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Sample records for temporary immersion bioreactor

  1. Temporary Immersion Bioreactors for the Contained Production of Recombinant Proteins in Transplastomic Plants.

    PubMed

    Barretto, Sherwin; Michoux, Franck; Nixon, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the largely maternal inheritance of plastid genomes, the risk of transgene dissemination from transplastomic plants can limit the scope for field cultivation. There is a need for a cost-effective, scalable process to grow large quantities of transplastomic plant biomass for biosynthesis of biopharmaceuticals and other high-value heterologous proteins. Temporary immersion culture is a means of achieving this under fully contained conditions. This method describes the organogenesis of transplastomic Nicotiana tabacum callus in RITA(®) temporary immersion bioreactors to produce rootless leafy biomass, and subsequent total soluble protein extraction, SDS-PAGE, and Western immunoblot analysis of heterologous protein expression. This method can be used for propagation of plastid or nuclear transformants, though is especially suitable for transplastomic biomass, as organogenesis leads to greater expression and accumulation of transplastomic proteins due to increases in chloroplast number and size. PMID:26614288

  2. Production of transgenic strawberries by temporary immersion bioreactor system and verification by TAIL-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hanhineva, Kati J; Kärenlampi, Sirpa O

    2007-01-01

    Background Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which complicates the breeding of new cultivars. For certain traits, genetic engineering offers a potential alternative to traditional breeding. However, many strawberry varieties are quite recalcitrant for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and a method allowing easy handling of large amounts of starting material is needed. Also the genotyping of putative transformants is challenging since the isolation of DNA for Southern analysis is difficult due to the high amount of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides that complicate efficient extraction of digestable DNA. There is thus a need to apply a screening method that is sensitive and unambiguous in identifying the different transformation events. Results Hygromycin-resistant strawberries were developed in temporary immersion bioreactors by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Putative transformants were screened by TAIL-PCR to verify T-DNA integration and to distinguish between the individual transformation events. Several different types of border sequence arrangements were detected. Conclusion This study demonstrates that temporary immersion bioreactor system suits well for the regeneration of transgenic strawberry plants as a labour-efficient technique. Small amount of DNA required by TAIL-PCR is easily recovered even from a small transformant, which allows rapid verification of T-DNA integration and detection of separate gene transfer events. These techniques combined clearly facilitate the generation of transgenic strawberries but should be applicable to other plants as well. PMID:17309794

  3. Production of galanthamine by Leucojum aestivum shoots grown in different bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Anika; Berkov, Strahil; Claus, Diana; Gerth, Andr; Bastida, Jaume; Codina, Carles

    2012-08-01

    The production of galanthamine by shoots of Leucojum aestivum grown in different bioreactor systems (shaking and nonshaking batch culture, temporary immersion system, bubble bioreactor, continuous and discontinuous gassing bioreactor) under different culture conditions was studied. The influence of the nutrient medium, weight of inoculum, and size of bioreactor on both growth and galanthamine production was studied. The maximal yield of galanthamine (19.416 mg) was achieved by cultivating the L. aestivum shoots (10 g of fresh inoculum) in a temporary immersion system in a 1-L bioreactor vessel which was used as an airlift culture vessel, gassing 12 times per day (5 min). PMID:22639366

  4. Optimal performance of an immersed membrane bioreactor equipped with a draft tube for domestic wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Bick, A; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the options to prevent membrane fouling is to implement air lifting that can improve the cake removal from the membrane surface. This study presents the results of tests that were carried out at the Institutes for Desert Research, Kiryat Sde-Boker, Israel, and focused on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on fouling in a pilot-scale immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 (Zenon Environmental, Canada) under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by one conical and four cylindrical draft-tubes. The relationship between the crossflow velocity and the aeration intensity, the influence of the crossflow on fouling rate under various hydrodynamic conditions were investigated and optimal operating conditions were obtained. Optimal operating conditions were reached during the long-term experiment period (70 days) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was stable without external chemical cleaning. The results showed that the permeate was of high quality, and the removal of COD and BOD was 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The crossflow near the membrane surface reveals a major contribution for minimizing membrane fouling, and could offer guidelines for future design of similar systems. PMID:17165458

  5. Immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) for treatment of combined domestic and dairy wastewater in an isolated farm.

    PubMed

    Bick, A; Tuttle, J G P; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

    2005-01-01

    In many regions dairy farms and milk processing industries discharge large quantities of their wastes to the surroundings posing serious environmental risks. This problem is mostly faced in small dairy farms and isolated communities lacking both central collection and conventional wastewater treatment systems. Dairy wastewater is characterized by high concentrations of organic matter, solids, nutrients, as well as fractions of dissolved inorganic pollutants, exceeding those levels considered typical for high strength domestic wastewaters. With the purpose of treating the combined dairy and domestic wastewater from a small dairy farm in the Negev Desert of Israel, the use of a recent emerging technology of Immersed Membrane BioReactor (IMBR) was evaluated over the course of 500 test hours, under a variety of wastewater feed quality conditions (during the test periods, the feed BOD5 ranged from 315 ppm up to 4,170 ppm). The overall performance of a pilot-scale Ultrafiltration (UF) IMBR process for a combined domestic and dairy wastewater was analyzed based on the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. The IMBR performance in terms of membrane performance (permeate flux, transmembrane pressure, and organic removal) and DEA model (Technical Efficiency) was acceptable. DEA is an empirically based methodology and the research approach has been found to be effective in the depiction and analysis for complex systems, where a large number of mutual interacting variables are involved. PMID:16104437

  6. Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators

  7. A temporary immersion system improves in vitro regeneration of peach palm through secondary somatic embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Steinmacher, D. A.; Guerra, M. P.; Saare-Surminski, K.; Lieberei, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Secondary somatic embryogenesis has been postulated to occur during induction of peach palm somatic embryogenesis. In the present study this morphogenetic pathway is described and a protocol for the establishment of cycling cultures using a temporary immersion system (TIS) is presented. Methods Zygotic embryos were used as explants, and induction of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet growth were compared in TIS and solid culture medium. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to describe in vitro morphogenesis and accompany morpho-histological alterations during culture. Key Results The development of secondary somatic embryos occurs early during the induction of primary somatic embryos. Secondary somatic embryos were observed to develop continually in culture, resulting in non-synchronized development of these somatic embryos. Using these somatic embryos as explants allowed development of cycling cultures. Somatic embryos had high embryogenic potential (65·8 ± 3·0 to 86·2 ± 5·0 %) over the period tested. The use of a TIS greatly improved the number of somatic embryos obtained, as well as subsequent plantlet growth. Histological analyses showed that starch accumulation precedes the development of somatic embryos, and that these cells presented high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and high mitotic indices, as evidenced by DAPI staining. Morphological and SEM observations revealed clusters of somatic embryos on one part of the explants, while other parts grew further, resulting in callus tissue. A multicellular origin of the secondary somatic embryos is hypothesized. Cells in the vicinity of callus accumulated large amounts of phenolic substances in their vacuoles. TEM revealed that these cells are metabolically very active, with the presence of numerous mitochondria and Golgi apparatuses. Light microscopy and TEM of the embryogenic sector revealed cells with numerous amyloplasts, large nuclei and nucleoli, and numerous plasmodesmata. Plantlets were obtained and after 3 months in culture their growth was significantly better in TIS than on solid culture medium. However, during acclimatization the survival rate of TIS-grown plantlets was lower. Conclusions The present study confirms the occurrence of secondary somatic embryos in peach palm and describes a feasible protocol for regeneration of peach palm in vitro. Further optimizations include the use of explants obtained from adult palms and improvement of somatic embryo conversion rates. PMID:21355009

  8. Biomass properties and permeability in an immersed hollow fibre membrane bioreactor at high sludge concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Z; Zsirai, T; Connery, K; Fabiyi, M; Larrea, A; Li, J; Judd, S J

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of biomass properties and high mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) concentrations on membrane permeability in a pilot-scale hollow fibre membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater. Auxiliary molasses solution was added to maintain system operation at constant food-to-microorganisms ratio (F/M = 0.13). Various physicochemical and biological biomass parameters were measured throughout the trial, comprising pre-thickening, thickening and post-thickening periods with reference to the sludge concentration and with aerobic biotreatment continuing throughout. Correlations between dynamic changes in biomass characteristics and membrane permeability decline as well as permeability recovery were further assessed by statistical analyses. Results showed the MLSS concentration to exert the greatest influence on sustainable membrane permeability, with a weaker correlation with particle size distribution. The strong dependence of absolute recovered permeability on wet accumulated solids (WACS) concentration, or clogging propensity, revealed clogging to deleteriously affect membrane permeability decline and recovery (from mechanical declogging and chemical cleaning), with WACS levels increasing with increasing MLSS. Evidence from the study indicated clogging may permanently reduce membrane permeability post declogging and chemical cleaning, corroborating previously reported findings. PMID:24901628

  9. Disposable bioreactors for plant micropropagation and mass plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bndicte; Courtois, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestl R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco. PMID:19475375

  10. Disposable Bioreactors for Plant Micropropagation and Mass Plant Cell Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducos, Jean-Paul; Terrier, Bénédicte; Courtois, Didier

    Different types of bioreactors are used at Nestlé R&D Centre - Tours for mass propagation of selected plant varieties by somatic embryogenesis and for large scale culture of plants cells to produce metabolites or recombinant proteins. Recent studies have been directed to cut down the production costs of these two processes by developing disposable cell culture systems. Vegetative propagation of elite plant varieties is achieved through somatic embryogenesis in liquid medium. A pilot scale process has recently been set up for the industrial propagation of Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee). The current production capacity is 3.0 million embryos per year. The pre-germination of the embryos was previously conducted by temporary immersion in liquid medium in 10-L glass bioreactors. An improved process has been developed using a 10-L disposable bioreactor consisting of a bag containing a rigid plastic box ('Box-in-Bag' bioreactor), insuring, amongst other advantages, a higher light transmittance to the biomass due to its horizontal design. For large scale cell culture, two novel flexible plastic-based disposable bioreactors have been developed from 10 to 100 L working volumes, validated with several plant species ('Wave and Undertow' and 'Slug Bubble' bioreactors). The advantages and the limits of these new types of bioreactor are discussed, based mainly on our own experience on coffee somatic embryogenesis and mass cell culture of soya and tobacco.

