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1

Hydrogen peroxide induced phenylpropanoids pathway eliciting a defensive response in plants micropropagated in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs).  

PubMed

The relation between the oxidative burst and phenylpropanoid pathways has been studied using the sugarcane cultivar C86-56, which does not release phenolics in agar-base micropropagation systems. In stationary liquid culture, a significant production of phenolic compounds and plant survival were determined in sugarcane plants treated with 5mM H(2)O(2). The spectrophotometer determinations and the gene expression analysis corroborated that releasing of phenolics and soluble ?-quinones was induced during the first 24h of treatment. In comparison with the control treatments, sugarcane plants treated with H(2)O(2) demonstrated differences in the micropropagation-related variables when multiplied in Temporary Immersion Bioreactors (TIBs) supplemented with polyethyleneglycol (PEG 20%). Expression of selected genes related to photosynthesis, ethylene, auxins, oxidative burst, and defense pathways were confirmed during the entire PEG 20% stress in the plants coming from the 5mM H(2)O(2) treatment; whereas, much more heterogeneous expression patterns were evidenced in plants stressed with PEG but not previously treated with H(2)O(2). RT-PCR expression analysis supports the hypothesis that while H(2)O(2) induces the oxidative burst, the phenylpropanoids pathways elicit and maintain the defensive response mechanism in micropropagated sugarcane plants. PMID:22921000

Arencibia, Ariel D; Bernal, Aydiloide; Zayas, Carlos; Carmona, Elva; Cordero, Cecilia; González, Gloria; García, Rolando; Santana, Ignacio

2012-10-01

2

Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) micropropagation in temporary immersion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the mass propagation of pineapple plants (Ananas comosus L. Merr) using a temporary immersion technique is described. This procedure involved three distinct phases in the automated\\u000a temporary immersion system: shooting, bud differentiation and elongation. To establish this protocol, we used in vitro shoots\\u000a obtained from established liquid culture as starting materials. Three culture methods (solid, liquid and

M. Escalona; J. C. Lorenzo; B. González; M. Daquinta; J. L. González; Y. Desjardins; C. G. Borroto

1999-01-01

3

Improvement of somatic embryogenesis in Hevea brasiliensis (Müll. Arg.) using the temporary immersion technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A culture procedure using temporary immersion in a liquid medium was tested for somatic embryogenesis of Hevea brasiliensis (Mll. Arg.). Embryogenic callus was placed under regeneration conditions, either on a gelled medium (Phytagel, Sigma, St.\\u000a Louis, MO) or in a container designed for temporary immersion. The latter technique has some advantages over the use of a\\u000a gelled medium during both

H. Etienne; M. Lartaud; N. Michaux-Ferriére; M. P. Carron; M. Berthouly; C. Teisson

1997-01-01

4

Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

1996-01-01

5

Optimal performance of an immersed membrane bioreactor equipped with a draft tube for domestic wastewater reclamation.  

PubMed

One of the options to prevent membrane fouling is to implement air lifting that can improve the cake removal from the membrane surface. This study presents the results of tests that were carried out at the Institutes for Desert Research, Kiryat Sde-Boker, Israel, and focused on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on fouling in a pilot-scale immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 (Zenon Environmental, Canada) under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by one conical and four cylindrical draft-tubes. The relationship between the crossflow velocity and the aeration intensity, the influence of the crossflow on fouling rate under various hydrodynamic conditions were investigated and optimal operating conditions were obtained. Optimal operating conditions were reached during the long-term experiment period (70 days) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was stable without external chemical cleaning. The results showed that the permeate was of high quality, and the removal of COD and BOD was 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The crossflow near the membrane surface reveals a major contribution for minimizing membrane fouling, and could offer guidelines for future design of similar systems. PMID:17165458

Yang, F; Bick, A; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

2006-01-01

6

Application of bioreactor systems for large scale production of horticultural and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation of micropropagation via organogenesis or somatic embryogenesis in a bioreactor has been advanced as a possible way of reducing costs. Micropropagation by conventional techniques is typically a labour-intensive means of clonal propagation. The paper describes lower cost and less labour-intensive clonal propagation through the use of modified air-lift, bubble column, bioreactors (a balloon-type bubble bioreactor), together with temporary immersion

K. Y. Paek; D. Chakrabarty; E. J. Hahn

2005-01-01

7

A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts, large nuclei and nucleoli, and numerous plasmodesmata. Plantlets were obtained and after 3 months in culture their growth was significantly better in TIS than on solid culture medium. However, during acclimatization the survival rate of TIS-grown plantlets was lower. Conclusions The present study confirms the occurrence of secondary somatic embryos in peach palm and describes a feasible protocol for regeneration of peach palm in vitro. Further optimizations include the use of explants obtained from adult palms and improvement of somatic embryo conversion rates. PMID:21355009

Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

2011-01-01

8

Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

9

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

10

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

11

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

12

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

13

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

14

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

15

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

16

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

17

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

18

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1996-01-01

19

Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1988-01-01

20

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

21

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

22

Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste). PMID:24713237

Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

2014-09-01

23

Bioreactor principles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

24

Membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment and reuse: a success story.  

PubMed

This paper briefly reviews our current understanding of membrane bioreactor processes (including conventional and immersed membrane designs) resulting from three decades of development, highlighting process advantages, applications and areas for continuing research. PMID:12578166

Ben Aim, R M; Semmens, M J

2003-01-01

25

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

26

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

27

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

1998-01-01

28

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

29

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

30

NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

1998-01-01

31

Multimembrane Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

1989-01-01

32

[Plant as bioreactor].  

PubMed

Plant can be used as bioreactor for heterogenous protein expression. We reviewed different expression systems of plant bioreactor as well as recent relevant developments. In addition, we discussed perspectives in combination with our own experience. PMID:19670631

Yang, Jing; Li, Tianhang; Xiong, Lidong; Pang, Shifeng; Li, Xiaokun

2009-05-01

33

Immersive CAD  

SciTech Connect

This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

Ames, A.L.

1999-02-01

34

NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

2002-01-01

35

MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

36

Bioreactor rotating wall vessel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

2001-01-01

37

Bioreactors: design and operation  

SciTech Connect

The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

Cooney, C.L.

1983-02-11

38

Application of bioreactors for large-scale micropropagation systems of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The application of bioreactor culture techniques for plant micropropagation is regarded as one of the ways to reduce production\\u000a cost by scaling-up and automation. Recent experiments are restricted to a small number of species that, however, demonstrate\\u000a the feasibility of this technology. Periodic immersion liquid culture using ebb and flood system and column-type bubble bioreactors\\u000a equipped with a raft support

Kee-Yoeup Paek; Eun-Joo Hahn; Sung-Ho Son

2001-01-01

39

BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN  

EPA Science Inventory

Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

40

Space Bioreactor Science Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

Morrison, Dennis R. (editor)

1987-01-01

41

Bioreactor design concepts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two parallel lines of work are underway in the bioreactor laboratory. One of the efforts is devoted to the continued development and utilization of a laboratory research system. That system's design is intended to be fluid and dynamic. The sole purpose of such a device is to allow testing and development of equipment concepts and procedures. Some of the results of those processes are discussed. A second effort is designed to produce a flight-like bioreactor contained in a double middeck locker. The result of that effort has been to freeze a particular bioreactor design in order to allow fabrication of the custom parts. The system is expected to be ready for flight in early 1988. However, continued use of the laboratory system will lead to improvements in the space bioreactor. Those improvements can only be integrated after the initial flight series.

Bowie, William

1987-01-01

42

Wedge immersed thermistor bolometers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An immersed thermistor bolometer for the detection of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation is described. Two types of immersed bolometers are discussed. The immersion of thermistor flakes in a lens, or half immersed by optical contact on a lens, is examined. Lens materials are evaluated for optimum immersion including fused aluminum oxide, beryllium oxide, and germanium. The application of the bolometer to instruments in which the entrance pupil of the immersion optics has a high aspect ratio is considered.

Dreyfus, M. G. (inventor)

1964-01-01

43

Protecting Temporary Workers  

MedlinePLUS

... in a sorter. Reports of Fatalities and Catastrophes "Host employers need to treat temporary workers as they treat existing employees. Temporary staffing agencies and host employers share control over the employee, and are ...

44

NASA Bioreactor Schematic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

2001-01-01

45

NASA Classroom Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

Scully, Robert

2004-01-01

46

Cell-culture bioreactors  

SciTech Connect

When contrasted with microbial fermentation, the characteristics having a bearing on the design and operation of cell-culture bioreactors are fragility, steam sensitivity and anchorage requirements of cells, heat lability and foaming of proteins and other components of cell culture media. Design details of agitation and gas supply, bearings, seals and drives, foam control and sterilization, temperature, oxygen and pH control, water, air and gas purification, liquid feeding and level control, gas exhaust analysis and disposal, handling of liquid effluent and bioreactor installation and scale up are given.

Beck, C.; Stiefel, H.; Stinnett, T.

1987-02-16

47

Bioreactors Modeling and Control  

E-print Network

of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, fungi) ex: ethanol, penicillin Recombinant m.o., mammalian (or insect) cells-bioreactor-downstream) #12;MODEL 1 ("classic") Scaling up penicillin production 1928, Fleming ­ inhibitory halo 1939, Florey Chain isolates active penicillin 1941-1943, surface cultivation (semi-solid reactors) does not1941

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

48

Bioreactors Stem Cells  

E-print Network

Keywords Bioreactors Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine Tissue Engineering Pharmacology » Prof. M.; yeZhelyev, M.; eMMrich, F.; o'regan, r.; bader, a. Quantum dots for human mesenchymal stem cells in situ tracheal regeneration: the bionic tissue engineered transplantation approach. J Cell Mol Med. Jul

Schüler, Axel

49

NASA Bioreactor tissue culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

50

Computational immersive displays  

E-print Network

Immersion is an oft-quoted but ill-defined term used to describe a viewer or participant's sense of engagement with a visual display system or participatory media. Traditionally, advances in immersive quality came at the ...

Novy, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2013-01-01

51

Design challenges for space bioreactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

1989-01-01

52

Cryogenic immersion microscope  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

2010-12-14

53

Perfusion Bioreactor Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perfusion bioreactor module, self-contained, closed-loop cell-culture system that operates in microgravity or on Earth. Equipment supports growth or long-term maintenance of cultures of human or other fragile cells for experiments in basic cell biology or process technology. Designed to support proliferation (initially at exponential rates of growth) of cells in complex growth medium and to maintain confluent cells in defined medium under conditions optimized to permit or encourage selected functions of cells, including secretion of products of cells into medium.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1990-01-01

54

Temporary financial equilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   In a two-period pure exchange economy with financial assets, a temporary financial equilibrium is an equilibrium of the current\\u000a spot and security markets given forecast functions of future prices and payoffs. The temporary equilibrium model can then\\u000a be interpreted as an Arrow-Debreu economy where preferences depend on prices. This identification implies, among other consequences,\\u000a the existence and the generic

Yves Balasko

2003-01-01

55

Microtechnology in space bioreactors.  

PubMed

Space biology is a young and rapidly developing discipline comprising basic research and biotechnology. In the next decades it will play a prominent role in the International Space Station (ISS). Therefore, there is an increasing demand for sophisticated instrumentation to satisfy the requirements of the future projects in space biology. Bioreactors will be needed to supply fresh living material (cells and tissues) either to study still obscure basic biological mechanisms or to develop profitable bioprocesses which will take advantage of the peculiar microgravity conditions. Since more than twenty years, the Space Biology Group of the ETHZ is carrying out research projects in space (Space Shuttle/Spacelab, MIR Station, satellites, and sounding rockets) that involve also the development of space-qualified instrumentation. In the last ten years we have developed, in collaboration with Mecanex SA, Nyon, and the Institute of Microtechnology of the University of Neuchatel, a space bioreactor for the continuous culture of yeast cells under controlled conditions. Sensors, pH control, nutrients pump and fluid flowmeter are based on state-of-the-art silicon technology. After two successful space flights, a further improved version is presently prepared for a flight in the year 2000. PMID:11542392

Walther, I; van der Schoot, B; Boillat, M; Muller, O; Cogoli, A

1999-03-01

56

Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

57

Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

1991-01-01

58

Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

1997-01-01

59

Space bioreactor: Design/process flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

60

Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

1998-01-01

61

Immersive cyberspace system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

1997-01-01

62

Gasoline immersion injury  

SciTech Connect

Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

1981-01-01

63

Bilingual or Immersion?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of new studies is providing fresh evidence of what many researchers have been saying all along: English immersion has more political appeal than educational merit. Dr. Amy Merickel, co-author of "Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners K-12," says it is not possible given the data available to…

Hamilton, Kendra

2006-01-01

64

The immersed boundary method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the mathematical structure of the immersed boundary (IB) method, which is intended for the computer simulation of fluid{structure interaction, especially in biological fluid dynamics. The IB formulation of such problems, derived here from the principle of least ac- tion, involves both Eulerian and Lagrangian variables, linked by the Dirac delta function. Spatial discretization of the

Charles S. Peskin

2002-01-01

65

Immersion Lithography: Photomask and  

E-print Network

Immersion Lithography: Photomask and Wafer-Level Materials Roger H. French and Hoang V. Tran DuPont Co. Central Research, E400-5207 Experimental Station, Wilmington, DE 19880-0400; email: roger.h.french@usa.dupont) coincided with the intro- duction of chemically amplified resists. Currently, the transition to 193 nm (Ar

Rollins, Andrew M.

66

EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

67

Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

2001-01-01

68

Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology  

SciTech Connect

Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

1993-09-01

69

Setting properties and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials.  

PubMed

This study sought to investigate the setting progress and sealing ability of hydraulic temporary sealing materials used in endodontic treatment: Lumicon, Caviton, and HY-Seal. To evaluate setting progress, the materials were filled into glass tubes with one end sealed and immersed in water. After immersion, a measurement apparatus was inserted from the non-immersed end and the set area was determined by subtracting the unset area from the sample thickness. To evaluate sealing ability, materials were filled into glass tubes and divided into four groups based on different immersion times. Thermal cycling and dye penetration were performed. At 7 days, the setting depths of HY-Seal and Caviton were almost equivalent to full sample thickness, while that of Lumicon was only half of full sample thickness (p < 0.01). On sealing ability, Lumicon ranked the highest followed by Caviton, whereas HY-Seal was unstable (p < 0.01). These results suggested that there was no correlation between setting progress and sealing ability. PMID:18972791

Ogura, Yoko; Katsuumi, Ichiroh

2008-09-01

70

Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of perspective within the scene contained on only one wall has integrity. Unfortunately, parallel lines that lie on adjacent walls do not necessarily remain parallel. This results in inaccuracies in the scene that can distract the viewer and subtract from the immersive experience of the CAVE.

Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

2011-01-01

71

Methanogenesis in solid-waste landfill bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfills are viewed as solid-substrate batch bioreactors generating biogas (methane and carbon dioxide). Designing landfill bioreactors with the objective of maximizing energy recovery requires predictive knowledge of two fundamental variables: the ultimate quantity of potentially recoverable methane (yield) and the time rate of production. In assessing the above two variables, this dissertation reviews existing information, outlines the needed theoretical framework

Halvadakis

1983-01-01

72

BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

73

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

74

Enabling immersive simulation.  

SciTech Connect

The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

McCoy, Josh (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Mateas, Michael (University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA); Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

2009-02-01

75

Card Issuance for Temporary KU Affiliates, Temporary Faculty, and Temporary Staff A temporary KU Card will be issued to KU affiliates (visiting scholars, Fulbright scholars,  

E-print Network

Card Issuance for Temporary KU Affiliates, Temporary Faculty, and Temporary Staff A temporary KU Card will be issued to KU affiliates (visiting scholars, Fulbright scholars, adjunct faculty if the appointment has been entered into the HR/Payroll system, and the data has been interfaced to the KU Card

76

A temperature control algorithm of immersion liquid for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immersion lithography is one of the main technologies used to manufacture integrated circuits with the shortest feature size. In immersion lithography, temperature of immersion liquid is strictly constrained and its allowable range is less than +/-0.01°C at 22°C. To meet this requirement, a temperature control algorithm adopted by the test rig which controls the temperature of the immersion liquid with process cooling water (PCW) via heat exchangers is proposed. By adjusting the flow rate of PCW through the heat exchangers, the control system varies the amount of heat exchanged, and the temperature of the immersion liquid can be properly controlled. The temperature control rig is a multi-disturbed, timevariant, non-linear and time-delayed system and its transfer function varies with the inlet temperature and flow rates of the streams through the heat exchangers. Considering the characteristics of the system, a cascade-connected fuzzy PID feedback algorithm is designed.

He, Junwei; Li, Xiaoping; Lei, Min; Chen, Bing; Wang, Jinchun

2014-03-01

77

Hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors.  

PubMed

The hydrodynamic characteristics of UASB bioreactors operated under different organic loading and hydraulic loading rates were studied, using three laboratory scale models treating concocted sucrose wastewater. Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis using dispersion model and tanks-in-series model was directed towards the characterization of the fluid flow pattern in the reactors and correlation of the hydraulic regime with the biomass content and biogas production. Empty bed reactors followed a plug flow pattern and the flow pattern changed to a large dispersion mixing with biomass and gas production. Effect of increase in gas production on the overall hydraulics was insignificant. PMID:23505813

John, Siby; Tare, Vinod

2011-10-01

78

Measuring Water in Bioreactor Landfills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas, and landfills are the largest anthropogenic source in many developed countries. Bioreactor landfills have been proposed as one means of abating greenhouse gas emissions from landfills. Here, the decomposition of organic wastes is enhanced by the controlled addition of water or leachate to maintain optimal conditions for waste decomposition. Greenhouse gas abatement is accomplished by sequestration of photosynthetically derived carbon in wastes, CO2 offsets from energy use of waste derived gas, and mitigation of methane emission from the wastes. Maintaining optimal moisture conditions for waste degradation is perhaps the most important operational parameter in bioreactor landfills. To determine how much water is needed and where to add it, methods are required to measure water within solid waste. However, there is no reliable method that can measure moisture content simply and accurately in the heterogeneous environment typical of landfills. While well drilling and analysis of solid waste samples is sometimes used to determine moisture content, this is an expensive, time-consuming, and destructive procedure. To overcome these problems, a new technology recently developed by hydrologists for measuring water in the vadose zone --- the partitioning tracer test (PTT) --- was evaluated for measuring water in solid waste in a full-scale bioreactor landfill in Yolo County, CA. Two field tests were conducted in different regions of an aerobic bioreactor landfill, with each test measuring water in ? 250 ft3 of solid waste. Tracers were injected through existing tubes inserted in the landfill, and tracer breakthrough curves were measured through time from the landfill's gas collection system. Gas samples were analyzed on site using a field-portable gas chromatograph and shipped offsite for more accurate laboratory analysis. In the center of the landfill, PTT measurements indicated that the fraction of the pore space filled with water was 29%, while the moisture content, the mass of water divided by total wet mass of solid waste, was 28%. Near the sloped sides of the landfill, PTT results indicated that only 7.1% of the pore space was filled with water, while the moisture content was estimated to be 6.9%. These measurements are in close agreement with gravimetric measurements made on solid waste samples collected after each PTT: moisture content of 27% in the center of the landfill and only 6% near the edge of the landfill. We discuss these measurements in detail, the limitations of the PTT method for landfills, and operational guidelines for achieving unbiased measurements of moisture content in landfills using the PTT method.

Han, B.; Gallagher, V. N.; Imhoff, P. T.; Yazdani, R.; Chiu, P.

2004-12-01

79

Broadcasting presence: immersive television  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

2000-06-01

80

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

DOEpatents

A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, Charles G. (Danville, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01

81

Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

2014-06-21

82

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

1998-01-01

83

Tubular membrane bioreactors for biotechnological processes.  

PubMed

This article is an overview of bioreactors using tubular membranes such as hollow fibers or ceramic capillaries for cultivation processes. This diverse group of bioreactor is described here in regard to the membrane materials used, operational modes, and configurations. The typical advantages of this kind of system such as environments with low shear stress together with high cell densities and also disadvantages like poor oxygen supply are summed up. As the usage of tubular membrane bioreactors is not restricted to a certain organism, a brief overview of various applications covering nearly all types of cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells is also given here. PMID:23224587

Wolff, Christoph; Beutel, Sascha; Scheper, Thomas

2013-02-01

84

Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

85

Immersion echelle spectrograph  

SciTech Connect

A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

2000-06-20

86

Thermal comfort following immersion.  

PubMed

Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28°C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24°C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] °C·min(-1) - max was 0.89°C·min(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] °C - max difference was 2.68°C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

Guéritée, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

2015-02-01

87

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

2001-01-01

88

Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

2001-01-01

89

Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

2001-01-01

90

Thin film bioreactors in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

1989-01-01

91

Mastering temporary invasive cardiac pacing.  

PubMed

Competent management of patients with an invasive temporary pacemaker is an important skill for nurses who provide care for critically ill patients with cardiac disease. Such management requires familiarity with normal cardiovascular anatomy and physiology, conduction system defects, and rhythm interpretation. With an understanding of the basic concepts of rate, output, chambers, sensitivity, and capture, pacing can be done with ease. Care of patients with a temporary invasive pacemaker requires monitoring cardiac tissue and hemodynamic status, observing for changes that would indicate the need for modifications in the pacemaker settings. Nursing interventions include physical assessment, care of the insertion site, routine threshold testing, and management of the pulse generator. PMID:15206293

Overbay, Devorah; Criddle, Laura

2004-06-01

92

25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either...maintenance or temporary support of a child of the marriage entitled to support. The motion...peace of the other party or of any child; (3) Excluding a party...

2010-04-01

93

40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary exemptions. 82.65 Section 82.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.65 Temporary exemptions. (a) Any person...

2010-07-01

94

SPA Student & Temporary Employees TIM Reference Guide  

E-print Network

SPA Student & Temporary Employees June 2012 PART 1 TIM Reference Guide (Non-Java Version) #12;SPA Student & Temporary Employee Reference Guide Page 2 Table of Contents LOG INTO TIM (NON-JAVA VERSION) .................................................................................................................... 3 LOG OFF TIM

Crews, Stephen

95

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Please contact the appropriate Administrative Office with questions regarding temporary employment  

E-print Network

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Please contact the appropriate Administrative Office with questions regarding temporary employment Ag & Natural Resources .............509. SUPERVISOR completes WSU Extension Temporary Employment Request Form · WSU Temporary Employment

Collins, Gary S.

96

In situ nitrogen removal in phase-separate bioreactor landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of in situ nitrogen removal in phase-separate bioreactor landfill was investigated. In the experiment, two sets of bioreactor landfill systems, namely conventional two-phase and in situ nitrogen removal bioreactor landfills, were operated. The in situ nitrogen removal bioreactor landfill (NBL) was comprised of a fresh-refuse filled reactor (NBLF), a methanogenic reactor (NBLM) and a nitrifying reactor (NBLN), while

Yan Long; Qing-Wei Guo; Cheng-Ran Fang; Yin-Mei Zhu; Dong-Sheng Shen

2008-01-01

97

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control  

E-print Network

Development of Foamed Emulsion Bioreactor for Air Pollution Control Eunsung Kan, Marc A. Deshusses: 10.1002/bit.10767 Abstract: A new type of bioreactor for air pollution con- trol has been developed used bioreactors for air pollution control. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 84: 240

98

Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.  

PubMed

Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

2014-01-01

99

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01

100

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 7 (Early French Immersion: French 7)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for seventh grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives and addresses the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four…

Burt, Andy; And Others

101

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 4 (Early French Immersion: French 4).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for fourth grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four language…

Burt, Andy; And Others

102

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 6 (Early French Immersion: French 6)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for sixth grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives and addresses the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four…

Burt, Andy; And Others

103

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 2 (Early French Immersion: French 2).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for second grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the primary grades and learning objectives for the four language…

Burt, Andy; And Others

104

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 5 (Early French Immersion: French 5).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for fifth grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives and addresses the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the middle grades and learning objectives for the four…

Burt, Andy; And Others

105

Immersion francaise precoce: Francais 3 (Early French Immersion: French 3).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual for third grade French instruction accompanies the early French immersion program. It is based on general and specific learning objectives for the four language skills the child needs to develop. The introduction to the manual provides an overview of the program for the primary grades and learning objectives for the four language…

Burt, Andy; And Others

106

[Temporary accommodations: respite for caregivers].  

