2. Novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) coupled with a nonwoven fabric filter for household wastewater treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xianghao Ren; H. K. Shon; Namjung Jang; Young Geun Lee; Minsu Bae; Jongho Lee; Kwangmyeung Cho; In S. Kim

    2010-01-01

    Conventional and modified membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are increasingly used in small-scale wastewater treatment. However, their widespread applications are hindered by their relatively high cost and operational complexity. In this study, we investigate a new concept of wastewater treatment using a nonwoven fabric filter bag (NFFB) as the membrane bioreactor. Activated sludge is charged in the nonwoven fabric filter bag and

  3. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

  4. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

  5. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

  6. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1301 - Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. 655.1301 Section 655.1301 Employees' Benefits... Applications for temporary employment certification in agriculture. (a) Application filing requirements. (1)...

  8. Low emittance immersed and non-immersed foilless diodes for high current electron linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Shope, S.L.; Hasti, D.E.; Smith, D.L.; Haworth, M.D.; Frost, C.A.; Leifeste, G.T.; Wagner, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    A low emittance immersed foilless diode injector was designed and built for the upgraded RADLAC-II accelerator. The design is for a 5-MV, 40-kA annular beam with a 9-mm outer radius. A conical cathode field shaper eliminates the previously observed large cathode shank losses. The non-immersed foilless diode approach was utilized in the design of the Sandia recirculating linear accelerator (RLA) injector. A low energy design (/approximately/1.7 MV) and high energy (4 MV) design were carried out in conjunction with a solenoidal vacuum beam transport and injection system. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  9. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    Notice is hereby given that under the authority of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Winnemucca District, Black Rock Field Office, will implement and enforce a temporary closure and temporary restrictions to protect public safety and resources on public lands within and adjacent to the Burning Man event on the Black Rock......

  10. Development of thin-film photo-bioreactor and its application to outdoor culture of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Jun; Choi, Seung Phill; Kim, Jaoon Y H; Chang, Won Seok; Sim, Sang Jun

    2013-06-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have received much attention as a microbial source of diverse useful biomaterials through CO(2) fixation and various types of photo-bioreactors have been developed for efficient microalgal cultivation. Herein, we developed a novel thin-film photo-bioreactor, which was made of cast polypropylene film, considering outdoor mass cultivation. To develop optimal design of photo-bioreactor, we tested performance of three shapes of thin-film photo-bioreactors (flat, horizontal and vertical tubular shapes) and various parts in the bioreactor. Collectively, vertical tubular bioreactor with H/D ratio 6:1 and cylindrical stainless steel spargers showed the most outstanding performance. Furthermore, the photo-bioreactor was successfully applied to the cultivation of other microalgae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlorella vulgaris. The scalability of photo-bioreactor was confirmed by gradually increasing culture volume from 4 to 25 L and the biomass productivity of each reactor was quite consistent (0.05-0.07 g/L/day) during the cultivation of H. pluvialis under indoor and outdoor conditions. Especially, we also achieved dry cell weight of 4.64 g/L and astaxanthin yield of 218.16 mg/L through long-term cultivation (100 days) under outdoor condition in 15 L photo-bioreactor using Haematococcus pluvialis, which means that the astaxanthin yield from outdoor cultivation is equal or superior to that obtained from controlled indoor condition. Therefore, these results indicate that we can apply this approach to development of optimal photo-bioreactor for the large-scale culture of microalgae and production of useful biomaterials under outdoor condition. PMID:23361185

  11. Research of nano-solution immersion strengthening of recycled aggregate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Kuangliang; Qian Xiaoqian; Zhangjinjian

    2011-01-01

    This paper design the method of strengthening the recycled aggregate by nano-solution. By testing the surface hardness and pore structure changes of the recycled aggregate after immersing in different concentrations of nano-solutions (nano calcium carbonate, nano-silica, sodium silicate) together with SEM observations of the immersion method of recycled aggregate surface structure before and after immersion we found that the nano-solution