  11. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Laptop computer sits atop the Experiment Control Computer for a NASA Bioreactor. The flight crew can change operating conditions in the Bioreactor by using the graphical interface on the laptop. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  12. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  13. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior of a Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  14. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at right center) to control fluid flow. The rotating wall vessel is at top center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  15. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Close-up view of the interior of a NASA Bioreactor shows the plastic plumbing and valves (cylinders at center) to control fluid flow. A fresh nutrient bag is installed at top; a flattened waste bag behind it will fill as the nutrients are consumed during the course of operation. The drive chain and gears for the rotating wall vessel are visible at bottom center center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Interior view of the gas supply for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  17. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Electronics control module for the NASA Bioreactor. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator that preserves samples for use in (or after culturing in) the NASA Bioreactor. The unit is shown extracted from a middeck locker shell and with thermal blankets partially removed. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  19. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Exterior view of the NASA Bioreactor Engineering Development Unit flown on Mir. The rotating wall vessel is behind the window on the face of the large module. Control electronics are in the module at left; gas supply and cooling fans are in the module at back. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  20. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Refrigerator (BTR) holds fixed tissue culture bags at 4 degrees C to preserve them for return to Earth and postflight analysis. The cultures are used in research with the NASA Bioreactor cell science program. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  1. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Astronaut John Blaha replaces an exhausted media bag and filled waste bag with fresh bags to continue a bioreactor experiment aboard space station Mir in 1996. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. This image is from a video downlink. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  2. Rotating Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues currently being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  3. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The heart of the bioreactor is the rotating wall vessel, shown without its support equipment. Volume is about 125 mL. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  4. Bioreactor principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Cells cultured on Earth (left) typically settle quickly on the bottom of culture vessels due to gravity. In microgravity (right), cells remain suspended and aggregate to form three-dimensional tissue. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  5. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 deg. C (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  6. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101824 for a version with labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  7. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Biotechnology Specimen Temperature Controller (BSTC) will cultivate cells until their turn in the bioreactor; it can also be used in culturing experiments that do not require the bioreactor. The BSTC comprises four incubation/refrigeration chambers individually set at 4 to 50 degreesC (near-freezing to above body temperature). Each chamber holds three rugged tissue chamber modules (12 total), clear Teflon bags holding 30 ml of growth media, all positioned by a metal frame. Every 7 to 21 days (depending on growth rates), an astronaut uses a shrouded syringe and the bags' needleless injection ports to transfer a few cells to a fresh media bag, and to introduce a fixative so that the cells may be studied after flight. The design also lets the crew sample the media to measure glucose, gas, and pH levels, and to inspect cells with a microscope. The controller is monitored by the flight crew through a 23-cm (9-inch) color computer display on the face of the BSTC. This view shows the BTSC with the front panel open. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  8. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101823 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  9. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101816 for a version without labels, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic.

  10. NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS) comprises an electronics module, a gas supply module, and the incubator module housing the rotating wall vessel and its support systems. Nutrient media are pumped through an oxygenator and the culture vessel. The shell rotates at 0.5 rpm while the irner filter typically rotates at 11.5 rpm to produce a gentle flow that ensures removal of waste products as fresh media are infused. Periodically, some spent media are pumped into a waste bag and replaced by fresh media. When the waste bag is filled, an astronaut drains the waste bag and refills the supply bag through ports on the face of the incubator. Pinch valves and a perfusion pump ensure that no media are exposed to moving parts. An Experiment Control Computer controls the Bioreactor, records conditions, and alerts the crew when problems occur. The crew operates the system through a laptop computer displaying graphics designed for easy crew training and operation. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. See No. 0101825 for a version with major elements labeled, and No. 0103180 for an operational schematic. 0101816

  11. Multimembrane Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Toohyon; Shuler, Michael L.

    1989-01-01

    Set of hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes in bioreactor allows product of reaction to be separated, while nutrients fed to reacting cells and byproducts removed from them. Separation process requires no externally supplied energy; free energy of reaction sufficient. Membranes greatly increase productivity of metabolizing cells by continuously removing product and byproducts, which might otherwise inhibit reaction, and by continuously adding oxygen and organic nutrients.

  12. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies. PMID:25160666

  13. Immersive video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.

    1996-03-01

    Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.

  14. Immersive CAD

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.L.

    1999-02-01

    This paper documents development of a capability for performing shape-changing editing operations on solid model representations in an immersive environment. The capability includes part- and assembly-level operations, with part modeling supporting topology-invariant and topology-changing modifications. A discussion of various design considerations in developing an immersive capability is included, along with discussion of a prototype implementation we have developed and explored. The project investigated approaches to providing both topology-invariant and topology-changing editing. A prototype environment was developed to test the approaches and determine the usefulness of immersive editing. The prototype showed exciting potential in redefining the CAD interface. It is fun to use. Editing is much faster and friendlier than traditional feature-based CAD software. The prototype algorithms did not reliably provide a sufficient frame rate for complex geometries, but has provided the necessary roadmap for development of a production capability.

  15. Bio-reactor chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Joseph A. (inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A bioreactor for cell culture is disclosed which provides for the introduction of fresh medium without excessive turbulent action. The fresh medium enters the bioreactor through a filter with a backwash action which prevents the cells from settling on the filter. The bioreactor is sealed and depleted medium is forced out of the container as fresh medium is added.

  16. Immersion Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Eileen B.

    Four classroom activities useful for language immersion instruction are described and specific applications and extensions are noted. All are best used to teach content and language at the same time. The first, entitled "Think-Pair-Share," is a cooperative learning technique that increases student participation in classroom experiences and

  17. NASA Bioreactor Demonstration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Leland W. K. Chung (left), Director, Molecular Urology Therapeutics Program at the Winship Cancer Institute at Emory University, is principal investigator for the NASA bioreactor demonstration system (BDS-05). With him is Dr. Jun Shu, an assistant professor of Orthopedics Surgery from Kuming Medical University China. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: Emory University.

  18. MSW LANDFILL BIOREACTOR RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EPA and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

  19. Bioreactor rotating wall vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells.

  20. Bioreactors: design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, C.L.

    1983-02-11

    The bioreactor provides a central link between the starting feedstock and the product. The reaction yield and selectivity are determined by the biocatalyst, but productivity is often determined by the process technology; as a consequence, biochemical reaction engineering becomes the interface for the biologist and engineer. Developments in bioreactor design, including whole cell immobilization, immobilized enzymes, continuous reaction, and process control, will increasingly reflect the need for cross-disciplinary interaction in the biochemical process industry. This paper examines the strategy for selection and design of bioreactors and identifies the limits and constraints in their use. 25 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Space Bioreactor Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and a slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells. Applications of microcarrier cultures, development of the first space bioreactor flight system, shear and mixing effects on cells, process control, and methods to monitor cell metabolism and nutrient requirements are among the topics covered.

  2. BIOREACTOR LANDFILL DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern landfill design entails many elements including foundations, liner systems, leachate collection systems, stormwater control systems, slope stability considerations, leachate management systems, gas extraction systems, and capping and closure. The use of bioreactor technolo...

  3. Native Language Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyhner, Jon

    This paper describes the benefits of indigenous mother tongue immersion programs, examining the Total Physical Response approach to immersion for beginning learners and focusing on the development of Maori and Hawaiian mother tongue language immersion programs. The paper discusses the importance of immersing students in a language-risk

  4. Bioreactors and bioseparation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siliang; Cao, Xuejun; Chu, Ju; Qian, Jiangchao; Zhuang, Yingping