PubMed

Many elderly dependent people live at home thanks to outside assistance and thanks to a member of their family who becomes a carer. Looking after a dependent person can take its toll on the carer's health and their family balance. Temporary accommodation meets the needs of the elderly person as well as the carer's need for respite. It forms an important link in enabling elderly people to continue living at home. An example with a nursing home in the Creuse region. PMID:23301301

Bourzeau, Madeleine

2012-01-01

107

Large capacity temporary visual memory.  

PubMed

Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to 3 or 4 items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor--proactive interference--is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation of 5-21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited, as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

Endress, Ansgar D; Potter, Mary C

2014-04-01

108

Trench Foot or Immersion Foot  

MedlinePLUS

... Children Safe From Drowning in Flooded Areas Avoiding Carbon Monoxide Poisoning During a Power Outage Driving Through Water After a Disaster Preventing Trench Foot or Immersion Foot Identification and Treatment of Hypothermia Related to Exposure While Working in Cold Water General Information about ...

109

Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

Pricer, Wayne F.

2011-01-01

110

Torus Immersions and Transformations Carlo H. Squin  

E-print Network

1 Torus Immersions and Transformations Carlo H. Séquin CS Division, University of California, Berkeley E-mail: sequin@cs.berkeley.edu Abstract All possible immersions of a torus in 3D Euclidean space that opposite e

O'Brien, James F.

111

Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-01-01

112

Bioreactor Studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic environment “created” by bioreactors for the culture of a tissue engineered construct (TEC) is known to influence cell migration, proliferation and extra cellular matrix production. However, tissue engineers have looked at bioreactors as black boxes within which TECs are cultured mainly by trial and error, as the complex relationship between the hydrodynamic environment and tissue properties remains elusive, yet is critical to the production of clinically useful tissues. It is well known in the chemical and biotechnology field that a more detailed description of fluid mechanics and nutrient transport within process equipment can be achieved via the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technology. Hence, the coupling of experimental methods and computational simulations forms a synergistic relationship that can potentially yield greater and yet, more cohesive data sets for bioreactor studies. This review aims at discussing the rationale of using CFD in bioreactor studies related to tissue engineering, as fluid flow processes and phenomena have direct implications on cellular response such as migration and/or proliferation. We conclude that CFD should be seen by tissue engineers as an invaluable tool allowing us to analyze and visualize the impact of fluidic forces and stresses on cells and TECs.

Singh, H.; Hutmacher, D. W.

113

Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging

Jonathan I Betts; Frank Baganz

2006-01-01

114

Human cell culture in a space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

Morrison, Dennis R.

1988-01-01

115

LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

116

Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

2014-08-01

117

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Temporary Employment Request.doc 3/28/2013  

E-print Network

WSU EXTENSION TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT REQUEST PROCEDURES Temporary Employment Request.doc 3/28/2013 Please contact the appropriate Administrative Office with questions regarding temporary employment Ag Employment Request · E-mail to appropriate Administrative Office · Call appropriate Administrative Office

Collins, Gary S.

118

Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

119

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

1994-01-01

120

Immersible solar heater for fluids  

DOEpatents

An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1995-07-11

121

Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2006-03-21

122

Deconditioning during prolonged immersion and possible countermeasures.  

PubMed

Test subjects covered with a waterproof highly elastic cloth were exposed to 13-day water immersion up to the neck. They were divided into two groups. The first (control) group consisting of six persons was exposed to immersion alone and the second (experimental) group was exposed daily to accelerations of 0.6-2 Gz for 60-90 min during the last 6 days of immersion. Before and after immersion all the test subjects were exposed to +3 Gz for 5 min which served as a provocative test. These experiments give evidence that the use of dry immersion allows experimentation during prolonged immersion without concomitant complications. Variations in the physiological parameters (cardiovascular system, fluid-electrolyte balance, blood-coagulatory system) are indicative of the preventive effect of periodic accelerations during 13-day immersion. PMID:11977283

Shulzhenko, E B; Vil-Vilyams, I F; Khudyakova, M A; Grigoryev, A I

1976-01-01

123

Cardiotonic glycosides from biomass of Digitalis purpurea L. cultured in temporary immersion systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiotonic glycosides are extracted mostly from leaves of Digitalis plants. Commercial production of bioactive secondary metabolites by traditional agriculture is an inefficient process and\\u000a can be affected by climatic and soil conditions. Strategies, based on in vitro culture methods, have been extensively studied\\u000a to improve the production of specific plant derived chemicals. The aim of the present research was to

Naivy Pérez-Alonso; Dirk Wilken; André Gerth; Annett Jähn; Horst-Michael Nitzsche; Gerhard Kerns; Alina Capote-Perez; Elio Jiménez

2009-01-01

124

Package plant of extended aeration membrane bioreactors: a study on aeration intensity and biofouling control.  

PubMed

Biofouling control is important for effective process of membrane bioreactor (MBR). In this study, phenomena of biofouling for immersed type extended aeration MBR with two different anti-fouling aeration intensities were studied through a laboratory set up. The objectives of this study were (a) to observe biofouling phenomena of MBR that operates under different anti-fouling bubbling intensity, and simultaneously monitors performance of the MBR in organic carbon and nutrients removal; (b) to compare effectiveness of detergent and detergent-enzyme cleaning solutions in recovering biofouled membranes that operated in the extended aeration MBR. For MBR, which operated under continuous anti-fouling aeration, deposition and accumulation of suspended biomass on membrane surface were prohibited. However, flux loss was inescapable that biofilm layer was the main problem. Membrane cleaning was successfully carried out with detergent-enzyme mixture solutions and its effectiveness was compared with result from cleaning with just detergent solution. PMID:16104438

Ujang, Z; Ng, S S; Nagaoka, H

2005-01-01

125

41 CFR 302-6.1 - What are “temporary quarters?'  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false What are âtemporary quarters?' 302-6.1 Section 302-6...EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE EXPENSES General Rules...302-6.1 What are “temporary quarters?' The term “temporary...

2010-07-01

126

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2014-04-01

127

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2011-04-01

128

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2013-04-01

129

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices...3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device...

2012-04-01

130

25 CFR 573.6 - Order of temporary closure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Order of temporary closure. 573.6 Section 573.6 Indians...ENFORCEMENT § 573.6 Order of temporary closure. (a) When an order of temporary closure may issue. Simultaneously with or...

2012-04-01

131

29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1926.154 Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation... (1) Temporary heating devices shall be installed to provide... (2) Temporary heating devices, which are listed for installation...heaters shall be equipped with a primary safety control to stop...

2013-07-01

132

29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1926.154 Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation... (1) Temporary heating devices shall be installed to provide... (2) Temporary heating devices, which are listed for installation...heaters shall be equipped with a primary safety control to stop...

2010-07-01

133

29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.  

...1926.154 Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation... (1) Temporary heating devices shall be installed to provide... (2) Temporary heating devices, which are listed for installation...heaters shall be equipped with a primary safety control to stop...

2014-07-01

134

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2010-07-01

135

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2011-07-01

136

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2012-07-01

137

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2013-07-01

138

29 CFR 2582.8478-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2582.8478-1 Section...REGULATIONS FOR FIDUCIARY RESPONSIBILITY Temporary Bonding Rules § 2582.8478-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) General....

2014-07-01

139

40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are temporary emergency measures? (a) Temporary emergency measures are actions taken to control...immediate threats to human health and the environment. (b) Examples of temporary emergency measures are: (1) Site...

2010-07-01

140

22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation...Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a) One-year temporary accreditation...adoptions in the calendar year preceding the year in...

2013-04-01

141

22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation...Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a) One-year temporary accreditation...adoptions in the calendar year preceding the year in...

2010-04-01

142

22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation...Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a) One-year temporary accreditation...adoptions in the calendar year preceding the year in...

2012-04-01

143

22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation...Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a) One-year temporary accreditation...adoptions in the calendar year preceding the year in...

2011-04-01

144

22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.  

... 2014-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation...Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a) One-year temporary accreditation...adoptions in the calendar year preceding the year in...

2014-04-01

145

21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section 872.3770 Food...872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a...

2010-04-01

146

[Contrasting experiment of two types of MSW aerobic bioreactor landfill].  

PubMed

Bioreactor landfill is an emerging landfilling method, which represents the newest developing aspect of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) treatment. On basis of analyzing the merits and defects of present bioreactor landfilling methods, the paper improves these methods and combines organically aeration and leachate recirculation into a new reactor (called reactor A), which is contrasted with bare aerobic landfill (called reactor B). During the course of experiment, NH3, CH4, CO2, pH, temperature and electric conductivity in the two bioreactors were controlled and detected, meanwhile, COD, Fe3+, NH4(+) in the leachate were detected and analyzed. The paper researches on the wastes degradation and the COD, Fe3+ and NH4(+) removal of the two bioreactors, probes into the mechanics of wastes and leachate degradation. Finally the paper draws a conclusion that the effect of degrading wastes and leachate of bioreactor A is better than that of bioreactor B. PMID:16124495

Li, Bing; Dong, Zhi-ying; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Zhao, You-cai; Niu, Dong-jie

2005-05-01

147

Temporary Instructor in Communication Truman State University  

E-print Network

-winning student media including FM radio, television news and public affairs programs, online news, a weeklyTemporary Instructor in Communication Truman State University The School of Social and Cultural Studies at Truman State University is seeking applicants for a full-time, temporary faculty position

Gering, Jon C.

148

Providing Circulation Services in a Temporary Location  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the experience of Circulation Services at Booth Library, Eastern Illinois University, during a 31-month relocation to temporary facilities while the building was undergoing renovation. The move to temporary locations presented new challenges and required unique solutions. Issues such as the rationale for the move to the…

Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Slough, Marlene

2003-01-01

149

32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q” access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a favorable investigation not meeting the investigative standards...

2010-07-01

150

Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals  

SciTech Connect

A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

1993-06-01

151

Design concepts for bioreactors in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

1987-01-01

152

Ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor for urban wastewater reclamation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 162-day pilot-scale operation for reclamation of urban wastewater was studied by using an ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UMBR). Performance of the UMBR was investigated with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 5, 15, and 30 days, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5h, and membrane flux between 75 and 150lm?2h?1, respectively. It was observed that the highest sludge concentration in

C.-H Xing; E Tardieu; Y Qian; X.-H Wen

2000-01-01

153

Pentachlorophenol mineralization in an immobilized soil bioreactor  

SciTech Connect

The biological degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was conducted in a new type of reactor-the immobilized soil bioreactor. In this bioreactor soil particles having natural microbial activity in degrading the target pollutant are entrapped into a solid membrane with a large pore size distribution. The resulting {open_quotes}immobilized soil{close_quotes} system can be easily supplied with dissolved mineral salts, oxygen and target pollutant and as a result an active microbial consortium will be quickly established. This consortium is later used for treatment of aqueous solutions of the pollutant, for instance, contaminated ground water. We have studied the process of PCP biodegradation in both batch and continuous regime. our results showed that the volumetric effectiveness of the process of PCP mineralization in the immobilized soil bioreactor is between 7 and 4000 times higher than results reported in the literature. It has been found that both chlorine and carbon atoms of PCP are at least 99% mineralized. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Karamanev, D.; Chavarie, C.; Samson, R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (Canada)

1996-12-31

154

Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

2006-01-01

155

Immersed interface methods. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Considerable progress has been made on several problems mentioned in the original proposal and in last year`s progress report. Our work is also going in some new directions. The primary focus is still on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM`s) for high order accuracy of interface problems on Cartesian grids, but the investigators have also been involved in other projects. In particular, LeVeque`s work on clawpack described below has been supported in part by these grants and has been used in direct connection with IIM`s in projects in both groundwater flow and acoustics.

LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

1995-04-01

156

Gestural interfaces for immersive environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

Margolis, Todd

2014-02-01

157

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion hydrobath. (a) Identification. An...

2011-04-01

158

Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

1981-01-01

159

BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY  

EPA Science Inventory

Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

160

OUTER LOOP BIOREACTOR PROJECT STATUS AND PRELIMINARY DATA SUMMARY  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluate the Performance of As-Built (Aerobic-Anaerobic) and Retrofit (Anaerobic) Landfill Bioreactors cells to that of conventional "dry tomb" landfills. Evaluate the performance of full scale bioreactor landfill on an operational level. Collect statistically sound data that wi...

161

Cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a bioreactor in microgravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yeast cells were cultured for 8 d in a newly developed bioreactor during the Spacelab IML-2 mission. Two bioreactors, one stirred and one without stirring, were installed in the Biorack facility in space. Two control units were installed in the Biorack module at the Kennedy Space Center. Samples were drawn on mission day 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 and

I. Walther; B. Bechler; O. Müller; E. Hunzinger; A. Cogoli

1996-01-01

162

Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.  

PubMed

Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398

Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muñoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

2014-09-23

163

LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

164

USE OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS IN ACCELERATING WASTE DEGRADATION  

EPA Science Inventory

MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EP A and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

165

ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

166

SULFUR FORMATION AND RECOVERY IN A THIOSULFATE?OXIDIZING BIOREACTOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes the design and performance of a thiosulfate?oxidizing bioreactor that allowed high elemental sulfur production and recovery efficiency. The reactor system, referred to as a Supernatant?Recycling Settler Bioreactor (SRSB), consisted of a cylindrical upflow reactor and a separate aeration vessel. The reactor was equipped with an internal settler and packing material (structured corrugated PVC sheets) to facilitate both

R. J. W. Meulepas; S. Revah

2008-01-01

167

Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2013-01-01

168

Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

2004-01-01

169

Temporary Tattoos May Put You at Risk  

MedlinePLUS

... Time to pack your swim suit, hit the beach, and perhaps indulge in a little harmless fun. ... in places such as temporary tattoo kiosks at beaches, boardwalks, and other holiday destinations, as well as ...

170

Temporary hemodialysis catheters: recent advances  

PubMed Central

The insertion of non-tunneled temporary hemodialysis catheters (NTHCs) is a core procedure of nephrology practice. While urgent dialysis may be life-saving, mechanical and infectious complications related to the insertion of NTHCs can be fatal. In recent years, various techniques that reduce mechanical and infectious complications related to NTHCs have been described. Evidence now suggests that ultrasound guidance should be used for internal jugular and femoral vein NTHC insertions. The implementation of evidence-based infection-control ‘bundles' for central venous catheter insertions has significantly reduced the incidence of bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit setting with important implications for how nephrologists should insert NTHCs. In addition, the Cathedia Study has provided the first high-level evidence about the optimal site of NTHC insertion, as it relates to the risk of infection and catheter dysfunction. Incorporating these evidence-based techniques into a simulation-based program for training nephrologists in NTHC insertion has been shown to be an effective way to improve the procedural skills of nephrology trainees. Nonetheless, there are some data suggesting nephrologists have been slow to adopt evidence-based practices surrounding NTHC insertion. This mini review focuses on techniques that reduce the complications of NTHCs and are relevant to the practice and training of nephrologists. PMID:24805107

Clark, Edward G; Barsuk, Jeffrey H

2014-01-01

171

Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

Muths, E.; Scherer, R.D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

2006-01-01

172

IVY: The Immersive Visual environment at York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the limitations of head mounted display systems, there has been significant interest in the development of large-scale virtual environments such as video walls, immersive project displays, and similar devices. Although these devices do provide a wide-field visual display, very few of these devices are completely immersive as the user may view the visual world or they may be tethered

M. Robinson; J. Laurence; J. Zacher; A. Hogue; R. Allison; L. R. Harris; M. Jenkin; W. Stuerzlinger

2002-01-01

173

Amphibian XIS: an immersion lithography microstepper platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in immersion lithography have created the need for a small field microstepper to carry out the early learning necessary for next generation device application. Combined with fluid immersion, multiple-beam lithography can provide an opportunity to explore lithographic imaging at oblique propagation angles and extreme NA imaging. Using the phase preserving properties of Smith Talbot interferometry, the Amphibian XIS

Bruce W. Smith; Anatoly Bourov; Yongfa Fan; Frank Cropanese; Peter Hammond

2005-01-01

174

ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS INTO LORENTZIAN PRODUCTS JULIEN ROTH  

E-print Network

ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS INTO LORENTZIAN PRODUCTS JULIEN ROTH Abstract. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an n-dimensional Riemannian man- ifold to be isometrically immersed into one an equivalent condition in a spinorial way and we deduce the existence of a one-parameter family of isometric

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the…

Wang, Kathleen

2009-01-01

176

Is Immersion the Key to Language Renewal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature to determine the importance of immersion in language restoration or preservation. Defines immersion and its goals, and discusses effects on students' English cognitive ability. Examines the success of Indian nations in retaining/restoring Native languages and concludes that, if nothing is done, additional Native languages…

DeJong, David H.

1998-01-01

177

The pleasure principle: immersion, engagement, flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

While few critics writing on readers and hypertext have focused on the affective pleasures of reading hypertext fiction or interactive narratives like Myst, those who assess the experience of reading them tend to assume interactive texts should be either immersive or engaging. This study uses schema theory to define the characteristics of immersion and engagement in both conventional and new

Yellowlees Douglas; Andrew Hargadon

2000-01-01

178

Initiation of immersed granular avalanches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ?0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

2014-05-01

179

Immersive video for virtual tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new panoramic, 360 degree(s) video system and its use in a real application for virtual tourism. The development of this system has required to design new hardware for multi-camera recording, and software for video processing in order to elaborate the panorama frames and to playback the resulting high resolution video footage on a regular PC. The system makes use of new VR display hardware, such as WindowVR, in order to make the view dependent on the viewer's spatial orientation and so enhance immersiveness. There are very few examples of similar technologies and the existing ones are extremely expensive and/or impossible to be implemented on personal computers with acceptable quality. The idea of the system starts from the concept of Panorama picture, developed in technologies such as QuickTimeVR. This idea is extended to the concept of panorama frame that leads to panorama video. However, many problems are to be solved to implement this simple scheme. Data acquisition involves simultaneously footage recording in every direction, and latter processing to convert every set of frames in a single high resolution panorama frame. Since there is no common hardware capable of 4096x512 video playback at 25 fps rate, it must be stripped in smaller pieces which the system must manage to get the right frames of the right parts as the user movement demands it. As the system must be immersive, the physical interface to watch the 360 degree(s) video is a WindowVR, that is, a flat screen with an orientation tracker that the user holds in his hands, moving it like if it were a virtual window through which the city and its activity is being shown.

Hernandez, Luis A.; Taibo, Javier; Seoane, Antonio J.

2001-11-01

180

Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.  

PubMed

By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ? 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

2014-05-01

181

Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the Rotating Wall Vessel developed by NASA, and originally designed to protect cell culture from the

Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

182

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

2001-01-01

183

Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

2007-07-03

184

Disposable Bioreactors: Maturation into Pharmaceutical Glycoprotein Manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern biopharmaceutical development is characterised by deep understanding of the structure activity relationship of biological drugs. Therefore, the production process has to be tailored more to the product requirements than to the existing equipment in a certain facility. In addition, the major challenges for the industry are to lower the high production costs of biologics and to shorten the overall development time. The flexibility for providing different modes of operation using disposable bioreactors in the same facility can fulfil these demands and support tailor-made processes.

Brecht, René

185

Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited Victoria Interrante  

E-print Network

Distance Perception in Immersive Virtual Environments, Revisited Victoria Interrante 1 , Lee experiments in which we assess egocentric distance perception in a high fidelity, low latency, immersive perception appears not to be significantly compressed in the immersive virtual environment, relative

Interrante, Victoria

186

Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

2006-01-01

187

Transmural Flow Bioreactor for Vascular Tissue Engineering  

PubMed Central

Nutrient transport limitation remains a fundamental issue for in vitro culture of engineered tissues. In this study, perfusion bioreactor configurations were investigated to provide uniform delivery of oxygen to media equivalents (MEs) being developed as the basis for tissue-engineered arteries. Bioreactor configurations were developed to evaluate oxygen delivery associated with complete transmural flow (through the wall of the ME), complete axial flow (through the lumen), and a combination of these flows. In addition, transport models of the different flow configurations were analyzed to determine the most uniform oxygen profile throughout the tissue, incorporating direct measurements of tissue hydraulic conductivity, cellular O2 consumption kinetics, and cell density along with ME physical dimensions. Model results indicate that dissolved oxygen (DO) uniformity is improved when a combination of transmural and axial flow is implemented; however, detrimental effects could occur due to lumenal pressure exceeding the burst pressure or damaging interstitial shear stress imparted by excessive transmural flow rates or decreasing hydraulic conductivity due to ME compaction. The model was verified by comparing predicted with measured outlet DO concentrations. Based on these results, the combination of a controlled transmural flow coupled with axial flow presents an attractive means to increase the transport of nutrients to cells within the cultured tissue to improve growth (increased cell and extracellular matrix concentrations) as well as uniformity. PMID:19603425

Bjork, Jason W.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

2010-01-01

188

High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

2014-09-01

189

A Bioreactor Model of Mouse Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

The present study represents an investigation of a novel stirred bioreactor for culture of a transformed cell line under defined hydrodynamic conditions in vitro. Cell colonies of the EL-4 mouse lymphoma cell line grown for the first time in a rotating disc bioreactor (RDB), were observed to undergo changes in phenotype in comparison to standard, static flask cultures. RDB cultures, with or without agitation, promoted the formation of adherent EL-4 cell plaques that merged to form contiguous tumor-like masses in longer-term cultures, unlike the unattached spheroid aggregates of flask cultures. Plaques grown under agitated conditions were further altered in morphology and distribution in direct response to fluid mechanical stimuli. Plaque colonies growth in RDBs with or without agitation also exhibited significant increases in production of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and lactate, suggesting an inducible “Warburg effect.” Increases in cell biomass in RDB cultures were no different to flask cultures, though a trend toward a marginal increase was observed at specific rotational speeds. The RDB may therefore be a suitable alternative method to study mechanisms of tumor progression and invasiveness in vitro, under more complex physicochemical conditions that may approximate natural tissue environments. PMID:18288240

Thouas, George A.; Sheridan, John; Hourigan, Kerry

2007-01-01

190

Scale-up of a cyclone bioreactor.  

PubMed

The operation of a cyclone bioreactor differs from conventional stirred tanks since the agitation is accomplished by means of a pumped recirculation loop. Oxygen transfer can occur across the swirling gas-liquid interface in the cyclone or from bubbles entrained in the recirculation loop. A cyclone bioreactor was scaled-up from a 1 dm3 bench top unit to a 75 dm3 Process Development Unit (PDU). A reduction in the aspect ratio was compensated for by extending the length of the recirculation loop and providing additional aeration. Performance of the two reactors for the production of microbial poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was compared under various operating conditions. The culture used for PHB production was Alcaligenes eutrophus DSM 545, grown on a mineral salts medium limited by the supply of nitrogen. The levels of dissolved oxygen obtained in the PDU were strongly dependent on the location at which the air was introduced into the reactor. However, with aeration balanced between two injection points and a similar level of power input, 17 J s-1 dm-3, the PDU was able to provide at least as much oxygen transfer capability as the laboratory-scale reactor. Under all conditions tested, the PHB accumulation by A. eutrophus was in excess of 80% of the biomass dry weight, although the yield on glucose was lower in the PDU than in the laboratory-scale reactor. PMID:7764498

Sheppard, J D; Marchessault, P; Whalen, T; Barrington, S F

1994-01-01

191

Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

2014-05-01

192

A new bioreactor system for animal cell culture  

E-print Network

volume (cm /cm ) C* = oxygen concentration at equilibrium with gas (mg Oz/cm ) CisUI, K = dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid (mg Oz/cm ). The oxygen transfer capacity of a bioreactor may be improved by increasing kI?a, or the driving... 0 IPRCKRIEg 0 0 0 0 I 0 ~o 0 ~O O~ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 )~RES 0 0 I Figure 4. Fluid Row in Advanced Bioreactor 12 CHAPTER III EXPERIMENTAL A. Apparatus A schematic of the bioreactor constructed at Texas A%M University is shown...