  12. A study of locomotion paradigms for immersive medical simulation environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Ha Lee; Alan Liu; Thomas P. Caudell

    2009-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments are increasingly used for medical training and rehearsal. Immersive environments can provide\\u000a realistic context for team training, where success relies on practiced coordination between individual members. Using immersive\\u000a virtual environments, medical teams can practice in situations that would otherwise be difficult or expensive to create. It\\u000a has been shown that individuals perform poorly when the training environment

  13. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

  14. Mixing Beginners and Native Speakers in Minority Language Immersion: Who Is Immersing Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey, Tina

    2001-01-01

    Looks at early immersion in Irish among children from diverse language backgrounds. Examines the children's frequency of target language use and the effect of the group's linguistic mix on that use. Results show relatively low levels of target language use even by native speakers. (Author/VWL)

  15. Trace Gas Emission from in-Situ Denitrifying Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluer, W.; Walter, M. T.; Geohring, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite decades of concerted effort to mitigate nonpoint source nitrate (NO3-) pollution from agricultural lands, these efforts have not been sufficient to arrest eutrophication. A primary process for removing excess NO3- from water is denitrification, where denitrifying bacteria use NO3- for respiration in the absence of oxygen. Denitrification results in reduced forms of nitrogen, often dinitrogen gas (N2) but also nitrous oxide (N2O), an aggressive greenhouse gas. A promising solution to NO3- pollution is to intercept agricultural discharges with denitrifying bioreactors (DNBRs). DNBRs provide conditions ideal for denitrifiers: an anaerobic environment, sufficient organic matter, and excess NO3-. These conditions are also ideal for methanogens, which produce methane (CH4), another harmful trace gas. While initial results from bioreactor studies show that they can cost-effectively remove NO3-, trace gas emissions are an unintended consequence. This study's goal was to determine how bioreactor design promotes denitrification while limiting trace gas production. Reactor inflow and outflow water samples were tested for nutrients, including NO3-, and dissolved inflow and outflow gas samples were tested for N2O and CH4. NO3- reduction and trace gas production were evaluated at various residence times, pHs, and inflow NO3- concentrations in field and lab-scale reactors. Low NO3- reduction indicated conditions that stressed denitrifying bacteria while high reductions indicated designs that optimized pollutant treatment for water quality. Several factors influenced high N2O, suggesting non-ideal conditions for the final step of complete denitrification. High CH4 emissions pointed to reactor media choice for discouraging methanogens, which may remove competition with denitrifiers. It is critical to understand all of potential impacts that DNBRs may have, which means identifying processes and design specifications that may affect them.

  16. Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Altun, Muslum; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema; Komnitsas, Kostas

    2014-03-30

    In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As(5+)) (0.5-20mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) (100-200mg/L) and sulfate (2,000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780-1,560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100mg/L Fe(2+) increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe(2+) concentration to 200mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe(2+) and As(5+) concentrations remained at 200mg/L and 20mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1,736 ± 239 mg CaCO3/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As2S3 (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS2) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms. PMID:24360509

  17. [In vitro suspension and bioreactor culture of hematopoietic cells].

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhan-You; Xia, Quan-Ming; Kang, Zi-Zhen; Tan, Wen-Song; Dai, Gan-Ce

    2003-09-01

    Stirred culture offers a number of advantages over static systems as it maintains a stable, homogeneous culture environment and is easy to scale-up. This paper focused on the development and application of stirred tank bioreactor to culture hematopoietic cells. Preliminary study of stirred culture of hematopoietic cells was carried out in cord blood mononuclear cells culture in spinner flask. The results showed that the amplification rates of total cell, CFU-GM and BFU-E, with the exception of CFU-Mk, were greater in spinner flask than T-flask. The number of total cells increased 20 fold after 14 days incubation in spinner flask. The amplification rates of CFU-GM, CFU-Mk and BFU-E reached maximum at 10th day, 10th day and 7th day respectively, and the maximal amplification rates were 9.2-fold, 5.5-fold and 2.4-fold respectively, whereas the rate of CD34+ cells in spinner flask was (6.7 +/- 4.0)-fold at day 10. These results indicated that the stirred culture system is better than the static culture systems for hematopoietic cell proliferation. The biocompatibility of cord blood MNC to different types of materials used in bioreactors was also tested. The results showed that glass, stainless steel 316L and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supported the growth of hematopoietic cells well. A higher cell density was reached in stirred bioreactors with controlled pH and DO than static culture. These findings suggested that the controlled large-scale culture could be used to overcome the clinical shortage of hematopoietic cells. PMID:15969089