    2010-01-01

    Along with the rapid development of life science, great attention has been increasingly given to the biotechnological products of cell cultivation technology. In the course of industrialization, bioreactor and bioproduct separation techniques are the two essential technical platforms. In this chapter, the current situation and development prospects of bioreactor techniques in China are systematically discussed, starting with the elucidation of bioreactor processes and the principle of process optimization. Separation technology for biological products is also briefly introduced.At present, a series of bioreactors made by Chinese enterprises have been widely used for laboratory microbial cultivation, process optimization studies, and large-scale production. In the course of bioprocess optimization studies, the complicated bioprocesses in a bioreactor could be resolved into different reaction processes on three scales, namely genetic, cellular, and bioreactor scales. The structural varieties and nonlinear features of various scales of bioprocess systems was discussed through considering the mutual effects of different scale events, namely material flux, energy flux, and information flux, and the optimization approach for bioprocesses was proposed by taking the analysis of metabolic flux and multiscale consideration as a core strategy.In order to realize such an optimization approach, a bioreactor system based on association analysis of multiscale parameters was elaborated, and process optimization of many biological products were materialized, which resulted in great improvement in production efficiency. In designing and manufacturing large-scale bioreactors, the principle of scaling up a process incorporated with flow field study and physiological features in a bioreactor was suggested according to the criterion for the scale-up of cellular physiological and metabolic traits. The flow field features of a bioreactor were investigated through computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the design of a bioreactor configuration was carried out depending on multiscale studies of parameters correlation in a bioprocess. With respect to the development trend of bioreactor studies in China, the significance of the development of microbioreactors for high throughput strain screening and large-scale bioreactors for animal cell cultivation were put forward. Finally, the importance of studies of systems biology for bioprocesses based on bioinformation processing was raised, and the necessity of establishing a bioprocess information database and local area network (LAN) were emphasized as well.Bioseparation engineering plays a key role in biotechnology production. At present, many difficulties need to be resolved in the area. Scientists of China have made considerable progress in bioseparation engineering. This progress includes chromatography media, recycling aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS), affinity precipitation, molecular imprinting, renaturation and modification of proteins, protein fractionation using ultrafiltration (UF), ion liquid separation of bioproducts, reverse micellar extraction, etc. The preparation of bioseparation materials, as well as part of bioseparation process research development in the past 5 years, are introduced here. PMID:20396995

  5. NASA Classroom Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Exploration of space provides a compelling need for cell-based research into the basic mechanisms that underlie the profound changes that occur in terrestrial life that is transitioned to low gravity environments. Toward that end, NASA developed a rotating bioreactor in which cells are cultured while continuously suspended in a cylinder in which the culture medium rotates with the cylinder. The randomization of the gravity vector accomplished by the continuous rotation, in a low shear environment, provides an analog of microgravity. Because cultures grown in bioreactors develop structures and functions that are much closer to those exhibited by native tissue than can be achieved with traditional culture methods, bioreactors have contributed substantially to advancing research in the fields of cancer, diabetes, infectious disease modeling for vaccine production, drug efficacy, and tissue engineering. NASA has developed a Classroom Bioreactor (CB) that is built from parts that are easily obtained and assembled, user-friendly and versatile. It can be easily used in simple school settings to examine the effect cultures of seeds or cells. An educational brief provides assembly instructions and lesson plans that describes activities in science, math and technology that explore free fall, microgravity, orbits, bioreactors, structure-function relationships and the scientific method.

  6. NASA Bioreactor Schematic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The schematic depicts the major elements and flow patterns inside the NASA Bioreactor system. Waste and fresh medium are contained in plastic bags placed side-by-side so the waste bag fills as the fresh medium bag is depleted. The compliance vessel contains a bladder to accommodate pressure transients that might damage the system. A peristolic pump moves fluid by squeezing the plastic tubing, thus avoiding potential contamination. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  7. Microalgae as bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tara L; Purton, Saul; Becker, Douglas K; Collet, Chris

    2005-12-01

    Microalgae already serve as a major natural source of valuable macromolecules including carotenoids, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and phycocolloids. As photoautotrophs, their simple growth requirements make these primitive plants potentially attractive bioreactor systems for the production of high-value heterologous proteins. The difficulty of producing stable transformants has meant that the field of transgenic microalgae is still in its infancy. Nonetheless, several species can now be routinely transformed and algal biotechnology companies have begun to explore the possibilities of synthesizing recombinant therapeutic proteins in microalgae and the engineering of metabolic pathways to produce increased levels of desirable compounds. In this review, we compare the current commercially viable bioreactor systems, outline recent progress in microalgal biotechnology and transformation, and discuss the potential of microalgae as bioreactors for the production of heterologous proteins. PMID:16136314

  8. NASA Bioreactor tissue culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  9. Diaphragmatic function during immersion.

    PubMed

    Minh, V D; Dolan, G F; Linaweaver, P G; Friedman, P J; Konopka, R G; Brach, B B

    1977-08-01

    Diaphragmatic function during immersion to midneck level was studied in upright mongrel dogs, using constant electrophrenic stimulation. Effectiveness of diaphragmatic contraction was analyzed in terms of inspired volume (VT) (with airways open), and change in intrathoracic pressure (Pmus) (with the respiratory system occluded). Hydrostatic compression of the immersed body decreased functional residual capacity (FRC) to 55% base-line value (FRCO), resulting in a 2.8-fold increase in Pmus. In spite of this Pmus increase, VT often decreased during immersion, averaging only 83% VTO (base-line value in air). Hence, immersion was associated with a marked stiffening of the respiratory system. The Pmus increase during immersion persisted after restoration of FRC to FRCO, and was related to diaphragmatic length being greater in water than in air under condition of iso-lung volume. In all, there were three factors affecting diaphragmatic function during immersion: FRC reduction, change in thoracic configuration, and stiffening of the respiratory system. PMID:893286

  10. Cryogenic immersion microscope

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark (Berkeley, CA); Larabell, Carolyn A. (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14

    A cryogenic immersion microscope whose objective lens is at least partially in contact with a liquid reservoir of a cryogenic liquid, in which reservoir a sample of interest is immersed is disclosed. When the cryogenic liquid has an index of refraction that reduces refraction at interfaces between the lens and the sample, overall resolution and image quality are improved. A combination of an immersion microscope and x-ray microscope, suitable for imaging at cryogenic temperatures is also disclosed.

  11. Oscillating Cell Culture Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Lisa E.; Cheng, Mingyu; Moretti, Matteo G.

    2010-01-01

    To better exploit the principles of gas transport and mass transport during the processes of cell seeding of 3D scaffolds and in vitro culture of 3D tissue engineered constructs, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor provides a flow of cell suspensions and culture media directly through a porous 3D scaffold (during cell seeding) and a 3D construct (during subsequent cultivation) within a highly gas-permeable closed-loop tube. This design is simple, modular, and flexible, and its component parts are easy to assemble and operate, and are inexpensive. Chamber volume can be very low, but can be easily scaled up. This innovation is well suited to work with different biological specimens, particularly with cells having high oxygen requirements and/or shear sensitivity, and different scaffold structures and dimensions. The closed-loop changer is highly gas permeable to allow efficient gas exchange during the cell seeding/culturing process. A porous scaffold, which may be seeded with cells, is fixed by means of a scaffold holder to the chamber wall with scaffold/construct orientation with respect to the chamber determined by the geometry of the scaffold holder. A fluid, with/without biological specimens, is added to the chamber such that all, or most, of the air is displaced (i.e., with or without an enclosed air bubble). Motion is applied to the chamber within a controlled environment (e.g., oscillatory motion within a humidified 37 C incubator). Movement of the chamber induces relative motion of the scaffold/construct with respect to the fluid. In case the fluid is a cell suspension, cells will come into contact with the scaffold and eventually adhere to it. Alternatively, cells can be seeded on scaffolds by gel entrapment prior to bioreactor cultivation. Subsequently, the oscillatory cell culture bioreactor will provide efficient gas exchange (i.e., of oxygen and carbon dioxide, as required for viability of metabolically active cells) and controlled levels of fluid dynamic shear (i.e., as required for viability of shear-sensitive cells) to the developing engineered tissue construct. This bioreactor was recently utilized to show independent and interactive effects of a growth factor (IGF-I) and slow bidirectional perfusion on the survival, differentiation, and contractile performance of 3D tissue engineering cardiac constructs. The main application of this system is within the tissue engineering industry. The ideal final application is within the automated mass production of tissue- engineered constructs. Target industries could be both life sciences companies as well as bioreactor device producing companies.

  12. What Works in Immersion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimino, Andy; Ferguson, Nancy

    Materials used in conducting a conference workshop on language immersion are presented, including an introductory overview, a guide for observing and analyzing immersion instruction, findings resulting from analysis of the program in question, and the text of a related presentation made at the same conference. The introductory section describes

  13. Design challenges for space bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Petersen, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of bioreactors for operation under conditions of microgravity presents problems and challenges. Absence of a significant body force such as gravity can have profound consequences for interfacial phenomena. Marangoni convection can no longer be overlooked. Many speculations on the advantages and benefits of microgravity can be found in the literature. Initial bioreactor research considerations for space applications had little regard for the suitability of the designs for conditions of microgravity. Bioreactors can be classified in terms of their function and type of operation. The complex interaction of parameters leading to optimal design and operation of a bioreactor is illustrated by the JSC mammalian cell culture system. The design of a bioreactor is strongly dependent upon its intended use as a production unit for cell mass and/or biologicals or as a research reactor for the study of cell growth and function. Therefore a variety of bioreactor configurations are presented in rapid summary. Following this, a rationale is presented for not attempting to derive key design parameters such as the oxygen transfer coefficient from ground-based data. A set of themes/objectives for flight experiments to develop the expertise for design of space bioreactors is then proposed for discussion. These experiments, carried out systematically, will provide a database from which engineering tools for space bioreactor design will be derived.

  14. Landfill bioreactor design and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, D.R.; Townsend, T.

    1998-12-31

    Landfill Bioreactor Design and Operation covers the history and background of landfill technology, research studies of actual bioreactor landfills, expected leachate and gas yields, specific design criteria, operation guidelines, and reuse of landfill sites to avoid having to establish new sites. For anyone looking for an alternative to large, wasteful landfill sites, this book provides a practical alternative to the problem.