Monahan, Patrick Bernard

1989-01-01

193

Engineering Biological-Based Vascular Grafts Using a Pulsatile Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Much effort has been devoted to develop and advance the methodology to regenerate functional small-diameter arterial bypasses. In the physiological environment, both mechanical and chemical stimulation are required to maintain the proper development and functionality of arterial vessels1,2. Bioreactor culture systems developed by our group are designed to support vessel regeneration within a precisely controlled chemo-mechanical environment mimicking that of native vessels. Our bioreactor assembly and maintenance procedures are fairly simple and highly repeatable3,4. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are seeded onto a tubular polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh that is threaded over compliant silicone tubing and cultured in the bioreactor with or without pulsatile stimulation for up to 12 weeks. There are four main attributes that distinguish our bioreactor from some predecessors. 1) Unlike other culture systems that simulate only the biochemical surrounding of native blood vessels, our bioreactor also creates a physiological pulsatile environment by applying cyclic radial strain to the vessels in culture. 2) Multiple engineered vessels can be cultured simultaneously under different mechanical conditions within a controlled chemical environment. 3) The bioreactor allows a mono layer of endothelial cells (EC) to be easily coated onto the luminal side of engineered vessels for animal implantation models. 4) Our bioreactor can also culture engineered vessels with different diameter size ranged from 1 mm to 3 mm, saving the effort to tailor each individual bioreactor to fit a specific diameter size. The engineered vessels cultured in our bioreactor resemble native blood vessels histologically to some degree. Cells in the vessel walls express mature SMC contractile markers such as smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC)3. A substantial amount of collagen is deposited within the extracellular matrix, which is responsible for ultimate mechanical strength of the engineered vessels5. Biochemical analysis also indicates that collagen content of engineered vessels is comparable to that of native arteries6. Importantly, the pulsatile bioreactor has consistently regenerated vessels that exhibit mechanical properties that permit successful implantation experiments in animal models3,7. Additionally, this bioreactor can be further modified to allow real-time assessment and tracking of collagen remodeling over time, non-invasively, using a non-linear optical microscopy (NLOM)8. To conclude, this bioreactor should serve as an excellent platform to study the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of functional small-diameter vascular grafts. PMID:21694696

Huang, Angela H.; Niklason, Laura E.

2011-01-01

194

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...requesting temporary labor certification as a sole...may include unforeseen changes in market conditions), provided... If a temporary labor certification...

2014-04-01

195

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...requesting temporary labor certification as a sole...may include unforeseen changes in market conditions), provided... . If a temporary labor certification...

2010-04-01

196

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...requesting temporary labor certification as a sole...may include unforeseen changes in market conditions), provided... . If a temporary labor certification...

2013-04-01

197

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...requesting temporary labor certification as a sole...may include unforeseen changes in market conditions), provided... . If a temporary labor certification...

2011-04-01

198

20 CFR 655.1310 - Validity and scope of temporary labor certifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...temporary agricultural labor certifications to associations...requesting temporary labor certification as a sole...may include unforeseen changes in market conditions), provided... . If a temporary labor certification...

2012-04-01

199

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion...a gauge. It is used in hydrotherapy to relieve pain and itching and as an aid in the healing...

2010-04-01

200

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion...a gauge. It is used in hydrotherapy to relieve pain and itching and as an aid in the healing...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion...a gauge. It is used in hydrotherapy to relieve pain and itching and as an aid in the healing...

2014-04-01

202

21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100 Immersion...a gauge. It is used in hydrotherapy to relieve pain and itching and as an aid in the healing...

2012-04-01

203

Immersive Empathic Design for Interdisciplinary Collaborations  

E-print Network

.2.2 Interdisciplinary Collaboration Team............................................................. 40 4Immersive Empathic Design for Interdisciplinary Collaborations BY Yu-Chung Chen B.S., National ................................................................................................ 35 3.2 Hands-on Automated Nursing Data System (HANDS)........................................ 38 3

Johnson, Andrew

204

Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

2012-01-01

205

Nonlinear Adaptive Control for Bioreactors with Unknown Kinetics  

E-print Network

on a real life wastewater treatment plant. Key words: Nonlinear adaptive control, continuous bioprocesses, unknown kinetics, wastewater treatment. 1 Introduction Biological processes have become widely used a pollutant (wastewater treatment...). There- fore, bioreactors require advanced regulation procedures

Bernard, Olivier

206

EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.  

EPA Science Inventory

BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

207

Extension of metabolic control analysis to bioreactor systems  

E-print Network

This thesis consists of two parts: i) extracellular modeling and ii) intracellular modeling. For the extracellular modeling, we focus on strategies for obtaining kinetic parameters from the continuous stiffed tank bioreactor systems. Kinetics...

Tan, Hiong Leong

1994-01-01

208

Development of a Perfusion Fed Bioreactor for Embryonic Stem  

E-print Network

design; stem cells; cardiomyocytes; oxygen; tissue engineering INTRODUCTION Adult cardiomyocytesDevelopment of a Perfusion Fed Bioreactor for Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocyte Generation. Embryonic stem (ES) cells may be a promising source for therapeutic applications, potentially providing

Zandstra, Peter W.

209

Optimization of cell adhesion environments for a liver cell bioreactor  

E-print Network

The MilliF bioreactor offers great potential for the formation of i vivo-like liver tissue outside the body, making it a valuable tool for applications such as drug toxicity models and biosensors. Cell adhesion is an ...

Wongchaowart, Michael B

2006-01-01

210

Microbial desulfurization of Eastern oil shale: Bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

The removal of sulfur from Eastern oil shale (40 microns particle size) slurries in bioreactors by mixed microbial cultures was examined. A mixed culture that is able to remove the organic sulfur from model sulfur compounds presenting coal as well as a mixed culture isolated from oil shale enrichments were evaluated. The cultures were grown in aerobic fed-batch bioreactors where the oil shale served as the source of all nutrients except organic carbon. Glucose was added as an auxiliary carbon source. Microbial growth was monitored by plate counts, the pH was checked periodically, and oil shale samples were analyzed for sulfur content. Results show a 24% reduction in the sulfur content of the oil shale after 14 days. The settling characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined in the presence of the microbes. Also, the mixing characteristics of the oil shale in the bioreactors were examined. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Maka, A.; Akin, C.; Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Srivastava, V.J.

1989-01-01

211

Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

2003-01-01

212

Bioreactors for Coffee Mass Propagation by Somatic Embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coffee somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium is a powerful alternative to other vegetative propagation techniques for mass propagation of selected Coffea canephora (Robusta) clones and F1 Coffea arabica hybrids. This review presents the different types of bioreactors used for coffee somatic embryogenesis by Nestlé R&D Centre-Tours and by other scientific teams. Mechanically agitated bioreactors were used for the production of

Jean-Paul Ducos; Charles LambotVincent Pétiard

2007-01-01

213

Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field?scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory?scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar

David Christian; Edmund Wong; Ronald L. Crawford; I. Francis Cheng; Thomas F. Hess

2010-01-01

214

Process challenges relating to hematopoietic stem cell cultivation in bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are extremely useful in treating a wide range of diseases and have a variety of useful research\\u000a applications. However, the routinely generated low in vitro concentrations of HSCs from current bioreactor manufacturing systems\\u000a has been a hindrance to the full-scale application of these essential cellular materials. This has made the search for novel\\u000a bioreactor systems for

Marcin Kowalczyk; Kathryn Waldron; Penia Kresnowati; Michael K. Danquah

2011-01-01

215

Fouling control in submerged membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

The impact of fouling on the operation of submerged membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is discussed. The discussion proceeds through a review of the impacts of fouling and fouling speciation, with correlations of filterability against candidate foulants being provided. There follows a brief comparison of hydraulic performance of the submerged and sidestream configurations: data is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of coarse bubble aeration in the submerged MBR. The critical flux concept is then discussed and its applicability to MBRs deliberated in view of recent publications demonstrating fouling under sub-critical flux conditions. Finally, the two most commercially important MBR products are briefly reviewed with specific reference to design and operation for fouling amelioration. PMID:16003958

Judd, S

2005-01-01

216

Modeling bioaugmentation with nitrifiers in membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Bioaugmentation with nitrifiers was studied using two pilot-scale membrane bioreactors, with the purpose of assessing the suitability of state-of-the-art activated sludge models (ASMs) in predicting the efficiency of bioaugmentation as a function of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that the temperature difference between seeding and seeded reactors (?T) affects bioaugmentation efficiency. Experimental data were accurately predicted when ?T was within a range of up to 10 °C at the higher range, and when the temperature was significantly lower in the seeded reactor compared to the seeding one, standard ASMs overestimated the efficiency of bioaugmentation. A modified ASM, capable of accurately representing the behavior of seeded nitrifying biomass in the presence of high ?T, would require the inclusion of the effect of temperature time gradients on nitrifiers. A simple linear correlation between ?T and the Arrhenius coefficient was proposed as a preliminary step. PMID:25607664

Mannucci, Alberto; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Makinia, Jacek; Lubello, Claudio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

2015-01-01

217

Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

218

Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems  

PubMed Central

This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

2009-01-01

219

Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip.  

PubMed

Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units/year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition, micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs. PMID:25049277

Thon, Jonathan N; Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B; Weitz, David A; Italiano, Joseph E

2014-07-21

220

Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip.  

PubMed

Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units per year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors, despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis, we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition,micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and it supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs. PMID:25606631

Thon, Jonathan N; Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B; Weitz, David A; Italiano, Joseph E

2014-09-18

221

Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

1998-01-01

222

Story immersion in a health videogame for childhood obesity prevention  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion’s role in health video games among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed...

223

Implicit second-order immersed boundary methods with boundary mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immersed boundary method is a computational framework for problems involving the interaction of a fluid and immersed elastic structures. Immersed boundary computations typically evaluate the elastic forces explicitly in the configuration of the immersed elastic structure. In many applications this results in a severe restriction on the time step. We present a semi-implicit and a fully implicit second-order accurate

Yoichiro Mori; Charles S. Peskin

2008-01-01

224

On the Nullity of Isometric Immersions from Kahler Manifolds  

E-print Network

On the Nullity of Isometric Immersions from K¨ahler Manifolds M. J. Ferreira and R. Tribuzy Abstract In this article we study isometric immersions from K¨ahler manifolds into space forms which generalize immersed Riemann surfaces with par- allel mean curvature (cmc isometric immersions). In the K

Lisbon, University of

225

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2011-10-01

226

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2013-10-01

227

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2010-10-01

228

47 CFR 101.125 - Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. 101.125 Section...Technical Standards § 101.125 Temporary fixed antenna height restrictions. The overall antenna structure heights employed by mobile...

2012-10-01

229

22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses....

2011-04-01

230

22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary export licenses. 123.5 Section 123.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.5 Temporary export licenses....

2010-04-01

231

22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary import licenses. 123.3 Section 123.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A...

2011-04-01

232

22 CFR 123.3 - Temporary import licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary import licenses. 123.3 Section 123.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.3 Temporary import licenses. (a) A...

2010-04-01

233

22 CFR 123.4 - Temporary import license exemptions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary import license exemptions. 123.4 Section 123.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.4 Temporary import license exemptions....

2011-04-01

234

47 CFR 22.737 - Temporary fixed stations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed stations. 22.737 Section 22.737 Telecommunication...Service Conventional Rural Radiotelephone Stations § 22.737 Temporary fixed stations. The FCC may, upon proper...

2010-10-01

235

10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates...

2010-01-01

236

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2013-10-01

237

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2012-10-01

238

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

...2014-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2014-10-01

239

7 CFR 1744.67 - Temporary excess construction funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Temporary excess construction funds. 1744.67 Section 1744.67 Agriculture...TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and Disbursement of Funds § 1744.67 Temporary excess construction funds. (a) When unanticipated events...

2011-01-01

240

7 CFR 1744.67 - Temporary excess construction funds.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Temporary excess construction funds. 1744.67 Section 1744.67 Agriculture...TELEPHONE LOANS Advance and Disbursement of Funds § 1744.67 Temporary excess construction funds. (a) When unanticipated events...

2010-01-01

241

26 CFR 1.355-2T - Limitations (temporary).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Limitations (temporary). 1.355-2T Section 1.355-2T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE...Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders § 1.355-2T Limitations (temporary). (a)...

2010-04-01

242

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2012-10-01

243

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2013-10-01

244

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2011-10-01

245

46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112.01-15...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary...

2010-10-01

246

18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary compression facilities. 157.209 Section...Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...Abandonment § 157.209 Temporary compression facilities. (a)...

2010-04-01

247

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2014-10-01

248

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts...purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder...vegetative cover was disturbed by the construction or use of the road, as necessary to minimize...

2013-07-01

249

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts...purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder...vegetative cover was disturbed by the construction or use of the road, as necessary to minimize...

2011-07-01

250

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

...37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts...purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder...vegetative cover was disturbed by the construction or use of the road, as necessary to minimize...

2014-07-01

251

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts...purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder...vegetative cover was disturbed by the construction or use of the road, as necessary to minimize...

2012-07-01

252

36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts...purchaser to treat temporary roads constructed or used thereunder...vegetative cover was disturbed by the construction or use of the road, as necessary to minimize...

2010-07-01

253

43 CFR 3481.4 - Temporary interruption in coal severance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Temporary interruption in coal severance. 3481.4 Section 3481...INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COAL EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS RULES... § 3481.4 Temporary interruption in coal...

2011-10-01

254

75 FR 3476 - Designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCIS] RIN 1615-ZA96 Designation of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status AGENCY...Homeland Security (Secretary) has designated Haiti for temporary protected status (TPS...nationality who last habitually resided in Haiti) who have continuously resided in...

2010-01-21

255

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2012-10-01

256

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2013-10-01

257

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2011-10-01

258

47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25...Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite...

2010-10-01

259

76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service...award of temporary concession contracts for Blue Ridge Parkway, NC/VA...of certain visitor services within the Blue Ridge Parkway, North Carolina and...

2011-06-20

260

30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions...supplements. [Statutory Provisions] Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such map shall be revised and supplemented at...

2010-07-01

261

Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

Wilemon, David L.

1973-01-01

262

TEMPORARY EVENT FOOD SERVICE VENDOR APPLICATION  

E-print Network

TEMPORARY EVENT FOOD SERVICE VENDOR APPLICATION Name of Event Location Date(s) and Time(s) of Event the food: MENU 1. Prepackaged snacks (chips, candy, gum, nuts), ice cream novelties, whole fruits, canned bakery, unwrapped dessert items, scooped ice cream. 3. Making cotton candy, lemonade, snow- cones, soft

Maxwell, Bruce D.

263

Wildlife Exclusion Fencing Temporary Hourly Technicians  

E-print Network

Wildlife Exclusion Fencing Temporary Hourly Technicians Buckley AFB, Aurora Colorado POSITION Four Base (BAFB) in Aurora, Colorado, and will last approximately 6 to 8 weeks. Work is expected to commence and mammals that present a threat to aircraft operations. In order to prevent wildlife from burrowing under

264

Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.  

PubMed

This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register. PMID:25118373

2014-07-28

265

Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics Truman State University  

E-print Network

Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics Truman State University POSITION: Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics, beginning January 13, 2014. DESCRIPTION: Truman State University is seeking a Temporary Part-Time Lecturer in Linguistics to teach two sections of Introduction to Linguistics

Gering, Jon C.

266

Temporary Work and Insecurity in Britain: A Problem Solved?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Temporary workers in Britain experience lower job quality. However, the proportion of employees on temporary contracts has fallen since a decade ago to just 5.5% in 2005. There have also been qualitative improvements. Many temporary workers now fall under the protection of the Fixed Term Employees' (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment)…

Green, Francis

2008-01-01

267

Mixing Beginners and Native Speakers in Minority Language Immersion: Who is Immersing Whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixing of Ll speakers with L2 learners occurs regularly in immersion situations where a minority language is the target language. This study looks at early immersion in Irish among children from diverse language backgrounds. It examines the children's frequency of target language use and the effect of the group's linguistic mix on that use. A sample of 60 children

Tina Hickey

2001-01-01

268

77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood Harvesting on Public Land in Douglas County...trails and issuing a temporary closure to wood harvesting and/or tree cutting on public...a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood collecting on areas burned by the...

2012-12-04

269

Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

Noah, Karl S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sayer, Raymond L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1998-01-01

270

Understanding Immersivity: Image Generation and Transformation Processes in 3D Immersive Environments.  

PubMed

Most research on three-dimensional (3D) visual-spatial processing has been conducted using traditional non-immersive 2D displays. Here we investigated how individuals generate and transform mental images within 3D immersive (3DI) virtual environments, in which the viewers perceive themselves as being surrounded by a 3D world. In Experiment 1, we compared participants' performance on the Shepard and Metzler (1971) mental rotation (MR) task across the following three types of visual presentation environments; traditional 2D non-immersive (2DNI), 3D non-immersive (3DNI - anaglyphic glasses), and 3DI (head mounted display with position and head orientation tracking). In Experiment 2, we examined how the use of different backgrounds affected MR processes within the 3DI environment. In Experiment 3, we compared electroencephalogram data recorded while participants were mentally rotating visual-spatial images presented in 3DI vs. 2DNI environments. Overall, the findings of the three experiments suggest that visual-spatial processing is different in immersive and non-immersive environments, and that immersive environments may require different image encoding and transformation strategies than the two other non-immersive environments. Specifically, in a non-immersive environment, participants may utilize a scene-based frame of reference and allocentric encoding whereas immersive environments may encourage the use of a viewer-centered frame of reference and egocentric encoding. These findings also suggest that MR performed in laboratory conditions using a traditional 2D computer screen may not reflect spatial processing as it would occur in the real world. PMID:22908003

Kozhevnikov, Maria; Dhond, Rupali P

2012-01-01

271

Tele-Immersive medical educational environment.  

PubMed

By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other. PMID:15458055

Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary

2002-01-01

272

Mathematical modelling of fibre-enhanced perfusion inside a tissue-engineering bioreactor  

E-print Network

Mathematical modelling of fibre-enhanced perfusion inside a tissue-engineering bioreactor Robert J Accepted 7 October 2008 Available online 25 October 2008 Keywords: Tissue engineering Bioreactor Darcy flow through a porous scaffold in a tissue-engineering bioreactor. Porous-walled hollow fibres penetrate

Waters, Sarah

273

Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

274

Bioreactor cultivation of three-dimensional cartilage-carrier-constructs.  

PubMed

A flow-chamber bioreactor was designed for generation of three-dimensional cartilage-carrier-constructs. A specific attribute of the flow-chamber is a very thin medium layer for improved oxygen supply and a counter current flow of medium and gas. Three-dimensional cartilage-carrier-constructs were produced according to a standard protocol from chondrocytes of an adult mini-pig. The final step of this protocol was performed either in the bioreactor or in 12-well plates. The bioreactor experiments showed a significantly higher matrix thickness but a lower ratio of glycosaminoglycan to DNA. For both culture methods the constructs contained a high amount of collagen II. Appearance of the cartilage obtained in the bioreactor seemed to be closer to native cartilage with respect to distribution of the cells within the matrix, smoothness of the surface etc. All results considered the flow-chamber bioreactor is a very useful tool for generation of three dimensional cartilage-carrier constructs. PMID:15928929

Nagel-Heyer, Stephanie; Goepfert, Christiane; Feyerabend, Frank; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Adamietz, Peter; Meenen, Norbert M; Pörtner, Ralf

2005-07-01

275

Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control  

DOEpatents

A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

Zaluski, Marek H. (Butte, MT); Manchester, Kenneth R. (Butte, MT)

2001-01-01

276

Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems  

PubMed Central

Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

2013-01-01

277

Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

2010-01-01

278

A temporary external DDD pacing unit.  

PubMed

A device for temporary external DDD pacing was developed using a modified permanent pulse generator, and temporary atrial and ventricular electrode catheters were inserted pervenously. The atrial lead was a J type and the ventricular lead had a remote anode in the superior vena cava. With a special clamp and appropriate connectors the permanent DDD pulse generator provided unipolar external DDD pacing. The device was evaluated in 13 patients to control bradyarrhythmias or for overdrive pacing in an attempt to control tachyarrhythmias. Nine patients were ambulatory; all had continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. The device was used for 1 to 12 days (mean 4.9). Eight patients benefited from temporary DDD pacing and 7 had permanent DDD pacemakers implanted. In 1 patient, atrial fibrillation developed, 2 patients had brief episodes of ventricular lead displacement and another required reprogramming because of loss of ventricular capture. Results suggest that the device is applicable for a clinical trial of DDD pacing before possible permanent implantation when attempting to improve cardiac output or control arrhythmias. PMID:6702681

Littleford, P O; Schwartz, K M; Pepine, C J

1984-04-01

279

Evaluation of marginal leakage of different temporary restorative materials in Endodontics  

PubMed Central

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the coronal marginal leakage of three temporary restorative materials used for root canal sealing after endodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 88 single-rooted teeth were submitted to biomechanical preparation and filled by lateral condensation technique. After obturation process, the teeth were randomly separated into four groups, being two teeth of each group used as positive and negative control. Temporary sealing was performed as follows: GI - Clip F (VOCO); GII - Bioplic (Biodin?mica); GIII - Vitremer (3M ESPE) and GIV - Ketak N100 (3M ESPE). Next, the specimens were immersed into Indian ink for 30 and 60- days, being 10 specimens for each time interval and then submitted to diaphanization to verify the amount of coronal leakage using a measuring microscope. Results: Leakage mean values within the 30-day period were as follows: Vitremer (0.3 mm), Ketak N100 and Clip F (0.6 mm) and Bioplic (1.7 mm). Within the 60-day period, leakage means were 1.1 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.2 mm and 2.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: None of the materials was capable of preventing marginal leakage within the 30- and 60-day period. In both time intervals, Bioplic presented the highest mean of leakage and Vitremer the lowest. PMID:24403791

De Castro, Pedro Henrique Duarte FranÇa; Pereira, Juliana Vianna; Sponchiado, Emilio Carlos; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Garcia, Lucas Da Fonseca Roberti

2013-01-01

280

Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

2014-08-01

281

Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

2010-01-01

282

How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

Allery, Virginia

2009-01-01

283

Learning in an immersive digital theater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Houston Museum of Natural Science, in collaboration with Rice University has an outreach program taking portable digital theaters to schools and community sites for over five years and has conducted research on student learning in this immersive environment. By using an external independent evaluator, the effectiveness of NASA-funded Education and Public Outreach (EPO) projects can be assessed. This paper documents interactive techniques and learning strategies in full-dome digital theaters. The presentation is divided into Evaluation Strategies and Results and Interactivity Strategies and Results. All learners from grades 3-12 showed statistically significant short-term increase in knowledge of basic Earth science concepts after a single 22-min show. Improvements were more significant on items that were taught using more than one modality of instruction: hearing, seeing, discussion, and immersion. Thus immersive theater can be an effective as well as engaging teaching method for Earth and Space science concepts, particularly those that are intrinsically three-dimensional and thus most effectively taught in an immersive environment. The portable system allows taking the educational experience to rural and tribal sites where the underserved students could not afford the time or expense to travel to museums.

Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.; Weber, W.