  18. Performance of aerobic granular sludge in different bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Zhonglin; Shen, Jimin; Wang, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    Inoculated sludge from the Brewery wastewater treatment plant was cultured in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The granular sludge was then used to process the artificial simulation wastewater to compare the performance and efficiency of the granular sludge in organic matter removal by using SBR and granular membrane bioreactor (GMBR). Results showed that the granular sludge in the SBR exhibited desirable characteristics and good removal efficiency. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and the sludge volume index (SVI) were approximately 2.56 g/L and 78.13 mL/g, respectively, and it exhibited a satisfactory settling ability. The removal efficiency of the resulting chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N and total phosphorus (TP) reached 89.35%, 96.49% and 83.76%, respectively. The removal efficiency of both nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen (TN) reached 90%. The performance of the granular sludge as well as the removal efficiency of the organic matter in the GMBR was subsequently observed. Results showed that the process influenced the characteristics and microbial biomass of the granular sludge. The SVI and the MLSS were about 175.82 mL/g and 1.14 g/L, respectively. The removal efficiency of COD and TP increased to 93.17% and 90.42%, respectively. The removal efficiency of NH3-N was slightly affected, whereas that of both nitrate nitrogen and TN increased to 95%. In this study, the physical properties and the removal efficiency of granular sludge in different bioreactors were compared. The comparison demonstrated that granulation membrane bioreactors perform more efficiently compared with SBR in wastewater treatment for organic matter removal. PMID:24645477

  19. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

  20. Use of optical systems in monitoring of bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, R.T. [Aaston Inc., Wellesley, MA (United States); Veilleux, B. [American Yeast Corp., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Recent progress in the development of new optical sensors has led to applications which address long standing needs in bioreactors: on-line monitoring of critical parameters associated with microbial metabolism and it`s control. The use of such sensors has expanded the range of new control strategies involving fuzzy logic control. The use of optical sensors has led to on-line monitoring of non-homogenities and steps to minimize them. This is illustrated by the use of optical sensors in the monitoring of cell mass in yeast fermentations.

  1. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1996-04-16

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  2. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

    1997-06-10

    A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

  3. Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

  4. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) as an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jelena Radjenovi?; Marin Matoši?; Ivan Mijatovi?; Mira Petrovi?; Damià Barceló

    The development and application of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for full-scale municipal wastewater\\u000a treatment is the most important recent technological advance in terms of biological wastewater treatment.\\u000a The MBR is a suspended growth-activated sludge system that utilizes microporous membranes for solid\\/liquid\\u000a separation instead of secondary clarifiers. It represents a decisive step forward concerning effluent\\u000a quality by delivering a hygienically pure effluent and by exhibiting

  5. PI-controlled bioreactor as a generalized Lienard system

    E-print Network

    V. Ibarra-Junquera; H. C. Rosu

    2006-06-04

    It is shown that periodic orbits can occur in Cholette's bioreactor model working under the influence of a PI-controller. We find a diffeomorphic coordinate transformation that turns this controlled enzymatic reaction system into a generalized Lienard form. Furthermore, we give sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of limit cycles in the new coordinates. We also perform numerical simulations illustrating the possibility of the existence of a local center (period annulus). A result with possible practical applications is that the oscillation frequency is a function of the integral control gain parameter