  15. Cells growing in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. Shown here, clusters of cells slowly spin inside a bioreactor. On Earth, the cells continually fall through the buffer medium and never hit bottom. In space, they are naturally suspended. Rotation ensures gentle stirring so waste is removed and fresh nutrient and oxygen are supplied. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  16. Spiral vane bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spiral vane bioreactor of a perfusion type is described in which a vertical chamber, intended for use in a microgravity condition, has a central rotating filter assembly and has flexible membranes disposed to rotate annularly about the filter assembly. The flexible members have end portions disposed angularly with respect to one another. A fluid replenishment medium is input from a closed loop liquid system to a completely liquid filled chamber containing microcarrier beads, cells and a fluid medium. Output of spent medium is to the closed loop. In the closed loop, the output and input parameters are sensed by sensors. A manifold permits recharging of the nutrients and pH adjustment. Oxygen is supplied and carbon dioxide and bubbles are removed and the system is monitored and controlled by a microprocessor.

  17. Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh

    1989-01-01

    Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.

  18. Bioreactor Mass Transport Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleis, Stanley J.; Begley, Cynthia M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the proposed research efforts were to develop both a simulation tool and a series of experiments to provide a quantitative assessment of mass transport in the NASA rotating wall perfused vessel (RWPV) bioreactor to be flown on EDU#2. This effort consisted of a literature review of bioreactor mass transport studies, the extension of an existing scalar transport computer simulation to include production and utilization of the scalar, and the evaluation of experimental techniques for determining mass transport in these vessels. Since mass transport at the cell surface is determined primarily by the relative motion of the cell assemblage and the surrounding fluid, a detailed assessment of the relative motion was conducted. Results of the simulations of the motion of spheres in the RWPV under microgravity conditions are compared with flight data from EDU#1 flown on STS-70. The mass transport across the cell membrane depends upon the environment, the cell type, and the biological state of the cell. Results from a literature review of cell requirements of several scalars are presented. As a first approximation, a model with a uniform spatial distribution of utilization or production was developed and results from these simulations are presented. There were two candidate processes considered for the experimental mass transport evaluations. The first was to measure the dissolution rate of solid or gel beads. The second was to measure the induced fluorescence of beads as a stimulant (for example hydrogen peroxide) is infused into the vessel. Either technique would use video taped images of the process for recording the quantitative results. Results of preliminary tests of these techniques are discussed.

  19. Membrane Bioreactor With Pressure Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Efthymiou, George S.; Shuler, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Improved class of multilayer membrane bioreactors uses convention forced by differences in pressure to overcome some of diffusional limitations of prior bioreactors. In reactor of new class, flow of nutrient solution reduces adverse gradients of concentration, keeps cells supplied with fresh nutrient, and sweeps away products faster than diffusion alone. As result, overall yield and rate of reaction increased. Pressures in sweeping gas and nutrient alternated to force nutrient liquid into and out of biocatalyst layer through hyrophilic membrane.

  20. Acidophiles in bioreactor mineral processing.

    PubMed

    Norris, P R; Burton, N P; Foulis, N A

    2000-04-01

    Mineral processing in bioreactors has become established in several countries during the past decade with industrial application of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to release occluded gold from mineral sulfides. Cobalt extraction in bioreactors has also been commercialized, and development of high-temperature biooxidation of copper sulfides has reached pilot-plant scale. A variety of potentially useful mineral sulfide-oxidizing thermophiles have been recognized, but the most active strains have not been fully characterized. PMID:10805560

  1. Immersive cyberspace system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian V. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An immersive cyberspace system is presented which provides visual, audible, and vibrational inputs to a subject remaining in neutral immersion, and also provides for subject control input. The immersive cyberspace system includes a relaxation chair and a neutral immersion display hood. The relaxation chair supports a subject positioned thereupon, and places the subject in position which merges a neutral body position, the position a body naturally assumes in zero gravity, with a savasana yoga position. The display hood, which covers the subject's head, is configured to produce light images and sounds. An image projection subsystem provides either external or internal image projection. The display hood includes a projection screen moveably attached to an opaque shroud. A motion base supports the relaxation chair and produces vibrational inputs over a range of about 0-30 Hz. The motion base also produces limited translation and rotational movements of the relaxation chair. These limited translational and rotational movements, when properly coordinated with visual stimuli, constitute motion cues which create sensations of pitch, yaw, and roll movements. Vibration transducers produce vibrational inputs from about 20 Hz to about 150 Hz. An external computer, coupled to various components of the immersive cyberspace system, executes a software program and creates the cyberspace environment. One or more neutral hand posture controllers may be coupled to the external computer system and used to control various aspects of the cyberspace environment, or to enter data during the cyberspace experience.

  2. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Total Immersion Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Mildred; Murphy, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    Describes the immersion experiences developed by one high school to involve foreign language students in speaking the target language over a period of hours or days. Experiences ranged from an afternoon of language games and a party for first-level students to a weekend involving 165 people from 13 schools. (KM)

  4. Total Immersion Camping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Mildred; Murphy, Stephen

    A total immersion program at North Rose-Wolcott High School, Wolcott, New York, involves speaking in the target language over a period of hours or days, the assistance of at least one fluent speaker for each six students, and a planned schedule of activities. Programs have varied from activities at the home of a teacher, all-day interaction at

  5. Space bioreactor: Design/process flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    The design of the space bioreactor stems from three considerations. First, and foremost, it must sustain cells in microgravity. Closely related is the ability to take advantage of the weightlessness and microgravity. Lastly, it should fit into a bioprocess. The design of the space bioreactor is described in view of these considerations. A flow chart of the bioreactor is presented and discussed.

  6. Tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cells from kidneys lose some of their special features in conventional culture but form spheres replete with specialized cell microvilli (hair) and synthesize hormones that may be clinically useful. Ground-based research studies have demonstrated that both normal and neoplastic cells and tissues recreate many of the characteristics in the NASA bioreactor that they display in vivo. Proximal kidney tubule cells that normally have rich apically oriented microvilli with intercellular clefts in the kidney do not form any of these structures in conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. However, when normal proximal renal tubule cells are cultured in three-dimensions in the bioreactor, both the microvilli and the intercellular clefts form. This is important because, when the morphology is recreated, the function is more likely also to be rejuvenated. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  7. Globalisation and temporary entry.

    PubMed

    Birrell, B; Healy, E

    1997-01-01

    "Beginning on 1 August 1996 the Australian Government implemented a radical deregulation of temporary entry provisions governing foreign persons working in Australia on contracts of three months to four years. The result has been a significant increase in the numbers visaed, particularly on-shore, plus evidence that the program is being exploited in ways inconsistent with the Government's objectives." PMID:12293218

  8. T Is for Temporary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontau, Donna Zufan; Rothschild, M. Cecilia

    1986-01-01

    Discusses four potential problem areas in the employment of temporary librarians in a variety of positions in academic libraries--orientation, supervision, acceptance and integration, and utilization--and notes the influence of time limitations on the work environment. Solutions are suggested, and further research is proposed. Fourteen sources are

  9. MONITORING GUIDANCE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  10. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 40 CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppo...

  11. A new temporary soft lining material.

    PubMed

    Jepson, N J; McCabe, J F; Basker, R M

    1995-04-01

    The viscoelastic properties of a new light-activated temporary denture soft lining material have been monitored in vitro using a force/distance probe. Its baseline behaviour was characteristic of an elastic material and its compliance considerably less than that of both a short-term and a long-term soft lining material which were used as controls. Sample thickness had no appreciable effect on this compliance. These results suggest that the new product is likely to be perceived as being significantly harder by a patient. Twenty-four weeks' immersion in distilled water had no significant effect on either the compliance or elasticity of the test material and would suggest an improved durability when compared to other conventional short-term resilient denture lining materials, albeit at the expense of compliance. PMID:7738269

  12. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of perspective within the scene contained on only one wall has integrity. Unfortunately, parallel lines that lie on adjacent walls do not necessarily remain parallel. This results in inaccuracies in the scene that can distract the viewer and subtract from the immersive experience of the CAVE.

  13. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  14. Immersive viewing engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonlau, William J.

    2006-05-01

    An immersive viewing engine providing basic telepresence functionality for a variety of application types is presented. Augmented reality, teleoperation and virtual reality applications all benefit from the use of head mounted display devices that present imagery appropriate to the user's head orientation at full frame rates. Our primary application is the viewing of remote environments, as with a camera equipped teleoperated vehicle. The conventional approach where imagery from a narrow field camera onboard the vehicle is presented to the user on a small rectangular screen is contrasted with an immersive viewing system where a cylindrical or spherical format image is received from a panoramic camera on the vehicle, resampled in response to sensed user head orientation and presented via wide field eyewear display, approaching 180 degrees of horizontal field. Of primary interest is the user's enhanced ability to perceive and understand image content, even when image resolution parameters are poor, due to the innate visual integration and 3-D model generation capabilities of the human visual system. A mathematical model for tracking user head position and resampling the panoramic image to attain distortion free viewing of the region appropriate to the user's current head pose is presented and consideration is given to providing the user with stereo viewing generated from depth map information derived using stereo from motion algorithms.

  15. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  16. EVALUATION PLAN FOR TWO LARGE-SCALE LANDFILL BIOREACTOR TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract - Waste Management, Inc., is operating two long-term bioreactor studies at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, including facultative landfill bioreactor and staged aerobic-anaerobic landfill bioreactor demonstrations. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) was p...