2008-12-01

284

Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

285

Water Immersion Reduced-Gravity Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water immersion technique for simulating zero- and partial-gravity conditions has been developed and employed to examine several extravehicular task areas in space. The technique allows the pressure-suited subject to move in six degrees of freedom unencumbered by connecting supports and simulates his biomechanical performance in weightless space. The technique is useful in examining the astronaut's capability to execute extravehicular

Otto F. Trout; William J. Bruchey

1969-01-01

286

MOBILE IMMERSIVE MUSIC J. Lemordant A. Guerraz  

E-print Network

MOBILE IMMERSIVE MUSIC J. Lemordant A. Guerraz WAM project jacques.lemordant @inrialpes.fr WAM project agnes.guerraz @inrialpes.fr ABSTRACT Due to obvious portability constraints, mobile technol- ogy is ideally suited for mobile applications. The use of stereo headphones or stereo speakers on mobile devices

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

287

Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often…

Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

2012-01-01

288

Cognitive impairment during 5 m water immersion.  

PubMed

Experimental data document that human cognition remains intact down to 6 m water immersion. This, however, is difficult to reconcile with introspective observations from experienced divers, who report cognitive impairments. We hypothesized that the discrepancy might be related to the fact that previous experiments assessed abstract cognitive skills, such as mental arithmetic, which might be less sensitive to immersion than performance-related cognitive skills, such as planning of behavior that is adequate for a given situation. Moreover, previous studies did not control for the effects of water viscosity on subjects' response times. To address these issues, the present study evaluated performance-related cognitive skills based on subjects' isometric responses. Forty-eight subjects were tested in 5 m under water and on dry land using multiple choice reaction tasks, a tracking task, and a combination of both. Sustained attention was also registered, and subjective workload was assessed by questionnaire. We found that a subject's cognitive performance was degraded under water by 9%, independent of task type and equally under single- and dual-task conditions. Sustained attention was reduced under water by 11% and tracking by 48%. The observed deficits were not correlated, which suggests multiple independent effects of immersion. Our findings support the hypothesis that performance-related cognitive skills are affected already by shallow-water immersion. Since no such deficits were observed in a companion study just below the water's surface, the present findings are probably due to increased ambient pressure. PMID:22879536

Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar; Schulze, Benjamin

2012-10-01

289

Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as…

Alberta Education, 2010

2010-01-01

290

Epoxy resin allergy from microscopy immersion oil.  

PubMed

A bacteriology technical officer presented with episodes of burning pruritus and urticarial-like lesions on the face and forearms. Patch testing was strongly positive for epoxy resin. The exposure was occupational to the re-formulation of microscopy immersion oil. PMID:10570565

Lee, Y C; Gordon, D L; Gordon, L A

1999-11-01

291

Weekend Immersion in Foreign Language and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Huntsville (Alabama) City Schools conduct annual Spanish-, French-, and German-language immersion workshops that move the classroom to a home or church, replace the teacher with native speakers, and extend the 55-minute period to 24 hours. (Author/JM)

Haynes, Jonita S.

1983-01-01

292

Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

1987-01-01

293

7 CFR 305.22 - Hot water immersion treatment schedules.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Hot water immersion treatment schedules. 305...Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Heat Treatments § 305.22 Hot water immersion treatment schedules....

2010-01-01

294

Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

2011-01-01

295

English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

Jeon, Mihyon

2012-01-01

296

Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NM); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Shelmidine, Gregory J. (Tijeras, NM)

2007-02-20

297

Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

2014-01-01

298

SPINORS AND ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS OF SURFACES IN 4-DIMENSIONAL PRODUCTS  

E-print Network

SPINORS AND ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS OF SURFACES IN 4-DIMENSIONAL PRODUCTS JULIEN ROTH ABSTRACT. We prove a spinorial characterization of surfaces isometrically immersed into the 4-dimensional product to an isometric immersion of (M2 , g) into R3 with -2A as shape operator. Later on, Morel generalized in [9

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

299

Isometric Immersions of Hypersurfaces in 4-dimensional Manifolds via Spinors  

E-print Network

Isometric Immersions of Hypersurfaces in 4-dimensional Manifolds via Spinors Marie-Am´elie Lawn and Julien Roth Abstract We give a spinorial characterization of isometrically immersed hyper- surfaces. As an application, we deduce some non-existence results for isometric immersions into the 4-dimensional Euclidean

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

MINIMAL ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS INTO S 2 R AND H 2  

E-print Network

MINIMAL ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS INTO S 2 Ã? R AND H 2 Ã? R BENO â?? IT DANIEL Abstract. For a given simply connected Riemannian surface #, we relate the problem of finding minimal isometric immersions of # into S 2 Riemannian surface admits a continuous one­parameter family of minimal isometric immersions into S 2 Ã?R or H

Daniel, Benoît - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

301

MINIMAL ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS INTO S2 BENO^IT DANIEL  

E-print Network

MINIMAL ISOMETRIC IMMERSIONS INTO S2 Ã? R AND H2 Ã? R BENO^IT DANIEL Abstract. For a given simply connected Riemannian surface , we relate the problem of finding minimal isometric immersions of into S2 Ã?R admits a continuous one-parameter family of minimal isometric immersions into S2 Ã? R or H2 Ã? R, then all

Daniel, Benoît - Institut de Mathématiques �lie Cartan, Université Henri Poincaré

302

Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

1983-07-18

303

Type IV hypersensitivity reaction to a temporary tattoo  

PubMed Central

A 6-year-old boy developed a skin eruption 10 days after application of a temporary tattoo advertised as a “natural black henna tattoo.” The eruption was a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to the tattoo ink. The textile dye paraphenylenediamine (PPD) is a common industrial allergen and can be found in some temporary tattoo inks. This case describes the reaction and reviews the international literature pertaining to PPD and temporary tattoos. PMID:17256041

2007-01-01

304

Temporary employment and antidepressant medication: A register linkage study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence on the association between temporary employment and mental health is mixed. This study examined associations of temporary employment with register-based antidepressant medication by type and length of temporary job contract and socioeconomic position. Antidepressant prescriptions (1998–2002) were linked to register data for 17,071 men and 48,137 women in 10 Finnish municipalities. Repeated measures analyses over time were adjusted for

Marianna Virtanen; Mika Kivimäki; Jane E. Ferrie; Marko Elovainio; Teija Honkonen; Jaana Pentti; Timo Klaukka; Jussi Vahtera

2008-01-01

305

Spermine-induced morphogenesis and effect of partial immersion system on the shoot cultures of banana.  

PubMed

Contribution of exogenous polyamines (PAs) and polyamine-inhibitors on plantlet regeneration patterns of banana (cv. Nanjanagudu Rasabale-AAB) was studied and the performance of regenerated shoots in temporary immersion system was evaluated. The rhizome explants (without shoot bud) of in vitro shoots produced a mixture of embryogenic and nonembryogenic calli on modified MS medium. The analyses of endogenous pools of polyamines showed higher levels of PAs in embryogenic than in nonembryogenic calli. Supplementation of various levels of (10-50 microM) spermine (Spm), spermidine (Spd), and putrescine (Put) to cultures with secondary embryogenesis showed that about 50% of embryogenic calli rapidly produced secondary embryos only in the presence 40 microM Spm but not in other treatments. The crucial role of Spm was further confirmed by the use of 0.1 mM each of alpha-DL-Difluromethylornithine and alpha-DL-Difluromethylarginine along with Spm where the presence of inhibitors concomitantly inhibited the secondary embryogenesis. The shoots obtained from the embryogenic cultures were checked for their performance on solid medium (SM) and partial immersion system (PIS). The rate of shoot multiplication was higher in PIS than in SM throughout 6 weeks culture period. Uniformity in elongation of all the shoot buds was observed in PIS but not in SM. Evaluation for the acclimatization, survival under greenhouse conditions revealed the better performance of PIS-derived plants than those from SM. PMID:18543117

Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

2008-12-01

306

Temporary epiphyseodesis for limb-length discrepancy  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose — For the treatment of leg-length discrepancies (LLDs) of between 2 and 5 cm in adolescent patients, several epiphyseodesis options exist and various complications have been reported. We reviewed the 8- to 15-year outcome after temporary epiphyseodesis in patients with LLD. Patients and methods — 34 children with LLD of up to 5 cm were included in the study. Mean age at epiphyseodesis was 12.8 (10–16) years. Temporary epiphyseodesis was performed with Blount staples or 8-plates. The LLD was reviewed preoperatively, at the time of implant removal, and at follow-up. Every child had reached skeletal maturity at follow-up. Long-standing anteroposterior radiographs were analyzed with respect to the mechanical axis and remaining LLD at the time of follow-up. Possible complications were noted. Results — The mean LLD changed from 2.3 (0.9–4.5) cm to 0.8 (–1.0 to 2.6) cm at follow-up (p < 0.001). 21 patients had a final LLD of < 1 cm, and 10 had LLD of < 0.5 cm. At the time of follow-up, in 32 patients the mechanical axis crossed within Steven’s zone 1. No deep infections or neurovascular lesions were seen. 4 implant failures occurred, which were managed by revision. Interpretation — Temporary epiphyseodesis is an effective and safe option for the treatment of LLD. The timing of the procedure has to be chosen according to the remaining growth, facilitating a full correction of the LLD. If inaccurate placement of staples is avoided, substantial differences between the mechanical axes of both legs at skeletal maturity are rare. PMID:25191935

Siedhoff, Markus; Ridderbusch, Karsten; Breyer, Sandra; Stücker, Ralf; Rupprecht, Martin

2014-01-01

307

Temporary satellite capture of comets by Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the dynamical evolution of 97 Jupiter-family comets over an 800-year time period. More than two hundred encounters with Jupiter are investigated, with the observed comets moving during a certain period of time in an elliptic jovicentric orbit. In most cases this is an ordinary temporary satellite capture of a comet in Everhart's sense, not associated with a transition of the small body into Jupiter's family of satellites. The phenomenon occurs outside the Hill sphere with comets with a high Tisserand constant relative to Jupiter; the comets' orbits have a small inclination to the ecliptic plane. An analysis of 236 encounters has allowed the determination within the planar pair two-body problem of a region of orbits in the plane ( a, e) whose semimajor axes and eccentricities contribute to the phenomenon under study. Comets with orbits belonging to this region experience a temporary satellite capture during some of their encounters; the jovicentric distance function has several minima; and the encounters are characterized by reversions of the line of apsides and some others features of their combination that are intrinsic to comets in this region. Therefore, this region is called a region of comets with specific features in their encounters with Jupiter. Twenty encounters (out of 236), whereby the comet enters an elliptic jovicentric orbit in the Hill sphere, are identified and investigated. The size and shape of the elliptic heliocentric orbits enabling this transition are determined. It is found that in 11 encounters the motion of small bodies in the Hill sphere has features the most important of which is multiple minima of the jovicentric distance function. The study of these 20 encounters has allowed the introduction of the concept of temporary gravitational capture of a small body into the Hill sphere. An analysis of variations in the Tisserand constant in these (20) encounters of the observable comets shows that their motion is unstable in Hill's sense.

Emel'yanenko, N. Yu.

2012-05-01

308

Moving temporary wall in microfluidic devices.  

PubMed

This paper describes the formation of a temporary wall between two fluid streams in a microfluidic channel. Diffusion of ions from one fluid stream into a costreaming thermally responsive polymer solution is used to lower the local gelation temperature of the polymer, leading to formation of a gel wall in the center of the flow channel. The mechanisms driving either the generation or removal of the wall on its both sides are described and discussed. This wall allows well-controlled transport of particles from one stream into the other. PMID:19256941

Bazargan, Vahid; Stoeber, Boris

2008-12-01

309

MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

310

Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

2003-01-01

311

[Study on energy dissipation in modified airlift bioreactor].  

PubMed

The effects of operational variables and reactor configurations (e.g. diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers) on energy loss in modified airlift bioreactor were investigated at the first time. The results showed that improving the structure of draft tube could reduce energy loss in the bioreactor. When the diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers were 4.0cm and 39, respectively, the total energy loss in the modified bioreactor was the least among all the configurations and 23.6% less than that of the conventional counterpart at the same air flowrate. The energy consumption for aeration was the smallest (43.9% less than that of the conventional counterpart) when the diameter of draft tube and the number of static mixers were 5.5cm and 13, respectively. The highest energy dissipation (70% - 80%) occurred in the riser, the bottom zone (about 20%) took the second place and the separator (less than 10%) took the third place. The energy dissipation in the downcomer was neglectable under the conditions in the research. When the energy loss per unit volume was considered, bottom zone stood the first place. It was implied that the riser was the most important zone to cut down the energy loss of the bioreactor and some attention should also be paid to the bottom zone. PMID:16285528

Jin, Ren-Cun; Zheng, Ping

2005-09-01

312

FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR  

EPA Science Inventory

The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

313

NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

314

Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

1987-01-01

315

Selective fengycin production in a modified rotating discs bioreactor.  

PubMed

Production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in rotating discs bioreactor was studied. The effects of rotation velocity and the addition of agitators between the discs on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k L a were firstly studied in model media. Then the production of lipopeptides was also studied at different agitation conditions in the modified bioreactor (with agitators). The effect of agitation on dissolved oxygen, on submerged and immobilized biomass, on lipopeptide concentrations and yields and on the selectivity of the bioreaction was elucidated and discussed. The proposed modified rotating discs bioreactor allowed to obtain high fengycin concentrations (up to 787 mg L(-1)), but also better selectivity of the bioreaction towards fengycin (up to 88%) and better yields of fengycin per glucose (up to 62.9 mg g(-1)), lipopeptides per glucose (up to 71.5 mg g(-1)), fengycin per biomass (up to 309 mg g(-1)) and lipopeptides per biomass (up to 396 mg g(-1)) than those reported in the literature. Highest fengycin production and selectivity were obtained at agitation velocity of 30 min(-1). The proposed non-foaming fermentation process could contribute to the scale-up of lipopeptide fermentors and promote the industrial production of fengycin. The proposed bioreactor and bioprocess could be very useful also for the production of other molecules using bioprocesses requiring bubbleless oxygen supply. PMID:23694986

Chtioui, Omar; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Gancel, Frédérique; Dhulster, Pascal; Nikov, Iordan

2014-02-01

316

Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

2014-01-01

317

Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in a production-scale bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A five-compartment model for the liquid flow and the oxygen transfer into the liquid phase of a large-scale bioreactor is presented. The aim of the model is to predict the following reactor operating variables: 1) the overall oxygen transfer capacity of the reactor; 2) the local liquid dissolved oxygen concentrations, for estimation of bad aerated zones which can introduce negative

N. M. G. Oosterhuis; N. W. F. Kossen

1984-01-01

318

Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions  

SciTech Connect

A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

Ergas, S.J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; McGrath, M.S. [Monsanto Enviro-Chem Systems Inc., Chesterfield, MO (United States)

1997-06-01

319

Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

320

Computing the Resilience of a Wastewater Treatment Bioreactor Nabil Mabrouk  

E-print Network

Computing the Resilience of a Wastewater Treatment Bioreactor Nabil Mabrouk Laboratory guillaume.deffuant@cemagref.fr Abstract--Biological wastewater treatment reactor are de- signed to reduce wastewater treatment reactors are often subject to unexpected perturba- tions (variations in wastewater flow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

321

MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL  

EPA Science Inventory

This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

322

LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

323

Friction and dilatancy in immersed granular matter  

E-print Network

The friction of a sliding plate on a thin immersed granular layer obeys Amonton-Coulomb law. We bring to the fore a large set of experimental results which indicate that, over a few decades of values, the effective dynamical friction-coefficient depends neither on the viscosity of the interstitial fluid nor on the size of beads in the sheared layer, which bears out the analogy with the solid-solid friction in a wide range of experimental parameters. We accurately determine the granular-layer dilatancy, which dependance on the grain size and slider velocity can be qualitatively accounted by considering the rheological behaviour of the whole slurry. However, additional results, obtained after modification of the grain surface by a chemical treatment, demonstrate that the theoretical description of the flow properties of granular matter, even immersed, requires the detailed properties of the grain surface to be taken into account.

Thibaut Divoux; Jean-Christophe Géminard

2008-06-10

324

An Immersive VR System for Sports Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

325

Amphibian XIS: an immersion lithography microstepper platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in immersion lithography have created the need for a small field microstepper to carry out the early learning necessary for next generation device application. Combined with fluid immersion, multiple-beam lithography can provide an opportunity to explore lithographic imaging at oblique propagation angles and extreme NA imaging. Using the phase preserving properties of Smith Talbot interferometry, the Amphibian XIS immersion lithography microstepper has been created for research and development applications directed toward sub-90nm patterning. The system has been designed for use at ArF and KrF excimer laser wavelengths, based on a fused silica or sapphire prism lens with numerical aperture values up to 1.60. Combined with a chromeless phase grating mask, two and four beam imaging is made possible for feature resolution to 35nm. The approach is combined with X-Y staging to provide immersion imaging on a microstepper platform for substrates ranging up to 300mm. The Amphibian system consists of single or dual wavelength sources (193nm and 248nm), a 2mm exposure field size, stage accuracy better than 1 um, polarization control over a full range from linear polarization to unpolarized illumination, full control of exposure dose and demodulation (to synthesize defocus), and the ability to image both line patterns as well as contact features. A fluid control system allows use of water or alternative fluids, with the ability to change fluids rapidly between wafers. The Amphibian system is fully enclosed in a HEPA and amine controlled environment for use in fab or research environments.

Smith, Bruce W.; Bourov, Anatoly; Fan, Yongfa; Cropanese, Frank; Hammond, Peter

2005-05-01

326

Isometric immersions into 3-dimensional homogeneous manifolds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a 2-dimensional Riemannian\\u000amanifold to be locally isometrically immersed into a 3-dimensional homogeneous\\u000amanifold with a 4-dimensional isometry group. The condition is expressed in\\u000aterms of the metric, the second fundamental form, and data arising from an\\u000aambient Killing field. This class of 3-manifolds includes in particular the\\u000aBerger spheres, the Heisenberg

Benoît Daniel

2007-01-01

327

Numerical Simulations Using the Immersed Boundary Technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immersed-boundary method can be used to simulate flows around complex geometries within a Cartesian grid. This method has been used quite extensively in low Reynolds-number flows, and is now being applied to turbulent flows more frequently. The technique will be discussed, and three applications of the method will be presented, with increasing complexity. to illustrate the potential and limitations of the method, and some of the directions for future work.

Piomelli, Ugo; Balaras, Elias

1997-01-01

328

Promoting Metacognition in Immersive Cultural Learning Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metacognition, defined as active control over cognitive processes during learning, is a critical component in the development\\u000a of intercultural competence. Progression through stages of intercultural development requires self-assessment, self-monitoring,\\u000a predictive, planning, and reflection skills. Modern virtual learning environments now provide a level of immersion that enable\\u000a meaningful practice of cultural skills, both in terms of visual and experiential fidelity. This

2009-01-01

329

Ocean Immersion in K-12 Schools  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

California COSEE is working to create regional ocean education Centers focused on increasing awareness of K-12 schools and their communities to ocean-related issues and opportunities. The Ocean Immersion Centers provide numerous benefits both in the classroom and the community. This site includes information on the Centers and commentary on the implementation of the program in a local elementary school. Workshop information is also provided.

330

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09

331

The immersed boundary method: A projection approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new formulation of the immersed boundary method with a structure algebraically identical to the traditional fractional step method is presented for incompressible flow over bodies with prescribed surface motion. Like previous methods, a boundary force is applied at the immersed surface to satisfy the no-slip constraint. This extra constraint can be added to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations by introducing regularization and interpolation operators. The current method gives prominence to the role of the boundary force acting as a Lagrange multiplier to satisfy the no-slip condition. This role is analogous to the effect of pressure on the momentum equation to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. The current immersed boundary method removes slip and non-divergence-free components of the velocity field through a projection. The boundary force is determined implicitly without any constitutive relations allowing the present formulation to use larger CFL numbers compared to some past methods. Symmetry and positive-definiteness of the system are preserved such that the conjugate gradient method can be used to solve for the flow field. Examples show that the current formulation achieves second-order temporal accuracy and better than first-order spatial accuracy in L2-norms for one- and two-dimensional test problems. Results from two-dimensional simulations of flows over stationary and moving cylinders are in good agreement with those from previous experimental and numerical studies.

Taira, Kunihiko; Colonius, Tim

2007-08-01

332

Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering of Cartilage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix production using confined and unconfined systems. Development of automatic culture systems and noninvasive monitoring of matrix production will take place during the next few years in order to improve the cost affectivity of tissue-engineered products.

Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.

333

Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine sediments is coupled to sulfate reduction (SR). AOM is mediated by distinct groups of archaea, called anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). ANME co-exist with sulfate-reducing bacteria, which are also involved in AOM coupled SR. The microorganisms involved in AOM coupled to SR are extremely difficult to grow in vitro. Here, a novel well-mixed submerged-membrane bioreactor system is used to grow and enrich the microorganisms mediating AOM coupled to SR. Four reactors were inoculated with sediment sampled in the Eckernförde Bay (Baltic Sea) and operated at a methane and sulfate loading rate of 4.8 L L(-1) day(-1) (196 mmol L(-1) day(-1)) and 3.0 mmol L(-1) day(-1). Two bioreactors were controlled at 15 degrees C and two at 30 degrees C, one reactor at 30 degrees C contained also anaerobic granular sludge. At 15 degrees C, the volumetric AOM and SR rates doubled approximately every 3.8 months. After 884 days, an enrichment culture was obtained with an AOM and SR rate of 1.0 mmol g(volatile suspended solids) (-1) day(-1) (286 micromol g(dry weight) (-1) day(-1)). No increase in AOM and SR was observed in the two bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C. The microbial community of one of the 15 degrees C reactors was analyzed. ANME-2a became the dominant archaea. This study showed that sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor is possible in well-mixed bioreactors and that the submerged-membrane bioreactor system is an excellent system to enrich slow-growing microorganisms, like methanotrophic archaea. PMID:19544305

Meulepas, Roel J W; Jagersma, Christian G; Gieteling, Jarno; Buisman, Cees J N; Stams, Alfons J M; Lens, Piet N L

2009-10-15

334

Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors  

PubMed Central

Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 × 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

2009-01-01

335

[Temporary henna tattoos: Sometimes serious side effects].  

PubMed

Temporary henna tattoos are becoming increasingly popular among Western tourists during summer holidays, especially children, teenagers and young adults. Natural henna takes several hours to be absorbed into the skin, imparts a brownish-orange color, and causes very few allergic reactions. Para-phenylenediamine (PPD), a powerful allergen, is added to henna tattoo mixtures (black henna tattoo) to decrease application time and intensify the color. It is responsible for most of the complications reported after henna tattoos: localized or generalized contact dermatitis, hypertrophic or keloid scars, and temporary or permanent hyper- or hypopigmentation. More rarely, type I hypersensitivity reactions (urticaria, angioedema, or anaphylaxis) with potentially lethal outcomes have been reported. PPD allergy can induce cross-reactivity with other substances, such as hair dyes and textile azo dyes. Patch testing for PPD must be performed at a very diluted concentration (0.01% in vaseline) to avoid unnecessarily strong reactions and sensitization to PPD. In the absence of any legal control of henna tattooing practices, prevention requires the annual provision of information to Western consumers, especially young people and their parents. PMID:18329233

Kluger, Nicolas; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Guillot, Bernard

2008-01-01

336

Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2013-12-01

337

77 FR 63835 - Office of the Chief Information Officer; Submission for OMB Review; Temporary Contractor...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review; Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet AGENCY: Identity, Credential, and...regarding temporary contractor information worksheet. A notice was published in the Federal...the Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet and the FBI Form FD-258...

2012-10-17

338

77 FR 40884 - Office of the Chief Information Officer; Information Collection; Temporary Contractor Information...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection; Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet AGENCY: Identity, Credential, and...regarding temporary contractor information worksheet. GSA requires OMB approval for this...the Temporary Contractor Information Worksheet and the FBI Form FD-258...