  6. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis to temporary tattoo by p-phenylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Pegas, J R P; Criado, P R; Criado, R F J; Vasconcellos, C; Pires, M C

    2002-01-01

    Temporary tattoos are widely applied today all over the world. The tattoo makers explain that they use "natural henna paint," although in fact they use "black henna," which includes a mixture of many substances, among them p-phenylenediamine (PPD). There have recently been many reports of allergic contact dermatitis because of temporary tattoo with PPD sensitization. We are adding a new case of temporary tattoo with black henna with an extensive reaction, in which a 12-year-old white boy showed contact dermatitis from PPD, followed by cutaneous eruption after corticosteroid topical treatment. PMID:12109535

  8. Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, Mehrnoosh; Naddafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Saeedi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34-359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner. PMID:24406056

  9. The temporary help industry: A response to the dual internal labor market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth L. Mangum; Donald Mayall; Kristin Nelson

    1985-01-01

    This study of the rapidly growing temporary help industry draws on Commerce Department data and the results of the authors' national mail survey of employers. The authors also conducted interviews in the San Francisco area with employers of temporary help and with representatives of temporary help agencies and labor unions. They provide a taxonomy of employer responses to temporary increases

  10. Glyco-engineering for biopharmaceutical production in moss bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Eva L.; Parsons, Juliana; Reski, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals (pharmaceutical proteins) is a strongly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. While most products to date are produced in mammalian cell cultures, namely Chinese hamster ovary cells, plant-based production systems gained increasing acceptance over the last years. Different plant systems have been established which are suitable for standardization and precise control of cultivation conditions, thus meeting the criteria for pharmaceutical production. The majority of biopharmaceuticals comprise glycoproteins. Therefore, differences in protein glycosylation between humans and plants have to be taken into account and plant-specific glycosylation has to be eliminated to avoid adverse effects on quality, safety, and efficacy of the products. The basal land plant Physcomitrella patens (moss) has been employed for the recombinant production of high-value therapeutic target proteins (e.g., Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Complement Factor H, monoclonal antibodies, Erythropoietin). Being genetically excellently characterized and exceptionally amenable for precise gene targeting via homologous recombination, essential steps for the optimization of moss as a bioreactor for the production of recombinant proteins have been undertaken. Here, we discuss the glyco-engineering approaches to avoid non-human N- and O-glycosylation on target proteins produced in moss bioreactors. PMID:25071817

  11. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Bioreactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present results from bioreactor studies involving H{sub 2} production by water gas shift and H{sub 2}S removal to produce elemental sulfur. Many of the results for H{sub 2} production by Rhodospirillum rubrum have been presented during earlier contracts. Thus, this report concentrates mainly on H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur by R. rubrum.

  12. Ultrasonic Bioreactor as a Platform for Studying Cellular Response

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Joseph A.; Budhiraja, Gaurav; Thakurta, Sanjukta Guha; Whitney, Nicholas P.; Nudurupati, Sai Siddhartha

    2013-01-01

    The need for tissue-engineered constructs as replacement tissue continues to grow as the average age of the world's population increases. However, additional research is required before the efficient production of laboratory-created tissue can be realized. The multitude of parameters that affect cell growth and proliferation is particularly daunting considering that optimized conditions are likely to change as a function of growth. Thus, a generalized research platform is needed in order for quantitative studies to be conducted. In this article, an ultrasonic bioreactor is described for use in studying the response of cells to ultrasonic stimulation. The work is focused on chondrocytes with a long-term view of generating tissue-engineered articular cartilage. Aspects of ultrasound (US) that would negatively affect cells, including temperature and cavitation, are shown to be insignificant for the US protocols used and which cover a wide range of frequencies and pressure amplitudes. The bioreactor is shown to have a positive influence on several factors, including cell proliferation, viability, and gene expression of select chondrocytic markers. Most importantly, we show that a total of 138 unique proteins are differentially expressed on exposure to ultrasonic stimulation, using mass-spectroscopy coupled proteomic analyses. We anticipate that this work will serve as the basis for additional research which will elucidate many of the mechanisms associated with cell response to ultrasonic stimulation. PMID:22873765