  17. Review of nonconventional bioreactor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C.E.; Mcllwain, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    Biotechnology will significantly affect many industrial sectors in the future. Industrial sectors that will be affected include pharmaceutical, chemical, fuel, agricultural, and environmental remediation. Future research is needed to improve bioprocessing efficiency and cost-effectiveness in order to compete with traditional technologies. This report describes recent advances in bioprocess technologies and bioreactor designs and relates them to problems encountered in many industrial bioprocessing operations. The primary focus is directed towards increasing gas and vapor transfer for enhanced bioprocess kinetics as well as unproved by-product separation and removal. The advantages and disadvantages of various conceptual designs such as hollow-fiber, gas-phase, hyperbaric/hypobaric, and electrochemical bioreactors are also discussed. Specific applications that are intended for improved bioprocesses include coal desulfurization, coal liquefaction, soil bioremediation, biomass conversion to marketable chemicals, biomining, and biohydrometallurgy as well as bioprocessing of gases and vapors.

  18. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  19. Studies on immersion defects using mimic immersion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanawa, Tetsuro; Suganaga, Toshifumi; Ishibashi, Takeo; Maejima, Shinroku; Narimatsu, Koichiro; Suko, Kazuyuki; Terai, Mamoru; Kumada, Teruhiko; Kitano, Junichi

    2006-03-01

    Top coat process is required for immersion lithography in order to prevent both the chemical contamination of scanner optics with eluted chemicals from resist material and the formation of residual droplet under the immersion exposure with high scanning speed. However, defect density of ArF immersion lithography with alkaline developer soluble type top coat material is much higher than that of ArF dry lithography. Mimic immersion experiments comprised of soaking of exposed conventional dry ArF resist with purified water followed by drying step were performed in order to study the immersion specific defects. It was suggested that the origin of immersion specific defects with alkaline developer soluble type top coat was the remaining water on and in the permeable top coat layer that might interfere the desired deprotection reaction of resist during post exposure bake (PEB). Therefore, application of post exposure rinse process that can eliminate the impact of the residual micro water droplets before PEB is indispensable for defect reduction. Post exposure rinse with optimized purified water dispense sequence was noticed to be valid for defect reduction in mimic immersion lithography, probably in actual immersion lithography.

  20. Prostate tumor grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This prostate cancer construct was grown during NASA-sponsored bioreactor studies on Earth. Cells are attached to a biodegradable plastic lattice that gives them a head start in growth. Prostate tumor cells are to be grown in a NASA-sponsored Bioreactor experiment aboard the STS-107 Research-1 mission in 2002. Dr. Leland Chung of the University of Virginia is the principal investigator. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Credit: NASA and the University of Virginia.

  1. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  2. Broadcasting presence: immersive television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, David; Lodge, Nicholas

    2000-06-01

    Being present at a live event is undeniably the most exciting way to experience any entertainment. This is true whether we are talking about a musical concert, a theatrical performance, a cricket match, or even a firework display. The ability to direct your gaze where you wish, to hear sounds from all around you, to experience the immediacy and expectation of an unscripted happening, to feel the buzz of the crowd and to smell the grass or smoke, are all sensory cues which contribute to the powerful experience of being there. This paper examines the ways in which entertainment media have attempted to recreate experiences which encourage the viewer to suspend disbelief and become part of a remote or recorded event. We introduce the concept of immersive television and look at some of the research, spanning many disciplines of science and art, which the ITC is conducting to explore the potential of this new medium.

  3. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Charles G.; Thomas, Norman L.

    2000-01-01

    A small spectrograph containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10.sup.-5 cm.sup.2 sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  4. Immersion lithography bevel solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeschi, Len; Tamada, Osamu; Sanada, Masakazu; Yasuda, Shuichi; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    The introduction of Immersion lithography, combined with the desire to maximize the number of potential yielding devices per wafer, has brought wafer edge engineering to the forefront for advanced semiconductor manufactures. Bevel cleanliness, the position accuracy of the lithography films, and quality of the EBR cut has become more critical. In this paper, the effectiveness of wafer track based solutions to enable state-of-art bevel schemes is explored. This includes an integrated bevel cleaner and new bevel rinse nozzles. The bevel rinse nozzles are used in the coating process to ensure a precise, clean film edge on or near the bevel. The bevel cleaner is used immediately before the wafer is loaded into the scanner after the coating process. The bevel cleaner shows promise in driving down defectivity levels, specifically printing particles, while not damaging films on the bevel.

  5. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 11.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.607 Temporary orders and temporary injunctions. (a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move...

  6. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 11.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.607 Temporary orders and temporary injunctions. (a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move...

  7. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 11.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.607 Temporary orders and temporary injunctions. (a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move...

  8. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 11.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.607 Temporary orders and temporary injunctions. (a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move...

  9. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 11.607 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.607 Temporary orders and temporary injunctions. (a) In a proceeding for dissolution of marriage or for legal separation, either party may move...

  10. Bioreactors for Plant Embryogenesis and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Fei, Liwen; Weathers, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    A variety of different bioreactors have been developed for use in initiating and cultivating somatic embryos. The various designs for embryogenesis and culture are critically evaluated here. Bioreactor optimization and operation methods are also described along with recommendations for use based on desired outcome. PMID:26619865

  11. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  12. BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS, THEORETICAL ADVANTAGES AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor landfills are municipal solid waste landfills that utilize bulk liquids in an effort to accelerate solid waste degradation. There are few potential benefits for operating a MSW landfill as a bioreactor. These include leachate treatment and management, increase in the s...

  13. Fiber Treatment Effects on Bioreactor Bulk Fluid Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Ronald II

    2013-01-01

    In order to facilitate the exploration of worlds beyond the borders of our planet, it is necessary to maintain sustainable levels of clean water. The remediation of water via Membrane Aerated Bioreactors (MABRs) is one such method, and the focus of this study. MARRs rely on healthy biofilms grown on hollow fiber membranes to clean non-potable water. These biofilms can take weeks to months to establish. Therefore, various fiber treatments and two inoculums were evaluated for their effect on rapid biofilm formation. Fiber treatments are as follows: sanding of the fibers with 1500 and 8000 grit sandpaper, immersion of the fibers in a 1% hydrofluoric acid solution for 12 seconds and 15 minutes, and the immersion of the fibers in a Fluoroetch® solution for 18 seconds and 5 minutes. The two inoculums utilized were sourced from healthy, established MARRs; Texas Tech University (TTU) MABR "TRL5" and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) MABR "R3". Data attained from direct bacterial cell counts of the reactor bulk fluids via fluorescent microscopy, suggests that the fluoroetching treatment combined with the TTU inoculum show the greatest biofilm creation.

  14. Immersion echelle spectrograph

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, C.G.; Thomas, N.L.

    2000-06-20

    A small spectrograph is disclosed containing no moving components and capable of providing high resolution spectra of the mid-infrared region from 2 microns to 4 microns in wavelength. The resolving power of the spectrograph exceeds 20,000 throughout this region and at an optical throughput of about 10{sup {minus}5}cm{sup 2}sr. The spectrograph incorporates a silicon immersion echelle grating operating in high spectral order combined with a first order transmission grating in a cross-dispersing configuration to provide a two-dimensional (2-D) spectral format that is focused onto a two-dimensional infrared detector array. The spectrometer incorporates a common collimating and condensing lens assembly in a near aberration-free axially symmetric design. The spectrometer has wide use potential in addition to general research, such as monitoring atmospheric constituents for air quality, climate change, global warming, as well as monitoring exhaust fumes for smog sources or exhaust plumes for evidence of illicit drug manufacture.

  15. Thermal comfort following immersion.

    PubMed

    Gurite, Julien; Redortier, Bernard; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Unlike thermal comfort in air, little research has been undertaken exploring thermal comfort around water sports. We investigated the impact of swimming and cooling in air after swimming on thermal comfort. After 10 min of swimming-and-resting cycles in 28C water, volunteers wearing two types of garments or in swim briefs, faced winds in 24C air, at rest or when stepping. Thermal comfort was significantly higher during swimming than resting. Post-immersion, following maximum discomfort, in 45 of 65 tests thermal comfort improved although mean skin temperature was still cooling (0.26 [SD 0.19] Cmin(-1) - max was 0.89Cmin(-1)). When thermal comfort was re-established mean skin temperature was lower than at maximal discomfort in 39 of 54 tests (0.81 [SD 0.58] C - max difference was 2.68C). The reduction in thermal discomfort in this scenario could be due to the adaptation of thermoreceptors, or to reductions in cooling rates to levels where discomfort was less stimulated. The relief from the recent discomfort may explain why, later, thermal comfort returned to initial levels in spite of poorer thermal profiles. PMID:25485520

  16. Immersed interface methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LeVeque, R.J.; Adams, L.M.; Bube, K.P.

    1996-11-01

    Cartesian grid methods encompass a wide variety of techniques used to solve partial differential equations in more than one space dimension on uniform Cartesian grids even when the underlying geometry is complex and not aligned with the grid. The authors` groups work on Immersed Interface Methods (IIM) was originally motivated by the desire to understand and improve the ``Immersed Boundary Method``, developed by Charles Peskin to solve incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in complicated geometries with moving elastic boundaries. This report briefly discusses the development of the Immersed Interface Methods and gives examples of application of the method in solving several partial differential equations.