2012-07-11

339

25 CFR 573.4 - When may the Chair issue an order of temporary closure?  

...When may the Chair issue an order of temporary closure? 573.4 Section 573.4 Indians ...When may the Chair issue an order of temporary closure? (a) When an order of temporary closure may issue. Simultaneously with or...

2014-04-01

340

25 CFR 573.4 - When may the Chair issue an order of temporary closure?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...When may the Chair issue an order of temporary closure? 573.4 Section 573.4 Indians ...When may the Chair issue an order of temporary closure? (a) When an order of temporary closure may issue. Simultaneously with or...

2013-04-01

341

75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and Regulations...granting temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act provisions and regulations...credit default swaps that reference government securities. The temporary...

2010-03-11

342

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2013-10-01

343

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2012-10-01

344

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2011-10-01

345

46 CFR 112.15-10 - Loads on systems without a temporary emergency power source.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. 112.15-10 Section 112...ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-10...on systems without a temporary emergency power source. If there is no temporary...

2010-10-01

346

Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre*  

E-print Network

1 Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre* & Boubaker Hlaimi Abstract: This study analyses gender differences in fixed term contracts in 19 European countries, using to be more feminized and that gender differences in temporary employment can arise from a female specific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2010-07-01

348

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2014-07-01

349

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2012-07-01

350

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2013-07-01

351

29 CFR 2550.412-1 - Temporary bonding requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary bonding requirements. 2550.412-1 Section...RESPONSIBILITY § 2550.412-1 Temporary bonding requirements. (a) Pending the...permanent regulations with respect to the bonding provisions under section 412 of...

2011-07-01

352

TEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University  

E-print Network

, of the following courses; social psychology, personality, developmental psychology, and abnormal psychologyTEMPORARY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR IN PSYCHOLOGY Truman State University Position: Temporary Assistant Professor in Psychology (two positions). These are full-time, nine-month appointments with a possibility

Gering, Jon C.

353

18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary certificates-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57... § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies. The Federal Power...enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be the...

2010-04-01

354

18 CFR 2.57 - Temporary certificates-pipeline companies.  

...2014-04-01 false Temporary certificates-pipeline companies. 2.57 Section 2.57... § 2.57 Temporary certificates—pipeline companies. The Federal Energy...enlargements or extensions of an existing pipeline system. It will not be the...

2014-04-01

355

How do fish exploit temporary waters throughout a flooding episode?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporary waters are important habitats for many fish species. Nevertheless, determination of which species colonise these habitats, when this occurs and where fish distribute themselves within the temporary waters are rare. The fish assemblage on a temporarily flooded grassland and its adjacent permanent canal, together with environmental variables, were monitored throughout an entire flooding event from February to May 2006

J. C UCHEROUSSET; A. C ARPENTIER

356

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2013-04-01

357

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2011-04-01

358

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2012-04-01

359

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2010-04-01

360

19 CFR 146.33 - Temporary deposit for manipulation.  

...2014-04-01 false Temporary deposit for manipulation. 146.33 Section 146.33 Customs... § 146.33 Temporary deposit for manipulation. Imported merchandise for which...be brought temporarily to a zone for manipulation and return to Customs territory...

2014-04-01

361

78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Notice is hereby given that under the authority of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, as amended (FLPMA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Winnemucca District, Black Rock Field Office, will implement and enforce a temporary closure and temporary restrictions to protect public safety and resources on public lands within and adjacent to the Burning Man event on the Black Rock......

2013-07-25

362

Fluidized-bed bioreactor process for the microbial solubiliztion of coal  

DOEpatents

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor.

Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN)

1989-01-01

363

Effects of in situ nitrogen removal on degradation\\/stabilization of MSW in bioreactor landfill  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of in situ nitrogen removal on degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in bioreactor landfill system were investigated. The in situ nitrogen removal bioreactor landfill (NBL) consisted of fresh–refuse filled, methanogenic and nitrifying reactors was operated. The two-phase bioreactor landfill (BL) comprised of fresh–refuse filled and methanogenic reactors was used as control. The methanogenic and nitrifying reactors were

Yan Long; Hui-min Lao; Li-fang Hu; Dong-Sheng Shen

2008-01-01

364

Fixed-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fixed-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fixed-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the large scale production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fixed-bed bioreactor. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

365

Fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the microbial solubilization of coal  

DOEpatents

A fluidized-bed bioreactor system for the conversion of coal into microbially solubilized coal products. The fluidized-bed bioreactor continuously or periodically receives coal and bio-reactants and provides for the production of microbially solubilized coal products in an economical and efficient manner. An oxidation pretreatment process for rendering coal uniformly and more readily susceptible to microbial solubilization may be employed with the fluidized-bed bioreactor. 2 figs.

Scott, C.D.; Strandberg, G.W.

1987-09-14

366

Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production.\\u000a However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the\\u000a bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing\\u000a hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The

Kengo Sasaki; Daisuke Sasaki; Masahiko Morita; Shin-ichi Hirano; Norio Matsumoto; Naoya Ohmura; Yasuo Igarashi

2010-01-01

367

Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.  

PubMed

We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs. PMID:24306442

Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

2014-04-01

368

Temporary anchorage devices – Mini-implants  

PubMed Central

Orthodontists are accustomed to using teeth and auxiliary appliances, both intraoral and extraoral, to control anchorage. These methods are limited in that it is often difficult to achieve results commensurate with our idealistic goals. Recently, a number of case reports have appeared in the orthodontic literature documenting the possibility of overcoming anchorage limitations via the use of temporary anchorage devices—biocompatible devices fixed to bone for the purpose of moving teeth, with the devices being subsequently removed after treatment. Although skeletal anchorage is here to stay in orthodontics, there are still many unanswered questions. This article describes the development of skeletal anchorage and provides an overview of the use of implants for orthodontic anchorage. PMID:22442547

Singh, Kamlesh; Kumar, Deepak; Jaiswal, Raj Kumar; Bansal, Amol

2010-01-01

369

Mechanisms of temporary adhesion in benthic animals.  

PubMed

Adhesive systems are ubiquitous in benthic animals and play a key role in diverse functions such as locomotion, food capture, mating, burrow building, and defence. For benthic animals that release adhesives, surface and material properties and external morphology have received little attention compared to the biochemical content of the adhesives. We address temporary adhesion of benthic animals from the following three structural levels: (a) the biochemical content of the adhesive secretions, (b) the micro- and mesoscopic surface geometry and material properties of the adhesive organs, and (c) the macroscopic external morphology of the adhesive organs. We show that temporary adhesion of benthic animals is affected by three structural levels: the adhesive secretions provide binding to the substratum at a molecular scale, whereas surface geometry and external morphology increase the contact area with the irregular and unpredictable profile of the substratum from micro- to macroscales. The biochemical content of the adhesive secretions differs between abiotic and biotic substrata. The biochemistry of the adhesives suitable for biotic substrata differentiates further according to whether adhesion must be activated quickly (e.g. as a defensive mechanism) or more slowly (e.g. during adhesion of parasites). De-adhesion is controlled by additional secretions, enzymes, or mechanically. Due to deformability, the adhesive organs achieve intimate contact by adapting their surface profile to the roughness of the substratum. Surface projections, namely cilia, cuticular villi, papillae, and papulae increase the contact area or penetrate through the secreted adhesive to provide direct contact with the substratum. We expect that the same three structural levels investigated here will also affect the performance of artificial adhesive systems. PMID:20233167

Dodou, D; Breedveld, P; de Winter, J C F; Dankelman, J; van Leeuwen, J L

2011-02-01

370

3DIVS: 3-Dimensional Immersive Virtual Sculpting  

SciTech Connect

Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to revolutionize traditional product design by enabling the transition from conventional CAD to fully digital product development. The presented prototype system targets closing the ''digital gap'' as introduced by the need for physical models such as clay models or mockups in the traditional product design and evaluation cycle. We describe a design environment that provides an intuitive human-machine interface for the creation and manipulation of three-dimensional (3D) models in a semi-immersive design space, focusing on ease of use and increased productivity for both designer and CAD engineers.

Kuester, F; Duchaineau, M A; Hamann, B; Joy, K I; Uva, A E

2001-10-03

371

Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.  

PubMed

In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline. PMID:24976492

Ding, Yi; Tian, Yu; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Feng; You, Hong

2014-09-01

372

Cold temperature decreases bacterial species richness in nitrogen-removing bioreactors treating inorganic mine waters.  

PubMed

Explosives used in mining, such as ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO), can cause eutrophication of the surrounding environment by leakage of ammonium and nitrate from undetonated material that is not properly treated. Cold temperatures in mines affect nitrogen removal from water when such nutrients are treated with bioreactors in situ. In this study we identified bacteria in the bioreactors and studied the effect of temperature on the bacterial community. The bioreactors consisted of sequential nitrification and denitrification units running at either 5 or 10°C. One nitrification bioreactor running at 5°C was fed with salt spiked water. From the nitrification bioreactors, sequences from both ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were identified, but the species were distinct at different temperatures. The main nitrifiers in the lower temperature were closely related to the genera Nitrosospira and Candidatus Nitrotoga. 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to halotolerant Nitrosomonas eutropha were found only from the salt spiked nitrification bioreactor. At 10°C the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira were the abundant nitrifiers. The results showed that bacterial species richness estimates were low, <150 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), in all bioreactor clone libraries, when sequences were assigned to operational taxonomic units at an evolutionary distance of 0.03. The only exception was the nitrification bioreactor running at 10°C where species richness was higher, >300 OTUs. Species richness was lower in bioreactors running at 5°C compared to those operating at 10°C. PMID:21769859

Karkman, A; Mattila, K; Tamminen, M; Virta, M

2011-12-01

373

High Index Immersion Lithography With Second Generation Immersion Fluids To Enable Numerical  

E-print Network

-45 nm half pitches, the semiconductor industry continues to debate the relative merits of water To identify the most practical and cost-effective technology after water immersion lithography (Gen1) for sub show that both fluid handling issues, as well as active fluid recycling, must be well understood

Rollins, Andrew M.

374

The CPF Immersion Registry, 1996. A Guide to French Immersion Programs throughout Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The directory lists French immersion programs at the elementary and secondary school levels in each province and territory of Canada. They are arranged alphabetically by province or territory, then by city or town within those categories. Data pertain to the 1995-96 school year. Information provided for each region includes general information on…

Gibson, Judy, Ed.

375

Running Head: IMMERSIVE 3D ENVIRONMENTS AND MUTLINGUALITY 1 Immersive 3D Environments and Multilinguality  

E-print Network

evolution of the technological development in the sector of Communication and Information Technologies skills, for job assessment, and for many of our most cost-effective and productive forms of collaboration with an immersive 3D environment, may consid- erably change the way people usually deal with multilingual

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

The role of perfusion bioreactors in bone tissue engineering  

PubMed Central

Tissue engineering has emerged as a possible alternative to current treatments for bone injuries and defects. However, the common tissue engineering approach presents some obstacles to the development of functional tissues, such as insufficient nutrient and metabolite transport and non-homogenous cell distribution. Culture of bone cells in three-dimensional constructs in bioreactor systems is a solution for those problems as it improves mass transport in the culture system. For bone tissue engineering spinner flasks, rotating wall vessels and perfusion systems have been investigated, and based on these, variations that support cell seeding and mechanical stimulation have also been researched. This review aims at providing an overview of the concepts, advantages and future applications of bioreactor systems for bone tissue engineering with emphasis on the design of different perfusion systems and parameters that can be optimized. PMID:23507883

Gaspar, Diana Alves; Gomide, Viviane; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge

2012-01-01

377

Effect of triclosan on protozoa in wastewater treating bioreactors.  

PubMed

The effect of antimicrobial chemical, triclosan (TCS) on protozoa present in aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors for wastewater treatment is reported in this study. Bioreactor sludge ciliated protozoa such as Spirostomum, Cyclidium and Colpoda and flagellated protozoa Mastigella were exposed to TCS at 1 mg/L level in batch cultures. The response of TCS on protozoa was followed by microscopic observation of the sludge at specific time intervals. Among the protozoa in aerobic sludge, Colpoda exhibited strong sensitivity to triclosan and the cells distorted and burst in 20 minutes period. Mastigella and Spirostomum were resistant to triclosan for first two days, but afterwards the mobility was found declined and subsequently mortality increased to 100% in four and five days respectively. Anaerobic sludge ciliate, Cyclidium exhibited morphological distortion and motility decline after 1 hour exposure to triclosan. The sludge flocs were affected and pelagic cell count declined by the presence of triclosan at the tested level. PMID:21330724

Krishnakumar, B; Anupama, V N; Anju, S; Rugminisukumar, M

2011-01-01

378

The stress response system of proteins: Implications for bioreactor scaleup  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animal cells face a variety of environmental stresses in large scale bioreactors, including periodic variations in shear stress and dissolved oxygen concentration. Diagnostic techniques were developed for identifying the particular sources of environmental stresses for animal cells in a given bioreactor configuration. The mechanisms by which cells cope with such stresses was examined. The individual concentrations and synthesis rates of hundreds of intracellular proteins are affected by the extracellular environment (medium composition, dissolved oxygen concentration, ph, and level of surface shear stress). Techniques are currently being developed for quantifying the synthesis rates and concentrations of the intracellular proteins which are most sensitive to environmental stress. Previous research has demonstrated that a particular set of stress response proteins are synthesized by mammalian cells in response to temperature fluctuations, dissolved oxygen deprivation, and glucose deprivation. Recently, it was demonstrated that exposure of human kidney cells to high shear stress results in expression of a completely distinct set of intracellular proteins.

Goochee, Charles F.

1988-01-01

379

Production and evaluation of silicon immersion gratings for infrared astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion gratings, diffraction gratings where the incident radiation strikes the grooves while immersed in a dielectric medium, offer significant compactness and performance advantages over front-surface grat- ings. These advantages become particularly large for high-resolution spectroscopy in the near-IR. The production and evaluation of immersion gratings produced by fabricating grooves in silicon substrates using photolithographic patterning and anisotropic etching is described.

J. P. Marsh; D. J. Mar; D. T. Jaffe

2007-01-01

380

Mixing and In situ product removal in micro-bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000a\\u000aOf the thesis :’ Mixing and In-situ product removal in micro bioreactors’ by Xiaonan Li\\u000a\\u000aThe work presented in this thesis is a part of a large cluster project, which was formed between DSM, Organon, Applikon and two university groups (TU Delft and University of Twente), under the ACTS and IBOS program. The aim of this cluster project was

X. Li

2009-01-01

381

Transport Advances in Disposable Bioreactors for Liver Tissue Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a devastating diagnosis with an overall survival of approximately 60%. Liver transplantation is the therapy of choice for ALF patients but is limited by the scarce availability of donor organs. The prognosis of ALF patients may improve if essential liver functions are restored during liver failure by means of auxiliary methods because liver tissue has the capability to regenerate and heal. Bioartificial liver (BAL) approaches use liver tissue or cells to provide ALF patients with liver-specific metabolism and synthesis products necessary to relieve some of the symptoms and to promote liver tissue regeneration. The most promising BAL treatments are based on the culture of tissue engineered (TE) liver constructs, with mature liver cells or cells that may differentiate into hepatocytes to perform liver-specific functions, in disposable continuous-flow bioreactors. In fact, adult hepatocytes perform all essential liver functions. Clinical evaluations of the proposed BALs show that they are safe but have not clearly proven the efficacy of treatment as compared to standard supportive treatments. Ambiguous clinical results, the time loss of cellular activity during treatment, and the presence of a necrotic core in the cell compartment of many bioreactors suggest that improvement of transport of nutrients, and metabolic wastes and products to or from the cells in the bioreactor is critical for the development of therapeutically effective BALs. In this chapter, advanced strategies that have been proposed over to improve mass transport in the bioreactors at the core of a BAL for the treatment of ALF patients are reviewed.

Catapano, Gerardo; Patzer, John F.; Gerlach, Jörg Christian

382

Control of a Bioreactor with Chaotic and Oscillatory Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, control of a bioreactor with oscillatory and chaotic behaviors is considered. The main objective is controlling the reactor outlet concentration. In this regard, two model-based controllers, namely, adaptive generalized predictive controller (AGPC) and globally linearizing controller (GLC) are designed and their performances are compared with that of a PI controller. The results indicate that the GLC has a better performance in set point tracking, while in load rejection and handling model mismatch, the performance of AGPC is superior.

Hoseinzadeh, L.; Shahrokhi, M.

383

TCE degradation in a methanotrophic attached-film bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichloroethene was degraded in expanded-bed bioreactors operated with mixed-culture methanotrophic attached films. Biomass concentrations of 8 to 75 g volatile solids (VS) per liter static bed (L[sub sb]) were observed. Batch TCE degradation rates at 35C followed the Michaelis-Menten model, and a maximum TCE degradation rate (q[sub max]) of 10.6 mg TCE\\/gVS [center dot] day and a half velocity coefficient

Donna E. Fennell; Yarrow M. Nelson; Sheila E. Underhill; Thomas E. White; William J. Jewell

1993-01-01

384

Performance of a stainless steel membrane in membrane bioreactor process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stainless steel membrane has recently emerged as a durable membrane for microfiltration. An aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) equipped with a tubular stainless steel membrane of pore size 0.3??m was submerged in a wastewater reactor to treat municipal wastewater of about 1,000?mg\\/L COD. The membrane operational performance was tested at three different permeate flux (7.5, 10 and 15?L\\/m?h [LMH]) for 2

Rupak Aryal; M. A. H. Johir; Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran; Jaya Kandasamy; Robert Sleigh

2012-01-01

385

An immersed boundary method for endocytosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

2014-09-01

386

Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

2012-03-01

387

Bilingual Two-Way Immersion Programs Benefit Academic Achievement  

PubMed Central

The effects of bilingual education on reading and math achievement were examined by comparing test scores across different elementary-school programs. Results revealed that bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs benefited both minority-language and majority-language students. Minority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Transitional Programs of Instruction, while majority-language students in Two-Way Immersion outperformed their peers in Mainstream monolingual classrooms. Bilingual Two-Way Immersion programs may enhance reading and math skills in both minority-language and majority-language elementary-school children. PMID:24277993

Marian, Viorica; Shook, Anthony; Schroeder, Scott R.

2013-01-01

388

Virtual Worlds: A Performative Perspective on Globally Distributed, Immersive Work  

E-print Network

Virtual worlds are immersive, simulated, persistent, and dynamic environments that include rich graphical three dimensional spaces, high fidelity audio, motion, viewpoint, and interactivity. Initially dismissed as environments ...

Schultze, Ulrike

389

Return to Work After Temporary Disability Pension in Finland.  

PubMed

Purpose When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. Methods The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. Results The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25 %. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95 % CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9 % who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95 % CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Conclusion Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW. PMID:25385200

Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija

2014-11-11

390

Biogas Production from Citrus Waste by Membrane Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2014-01-01

391

Growing Three-Dimensional Corneal Tissue in a Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spheroids of corneal tissue about 5 mm in diameter have been grown in a bioreactor from an in vitro culture of primary rabbit corneal cells to illustrate the production of optic cells from aggregates and tissue. In comparison with corneal tissues previously grown in vitro by other techniques, this tissue approximates intact corneal tissue more closely in both size and structure. This novel three-dimensional tissue can be used to model cell structures and functions in normal and abnormal corneas. Efforts continue to refine the present in vitro method into one for producing human corneal tissue to overcome the chronic shortage of donors for corneal transplants: The method would be used to prepare corneal tissues, either from in vitro cultures of a patient s own cells or from a well-defined culture from another human donor known to be healthy. As explained in several articles in prior issues of NASA Tech Briefs, generally cylindrical horizontal rotating bioreactors have been developed to provide nutrient-solution environments conducive to the 30 NASA Tech Briefs, October 2003 growth of delicate animal cells, with gentle, low-shear flow conditions that keep the cells in suspension without damaging them. The horizontal rotating bioreactor used in this method, denoted by the acronym "HARV," was described in "High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating Cell-Culture Vessel" (MSC-21662), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 16, No. 5 (May, 1992), page 150.

Spaulding, Glen F.; Goodwin, Thomas J.; Aten, Laurie; Prewett, Tacey; Fitzgerald, Wendy S.; OConnor, Kim; Caldwell, Delmar; Francis, Karen M.

2003-01-01

392

Biogas production from citrus waste by membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor. PMID:25167328

Wikandari, Rachma; Millati, Ria; Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

2014-01-01

393

Performance evaluation and bacterial characterization of membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

A bench-scale conventional membrane bioreactor (C-MBR), a moving bed membrane bioreactor (MB-MBR) and an anoxic/oxic membrane bioreactor (A/O-MBR), operating under similar feed, environmental and operating conditions, were each evaluated for their treatment performance and bacterial diversity. MBRs were compared for the removal of organics (COD) and nutrients (N and P) while pure culture techniques were employed for bacterial isolation and an API 20E kit was used to identify the isolates. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, selected as a representative of denitrifying microorganisms, was isolated only from the A/O-MBR using Citrimide Agar. Using PCR, the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea was detected only in the MB-MBR. On the other hand, Nitrobacter winogradskyi was detected in all three reactors. Addition of media and maintenance of a lesser DO resulted in the highest TN removal in the A/O-MBR as compared to the C-MBR and the MB-MBR, whereas better nitrification was observed in the MB-MBR than in the C-MBR. PMID:23453983

Khan, Sher Jamal; Parveen, Fozia; Ahmad, Aman; Hashmi, Imran; Hankins, Nicholas

2013-08-01

394

Sulfur formation and recovery in a thiosulfate-oxidizing bioreactor.  

PubMed

This work describes the design and performance of a thiosulfate-oxidizing bioreactor that allowed high elemental sulfur production and recovery efficiency. The reactor system, referred to as a Supernatant-Recycling Settler Bioreactor (SRSB), consisted of a cylindrical upflow reactor and a separate aeration vessel. The reactor was equipped with an internal settler and packing material (structured corrugated PVC sheets) to facilitate both cell retention and the settling of the formed elemental sulfur. The supernatant from the reactor was continuously recirculated through the aerator. An inlet thiosulfate concentration of 100 mmol l(-1) was used. The reactor system was fed with 89 mmol l(-1) d(-1) thiosulfate reaching 98 to 100% thiosulfate conversion with an elemental sulfur yield of 77%. Ninety-three percent of the produced sulfur was harvested from the bottom of the reactor as sulfur sludge. The dry sulfur sludge contained 87% elemental sulfur. The inclusion of an internal settler and packing material in the reactor system resulted in an effective retention of sulfur and biomass inside the bioreactor, preventing the oxidation of thiosulfate and elemental sulfur to sulfate in the aerator and, therefore, improving the efficiency of elemental sulfur formation and recovery. PMID:18724639

González-Sánchez, A; Meulepas, R; Revah, S

2008-08-01

395

Mechanical properties of decellularized tendon cultured by cyclic straining bioreactor.  

PubMed

Decellularized tissues have been successfully used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for the purpose of removing antigens present in the cellular components. However, this decellularization technique uses ionic solutions or chemical treatments such as enzyme treatments that might damage the biophysical properties or reduce the physical strength of tissue. This study aimed to improve the strength of decellularized tissues. We designed a tissue bioreactor that can repeatedly deliver physical stimulation, such as tensile and torsional deformation, to the upper and lower parts of a tissue. To decellularized porcine Tibialis tendons, we used an enzymatic solution to remove the primary cells, and then applied ultrasonic cleansing using a combination of ionic solution and distilled water to destroy residual cells by differing from the osmotic pressure between the inside and outside of the cell membrane. The total DNA content of decellularized tissue was decreased by 77% compared with that of the original tissue and the ultimate tensile strength of the decellularized tissue was 20% lower than that of the normal tissue. Decellularized tissues were then cultivated in the tissue bioreactor with repeated physical stimulation of 110% tension, 90° torsion, and frequency of once per a second, and the ultimate tensile strength was found to be greater than that of the normal ligament at 7 day culture. This study showed that decellularization using enzyme and mechanical treatment is safe and use of a tissue bioreactor can increase the physical strength of tendons, making this a potential mechanism to reconstruct human ligaments. PMID:23554286

Lee, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jung-Soo; Kim, Jin-Gu; Kang, Kyoung-Tak; Jang, Ju-Woong; Shim, Young-Bock; Moon, Seong-Hwan

2013-11-01

396

Hollow fibre membrane bioreactors for tissue engineering applications.  