  13. Modeling of leachate recirculation using vertical wells in bioreactor landfills.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Cao, Ben-Yi; Zhang, Xu; Xie, Hai-Jian

    2015-06-01

    Leachate recirculation (LR) in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills operated as bioreactors offers significant economic and environmental benefits. The subsurface application method of vertical wells is one of the most common LR techniques. The objective of this study was to develop a novel two-dimensional model of leachate recirculation using vertical wells. This novel method can describe leachate flow considering the effects of MSW settlement while also accounting separately for leachate flow in saturated and unsaturated zones. In this paper, a settlement model for MSW when considering the effects of compression and biodegradation on the MSW porosity was adopted. A numerical model was proposed using new governing equations for the saturated and unsaturated zones of a landfill. The following design parameters were evaluated by simulating the recirculated leachate volume and the influence zones of waste under steady-state flow conditions: (1) the effect of MSW settlement, (2) the effect of the initial void ratio, (3) the effect of the injected head, (4) the effect of the unit weight, (5) the effect of the biodegradation rate, and (6) the effect of the compression coefficient. The influence zones of LR when considering the effect of MSW settlement are smaller than those when neglecting the effect. The influence zones and LR volume increased with an increase in the injection pressure head and initial void ratio of MSW. The proposed method and the calculation results can provide important insight into the hydrological behavior of bioreactor landfills. PMID:25874416

  14. Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

    2012-12-01

    The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment. PMID:22270588

  15. Fate of hazardous aromatic substances in membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mozo, I; Stricot, M; Lesage, N; Spérandio, M

    2011-10-01

    In this work, the removal of hazardous aromatic compounds was investigated in two types of membrane bioreactors (MBRs), based on cross-flow and semi dead-end filtration systems. BTEX and PAH were efficiently eliminated from wastewater during treatment via a membrane bioreactor (90-99.9%) but non-biotic processes, i.e. volatilisation and sorption, contributed significantly. The semi dead-end MBR showed slightly better removal efficiencies than the cross-flow MBR. However, non-biotic processes were more significant in the first process and, finally, degradation rates were higher in the cross-flow MBR. Higher degradation rates were explained by a higher bio-availability of pollutants. Differences in shear stress imposed in cross-flow and semi dead-end filtration systems radically modify the sludge morphology. High shear stress (cross-flow filtration) generates dispersed bacteria and larger quantities of dissolved and colloidal matter. Sorption of hydrophobic compounds (PAHs) on suspended solid was less marked in disaggregated sludge. The results suggest new strategies for improving micro-pollutant degradation in MBRs. PMID:21733542

  16. Optimizing the medium perfusion rate in bone tissue engineering bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L; Marolt, Darja; Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Guo, Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    There is a critical need to increase the size of bone grafts that can be cultured in vitro for use in regenerative medicine. Perfusion bioreactors have been used to improve the nutrient and gas transfer capabilities and reduce the size limitations inherent to static culture, as well as to modulate cellular responses by hydrodynamic shear. Our aim was to understand the effects of medium flow velocity on cellular phenotype and the formation of bone-like tissues in three-dimensional engineered constructs. We utilized custom-designed perfusion bioreactors to culture bone constructs for five weeks using a wide range of superficial flow velocities (80, 400, 800, 1200 and 1800 ?m/s), corresponding to estimated initial shear stresses ranging from 0.6 – 20 mPa. Increasing the flow velocity significantly affected cell morphology, cell-cell interactions, matrix production and composition, and the expression of osteogenic genes. Within the range studied, the flow velocities ranging from 400 to 800 ?m/s yielded the best overall osteogenic responses. Using mathematical models, we determined that even at the lowest flow-velocity (80 ?m/s) the oxygen provided was sufficient to maintain viability of the cells within the construct. Yet it was clear that this flow-velocity did not adequately support the development of bone-like tissue. The complexity of the cellular responses found at different flow-velocities underscores the need to use a range of evaluation parameters to determine the quality of engineered-bone. PMID:21449028