  17. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    For 5 days on the STS-70 mission, a bioreactor cultivated human colon cancer cells, such as the culture section shown here, which grew to 30 times the volume of control specimens grown on Earth. This significant result was reproduced on STS-85 which grew mature structures that more closely match what are found in tumors in humans. The two white circles within the tumor are part of a plastic lattice that helped the cells associate. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators.

  18. Advanced bioreactor concepts for coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The development of advanced bioreactor systems for the processing of coal should follow some basic principles. Continuous operation is preferred, with maximum bioreagent concentrations and enhanced mass transfer. Although conventional stirred-tank bioreactors will be more appropriate for some processing concepts, columnar reactors with retained bioreagents could be the system of choice for most of the applications. Serious consideration must now be given to process development of some biological coal processing concepts. Process biology and biochemistry will continue to be very important, but efficient bioreactor systems will be necessary for economic feasibility. Conventional bioreactor concepts will be useful for some applications, but columnar systems represent an innovative approach to the design of continuous bioreactors with high productivity and good operational control. Fluidized and packed beds are the most promising configurations, especially where three-phase operation is required and where interphase mass transport is a likely controlling mechanism. Although the biocatalyst must be immobilized into or onto particles to be retained in the bioreactors, this also results in a very high biocatalyst concentration without washout and a significant enhancement in bioconversion rates. The multistage nature of these types of bioreactors also contributes to higher efficiencies for many types of biocatalytic processes. 25 refs.

  19. Bioreactor Technology in Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertsching, H.; Hansmann, J.

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocar-dial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.

  20. Development of Fundamental Technologies for Micro Bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kiichi; Kitamori, Takehiko

    This chapter reviews the development of fundamental technologies required for microchip-based bioreactors utilizing living mammalian cells and pressure driven flow. The most important factor in the bioreactor is the cell culture. For proper cell culturing, continuous medium supply from a microfluidic channel and appropriate modification of the channel surface to accommodate cell attachment is required. Moreover, the medium flow rate should be chosen carefully, because shear stress affects cell activity. The techniques presented here could be applied to the development of micro bioreactors such as microlivers, pigment production by plant cells, and artificial insemination.

  1. French Immersion: Early, Late or Partial?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of three possible formats of a bilingual education program: early total immersion, early partial immersion and late partial immersion. A French cloze test was used to evaluate the lead group of students in each program. A tentative conclusion is drawn in favor of the early total immersion program. (AMH)

  2. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  3. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  4. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  5. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  6. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager...

  7. New generation NMR bioreactor coupled with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy leads to novel discoveries in Moorella thermoaceticum metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Junfeng; Isern, Nancy G.; Ewing, R James; Liyu, Andrey V.; Sears, Jesse A.; Knapp, Harlan; Iversen, Jens; Sisk, Daniel R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Majors, Paul D.

    2014-06-20

    An in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) bioreactor was developed and employed to monitor microbial metabolism under batch-growth conditions in real time. We selected Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 49707 as a test case. M. thermoacetica (formerly Clostridium thermoaceticum) is a strictly anaerobic, thermophilic, acetogenic, gram-positive bacterium with potential for industrial production of chemicals. The metabolic profiles of M. thermoacetica were characterized during growth in batch mode on xylose (a component of lignocellulosic biomass) using the new generation NMR bioreactor in combination with high-resolution, high sensitivity NMR (HR-NMR) spectroscopy. In-situ NMR measurements were performed using water-suppressed H-1 NMR spectroscopy at an NMR frequency of 500 MHz, and aliquots of the bioreactor contents were taken for 600 MHz HR-NMR spectroscopy at specific intervals to confirm metabolite identifications and expand metabolite coverage. M. thermoacetica demonstrated the metabolic potential to produce formate, ethanol and methanol from xylose, in addition to its known capability of producing acetic acid. Real-time monitoring of bioreactor conditions showed a temporary pH decrease, with a concomitant increase in formic acid during exponential growth. Fermentation experiments performed outside of the magnet showed that the strong magnetic field employed for NMR detection did not significantly affect cell metabolism. Use of the in-situ NMR bioreactor facilitated monitoring of the fermentation process in real time, enabling identification of intermediate and end-point metabolites and their correlation with pH and biomass produced during culture growth. Real-time monitoring of culture metabolism using the NMR bioreactor in combination with the HR-NMR spectroscopy will allow optimization of the metabolism of microorganisms producing valuable bioproducts.

  8. Bioreactor technology in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mertsching, H; Hansmann, J

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular tissue engineering is a fast evolving field of biomedical science and technology to manufacture viable blood vessels, heart valves, myocardial substitutes and vascularised complex tissues. In consideration of the specific role of the haemodynamics of human circulation, bioreactors are a fundamental of this field. The development of perfusion bioreactor technology is a consequence of successes in extracorporeal circulation techniques, to provide an in vitro environment mimicking in vivo conditions. The bioreactor system should enable an automatic hydrodynamic regime control. Furthermore, the systematic studies regarding the cellular responses to various mechanical and biochemical cues guarantee the viability, bio-monitoring, testing, storage and transportation of the growing tissue.The basic principles of a bioreactor used for cardiovascular tissue engineering are summarised in this chapter. PMID:19290496

  9. Bioreactor Design for Tendon/Ligament Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Lin, Zhen; Rubenson, Jonas; Kirk, Thomas B.; Wang, Allan; Xu, Jiake

    2013-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injury is a worldwide health problem, but the treatment options remain limited. Tendon and ligament engineering might provide an alternative tissue source for the surgical replacement of injured tendon. A bioreactor provides a controllable environment enabling the systematic study of specific biological, biochemical, and biomechanical requirements to design and manufacture engineered tendon/ligament tissue. Furthermore, the tendon/ligament bioreactor system can provide a suitable culture environment, which mimics the dynamics of the in vivo environment for tendon/ligament maturation. For clinical settings, bioreactors also have the advantages of less-contamination risk, high reproducibility of cell propagation by minimizing manual operation, and a consistent end product. In this review, we identify the key components, design preferences, and criteria that are required for the development of an ideal bioreactor for engineering tendons and ligaments. PMID:23072472

  10. An innovative membrane bioreactor for methane biohydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Pen, N; Soussan, L; Belleville, M-P; Sanchez, J; Charmette, C; Paolucci-Jeanjean, D

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for efficient, safe microbial methane hydroxylation with Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. This innovative MBR, which couples a bioreactor with two gas/liquid macroporous membrane contactors supplying the two gaseous substrates (methane and oxygen) was operated in fed-batch mode. The feasibility and the reproducibility of this new biohydroxylation process were first demonstrated. The mass transfer within this MBR was twice that observed in a batch reactor in similar conditions. The productivity reached with this MBR was 75±25mgmethanol(gdrycell)(-1)h(-1). Compared to the literature, this value is 35times higher than that obtained with the only other fed-batch membrane bioreactor reported, which was run with dense membranes, and is comparable to those obtained with bioreactors fed by bubble-spargers. However, in the latter case, an explosive gas mixture can be formed, a problem that is avoided with the MBR. PMID:25463780

  11. Strategies for Providing Low-Cost Water Immersion Therapy With Limited Resources.

    PubMed

    Brickhouse, Brenda; Isaacs, Christine; Batten, Meghann; Price, Amber

    2015-12-01

    At our university-affiliated medical center, a major renovation of the women's health and birthing unit resulted in the temporary loss of the permanent tub used for water immersion therapy during labor. Because 40 percent of the women in the nurse-midwifery practice utilize hydrotherapy, we undertook a rigorous search for an interim solution. We developed a safe and cost-effective strategy that can be easily replicated and utilized by others to provide hydrotherapy for laboring women. PMID:26682659

  12. NASA Bioreactors Advance Disease Treatments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is falling. This is no threat to the astronauts onboard, however, because falling is part of the ISS staying in orbit. The absence of gravity beyond the Earth s atmosphere is actually an illusion; at the ISS s orbital altitude of approximately 250 miles above the surface, the planet s gravitational pull is only 12-percent weaker than on the ground. Gravity is constantly pulling the ISS back to Earth, but the space station is also constantly traveling at nearly 18,000 miles per hour. This means that, even though the ISS is falling toward Earth, it is moving sideways fast enough to continually miss impacting the planet. The balance between the force of gravity and the ISS s motion creates a stable orbit, and the fact that the ISS and everything in it including the astronauts are falling at an equal rate creates the condition of weightlessness called microgravity. The constant falling of objects in orbit is not only an important principle in space, but it is also a key element of a revolutionary NASA technology here on Earth that may soon help cure medical ailments from heart disease to diabetes. In the mid-1980s, NASA researchers at Johnson Space Center were investigating the effects of long-term microgravity on human tissues. At the time, the Agency s shuttle fleet was grounded following the 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, and researchers had no access to the microgravity conditions of space. To provide a method for recreating such conditions on Earth, Johnson s David Wolf, Tinh Trinh, and Ray Schwarz developed that same year a horizontal, rotating device called a rotating wall bioreactor that allowed the growth of human cells in simulated weightlessness. Previously, cell cultures on Earth could only be grown two-dimensionally in Petri dishes, because gravity would cause the multiplying cells to sink within their growth medium. These cells do not look or function like real human cells, which grow three-dimensionally in the body. Experiments conducted by Johnson scientist Dr. Thomas Goodwin proved that the NASA bioreactor could successfully cultivate cells using simulated microgravity, resulting in three-dimensional tissues that more closely approximate those in the body. Further experiments conducted on space shuttle missions and by Wolf as an astronaut on the Mir space station demonstrated that the bioreactor s effects were even further expanded in space, resulting in remarkable levels of tissue formation. While the bioreactor may one day culture red blood cells for injured astronauts or single-celled organisms like algae as food or oxygen producers for a Mars colony, the technology s cell growth capability offers significant opportunities for terrestrial medical research right now. A small Texas company is taking advantage of the NASA technology to advance promising treatment applications for diseases both common and obscure.