PubMed

Hollow fibre membrane bioreactors (HFB) provide a novel approach towards tissue engineering applications in the field of regenerative medicine. For adherent cell types, HFBs offer an in vivo-like microenvironment as each fibre replicates a blood capillary and the mass transfer rate across the wall is independent from the shear stresses experienced by the cell. HFB also possesses the highest surface area to volume ratio of all bioreactor configurations. In theory, these factors enable a high quantity of the desired cellular product with less population variation, and favourable operating costs. Experimental analyses of different cell types and bioreactor designs show encouraging steps towards producing a clinically relevant device. This review discusses the basic HFB design for cell expansion and in vitro models; compares data produced on commercially available systems and addresses the operational differences between theory and practice. HFBs are showing some potential for mammalian cell culture but further work is needed to fully understand the complexities of cell culture in HFBs and how best to achieve the high theoretical cell yields. PMID:25064452

Wung, Nelly; Acott, Samuel M; Tosh, David; Ellis, Marianne J

2014-12-01

397

Sustainable disposal of municipal solid waste: post bioreactor landfill polishing.  

PubMed

Sustainable disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) requires assurance that contaminant release will be minimized or prevented within a reasonable time frame before the landfill is abandoned so that the risk of contamination release is not passed to future generations. This could be accomplished through waste acceptance criteria such as those established by the European Union (EU) that prohibit land disposal of untreated organic matter. In the EU, mechanical, biological and/or thermal pretreatment of MSW is therefore necessary prior to landfilling which is complicated and costly. In other parts of the world, treatment within highly engineered landfills is under development, known as bioreactor landfills. However, the completed bioreactor landfill still contains material, largely nonbiodegradable carbon and ammonia that may be released to the environment over the long-term. This paper provides a conceptual analysis of an approach to ensure landfill sustainability by the rapid removal of these remaining materials, leachate treatment and recirculation combined with aeration. The analysis in this paper includes a preliminary experimental evaluation using real mature leachate and waste samples, a modeling effort using a simplified mass balance approach and input parameters from real typical bioreactor cases, and a cost estimate for the suggested treatment method. PMID:20673711

Batarseh, Eyad S; Reinhart, Debra R; Berge, Nicole D

2010-11-01

398

Disposable bioreactor for cell culture using wave-induced agitation.  

PubMed

This work describes a novel bioreactor system for the cultivation of animal, insect, and plant cells using wave agitation induced by a rocking motion. This agitation system provides good nutrient distribution, off-bottom suspension, and excellent oxygen transfer without damaging fluid shear or gas bubbles. Unlike other cell culture systems, such as spinners, hollow-fiber bioreactors, and roller bottles, scale-up is simple, and has been demonstrated up to 100 L of culture volume. The bioreactor is disposable, and therefore requires no cleaning or sterilization. Additions and sampling are possible without the need for a laminar flow cabinet. The unit can be placed in an incubator requiring minimal instrumentation. These features dramatically lower the purchase cost, and operating expenses of this laboratory/pilot scale cell cultivation system. Results are presented for various model systems: 1) recombinant NS0 cells in suspension; 2) adenovirus production using human 293 cells in suspension; 3) Sf9 insect cell/baculovirus system; and 4) human 293 cells on microcarrier. These examples show the general suitability of the system for cells in suspension, anchorage-dependent culture, and virus production in research and GMP applications. PMID:19003364

Singh, V

1999-07-01

399

A comparison study on membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor and a conventional membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

This study compared membrane fouling in a sponge-submerged membrane bioreactor (SSMBR) and a conventional membrane bioreactor (CMBR) based on sludge properties when treating synthetic domestic wastewater. In the CMBR, soluble microbial products (SMP) in activated sludge were a major contributor for initial membrane fouling and presented higher concentration in membrane cake layer. Afterwards, membrane fouling was mainly governed by bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in activated sludge, containing lower proteins but significantly higher polysaccharides. Sponge addition could prevent cake formation on membrane surface and pore blocking inside membrane, thereby alleviating membrane fouling. The SSMBR exhibited not only less growth of the biomass and filamentous bacteria, but also lower cake layer and pore blocking resistance due to lower bound EPS concentrations in activated sludge. Less membrane fouling in SSMBR were also attributed to larger particle size, higher zeta potential and relative hydrophobicity of sludge flocs. PMID:24661815

Deng, Lijuan; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao; Zhang, Jian; Liang, Shuang; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Li, Jianxin

2014-08-01

400

Proliferation of meristematic clusters in disposable presterilized plastic bioreactors for the large-scale micropropagation of plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Proliferation of meristematic clusters of several plants in an inexpensive airlift bioreactor system, consisting of a disposable\\u000a presterilized light transmittable plastic film vessel is described. The optimal shape, size, and structural function of the\\u000a disposable plastic bioreactor are based on the bubble column and airlift glass bioreactors. The disposable bioreactors are\\u000a designed in a conical configuration with a single inoculation

M. Ziv; G. Ronen; M. Raviv

1998-01-01

401

Containerized Wetland Bioreactor Evaluated for Perchlorate and Nitrate Degradation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) designed and constructed an innovative containerized wetlands (bioreactor) system that began operation in November 2000 to biologically degrade perchlorate and nitrate under relatively low-flow conditions at a remote location at Site 300 known as Building 854. Since initial start-up, the system has processed over 3,463,000 liters of ground water and treated over 38 grams of perchlorate and 148 kilograms of nitrate. Site 300 is operated by the University of California as a high-explosives and materials testing facility supporting nuclear weapons research. The 11-square mile site located in northern California was added to the NPL in 1990 primarily due to the presence of elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground water. At the urging of the regulatory agencies, perchlorate was looked for and detected in the ground water in 1999. VOCs, nitrate and perchlorate were released into the soil and ground water in the Building 854 area as the result of accidental leaks during stability testing of weapons or from waste discharge practices that are no longer permitted at Site 300. Design of the wetland bioreactors was based on earlier studies showing that indigenous chlorate-respiring bacteria could effectively degrade perchlorate into nontoxic concentrations of chlorate, chlorite, oxygen, and chloride. Studies also showed that the addition of organic carbon would enhance microbial denitrification. Early onsite testing showed acetic acid to be a more effective carbon source than dried leaf matter, dried algae, or milk replacement starter; a nutrient and carbon source used in a Department of Defense phytoremediation demonstration. No inocula were added to the system. Groundwater was allowed to circulate through the bioreactor for three weeks to acclimate the wetland plants and to build a biofilm from indigenous flora. Using solar energy, ground water is pumped into granular activated carbon canisters to remove VOCs (Figure x). Following solar treatment, ground water containing approximately 46 mg/L of nitrate and 13 {micro}g/L of perchlorate is gravity-fed continuously into two parallel series of two-1,900 liter tank bioreactors. Each bioreactor contains coarse, aquarium-grade gravel and locally-obtained plant species such as cattails (Typha spp.), sedges (Cyperus spp.), and indigenous denitrifying microorganisms. No inocula were added to the system. Groundwater was allowed to circulate through the bioreactor for three weeks to acclimate the wetland plants and to build a biofilm from indigenous flora. Sodium acetate is added to the first bioreactor in each of the two series to promote growth and metabolic activity of rhizome microorganisms. The split flow from each series is combined, and flows through two back-up ion exchange columns to assure complete perchlorate removal. Effluent from the ground water treatment system is monitored and discharged an infiltration trench in accordance with the Substantive Requirements for Waste Discharge issued by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board.

Dibley, V R; Krauter, P W

2004-12-02

402

Investigating primary English immersion teachers in China: background, instructional contexts, professional development, and perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the fast growth of English immersion in China, only limited research has been conducted regarding immersion teachers' educational background, instructional contexts, professional development, and their perceptions about English immersion. This study explored the above key issues from three primary immersion schools. Results indicated that the majority of immersion teachers in the study were women under the age of 30

Xiaomei Song; Liying Cheng

2011-01-01

403

Implementation of a continuous-flow stirred bioreactor system in the bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial waste water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial applicability of immobilized non-viable yeast biomass (Saccharomyces cerivisiae) in continuous-flow stirred bioreactors was tested with respect to metal removal from electroplating effluent solutions containing Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Zn in excess of the stipulated water quality criteria. Two systems, a dual bioreactor and triple bioreactor system in series, were tested and compared regarding their efficiency of metal

A. Stoll; J. R. Duncan

1997-01-01

404

1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. TEMPORARY POWER HOUSE AT ROOSEVELT DAM. TRAMWAY LINES CAN BE SEEN AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH Photographer: Walter J. Lubken, May 10, 1906 - Roosevelt Power Canal & Diversion Dam, Parallels Salt River, Roosevelt, Gila County, AZ

405

19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...application for the identification card cannot be administratively...a temporary identification card issued by the port director...director that a hardship to his business would result pending issuance of an identification card. (b) Validity and...

2012-04-01

406

19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application for the identification card cannot be administratively...a temporary identification card issued by the port director...director that a hardship to his business would result pending issuance of an identification card. (b) Validity and...

2010-04-01

407

19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.  

...application for the identification card cannot be administratively...a temporary identification card issued by the port director...director that a hardship to his business would result pending issuance of an identification card. (b) Validity and...

2014-04-01

408

19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...application for the identification card cannot be administratively...a temporary identification card issued by the port director...director that a hardship to his business would result pending issuance of an identification card. (b) Validity and...

2011-04-01

409

19 CFR 112.49 - Temporary identification cards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...application for the identification card cannot be administratively...a temporary identification card issued by the port director...director that a hardship to his business would result pending issuance of an identification card. (b) Validity and...

2013-04-01

410

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...examinations provided at a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care...

2011-07-01

411

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...examinations provided at a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care...

2010-07-01

412

38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...examinations provided at a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care...

2012-07-01

413

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...highest number of permanent Schedule C positions filled by...circumstances. (c) Individual appointments under this authority may...may be deemed provisional appointments for purposes of the regulations...after a temporary transitional Schedule C position has been...

2010-01-01

414

5 CFR 213.3302 - Temporary transitional Schedule C positions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...highest number of permanent Schedule C positions filled by...circumstances. (c) Individual appointments under this authority may...may be deemed provisional appointments for purposes of the regulations...after a temporary transitional Schedule C position has been...

2011-01-01

415

49 CFR 555.18 - Temporary exemption labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY AND BUMPER STANDARDS Vehicles Built in Two or More Stages and Altered Vehicles § 555.18 Temporary exemption labels. An alterer or final-stage manufacturer of a vehicle that is covered by one or more exemptions...

2013-10-01

416

49 CFR 555.18 - Temporary exemption labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY AND BUMPER STANDARDS Vehicles Built in Two or More Stages and Altered Vehicles § 555.18 Temporary exemption labels. An alterer or final-stage manufacturer of a vehicle that is covered by one or more exemptions...

2011-10-01

417

49 CFR 555.18 - Temporary exemption labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY AND BUMPER STANDARDS Vehicles Built in Two or More Stages and Altered Vehicles § 555.18 Temporary exemption labels. An alterer or final-stage manufacturer of a vehicle that is covered by one or more exemptions...

2010-10-01

418

49 CFR 555.18 - Temporary exemption labels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY AND BUMPER STANDARDS Vehicles Built in Two or More Stages and Altered Vehicles § 555.18 Temporary exemption labels. An alterer or final-stage manufacturer of a vehicle that is covered by one or more exemptions...

2012-10-01

419

75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...guidance to employees of agencies subject to the FTR to enhance travel cost savings and reduce...will improve management of agency travel programs, save money...

2010-10-14

420

Temporary Laboratory Office in Huntsville Industrial Center Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temporary quarters in the Huntsville Industrial Center (HIC) building located in downtown Huntsville, Alabama, as Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) grew. This image shows drafting specialists from the Propulsion and Vehicle Engineering Laboratory at work in the HIC building.

1964-01-01

421

10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.  

...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

2014-01-01

422

10 CFR 205.378 - Disconnection of temporary facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applications; Administrative Procedures and Sanctions Emergency Interconnection of Electric Facilities and the Transfer of Electricity to Alleviate An Emergency Shortage of Electric Power § 205.378 Disconnection of temporary facilities. Upon...

2012-01-01

423

Temporary Anion States of Polyatomic Hydrocarbons KENNETH D. JORDAN'  

E-print Network

Temporary Anion States of Polyatomic Hydrocarbons KENNETH D. JORDAN' OSpemnenr Of C%sITIkby. M k I. A biographyand photograph of Kenneth D. Jordan appear In previous paper in this issue. far outweighsthat

Simons, Jack

424

Quality of Life of Stoma Patients: Temporary Ileostomy versus Colostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a Ileostomy for proximal diversion as a preferred option over colostomy has been a recent topic of interest. Our study evaluated\\u000a the quality of life (QOL) of patients with a temporary ileostomy and compared it with that of patients with a temporary colostomy.\\u000a The QOL of 25 patients with an ileostomy (median age 42 years, range 22–76 years) was compared

Michael Anthony Silva; Geethani Ratnayake; Kemal I. Deen

2003-01-01

425

Indigenous Language Immersion Schools for Strong Indigenous Identities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on evidence from indigenous language immersion programs in the United States, this article makes the case that these immersion programs are vital to healing the negative effects of colonialism and assimilationist schooling that have disrupted many indigenous homes and communities. It describes how these programs are furthering efforts to…

Reyhner, Jon

2010-01-01

426

Introduction of English Immersion in China: A Transplant with Modifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of replicating the French immersion model used in Canada to English immersion programs in China. It provides the Chinese context of this program highlighting the importance of English education and the defect of traditional English teaching and learning. The paper explains the borrowable features of the French…

Qiang, Haiyan; Siegel, Linda S.

2012-01-01

427

Intrapericardial Denervation: Responses to Water Immersion in Rhesus Monkeys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings.

McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

1995-01-01

428

Immersive VR: A Non-pharmacological Analgesic for Chronic Pain?  

E-print Network

Immersive VR: A Non-pharmacological Analgesic for Chronic Pain? Abstract This paper describes the research work being carried out by the Transforming Pain Research Group ­ the only group whose work is exclusively focused on the use of immersive VR for chronic pain management. Unlike VR research for acute

Shaw, Chris

429

SMILE: an immersive learning game for deaf and hearing children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of the second iteration of SMILE (Science and Math in an Immersive Learning Environment), an immersive learning game that employs a fantasy 3D virtual environment to engage deaf and hearing children in math and science-based educational tasks. In this second iteration we (1) combine strategies used in commercial computer games with lessons from

Nicoletta Adamo-Villani; Kelly Wright

2007-01-01

430

The Effect of Language Immersion on Second Language Intonation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of language immersion in an English-speaking environment on the production of intonational features in L2 English sentences. It was hypothesized that the Korean group who had been immersed in the English language as children would have intonation patterns more similar to native English speakers than a nonimmersed…

Kang, Seokhan

2013-01-01

431

IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment  

SciTech Connect

The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

2010-11-01

432

From immersion to addiction in videogames May-li Seah  

E-print Network

From immersion to addiction in videogames May-li Seah University College London 31-32 Alfred Place the immersive experience of videogames and the addictive nature of games. Building on Charlton's (2002) study of addiction and engagement in computing, we conducted a questionnaire study of people who play videogames

Cairns, Paul

433

'This Is Not a Game': Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing convergence and mobility of digital network technologies have given rise to new, massively-scaled modes of social interaction where the physical and virtual worlds meet. This paper explores one product of these extreme networks, the emergent genre of immersive enter- tainment, as a potential tool for harnessing collective action. Through an analysis of the structure and rhetoric of immersive

Jane McGonigal

434

The ABCs Of English Immersion: A Teachers' Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, provided by a partisan education policy public interest group, seeks to answer the most frequently asked questions about teaching, designing, and evaluating an English immersion classroom and the research underpinnings in favor of English immersion. This guide aims to help teachers and policymakers better understand what English…

Clark, Kevin; Garcia, Anita; Gersten, Russell; Goldberg, Ann; Lasken, Douglas; Littlejohn, Jim; Morgan, Cynthia; Munro, Richard K.; Porter, Rosalie Pedalino; Rossell, Christine H.; Siano, Janet

435

Linguistic and metalinguistic outcomes of intense immersion education: how bilingual?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anglophone children in Grades 2 and 5 who attended an intensive French immersion program were examined for linguistic and metalinguistic ability in English and French. Measures of linguistic proficiency (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge) were consistently higher in English and remained so even after 5 years of immersion education in French. Measures of metalinguistic ability (letter fluency and ignoring semantic anomalies

Nicola Hermanto; Sylvain Moreno; Ellen Bialystok

2012-01-01

436

Immersion Fluid Refractive Indices Using Prism Minimum Deviation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immersion fluids for 157 nm and 193 nm immersion lithography have been measured over the spectral range from 156 nm to 1700 nm in a nitrogen purged environment. The refractive index n and k of several candidate fluids have been measured using the prism minimum deviation technique implemented on a commercial Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometer (VASE®) system. For measurement the

Roger H. French; Min K. Yang; M. F. Lemon; R. A. Synowicki; Greg K. Pribil; Gerald T. Cooney; Craig M. Herzinger; Steven E. Green; John H. Burnett; Simon Kaplan

437

Diffraction by an immersed elastic wedge: theory and numerical computation  

E-print Network

P R E P U B L I C A T I O N S Diffraction by an immersed elastic wedge: theory and numerical 91405 ORSAY CEDEX FRANCE #12; n o d'impression : 1998 1 er trimestre 1998 #12; Diffraction January, 1998 ABSTRACT: This paper is devoted to the study of the acoustic wave diffracted by an immersed

Croisille, Jean-Pierre

438

Preliminary microfluidic simulations for immersion lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The premise behind immersion lithography is to improve the resolution for optical lithography technology by increasing the index of refraction in the space between the final projection lens of an exposure system and the device wafer. This is accomplished through the insertion of a high index liquid in place of the low index air that currently fills the gap. The fluid management system must reliably fill the lens-wafer gap with liquid, maintain the fill under the lens throughout the entire wafer exposure process, and ensure that no bubbles are entrained during filling or scanning. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the fluid flow characteristics of a liquid between the lens and the wafer in immersion lithography. The objective of this feasibility study was to identify liquid candidates that meet both optical and specific fluid mechanical requirements. The mechanics of the filling process was analyzed to simplify the problem and identify those fluid properties and system parameters that affect the process. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the fluid between the lens and the wafer were developed for simulating the process. The CFD simulations were used to investigate two methods of liquid deposition. In the first, a liquid is dispensed onto the wafer as a "puddle" and then the wafer and liquid move under the lens. This is referred to as passive filling. The second method involves the use of liquid jets in close proximity to the edge of the lens and is referred to as active filling. Numerical simulations of passive filling included a parametric study of the key dimensionless group influencing the filling process and an investigation of the effects of the fluid/wafer and fluid/lens contact angles and wafer direction. The model results are compared with experimental measurements. For active filling, preliminary simulation results characterized the influence of the jets on fluid flow.

Wei, Alexander C.; Nellis, Greg F.; Abdo, Amr Y.; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Chen, Cheng-Fu; Switkes, Michael; Rothschild, Mordechai

2003-06-01

439

Motion parallax in immersive cylindrical display systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion parallax is a crucial visual cue produced by translations of the observer for the perception of depth and selfmotion. Therefore, tracking the observer viewpoint has become inevitable in immersive virtual (VR) reality systems (cylindrical screens, CAVE, head mounted displays) used e.g. in automotive industry (style reviews, architecture design, ergonomics studies) or in scientific studies of visual perception. The perception of a stable and rigid world requires that this visual cue be coherent with other extra-retinal (e.g. vestibular, kinesthetic) cues signaling ego-motion. Although world stability is never questioned in real world, rendering head coupled viewpoint in VR can lead to the perception of an illusory perception of unstable environments, unless a non-unity scale factor is applied on recorded head movements. Besides, cylindrical screens are usually used with static observers due to image distortions when rendering image for viewpoints different from a sweet spot. We developed a technique to compensate in real-time these non-linear visual distortions, in an industrial VR setup, based on a cylindrical screen projection system. Additionally, to evaluate the amount of discrepancies tolerated without perceptual distortions between visual and extraretinal cues, a "motion parallax gain" between the velocity of the observer's head and that of the virtual camera was introduced in this system. The influence of this artificial gain was measured on the gait stability of free-standing participants. Results indicate that, below unity, gains significantly alter postural control. Conversely, the influence of higher gains remains limited, suggesting a certain tolerance of observers to these conditions. Parallax gain amplification is therefore proposed as a possible solution to provide a wider exploration of space to users of immersive virtual reality systems.

Filliard, N.; Reymond, G.; Kemeny, A.; Berthoz, A.

2012-03-01

440

Performance deterioration and structural changes of a ceramic membrane bioreactor due to inorganic abrasion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study a pilot-scale ceramic membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was used for the treatment of simulated municipal wastewater. With the introduction of excess phosphorus to the bioreactor, a gradual deterioration of the membrane filtration performance and eventual failure of the pilot system was observed. A detailed investigation performed on the mixed liquor showed that phosphorus related calcium and

N Cicek; D Dionysiou; M. T Suidan; P Ginestet; J. M Audic

1999-01-01

441

Biogeochemistry of the compost bioreactor components of a composite acid mine drainage passive remediation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The compost bioreactor (“anaerobic cell”) components of three composite passive remediation systems constructed to treat acid mine drainage (AMD) at the former Wheal Jane tin mine, Cornwall, UK were studied over a period of 16 months. While there was some amelioration of the preprocessed AMD in each of the three compost bioreactors, as evidenced by pH increase and decrease in

D. Barrie Johnson; Kevin B. Hallberg

2005-01-01

442

DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS USING THE BEST MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with a public domain computer software package, PHREEQCI. BEST is intended to be used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)field bioreactors to pas...

443

On maintenance models in severely and long-term limited membrane bioreactor cultivations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are combinations of common bioreactors and membrane separation units for biomass retention. Through increased biomass concentration, they allow increased productivity (or smaller reactor volume, respectively). Besides high biomass concentrations, operation at very low growth rates is typical for MBRs. In this regime, maintenance metabolism where substrate uptake only yields energy for cell survival becomes of higher

Anja Drews; Matthias Kraume

2007-01-01

444

Bacterial Concentration and Diversity within Repetitive Aliquots Collected from Replicate Continuous-Flow Bioreactor Cultures  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the reproducibility of small volume repeat sampling from replicate bioreactors with stabilized continuous-flow chicken cecal bacterial communities. Bacterial concentration and diversity were analyzed by phenotypic, biochemical and ribotype analysis. Significant differences in concentrations and variations in diversity were found in replicate bioreactors. PMID:19088912

Crippen, Tawni L; Sheffield, Cynthia L; Andrews, Kathleen; Bongaerts, Roy; Nisbet, David J

2008-01-01

445

COMPUTER SIMULATOR (BEST) FOR DESIGNING SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA FIELD BIOREACTORS  

EPA Science Inventory

BEST (bioreactor economics, size and time of operation) is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in conjunction with public domain software, PhreeqcI. BEST is used in the design process of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) field bioreactors to passively treat acid mine drainage (A...