  17. Two Devices for Removing Sludge From Bioreactor Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Archer, Shivaun; Hitchens, G. DUncan; Jabs, Harry; Cross, Jennifer; Pilkinton, Michelle; Taylor, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two devices a magnetic separator and a special filter denoted a self-regenerating separator (SRS) have been developed for separating sludge from the stream of wastewater from a bioreactor. These devices were originally intended for use in microgravity, but have also been demonstrated to function in normal Earth gravity. The magnetic separator (see Figure 1) includes a thin-walled nonmagnetic, stainless-steel cylindrical drum that rotates within a cylindrical housing. The wastewater enters the separator through a recirculation inlet, and about 80 percent of the wastewater flow leaves through a recirculation outlet. Inside the drum, a magnet holder positions strong permanent magnets stationary and, except near a recirculation outlet, close to the inner drum surface. To enable magnetic separation, magnetite (a ferromagnetic and magnetically soft iron oxide) powder is mixed into the bioreactor wastewater. The magnetite becomes incorporated into the sludge by condensation, onto the powder particles, of microbe flocks that constitute the sludge. As a result, the magnets inside the drum magnetically attract the sludge onto the outer surface of the drum.

  18. Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Bornare, J B; Adhyapak, U S; Minde, G P; Kalyan Raman, V; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S

    2015-01-01

    Compared with conventional wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer several advantages including high biodegradation efficiency, excellent effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, it has some limitations on account of its energy intensive operation. In recent years, there has been growing interest in use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) due to their potential advantages over aerobic systems, which include low sludge production and energy generation in terms of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a submerged AnMBR for the treatment of synthetic wastewater having 4,759 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD removal efficiency was over 95% during the performance evaluation study. Treated effluent with COD concentration of 231 mg/l was obtained for 25.5 hours hydraulic retention time. The obtained total organic carbon concentrations in feed and permeate were 1,812 mg/l and 89 mg/l, respectively. An average biogas generation and yield were 25.77 l/d and 0.36 m(3)/kg COD, respectively. Evolution of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) as a function of time was studied and an average TMP of 15 kPa was found suitable to achieve membrane flux of 12.17 l/(m(2)h). Almost weekly back-flow chemical cleaning of the membrane was found necessary to control TMP within the permissible limit of 20 kPa. PMID:26038930

  19. Silicon immersion gratings and their spectroscopic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, Bo; Powell, Scott; Fletcher, Adam; Wan, Xiaoke; Chang, Liang; Jakeman, Hali; Koukis, Dimitrios; Tanner, David B.; Ebbets, Dennis; Weinberg, Jonathan; Lipscy, Sarah; Nyquist, Rich; Bally, John

    2012-09-01

    Silicon immersion gratings (SIGs) offer several advantages over the commercial echelle gratings for high resolution infrared (IR) spectroscopy: 3.4 times the gain in dispersion or ~10 times the reduction in the instrument volume, a multiplex gain for a large continuous wavelength coverage and low cost. We present results from lab characterization of a large format SIG of astronomical observation quality. This SIG, with a 54.74 degree blaze angle (R1.4), 16.1 l/mm groove density, and 50x86 mm2 grating area, was developed for high resolution IR spectroscopy (R~70,000) in the near IR (1.1-2.5 ?m). Its entrance surface was coated with a single layer of silicon nitride antireflection (AR) coating and its grating surface was coated with a thin layer of gold to increase its throughput at 1.1-2.5 ?m. The lab measurements have shown that the SIG delivered a spectral resolution of R=114,000 at 1.55 ?m with a lab testing spectrograph with a 20 mm diameter pupil. The measured peak grating efficiency is 72% at 1.55 ?m, which is consistent with the measurements in the optical wavelengths from the grating surface at the air side. This SIG is being implemented in a new generation cryogenic IR spectrograph, called the Florida IR Silicon immersion grating spectrometer (FIRST), to offer broad-band high resolution IR spectroscopy with R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 um under a typical seeing condition in a single exposure with a 2kx2k H2RG IR array at the robotically controlled Tennessee State University 2-meter Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope (AST) at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona. FIRST is designed to provide high precision Doppler measurements (~4 m/s) for the identification and characterization of extrasolar planets, especially rocky planets in habitable zones, orbiting low mass M dwarf stars. It will also be used for other high resolution IR spectroscopic observations of such as young stars, brown dwarfs, magnetic fields, star formation and interstellar mediums. An optimally designed SIG of the similar size can be used in the Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer (SIGS) to fill the need for high resolution spectroscopy at mid IR to far IR (~25-300 ?m) for the NASA SOFIA airborne mission in the future.