  13. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  14. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  15. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Functionally connected heart cells that are capable of transmitting electrical signals are the goal for Freed and Vunjak-Novakovic. Electrophysiological recordings of engineered tissue show spontaneous contractions at a rate of 70 beats per minute (a), and paced contractions at rates of 80, 150, and 200 beats per minute respectively (b, c, and d). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and MIT.

  16. Heart tissue grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lisa Freed and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, both of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have taken the first steps toward engineering heart muscle tissue that could one day be used to patch damaged human hearts. Cells isolated from very young animals are attached to a three-dimensional polymer scaffold, then placed in a NASA bioreactor. The cells do not divide, but after about a week start to cornect to form a functional piece of tissue. Here, a transmission electron micrograph of engineered tissue shows a number of important landmarks present in functional heart tissue: (A) well-organized myofilaments (Mfl), z-lines (Z), and abundant glycogen granules (Gly); and (D) intercalcated disc (ID) and desmosomes (DES). The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. The Bioreactor is rotated to provide gentle mixing of fresh and spent nutrient without inducing shear forces that would damage the cells. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: MIT

  17. Simplified Bioreactor For Growing Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bioreactor for growing mammalian cell cultures developed. Designed to support growth of dense volumes of mammalian cells by providing ample, well-distributed flows of nutrient solution with minimal turbulence. Cells relatively delicate and, unlike bacteria, cannot withstand shear forces present in turbulent flows. Bioreactor vessel readily made in larger sizes to accommodate greater cell production quantities. Molding equipment presently used makes cylinders up to 30 centimeters long. Alternative sintered plastic techniques used to vary pore size and quantity, as necessary.

  18. Isometric Immersions and Compensated Compactness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gui-Qiang; Slemrod, Marshall; Wang, Dehua

    2010-03-01

    A fundamental problem in differential geometry is to characterize intrinsic metrics on a two-dimensional Riemannian manifold {{mathcal M}^2} which can be realized as isometric immersions into {mathbb{R}^3}. This problem can be formulated as initial and/or boundary value problems for a system of nonlinear partial differential equations of mixed elliptic-hyperbolic type whose mathematical theory is largely incomplete. In this paper, we develop a general approach, which combines a fluid dynamic formulation of balance laws for the Gauss-Codazzi system with a compensated compactness framework, to deal with the initial and/or boundary value problems for isometric immersions in {mathbb{R}^3}. The compensated compactness framework formed here is a natural formulation to ensure the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for approximate solutions, which yields the isometric realization of two-dimensional surfaces in {mathbb{R}^3}. As a first application of this approach, we study the isometric immersion problem for two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds with strictly negative Gauss curvature. We prove that there exists a C 1, 1 isometric immersion of the two-dimensional manifold in {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our prescribed initial conditions. To achieve this, we introduce a vanishing viscosity method depending on the features of initial value problems for isometric immersions and present a technique to make the a priori estimates including the L ? control and H -1-compactness for the viscous approximate solutions. This yields the weak convergence of the vanishing viscosity approximate solutions and the weak continuity of the Gauss-Codazzi system for the approximate solutions, hence the existence of an isometric immersion of the manifold into {mathbb{R}^3} satisfying our initial conditions. The theory is applied to a specific example of the metric associated with the catenoid.

  19. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  20. Immersion francaise precoce: Maternelle (Early French Immersion: Kindergarten).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    An extensive resource manual and teaching guide is presented for the kindergarten teacher in the early French immersion program. The first three chapters contain introductory material discussing the kindergarten child, this particular program, language development in kindergarten, and the role of the kindergarten teacher which is analagous to that

  1. Estimation of flow and transport parameters for woodchip based bioreactors: I. laboratory-scale bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In subsurface bioreactors used for tile drainage systems, carbon sources are used to facilitate denitrification. The objective of this study was to estimate hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, dispersivity, and first-order decay coefficients for a laboratory-scale bioreactor with woodchips a...

  2. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards…

  3. Immersive Education, an Annotated Webliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pricer, Wayne F.

    2011-01-01

    In this second installment of a two-part feature on immersive education a webliography will provide resources discussing the use of various types of computer simulations including: (a) augmented reality, (b) virtual reality programs, (c) gaming resources for teaching with technology, (d) virtual reality lab resources, (e) virtual reality standards

  4. Learning immersion without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Julieta C.

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the teaching of an immersive environments class on the Spring of 2011. The class had students from undergraduate as well as graduate art related majors. Their digital background and interests were also diverse. These variables were channeled as different approaches throughout the semester. Class components included fundamentals of stereoscopic computer graphics to explore spatial depth, 3D modeling and skeleton animation to in turn explore presence, exposure to formats like a stereo projection wall and dome environments to compare field of view across devices, and finally, interaction and tracking to explore issues of embodiment. All these components were supported by theoretical readings discussed in class. Guest artists presented their work in Virtual Reality, Dome Environments and other immersive formats. Museum professionals also introduced students to space science visualizations, which utilize immersive formats. Here I present the assignments and their outcome, together with insights as to how the creation of immersive environments can be learned through constraints that expose students to situations of embodied cognition.

  5. Design and Test of a Low-Cost RGB Sensor for Online Measurement of Microalgae Concentration within a Photo-Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Wouwer, Alain Vande

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer. PMID:25730481

  6. Design and test of a low-cost RGB sensor for online measurement of microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Vande Wouwer, Alain

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer. PMID:25730481

  7. [Occupational accidents in temporary work].

    PubMed

    Nola, A; Cattaneo, G; Maiocchi, A; Gariboldi, C; Rocchi, R; Cavallaro, S; Loreto, B; Lanfredini, L; Bassino, P

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 in Italy about 470,000 workers found jobs provided by Temporary Work Agencies, i.e., more than twice the number in 1999. Temporary Work is an expanding phenomenon since it well suits the flexibility requirements of business: 77% of Temporary Work is in the manufacturing industry, involving mostly unskilled workers. The young age, low level of qualification, poor training, and lack of knowledge of the working environment are factors that can favour occupational accidents. There are studies that relate the frequency of labour accidents to the level of training and job experience. There are no data in the literature about occupational accidents during temporary work. Our study concerns sixteen temporary work Agencies that employed more than 250,000 manual workers in 2000. From the occupational accident registers of these agencies, we analysed all accidents concerning manual workers employed during 2000, with reference to: the number of accidents with up to three days prognosis, age, sex, nationality, prognosis pattern and cause. The agencies supplied data regarding the number of hours worked during 2000. We considered 5259 accidents: the overall frequency index (FI) was 92.1, with a considerable difference between the three main agencies (87.5) and the others. The mean age accident was 27.8 years, mean duration of sick leave 13.7 days, and the main causes were work tools (51.5%); 76% of the accidents concerned unskilled manual workers. The above indexes are definitely higher than those provided by INAIL (italian compulsory insurances) for the metalworking (38.1), construction (47.7) and mining (58.8) sectors during 1997. There is evidence that temporary work is related to an increased risk of occupational accidents. Further studies are required to confirm this evidence. PMID:11676190

  8. Bioreactor control improves bioprocess performance.

    PubMed

    Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    The performance of bioreactors is not only determined by productivity but also by process quality, which is mainly determined by variances in the process variables. As fluctuations in these quantities directly affect the variability in the product properties, combatting distortions is the main task of practical quality assurance. The straightforward way of reducing this variability is keeping the product formation process tightly under control. Purpose of this keynote is to show that there is enough evidence in literature showing that the performance of the fermentation processes can significantly be improved by feedback control. Most of the currently used open loop control procedures can be replaced by relatively simple feedback techniques. It is shown by practical examples that such a retrofitting does not require significant changes in the well-established equipment. Feedback techniques are best in assuring high reproducibility of the industrial cultivation processes and thus in assuring the quality of their products. Many developments in supervising and controlling industrial fermentations can directly be taken over in manufacturing processes. Even simple feedback controllers can efficiently improve the product quality. It's the time now that manufacturers follow the developments in most other industries and improve process quality by automatic feedback control. PMID:26228573

  9. Nitrogen management in bioreactor landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Price, G. Alexander; Barlaz, Morton A.; Hater, Gary R

    2003-07-01

    One scenario for long-term nitrogen management in landfills is ex situ nitrification followed by denitrification in the landfill. The objective of this research was to measure the denitrification potential of actively decomposing and well decomposed refuse. A series of 10-l reactors that were actively producing methane were fed 400 mg NO{sub 3}-N /l every 48 h for periods of 19-59 days. Up to 29 nitrate additions were either completely or largely depleted within 48 h of addition and the denitrification reactions did not adversely affect the leachate pH. Nitrate did inhibit methane production, but the reactors recovered their methane-producing activity with the termination of nitrate addition. In well decomposed refuse, the nitrate consumption rate was reduced but was easily stimulated by the addition of either acetate or an overlayer of fresh refuse. Addition of acetate at five times the amount required to reduce nitrate did not lead to the production of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by dissimilatory nitrate reduction. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria decreased by about five orders of magnitude during refuse decomposition in a reactor that did not receive nitrate. However, rapid denitrification commenced immediately with nitrate addition. This study shows that the use of a landfill as a bioreactor for the conversion of nitrate to a harmless byproduct, nitrogen gas, is technically viable.