446

Long-term pilot scale investigation of novel hybrid ultrafiltration-osmotic membrane bioreactors  

E-print Network

. · FO water flux was maintained constant for more than four months with the UFO-MBR. G R A P H I C A L membrane bioreactor (OMBR) and a novel hybrid ultrafiltration OMBR (UFO-MBR) were investigated for extended bioreactor (UFO-MBR). Results from long-term OMBR and UFO-MBR investigations revealed that the overall

447

A capillary membrane bioreactor using immobilized polyphenol oxidase for the removal of phenols from industrial effluents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary membrane bioreactor has been developed and tested for the removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic and industrial effluents. Polyphenol oxidase was immobilized on single capillary membranes in a small-scale bioreactor using two morphologically different polymeric membranes. One has a novel structure with no external supporting skin layer. This membrane allows greater flux and was shown to facilitate high

W Edwards; R Bownes; W. D Leukes; E. P Jacobs; R Sanderson; P. D Rose; S. G Burton

1999-01-01

448

Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture  

E-print Network

Microliter-bioreactor array with buoyancy-driven stirring for human hematopoietic stem cell culture of hematopoietic stem cell HSC cultures. Exploring a wide range of experimental conditions at the microliter scale-scale bioreactors for stem cell production at the clinical level. The controlled stirring inside the wells

Meinhart, Carl

449

PERFORMANCE OF NORTH AMERICAN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: II. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this research was to examine the performance of five North American bioreactor landfills. This paper represents the second of a two part series and addresses biological and chemical aspects of bioreactor performance including gas production and management, and l...

450

Temporary and permanent wetland macroinvertebrate communities: Phylogenetic structure through time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water permanence has been previously identified as an important factor affecting macroinvertebrate diversity and abundance in wetlands. Here, we repeatedly sampled the macroinvertebrate communities in 16 permanent and 14 temporary wetlands in Alberta, Canada. Temporary wetlands were predicted to have more closely related taxa and reduced species richness due to the specialized adaptations required to survive in a temporary habitat. We analyzed the species richness (SR) and phylogenetic structure of communities, focusing on three measures of relatedness: Phylogenetic Distance (PD), Net Related Index (NRI) and Nearest Taxon Index (NTI). We also examined the influence of taxonomic scale on resulting phylogenetic structure. Overall, taxa were more diverse and abundant in permanent wetlands. As expected, PD and SR were greatest in permanent wetlands. NTI and NRI metrics suggest permanent wetland communities are primarily structured by biotic interactions, such as competition and predation. Conversely, temporary wetland communities appear to be affected more by environmental filtering, with fewer groups being able to survive and reproduce in the relatively limited time that these environments contain water. Insect and dipteran assemblages differed from the patterns found when examining all taxa together for communities for both permanent and temporary wetlands, tending to become more phylogenetically clustered as the season progressed. Conversely, lophotrochozoan and gastropod assemblages closely matched the patterns observed for full communities in permanent wetlands, suggesting a role for biotic interactions. Given the contrasting patterns observed for permanent and temporary wetlands, macroinvertebrate diversity at the landscape level may be best conserved by maintaining both habitat types.

Silver, Carly A.; Vamosi, Steven M.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

2012-02-01

451

A hybrid immersed boundary and immersed interface method for electrohydrodynamic simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a hybrid immersed boundary (IB) and immersed interface method (IIM) to simulate the dynamics of a drop under an electric field in Navier-Stokes flows. Within the leaky dielectric framework with piecewise constant electric properties in each fluid, the electric stress can be treated as an interfacial force on the drop interface. Thus, both the electric and capillary forces can be formulated in a unified immersed boundary framework. The electric potential satisfies a Laplace equation which is solved numerically by an augmented immersed interface method which incorporates the jump conditions naturally along the normal direction. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for the fluids are solved using a projection method on a staggered MAC grid and the potential is solved at the cell center. The interface is tracked in a Lagrangian manner with mesh control by adding an artificial tangential velocity to transport the Lagrangian markers to ensure that the spacing between markers is uniform throughout the computations. A series of numerical tests for the present scheme have been conducted to illustrate the accuracy and applicability of the method. We first compute the potential and its gradient (electric field) to perform the accuracy check for the present augmented IIM. We then check the convergence of the interfacial electric force and the fluid variables. We further run a series of simulations with different permittivity and conductivity ratios and compare with the results obtained by the small deformation theory and other numerical results in literature. In addition, we also study the electric effect for a drop under shear flow.

Hu, Wei-Fan; Lai, Ming-Chih; Young, Yuan-Nan

2015-02-01

452

Mass transfers in a fluidized bed bioreactor using alginate beads for a future bioartificial liver.  

PubMed

Fluidized bed bioreactor with alginate beads may be an alternative to hollow fiber cartridge to host hepatocytes for bioartificial liver purposes. After the bioreactor design and the characterization of fluid mechanics, the present study was aimed at analyzing bi-directional mass transfers of calibrated species between external fluid and empty beads. Static (batch) and dynamic (fluidized bed bioreactor) experimental conditions were analyzed. A simple modelling approach permitted the definition of mass transfer coefficients. The motion of beads within the bioreactor clearly enhanced mass transfer kinetics, but did not alter the amount exchanged. The shear enhanced diffusion coefficient for VitB12 was 20 times higher in the fluidized bed bioreactor than under batch conditions, proving the efficiency of such a device. PMID:15163062

David, B; Doré, E; Jaffrin, M Y; Legallais, C

2004-04-01

453

Leachate recirculation between alternating aged refuse bioreactors and its effect on refuse decomposition.  

PubMed

In a sequencing batch bioreactor landfill system which combined a fresh and an aged refuse bioreactor, blockage occurred frequently in the aged refuse bioreactor during the treatment of leachate from the fresh refuse bioreactor. To overcome this problem, another aged refuse bioreactor was added, when blockage occurred, the two aged refuse bioreactor operated alternatively. A fresh refuse bioreactor F combined with two alternating aged refuse bioreactors A1 and A2 was called alternate recirculation process (ARP) in this study. The bioreactor system was operated in three stages, and the three bioreactors were exposed to air to facilitate surface re-aeration. The effect of the ARP on the accelerated degradation of fresh refuse was compared before and after blockage occurs in A1. The results indicated that ARP can improve the leachate production rate. The average daily net production rates of leachate in Stages 2 and 3 were approximately 2.1 and 1.6 mL (kgrefuse d)(-1), respectively, which exceeded that of Stage 1 (1.3 mL (kg refuse d)(-1)). The chemical oxygen demand and NH3-N concentrations of the leachate from Stage 1 are 1000 and 25mgL(-1) after 2.1 and 2.7 y, respectively. For Stages 2 and 3, these concentrations reach approximately after 0.877 and 1.3 y. Faster refuse settlement was observed in Stages 2 and 3, with an average daily settlement of approximately 0.11%, as compared with Stage 1 (approximately 0.099%). ARP can accelerate the biodegradation of the fresh refuse and overcome the problem of the blockage in the aged refuse reactor. PMID:24645462

Sun, Xiaojie; Sun, Yingjie; Zhao, Youcai; Wang, Ya-Nan

2014-01-01

454

Temporary umbilical loop colostomy for anorectal malformations.  

PubMed

Transumbilical surgical procedures have been reported to be a feasible, safe, and cosmetically excellent procedure for various pediatric surgical diseases. Umbilical loop colostomies have previously been created in patients with Hirschsprung's disease, but not in patients with anorectal malformations (ARMs). We assessed the feasibility and cosmetic results of temporal umbilical loop colostomy (TULC) in patients with ARMs. A circumferential skin incision was made at the base of the umbilical cord under general anesthesia. The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and fascia were cored out vertically, and the umbilical vessels and urachal remnant were individually ligated apart from the opening in the fascia. A loop colostomy was created in double-barreled fashion with a high chimney more than 2 cm above the level of the skin. The final size of the opening in the skin and fascia was modified according to the size of the bowel. The bowel wall was fixed separately to the peritoneum and fascia with interrupted 5-0 absorbable sutures. The bowel was opened longitudinally and everted without suturing to the skin. The loop was divided 7 days postoperatively, and diversion of the oral bowel was completed. The colostomy was closed 2-3 months after posterior saggital anorectoplasty through a peristomal skin incision followed by end-to-end anastomosis. Final wound closure was performed in a semi-opened fashion to create a deep umbilicus. TULCs were successfully created in seven infants with rectourethral bulbar fistula or rectovestibular fistula. Postoperative complications included mucosal prolapse in one case. No wound infection or spontaneous umbilical ring narrowing was observed. Skin problems were minimal, and stoma care could easily be performed by attaching stoma bag. Healing of umbilical wounds after TULC closure was excellent. The umbilicus may be an alternative stoma site for temporary loop colostomy in infants with intermediate-type anorectal malformations, who undergo radical anorectoplasty via a non-abdominal approach. PMID:23001137

Hamada, Yoshinori; Takada, Kohei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sato, Masahito; Kwon, A-Hon

2012-11-01

455

Arsenic removal in a sulfidogenic fixed-bed column bioreactor.  

PubMed

In the present study, the bioremoval of arsenic from synthetic acidic wastewater containing arsenate (As(5+)) (0.5-20mg/L), ferrous iron (Fe(2+)) (100-200mg/L) and sulfate (2,000 mg/L) was investigated in an ethanol fed (780-1,560 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD)) anaerobic up-flow fixed bed column bioreactor at constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.6h. Arsenic removal efficiency was low and averaged 8% in case iron was not supplemented to the synthetic wastewater. Neutral to slightly alkaline pH and high sulfide concentration in the bioreactor retarded the precipitation of arsenic. Addition of 100mg/L Fe(2+) increased arsenic removal efficiency to 63%. Further increase of influent Fe(2+) concentration to 200mg/L improved arsenic removal to 85%. Decrease of influent COD concentration to its half, 780 mg/L, resulted in further increase of As removal to 96% when Fe(2+) and As(5+) concentrations remained at 200mg/L and 20mg/L, respectively. As a result of the sulfidogenic activity in the bioreactor the effluent pH and alkalinity concentration averaged 7.4 ± 0.2 and 1,736 ± 239 mg CaCO3/L respectively. Electron flow from ethanol to sulfate averaged 72 ± 10%. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses were carried out to identify the nature of the precipitate generated by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity. Precipitation of arsenic in the form of As2S3 (orpiment) and co-precipitation with ferrous sulfide (FeS), pyrite (FeS2) or arsenopyrite (FeAsS) were the main arsenic removal mechanisms. PMID:24360509

Altun, Muslum; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Durukan, Ilknur; Bektas, Sema; Komnitsas, Kostas

2014-03-30

456

[Aerogenesis evolution of the anaerobic-semiaerobic bioreactor landfill].  

PubMed

A novel bioreactor landfill, the anaerobic-semiaerobic bioreactor landfill (AN-SABL), was devised by combining an anaerobic bioreactor landfill (ANBL) with a semi-aerobic aged refuse biofilter (SAARB). Meanwhile, relevant parameters such as gas production volume and rate, and gas constituents were investigated to provide a theoretical foundation for the collection, utilization and treatment of landfill gas. Results indicated that the gas production of the anaerobic units was inhibited in the AN-SABLs. The gas production rates in the ANBL2 unit and the ANBL3 unit were 49 L x kg(-1) and 39 L x kg(-1) respectively, which were only 94.2% and 75.0% of that in the ANBL1. However, the gas production in the anaerobic unit could be accelerated by increasing the recirculation frequency. The maximum methane content could reach up to 62.67%. Moreover, the gas production volume and velocity in the ANBL were much higher in summer than those in winter, and the gas production peak could be observed with a 12-hour cycle. Besides, the nitrification and the denitrification in the anaerobic units would be enhanced remarkably in the AN-SABLs. It resulted that the content of N2O, which fluctuated between 0.0017% and 4.0179%, was influenced obviously by the seasonal variation and the landfill types. Based on the mathematical model of aerogenesis, the cumulative gas volume of the ANBL increased logarithmically in the initial aerobic phase, then increased linearly in the anaerobic acid phase, and increased exponentially in the methane production of acid phase afterwards. PMID:22946204

Han, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Dan; Li, Qi-Bin

2012-06-01

457

Cell Cycle Progression of Human Cells Cultured in Rotating Bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space flight has been shown to alter the astronauts immune systems. Because immune performance is complex and reflects the influence of multiple organ systems within the host, scientists sought to understand the potential impact of microgravity alone on the cellular mechanisms critical to immunity. Lymphocytes and their differentiated immature form, lymphoblasts, play an important and integral role in the body's defense system. T cells, one of the three major types of lymphocytes, play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocyte types, such as B cells and natural killer cells by the presence of a special receptor on their cell surface called T cell receptors. Reported studies have shown that spaceflight can affect the expression of cell surface markers. Cell surface markers play an important role in the ability of cells to interact and to pass signals between different cells of the same phenotype and cells of different phenotypes. Recent evidence suggests that cell-cycle regulators are essential for T-cell function. To trigger an effective immune response, lymphocytes must proliferate. The objective of this project is to investigate the changes in growth of human cells cultured in rotating bioreactors and to measure the growth rate and the cell cycle distribution for different human cell types. Human lymphocytes and lymphoblasts will be cultured in a bioreactor to simulate aspects of microgravity. The bioreactor is a cylindrical culture vessel that incorporates the aspects of clinostatic rotation of a solid fluid body around a horizontal axis at a constant speed, and compensates gravity by rotation and places cells within the fluid body into a sustained free-fall. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation of the lymphocytes will be measured for a number of days. In addition, RNA from the cells will be isolated for expression of genes related in cell cycle regulations.

Parks, Kelsey

2009-01-01

458

Rapid LC-MS drug metabolite profiling using bioreactor particles.  

PubMed

Enzyme-coated magnetic bioreactor particles enable a fast, convenient approach to metabolic screening. A semi-automated metabolite-profiling technique using these particles in a 96-well plate with liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS detection is described. Reactions can be investigated over 1- to 2-min periods, and 96 or more reactions or reaction time points can be processed in parallel. Incorporation of DNA in the particle films facilitates determination of rates of DNA damage and metabolite-DNA adduct structures. PMID:23475673

Zhao, Linlin; Bajrami, Besnik; Rusling, James F

2013-01-01

459

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01

460

PI-controlled bioreactor as a generalized Lienard system  

E-print Network

It is shown that periodic orbits can occur in Cholette's bioreactor model working under the influence of a PI-controller. We find a diffeomorphic coordinate transformation that turns this controlled enzymatic reaction system into a generalized Lienard form. Furthermore, we give sufficient conditions for the existence and uniqueness of limit cycles in the new coordinates. We also perform numerical simulations illustrating the possibility of the existence of a local center (period annulus). A result with possible practical applications is that the oscillation frequency is a function of the integral control gain parameter

V. Ibarra-Junquera; H. C. Rosu

2006-06-04

461

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified.

Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Charles D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faison, Brendlyn D. (Knoxville, TN); Davison, Brian H. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Oak Ridge, TN)

1996-01-01

462

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis of cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

1997-06-10

463

Enhanced attrition bioreactor for enzyme hydrolysis or cellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting cellulosic materials, such as waste paper, into fuels and chemicals, such as sugars and ethanol, utilizing enzymatic hydrolysis of the major carbohydrate of paper: cellulose. A waste paper slurry is contacted by cellulase in an agitated hydrolyzer. An attritor and a cellobiase reactor are coupled to the agitated hydrolyzer to improve reaction efficiency. Additionally, microfiltration, ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis steps are included to further increase reaction efficiency. The resulting sugars are converted to a dilute product in a fluidized-bed bioreactor utilizing a biocatalyst, such as microorganisms. The dilute product is then concentrated and purified. 1 fig.

Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.; Faison, B.D.; Davison, B.H.; Woodward, J.

1996-04-16

464

Data Visualization Using Immersive Virtual Reality Tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing complexity of scientific data poses serious challenges for an effective visualization. Data sets, e.g., catalogs of objects detected in sky surveys, can have a very high dimensionality, ~ 100 - 1000. Visualizing such hyper-dimensional data parameter spaces is essentially impossible, but there are ways of visualizing up to ~ 10 dimensions in a pseudo-3D display. We have been experimenting with the emerging technologies of immersive virtual reality (VR) as a platform for a scientific, interactive, collaborative data visualization. Our initial experiments used the virtual world of Second Life, and more recently VR worlds based on its open source code, OpenSimulator. There we can visualize up to ~ 100,000 data points in ~ 7 - 8 dimensions (3 spatial and others encoded as shapes, colors, sizes, etc.), in an immersive virtual space where scientists can interact with their data and with each other. We are now developing a more scalable visualization environment using the popular (practically an emerging standard) Unity 3D Game Engine, coded using C#, JavaScript, and the Unity Scripting Language. This visualization tool can be used through a standard web browser, or a standalone browser of its own. Rather than merely plotting data points, the application creates interactive three-dimensional objects of various shapes, colors, and sizes, and of course the XYZ positions, encoding various dimensions of the parameter space, that can be associated interactively. Multiple users can navigate through this data space simultaneously, either with their own, independent vantage points, or with a shared view. At this stage ~ 100,000 data points can be easily visualized within seconds on a simple laptop. The displayed data points can contain linked information; e.g., upon a clicking on a data point, a webpage with additional information can be rendered within the 3D world. A range of functionalities has been already deployed, and more are being added. We expect to make this visualization tool freely available to the academic community within a few months, on an experimental (beta testing) basis.

Cioc, Alexandru; Djorgovski, S. G.; Donalek, C.; Lawler, E.; Sauer, F.; Longo, G.

2013-01-01

465

Early Fluid and Protein Shifts in Men During Water Immersion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High precision blood and plasma densitometry was used to measure transvascular fluid shifts during water immersion to the neck. Six men (28-49 years) undertook 30 min of standing immersion in water at 35.0 +/- 0.2 C; immersion was preceded by 30 min control standing in air at 28 +/- 1 C. Blood was sampled from an antecubital catheter for determination of Blood Density (BD), Plasma Density (PD), Haematocrit (Ht), total Plasma Protein Concentration (PPC), and Plasma Albumin Concentration (PAC). Compared to control, significant decreases (p less than 0.01) in all these measures were observed after 20 min immersion. At 30 min, plasma volume had increased by 11.0 +/- 2.8%; the average density of the fluid shifted from extravascular fluid into the vascular compartment was 1006.3 g/l; albumin moved with the fluid and its albumin concentration was about one-third of the plasma protein concentration during early immersion. These calculations are based on the assumption that the F-cell ratio remained unchanged. No changes in erythrocyte water content during immersion were found. Thus, immersion-induced haemodilution is probably accompanied by protein (mainly albumin) augmentation which accompanies the intra-vascular fluid shift.

Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Harrison, M. H.; Greenleaf, J. E.

1987-01-01

466

Intrapericardial denervation: Responses to water immersion in rhesus monkeys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eleven anesthetized rhesus monkeys were used to study cardiovascular, renal, and endocrine alterations associated with 120 min of head-out water immersion. Five animals underwent complete intrapericardial denervation using the Randall technique, while the remaining six monkeys served as intact controls. Each animal was chronically instrumented with an electromagnetic flow probe on the ascending aorta, a strain gauge pressure transducer implanted in the apex of the left ventricle (LV), and electrocardiogram leads anchored to the chest wall and LV. During immersion, LV end-diastolic pressure, urine flow, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, and circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) each increased (P less than 0.05) for intact and denervated monkeys. There were no alterations in free water clearance in either group during immersion, yet fractional excretion of free water increased (P less than 0.05) in the intact monkeys. Plasma renin activity (PRA) decreased (P less than 0.05) during immersion in intact monkeys but not the denervated animals. Plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration decreased (P less than 0.05) during the first 30 min of immersion in both groups but was not distinguishable from control by 60 min of immersion in denervated monkeys. These data demonstrate that complete cardiac denervation does not block the rise in plasma ANP or prevent the natriuresis associated with head-out water immersion. The suppression of PVP during the first minutes of immersion after complete cardiac denervation suggests that extracardiac sensing mechanisms associated with the induced fluid shifts may be responsible for the findings. water immersion; natriuresis; vasopressin; eardiae denervation; monkey

McKeever, Kenneth H.; Keil, Lanny C.; Sandler, Harold

1995-01-01

467

Healing the healer: stress and coping strategies in the field of temporary medical work.  

PubMed

Temporary medical workers provide a vital role for the medical profession. These individuals, however, occupy a unique work arrangement as professional-specific temporary workers. Temporary medical workers often find themselves bearing the burdens of both medical workers and temporary workers. In partnership with the largest medical temporary agency in the United States, we content analyzed the responses of 86 medical temporary workers, geared at uncovering the primary stressors and coping strategies this sample enacted. Our findings concluded that temporary medical workers experienced stressors associated with both their medical and temporary roles, although more stressors were associated with temporary work than with medical care. Participants also relied heavily on coping strategies that allowed them to avoid these stressors. PMID:24945833

Vorell, Matthew S; Carmack, Heather J

2015-04-01

468

Impact of nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation on gaseous releases from a landfill bioreactor cell  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluates the impact of nitrate injection on a full scale landfill bioreactor through the monitoring of gaseous releases and particularly N{sub 2}O emissions. During several weeks, we monitored gas concentrations in the landfill gas collection system as well as surface gas releases with a series of seven static chambers. These devices were directly connected to a gas chromatograph coupled to a flame ionisation detector and an electron capture detector (GC-FID/ECD) placed directly on the field. Measurements were performed before, during and after recirculation of raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate. Raw leachate recirculation did not have a significant effect on the biogas concentrations (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) in the gas extraction network. However, nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation induced a marked increase of the N{sub 2}O concentrations in the gas collected from the recirculation trench (100-fold increase from 0.2 ppm to 23 ppm). In the common gas collection system however, this N{sub 2}O increase was no more detectable because of dilution by gas coming from other cells or ambient air intrusion. Surface releases through the temporary cover were characterized by a large spatial and temporal variability. One automated chamber gave limited standard errors over each experimental period for N{sub 2}O releases: 8.1 {+-} 0.16 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 384), 4.2 {+-} 0.14 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 132) and 1.9 {+-} 0.10 mg m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (n = 49), during, after raw leachate and nitrate-enhanced leachate recirculation, respectively. No clear correlation between N{sub 2}O gaseous surface releases and recirculation events were evidenced. Estimated N{sub 2}O fluxes remained in the lower range of what is reported in the literature for landfill covers, even after nitrate injection.

Tallec, G.; Bureau, C. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France); Peu, P.; Benoist, J.C. [Cemagref, UR GERE, 17 Avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes (France); Lemunier, M. [Suez-Environnement, CIRADE, 38 Av. Jean Jaures, 78440 Gargenville (France); Budka, A.; Presse, D. [SITA France, 132 Rue des 3 Fontanot, 92000 Nanterre Cedex (France); Bouchez, T. [Cemagref, UR HBAN, Parc de Tourvoie, BP44, F-92163 Antony (France)], E-mail: theodore.bouchez@cemagref.fr

2009-07-15

469

International cultural immersion: en vivo reflections in cultural competence.  

PubMed

A baccalaureate nursing program developed and implemented an international cultural immersion course in Guatemala to explore the impact of cultural immersion on student nurses' cultural competence. This qualitative descriptive study generated data through in-depth interviews and en vivo reflective journals. The three themes: Navigating daily life, Broadening the lens, and Making a difference, revealed an expanded context and worldview of culture. International service learning seemed to pervade all aspects of the students' experience. Exercises in participant-observation and reflective writing could enhance student self-awareness and their ability to benefit from a cultural immersion course. PMID:20586365

Larson, Kim L; Ott, Melissa; Miles, Jane M

2010-01-01

470

LabVIEW ALPHA Immersion at Reed College  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2011, ALPHA (Advanced Physics Laboratory Association) hosted a series of laboratory immersion experiences in which faculty could spend several days working closely with a mentor on an advanced undergraduate experiment. The goal of this program is to foster wider implementation of these experiments at the undergraduate level. One of these immersions took place at Reed College and focused on the use of LabVIEW software in undergraduate physics laboratories. This was an extremely valuable laboratory. The immersion experience and the LabVIEW projects will be described.