  20. 41 CFR 302-6.1 - What are “temporary quarters?'

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION (PCS) ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES...

  1. 10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

  2. 10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

  3. 22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TEMPORARY CENTRIFIGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP END TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  4. 23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULICOPERATED VALVE FOR LATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. TEMPORARY CENTRIFUGAL PUMP. NOTE CHAPMAN HYDRAULIC-OPERATED VALVE FOR LATER CONNECTION OF ENGINE PUMP ENG TO DISCHARGE HEADER. - Lakeview Pumping Station, Clarendon & Montrose Avenues, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 20 CFR 416.1167 - Temporary absences and deeming rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...you are not subject to parental control, we do not consider...temporary and we do not deem parental income (or resources) to you. Being subject to parental control affects deeming...Tom's parents file for divorce. As a result,...

  6. Pillsbury Court Application Temporary Housing Twin Cities Campus

    E-print Network

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Pillsbury Court Application Temporary Housing ­ Twin Cities Campus Mail or fax application to City State Zip Address is Current Until ______________________ (date) Applicant Employment Telephone Number Date First Appointed to University Earliest Desired Housing Date If not paid through

  7. 1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN BE SEEN AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, May 10, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

  8. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...record the assignment of that number to the aircraft and shall keep that record for at least 1 year after the removal of the number from that aircraft. Whenever the owner of an aircraft bearing a temporary registration number...

  9. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...record the assignment of that number to the aircraft and shall keep that record for at least 1 year after the removal of the number from that aircraft. Whenever the owner of an aircraft bearing a temporary registration number...

  10. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...record the assignment of that number to the aircraft and shall keep that record for at least 1 year after the removal of the number from that aircraft. Whenever the owner of an aircraft bearing a temporary registration number...

  11. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...record the assignment of that number to the aircraft and shall keep that record for at least 1 year after the removal of the number from that aircraft. Whenever the owner of an aircraft bearing a temporary registration number...

  12. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...record the assignment of that number to the aircraft and shall keep that record for at least 1 year after the removal of the number from that aircraft. Whenever the owner of an aircraft bearing a temporary registration number...

  13. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

  14. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

  15. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

  16. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...source of power. (i) Each power operated watertight door...if a temporary emergency power source of alternating current...for by another source of power (such as independent batteries separately charged by solar cells). (r) Each...

  17. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... In circumstances where the CO requests evidence or documentation substantiating the employer's temporary need through a RFI under § 655.23(c) to support a Final Determination, or notifies the employer that its application is being audited...

  18. 23 CFR 1235.5 - Temporary removable windshield placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.5 Temporary removable...the front windshield rearview mirror of a vehicle utilizing a parking space reserved for persons with disabilities. When there...

  19. 23 CFR 1235.5 - Temporary removable windshield placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.5 Temporary removable...the front windshield rearview mirror of a vehicle utilizing a parking space reserved for persons with disabilities. When there...

  20. 23 CFR 1235.5 - Temporary removable windshield placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.5 Temporary removable...the front windshield rearview mirror of a vehicle utilizing a parking space reserved for persons with disabilities. When there...