Smith, R. Seth

2011-10-01

471

Using Immersion to teach Global Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students are increasingly jaded to programs that preach, and museums are increasingly finding it difficult to attract students who can retrieve information quickly from the internet or cable TV. A new medium of immersive theater can now engulf the viewer in the subject, bringing a novel view to the exciting new data sets and images now available. By telling a compelling story with characters they can identify with, global climate change can be experienced and its effects brought home in a dramatic and effective way. We have developed several shows highlighting climate change (Powers of Time, Secrets of the Dead Sea), and are developing new shows (Earth's Wild Ride, Earth in the Balance) which can be used to take the visitor into the past or into the future. Clips from the shows and evidence of their effectiveness as an educational tool for Earth science will be shown. If possible, our new portable dome system will be set up in the poster hall for longer live demos of our shows.

Sumners, C. T.; Handron, K.; Reiff, P. H.; Law, C. C.

2004-12-01

472

Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.  

PubMed

Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design. PMID:23428449

Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

2013-04-01

473

Leachate recirculation at the Nanticoke sanitary landfill using a bioreactor trench. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A one-year landfill leachate recirculation demonstration project was conducted in a 20-acre cell at the Broome County, NY, Nanticoke Landfill using a retrofit bioreactor trench design concept to introduce landfill leachate to the surrounding refuse mass. Over the course of the project, 1.1 million gallons of landfill leachate were distributed through the bioreactor trench, substantially increasing the moisture content (approaching 70%) of the surrounding municipal solid waste. Experimental results also indicate that the bioreactor trench functioned as an in-situ anaerobic bioreactor, effectively treating landfill leachate retained within the trench due to decreasing refuse permeability and enhanced leachate hydraulic retention time. A significant and steady decline was noted in landfill leachate chemical oxygen demand (COD), volatile fatty acid (VFA), and total organic carbon (TOC), suggesting that the rapid biological stabilization of the refuse within the 20-acre demonstration area was influenced by the bioreactor trench. Characterization of the resulting landfill gas indicated that optimum methane:carbon dioxide ratios were measured in all experimental gas wells and in the bioreactor trench. No apparent enhancement of landfill gas production was noted in promixity to the bioreactor trench.

Pagano, J.J.; Scrudato, R.J.; Sumner, G.M.

1998-02-01

474

Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor  

PubMed Central

The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34–359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner. PMID:24406056

2014-01-01

475

Removal of dichloromethane from waste gas streams using a hybrid bubble column/biofilter bioreactor.  

PubMed

The performance of a hybrid bubble column/biofilter (HBCB) bioreactor for the removal of dichloromethane (DCM) from waste gas streams was studied in continuous mode for several months. The HBCB bioreactor consisted of two compartments: bubble column bioreactor removing DCM from liquid phase and biofilter removing DCM from gas phase. Effect of inlet DCM concentration on the elimination capacity was examined in the DCM concentration range of 34-359 ppm with loading rates ranged from 2.2 to 22.8 g/m3.h and constant total empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 200 s. In the equal loading rates, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency of the biofilter were higher than the corresponding values of the bubble column bioreactor. The maximum elimination capacity of the HBCB bioreactor was determined to be 15.7 g/m3.h occurred in the highest loading rate of 22.8 g/m3.h with removal efficiency of 69%. The overall mineralization portion of the HBCB bioreactor was in the range of 72-79%. The mixed liquor acidic pH especially below 5.5 inhibited microbial activity and decreased the elimination capacity. Inhibitory effect of high ionic strength was initiated in the mixed liquor electrical conductivity of 12.2 mS/cm. This study indicated that the HBCB bioreactor could benefit from advantages of both bubble column and biofilter reactors and could remove DCM from waste gas streams in a better manner. PMID:24406056

Abtahi, Mehrnoosh; Naddafi, Kazem; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Jaafarzadeh, Nematollah; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Saeedi, Reza

2014-01-01

476

Applicability of dynamic membrane technology in anaerobic membrane bioreactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the applicability of dynamic membrane technology in anaerobic membrane bioreactors for the treatment of high strength wastewaters. A monofilament woven fabric was used as support material for dynamic membrane formation. An anaerobic dynamic membrane bioreactor (AnDMBR) was operated under a variety of operational conditions, including different sludge retention times (SRTs) of 20 and 40 days in order to determine the effect of SRT on both biological performance and dynamic membrane filtration characteristics. High COD removal efficiencies exceeding 99% were achieved during the operation at both SRTs. Higher filtration resistances were measured during the operation at SRT of 40 days in comparison to SRT of 20 days, applying a stable flux of 2.6 L/m(2) h. The higher filtration resistances coincided with lower extracellular polymeric substances concentration in the bulk sludge at SRT of 40 days, likely resulting in a decreased particle flocculation. Results showed that dynamic membrane technology achieved a stable and high quality permeate and AnDMBRs can be used as a reliable and satisfactory technology for treatment of high strength wastewaters. PMID:24156951

Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Ozgun, Hale; Tao, Yu; van Lier, Jules B

2014-01-01

477

Continuous biological ferrous iron oxidation in a submerged membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

Microbial oxidation of ferrous iron may be available alternative method of producing ferric iron, which is a reagent used for removal of H2S from biogas. In this study, a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was employed to oxidize ferrous iron to ferric iron. In the submerged MBR system, we could keep high concentration of iron-oxidizing bacteria and high oxidation rate of ferrous iron. There was membrane fouling caused by chemical precipitates such as K-jarosite and ferric phosphate. However, a strong acidity (pH 1.75) of solution and low ferrous iron concentration (below 3000 mg/I) significantly reduced the fouling of membrane module during the bioreactor operation. A fouled membrane module could be easily regenerated with a 1 M of sulfuric acid solution. In conclusion, the submerged MBR could be used for high-density culture of iron-oxidizing bacteria and for continuous ferrous iron oxidation. As far as our knowledge concerns, this is the first study on the application of a submerged MBR to high acidic conditions (below pH 2). PMID:16003962

Park, D; Lee, D S; Park, J M

2005-01-01

478

Tapered fluidized bed bioreactor for environmental control and fuel production  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed bioreactors are under development for use in environmental control and energy production. The most effective systems utilize a tapered portion either throughout the column or at the top of the column. This taper allows a wide range of operating conditions without loss of the fluidized particulates, and in general, results in more stable operation. The system described here utilize fixed films of microorganisms that have attached themselves to the fluidized particles. Preliminary investigations of the attachment indicate that reactor performance is related to film thickness. The biological denitrification of aqueous waste streams is typical of processes under development that utilize fluidized bed bioreactors. This development has progressed to the pilot plant scale where two 20-cm-diam x 800-cm fluidized beds in series accept aqueous wastes with nitrate concentrations as high as 10,000 mg/l and denitrification rates greater than 50 g/l/day using residence times of less than 30 minutes in each reactor. Other applications include aerobic degradation of phenolic wastes at rates greater than 25 g/l/day and the conversion of glucose to ethanol.

Scott, C.D.; Hancher, C.W.; Arcuri, E.J.

1980-01-01

479

Oxygen Control For Bioreactors And In-vitro Cell Assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter in biomedical and cell-culture applications. Several studies have found cell survival and function to be intimately linked to oxygen concentration. Laminar flow, as observed in microfluidic devices, provides an ideal environment to manipulate and control concentration gradients. In this paper we demonstrate the first characterization of integrated fluorescence-based oxygen sensors for DO measurement within a cell-culture bioreactor device. Solid-state PtOEPK/PS sensor patterns were integrated into the PDMS-based bioreactor and calibrated for detection of DO concentration with a superimposed layer of collagen and Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells. The sensor signal of the layer subjacent to the cells was found to follow a Stern-Volmer model and the intensity ratio was measured to I0/I100 = 3.9 after 3 days in culture. The device provides a novel tool for the control and spatially-resolved measurement of oxygen levels in cellular assays and cell-culture applications.

Nock, V.; Blaikie, R. J.; David, T.

2009-07-01

480

Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.  

PubMed

The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment. PMID:22270588

Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

2012-12-01

481

Catabolic gene expression is monitored by bioluminescence in bioreactor studies  

SciTech Connect

In order to study the expression of specific catabolic genes under defined conditions, and to determine whether certain conditions tend to increase or decrease metal catabolic activities, a bioreporter gene can be introduced into the microorganism. Activity from such bioreporter gene would indicate successful bioremediation. Our laboratory has produced several bioreporter strains using the bioluminescent lux genes of Vibrio fischeri. A bioreporter producing visible light when genetic expression is induced. The bioluminescent system include sensitivity of detection, analysis of response in real- time, and on-line capability. We constructed a bioreporter strain aimed at following the degradation of toluene and related compounds in order to study expression of the catabolic genes with various substrates and under optimized bioreactor conditions. We have been able to detect the induction of a specific operon in response to the addition of oxylene, as a gratuitous inducer of the catabolic genes. A strong bioluminescent signal in these studies. We have varied the medium of an induced bioreactor culture of RB1401, and our data suggest that conditions for optimal expression of the catabolic operon might not be identical with optimal growth conditions.

Burlage, R.S.; Kuo, D.; Palumbo, A.V.

1993-01-01

482

Characterization of Microbial Communities Found in Bioreactor Effluent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this investigation was to examine microbial communities of simulated wastewater effluent from hollow fiber membrane bioreactors collected from the Space Life Science Laboratory and Texas Technical University. Microbes were characterized using quantitative polymerase chain reaction where a total count of bacteria and fungi were determined. The primers that were used to determine the total count of bacteria and fungi were targeted for 16S rDNA genes and the internal transcribed spacer, respectively. PCR products were detected with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye and a melting curve analysis was performed to identify unique melt profiles resulting from DNA sequence variations from each species of the community. Results from both the total bacteria and total fungi count assays showed that distinct populations were present in isolates from these bioreactors. This was exhibited by variation in the number of peaks observed on the melting curve analysis graph. Further analysis of these results using species-specific primers will shed light on exactly which microbes are present in these effluents. Information gained from this study will enable the design of a system that can efficiently monitor microbes that play a role in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen in wastewater on the International Space Station to assist in the design of a sustainable system capable of converting this nutrient.

Flowe, Candice

2013-01-01

483

Controlled Cyclic Stretch Bioreactor for Tissue-Engineered Heart Valves  

PubMed Central

A tissue-engineered heart valve (TEHV) represents the ultimate valve replacement, especially for juvenile patients given its growth potential. To date, most TEHV bioreactors have been developed based on pulsed flow of culture medium through the valve lumen to induce strain in the leaflets. Using a strategy for controlled cyclic stretching of tubular constructs reported previously, we developed a controlled cyclic stretch bioreactor for TEHVs that leads to improved tensile and compositional properties. The TEHV is mounted inside a latex tube, which is then cyclically pressurized with culture medium. The root and leaflets stretch commensurately with the latex, the stretching being dictated by the stiffer latex and thus controllable. Medium is also perfused through the lumen at a slow rate in a flow loop to provide nutrient delivery. Fibrin-based TEHVs prepared with human dermal fibroblasts were subjected to three weeks of cyclic stretching with incrementally increasing strain amplitude. The TEHV possessed the tensile stiffness and stiffness anisotropy of leaflets from sheep pulmonary valves and could withstand cyclic pulmonary pressures with similar distension as for a sheep pulmonary artery. PMID:19473698

Syedain, Zeeshan H.; Tranquillo, Robert T.

2009-01-01

484

Immobilized yeast bioreactor systems for continuous beer fermentation  

PubMed

Two different types of immobilized yeast bioreactors were examined for continuous fermentation of high-gravity worts. One of these is a fluidized bed reactor (FBR) that employs porous glass beads for yeast immobilization. The second system is a loop reactor containing a porous silicon carbide cartridge (SCCR) for immobilizing the yeast cells. Although there was some residual fermentable sugar in the SCCR system product, nearly complete attenuation of the wort sugars was achieved in either of the systems when operated as a two-stage process. Fermentation could be completed in these systems in only half the time required for a conventional batch process. Both the systems showed similar kinetics of extract consumption, and therefore similar volumetric productivity. As compared to the batch fermentation, total fusel alcohols were lower; total esters, while variable, were generally higher. The yeast biomass production was similar to that in a conventional fermentation process. As would be expected in an accelerated fermentation system, the levels of vicinal diketones (VDKs) were higher. To remove the VDKs, the young beer was heat-treated to convert the VDK precursors and processed through a packed bed immobilized yeast bioreactor for VDK assimilation. The finished product from the FBR system was found to be quite acceptable from a flavor perspective, albeit different from the product from a conventional batch process. Significantly shortened fermentation times demonstrate the feasibility of this technology for beer production. PMID:9933520

Tata; Bower; Bromberg; Duncombe; Fehring; Lau; Ryder; Stassi

1999-01-01

485

Configuration of a bioreactor for milk lactose hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Permeabilized microbial cells can be used as a crude enzyme preparation for industrial applications. Immobilization and process recycling can compensate for the low specific activity of this preparation. For biomass immobilization, the common support is alginate beads; however, its low surface area and the low biomass concentration limit the activity. We here describe a biocatalyst consisting of a paste of permeabilized Kluyveromyces lactis cells gelled with manganese alginate over a semicircular stainless steel screen. A ratio of wet permeabilized biomass to alginate of 50:4 (wt/wt) resulted in a paste with maximum immobilized beta-galactosidase activity and maximum gel biomass retention. The biocatalysts retained activity better when stored in milk at 4 degrees C than in 50% glycerol. The unused biocatalysts stored in milk did not lose activity after 50 d. However, repeated use of the same biocatalyst 40 times resulted in almost 50% loss of activity. A bioreactor design with two different conditions of operation were tested for milk lactose hydrolysis using this biocatalyst. The bioreactor was operated at 40 degrees C as packed bed or with recirculation, similar to a continuous stirred tank reactor. The continuous system with recirculation resulted in 82.9% lactose hydrolysis at a residence time of 285.5 min (flow of 2.0 ml/min), indicating the potential of this system for processing low lactose milk, or even in processing other substrates, using an appropriate biocatalyst. PMID:14507014

Genari, A N; Passos, F V; Passos, F M L

2003-09-01

486

Enhanced biodegradation at the Landgraaf bioreactor test-cell.  

PubMed

From 2001 to 2011, a bioreactor demonstration was performed in a 25,000m(3) (8m deep, 3500m(2) surface) test-cell. In this bioreactor, biodegradation was enhanced by premixing and homogenizing of waste, recirculation of leachate and aeration. Anaerobic biodegradation was completed within four years and was followed by two years of aeration. Ultimately a residue was obtained that had lost approximately 95% of its biogas potential. Biodegradation resulted in a significantly reduced leaching potential for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and specific heavy metals. For other inorganic components, less progress was achieved. Increased flushing would be required for further reduction of the leaching potential. A significant reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH4(+)) in leachate was not demonstrated during the relative short-term aeration: COD concentrations actually increased slightly and there was no effect on NH4(+). During the project, it became clear that moisture flow through the waste followed preferential flow paths. Therefore, attention was also paid to gain better understanding of leachate flows. From a tracer test, it was concluded that part of the waste contaminants are held in immobile blocks and are to a large extent unaffected by flow occurring in the surrounding preferential flow paths. PMID:23602275

Oonk, Hans; van Zomeren, André; Rees-White, Tristan C; Beaven, Richard P; Hoekstra, Nanne; Luning, Luchien; Hannen, Maan; Hermkes, Hans; Woelders, Hans

2013-10-01

487

Sewage treatment by a low energy membrane bioreactor.  

PubMed

A new membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for treatment of municipal wastewater. The MBR was mainly made up of an activated sludge reactor and a transverse flow membrane module, with an innovative configuration being in application between them. As a result, the transverse flow membrane module and low recirculation flow rate created advantages, such as lower energy consumption and more resistance to membrane fouling. The total energy consumption in the whole system was tested as 1.97+/-0.74 kWh/m(3) (permeate) while using periodical backwash with treated water and backflush with mixed liquor daily, being in the same level as a submerged membrane bioreactor, reported to be 2.4 kWh/m(3) (permeate). Energy consumption analysis in the system shows that the membrane module was more energy consuming than the other four parts listed as pump, aeration, pipe system and return sludge velocity lose, which consumed 37.66-52.20% of the total energy. The effluent from this system could be considered as qualified for greywater reuse in China, showing its potential application in the future. PMID:12895562

Zhang, Shaoyuan; van Houten, Renze; Eikelboom, Dick H; Doddema, Hans; Jiang, Zhaochun; Fan, Yaobo; Wang, Jusi

2003-11-01

488

Tissue engineering bioreactor systems for applying physical and electrical stimulations to cells.  

PubMed

Bioreactor systems in tissue engineering applications provide various types of stimulation to mimic the tissues in vitro and in vivo. Various bioreactors have been designed to induce high cellular activities, including initial cell attachment, cell growth, and differentiation. Although cell-stimulation processes exert mostly positive effects on cellular responses, in some cases such stimulation can also have a negative effect on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss various types of bioreactor and the positive and negative effects of stimulation (physical, chemical, and electrical) on various cultured cell types. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25171208

Jin, GyuHyun; Yang, Gi-Hoon; Kim, GeunHyung

2014-08-29

489

Vapor-phase bioreactors: Avoiding problems through better design and operation  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-phase bioreactors are an efficient method to treat air contaminated with volatile organic compounds. To ensure stable long term performance, several design and operating factors must be considered. Common problems include nutrient limitations, biomass clogging, inactive biomass, low moisture content and reductions in pH. Based on several bioreactor studies, the underlying cause of each of these problems is identified, monitoring requirements are outlined and a range of appropriate response actions are presented. These solutions range from modification of bioreactor design and operation (e.g., step feed configuration and directionally switching operation) to the use of alternative types of microorganisms (e.g., fungi).

Kinney, K.A.; Loehr, R.C.; Corsi, R.L.

1999-09-30

490

46 CFR 108.649 - Lifejackets, immersion suits, and lifebuoys.  

...108.649 Section 108.649 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.649 Lifejackets, immersion...

2014-10-01

491

A poroelastic immersed boundary method with applications to cell biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The immersed boundary method is a widely used mixed Eulerian/Lagrangian framework for simulating the motion of elastic structures immersed in viscous fluids. In the traditional immersed boundary method, the fluid and structure move with the same velocity field. In this work, a model based on the immersed boundary method is presented for simulating poroelastic media in which the fluid permeates a porous, elastic structure of small volume fraction that moves with its own velocity field. Two distinct methods for calculating elastic stresses are presented and compared. The methods are validated on a radially symmetric test problem by comparing with a finite difference solution of the classical equations of poroelasticity. Finally, two applications of the modeling framework to cell biology are provided: cellular blebbing and cell crawling. It is shown that in both examples, poroelastic effects are necessary to explain the relevant mechanics.

Strychalski, Wanda; Copos, Calina A.; Lewis, Owen L.; Guy, Robert D.

2015-02-01

492

The interplays among technology and content, immersant and VE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research program aims to explore and examine the fine balance necessary for maintaining the interplays between technology and the immersant, including identifying qualities that contribute to creating and maintaining a sense of \\

Meehae Song; Diane Gromala; Chris Shaw; Steven J. Barnes

2010-01-01

493

[Human immunity system status during 7-day dry immersion].  

PubMed

Subpopulations of lymphocytes, activation potential of T-, B- and NK-cells as well as cytokines production by immunocompetent cells in peripheral blood were studied in five volunteers for 7-day dry immersion without use of countermeasures. Results of the investigation revealed several negative shifts in the immunity and cytokines systems instigated by the experimental conditions. The considerable variability of the immune reactions to immersion suggests individual predisposition to immunological breaks in a changed gravity environment. PMID:20120915

Berendeeva, T A; Rykova, M P; Antropova, E N; Larina, I M; Morukov, B V

2009-01-01

494

Compact Refractive Imaging Spectrometer Designs Utilizing Immersed Gratings  

DOEpatents

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first means for receiving the light and focusing the light, an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the first means and defracts the light, a second means for receiving the light from the immersed diffraction grating and focusing the light, and an image plane that receives the light from the second means

Lerner, Scott A. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA); Bixler, Jay V. (Oakland, CA); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Isabella T. (San Jose, CA)

2005-07-26

495

Comparison between a moving bed bioreactor and a fixed bed bioreactor for biological phosphate removal and denitrification.  

PubMed

Moving bed bioreactors (MBBR) and fixed bed bioreactors (FBBR) were compared for biological phosphorus removal and denitrification. The sorption denitrification P-elimination (S-DN-P) process was selected for this study. Results indicated that all nutrients were removed by the FBBR process compared with the MBBR process: 19.8% (total COD), 35.5% (filtered COD), 27.6% (BOD(5)), 62.2% (acetate), 78.5% (PO(4)-P), and 54.2% (NO(3)-N) in MBBR; 49.7% (total COD), 54.0% (filtered COD), 63.2% (BOD(5)), 99.6% (acetate), 98.6% (PO(4)-P), and 75.9% (NO(3)-N) in FBBR. The phosphate uptake and NO(3)-N decomposition in the FBBR process during the denitrification phase were much higher than for the MBBR process despite being of shorter duration. Results obtained from this study are helpful in elucidating the practical implications of using MBBR and FBBR for the removal of bio-P and denitrification from wastewater. PMID:22546799

Choi, H J; Lee, A H; Lee, S M

2012-01-01

496

Immersion lithography and its impact on semiconductor manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ArF lithography is approaching its limit past the 90-nm node. F2 lithography using 157-nm light seems to be a natural extension to the next node. However, several key problems in F2 lithography are still insurmountable. The thin-film pellicle material cannot withstand more than 10 exposures. The hard pellicle technology is far from manufacture-worthy. Ditto for the F2 resist systems. Despite great progresses made, the CaF2 material still suffers from quality and quantity problems. On the other hand, ArF lithography using water immersion between the front lens element and the photoresist, effectively reduces the 193-nm wavelength to 135 nm and opens up rooms for improvement in resolution and depth of focus (DOF). This paper gives a systematic examination of immersion lithography. It analyses and evaluates the diffraction DOF, required DOF, and available DOF in a dry and an immersion system. It also analyses the effects of polarization to dry and immersion imaging. These phenomena are included in simulations to study the imaging of critical layers such as Poly, Contact, and Metal layers for the 65-nm, 45-nm, and 32-nm nodes using 193-nm and 157-nm, dry and immersion systems. The imaging feasibility of 157-nm immersion to the 22-nm node is briefly studied. In additions to the imaging comparison, the impacts and challenges to employ these lithography systems will also be covered.

Lin, Burn-Jeng

2004-05-01

497

Characterization of renal response to prolonged immersion in normal man  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

?jDuring the initial phase of space flight, there is a translocation of fluid from the lower parts of the body to the central vascular compartment with a resultant natriuresis, diuresis, and weight loss. Because water immersion is regarded as an appropriate model for studying the redistribution of fluid that occurs in weightlessness, an immersion study of relatively prolonged duration was carried out in order to characterize the temporal profile of the renal adaptation to central hypervolemia. Twelve normal male subjects underwent an immersion study of 8-h duration in the sodium-replete state. Immersion resulted in marked natriuresis and diuresis which were sustained throughout the immersion period. The failure of that natriuresis and diuresis of immersion to abate or cease despite marked extracellular fluid volume contraction as evidenced by a mean weight loss of -2.2 + or - 0.3 kg suggests that central blood volume was not restored to normal and that some degree of central hypervolemia probably persisted.

Epstein, M.; Denunzio, A. G.; Ramachandran, M.

1980-01-01

498

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

2014-01-01

499

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells' syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells' syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells' syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Celegen, Mehmet; Kark?ner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

2014-10-01

500

Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.  

PubMed

Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor. PMID:25267355

Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

2015-01-01