  10. Open source software to control Bioflo bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Burdge, David A; Libourel, Igor G L

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  11. Open Source Software to Control Bioflo Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Burdge, David A.; Libourel, Igor G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactors are designed to support highly controlled environments for growth of tissues, cell cultures or microbial cultures. A variety of bioreactors are commercially available, often including sophisticated software to enhance the functionality of the bioreactor. However, experiments that the bioreactor hardware can support, but that were not envisioned during the software design cannot be performed without developing custom software. In addition, support for third party or custom designed auxiliary hardware is often sparse or absent. This work presents flexible open source freeware for the control of bioreactors of the Bioflo product family. The functionality of the software includes setpoint control, data logging, and protocol execution. Auxiliary hardware can be easily integrated and controlled through an integrated plugin interface without altering existing software. Simple experimental protocols can be entered as a CSV scripting file, and a Python-based protocol execution model is included for more demanding conditional experimental control. The software was designed to be a more flexible and free open source alternative to the commercially available solution. The source code and various auxiliary hardware plugins are publicly available for download from https://github.com/LibourelLab/BiofloSoftware. In addition to the source code, the software was compiled and packaged as a self-installing file for 32 and 64 bit windows operating systems. The compiled software will be able to control a Bioflo system, and will not require the installation of LabVIEW. PMID:24667828

  12. Hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary methods for AC dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Mohammad Robiul; Dillon, Robert; Dutta, Prashanta

    2014-08-01

    Dielectrophoresis, a nonlinear electrokinetic transport mechanism, has become popular in many engineering applications including manipulation, characterization and actuation of biomaterials, particles and biological cells. In this paper, we present a hybrid immersed interface-immersed boundary method to study AC dielectrophoresis where an algorithm is developed to solve the complex Poisson equation using a real variable formulation. An immersed interface method is employed to obtain the AC electric field in a fluid media with suspended particles and an immersed boundary method is used for the fluid equations and particle transport. The convergence of the proposed algorithm as well as validation of the hybrid scheme with experimental results is presented. In this paper, the Maxwell stress tensor is used to calculate the dielectrophoretic force acting on particles by considering the physical effect of particles in the computational domain. Thus, this study eliminates the approximations used in point dipole methods for calculating dielectrophoretic force. A comparative study between Maxwell stress tensor and point dipole methods for computing dielectrophoretic forces are presented. The hybrid method is used to investigate the physics of dielectrophoresis in microfluidic devices using an AC electric field. The numerical results show that with proper design and appropriate selection of applied potential and frequency, global electric field minima can be obtained to facilitate multiple particle trapping by exploiting the mechanism of negative dielectrophoresis. Our numerical results also show that electrically neutral particles form a chain parallel to the applied electric field irrespective of their initial orientation when an AC electric field is applied. This proposed hybrid numerical scheme will help to better understand dielectrophoresis and to design and optimize microfluidic devices.

  13. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Immersion suits. 199.273 Section 199.273 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Additional Requirements for Cargo Vessels 199.273 Immersion suits. (a) Each cargo vessel must carry an immersion suit approved under approval series 160.171 of...

  14. Stability Analysis for the Immersed Boundary Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Z. X.; Huang, H. X.; Lu, C. J.

    In this paper, we analyse the stablity of the Immersed Boundary Method applied to a membrane-fluid system with a plasma membrane immersed in an incompressible viscous fluid. For small deformations, the immersed boundary method, using a standard regularization technique for the singular force, is shown to be linearly stable.

  15. A nanoliter microfluidic serial dilution bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Yue; Lee, Yi-Wei; Chiang, Chih-Chung; Yang, Ya-Tang

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial culture is a basic technique in both fundamental and applied microbiology. The excessive reagent consumption and laborious maintenance of bulk bioreactors for microbial culture have prompted the development of miniaturized on-chip bioreactors. With the minimal choice of two compartments (N = 2) and discrete time, periodic dilution steps, we realize a microfluidic bioreactor that mimics macroscopic serial dilution transfer culture. This device supports automated, long-term microbial cultures with a nanoliter-scale working volume and real-time monitoring of microbial populations at single-cell resolution. Because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, the device also operates as an effective biofilm-flow reactor to support cogrowth of planktonic and biofilm populations. We expect that such devices will open opportunities in many fields of microbiology. PMID:26392828

  16. Planar immersion lens with metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, John S.; Qiu, Brynan; Tanabe, Yuji; Yeh, Alexander J.; Fan, Shanhui; Poon, Ada S. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The solid immersion lens is a powerful optical tool that allows light entering material from air or a vacuum to focus to a spot much smaller than the free-space wavelength. Conventionally, however, the lenses rely on semispherical topographies and are nonplanar and bulky, which limits their integration in many applications. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using planar structures, referred to as metasurfaces, to construct flat optical components for manipulating light in unusual ways. Here, we propose and demonstrate the concept of a planar immersion lens based on metasurfaces. The resulting planar device, when placed near an interface between air and dielectric material, can focus electromagnetic radiation incident from air to a spot in the material smaller than the free-space wavelength. As an experimental demonstration, we fabricate an ultrathin and flexible microwave lens and further show that it achieves wireless energy transfer in material mimicking biological tissue.

  17. Authoring Immersive Mixed Reality Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misker, Jan M. V.; van der Ster, Jelle

    Creating a mixed reality experience is a complicated endeavour. From our practice as a media lab in the artistic domain we found that engineering is only a first step in creating a mixed reality experience. Designing the appearance and directing the user experience are equally important for creating an engaging, immersive experience. We found that mixed reality artworks provide a very good test bed for studying these topics. This chapter details three steps required for authoring mixed reality experiences: engineering, designing and directing. We will describe a platform (VGE) for creating mixed reality environments that incorporates these steps. A case study (EI4) is presented in which this platform was used to not only engineer the system, but in which an artist was given the freedom to explore the artistic merits of mixed reality as an artistic medium, which involved areas such as the look and feel, multimodal experience and interaction, immersion as a subjective emotion and game play scenarios.

  18. Immersive Environments - A Connectivist Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Ana; Bettencourt, Teresa

    We are conducting a research project with the aim of achieving better and more efficient ways to facilitate teaching and learning in Higher Level Education. We have chosen virtual environments, with particular emphasis to Second Life® platform augmented by web 2.0 tools, to develop the study. The Second Life® environment has some interesting characteristics that captured our attention, it is immersive; it is a real world simulator; it is a social network; it allows real time communication, cooperation, collaboration and interaction; it is a safe and controlled environment. We specifically chose tools from web 2.0 that enable sharing and collaborative way of learning. Through understanding the characteristics of this learning environment, we believe that immersive learning along with other virtual tools can be integrated in today's pedagogical practices.

  19. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  20. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  1. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  2. 42 CFR 488.835 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.835 Section 488.835... Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.835 Temporary management. (a) Application. (1) CMS may impose temporary management of an HHA if it determines that an HHA has a...

  3. 42 CFR 488.835 - Temporary management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.835 Section 488.835... Sanctions for Home Health Agencies With Deficiencies § 488.835 Temporary management. (a) Application. (1) CMS may impose temporary management of an HHA if it determines that an HHA has a...

  4. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section 213.3199 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EXCEPTED SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5...

  5. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For the... the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska. (2) Temporary access means limited, short-term (i.e., up to...

  6. 43 CFR 36.12 - Temporary access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary access. 36.12 Section 36.12... ACROSS, AND ACCESS INTO, CONSERVATION SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA § 36.12 Temporary access. (a) For the... the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska. (2) Temporary access means limited, short-term (i.e., up to...

  7. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but...

  8. Development of a Space Bioreactor using Microtechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arquint, Philippe; Boillat, Marc A.; deRooij, Nico F.; Jeanneret, Sylvain; vanderSchoot, Bart H.; Bechler, Birgitt; Cogoli, Augusto; Walther, Isabelle; Gass, Volker; Ivorra, Marie-Therese

    1995-01-01

    A miniature bio-reactor for the cultivation of cells aboard Spacelab is presented. Yeast cells are grown in a 3 milliliter reactor chamber. A supply of fresh nutrient medium is provided by a piezo-electric silicon micro-pump. In the reactor, pH, temperature, and redox potential are monitored and the pH is regulated at a constant value. The complete instrument is fitted in a standard experiment container of 63 x 63 x 85 mm. The bioreactor was used on the IML-2 mission in July 1994 and is being refurbished for a reflight in the spring of 1996.

  9. Bioreactor and methods for producing synchronous cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmstetter, Charles E. (Inventor); Thornton, Maureen (Inventor); Gonda, Steve (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Apparatus and methods are directed to a perfusion culture system in which a rotating bioreactor is used to grow cells in a liquid culture medium, while these cells are attached to an adhesive-treated porous surface. As a result of this arrangement and its rotation, the attached cells divide, with one cell remaining attached to the substrate, while the other cell, a newborn cell is released. These newborn cells are of approximately the same age, that are collected upon leaving the bioreactor. The populations of newborn cells collected are of synchronous and are minimally, if at all, disturbed metabolically.

  10. Compact Imaging Spectrometer Utilizing Immersed Gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA); Lerner, Scott A. (Corvallis, OR); Kuzmenko, Paul J. (Livermore, CA); Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-03-21

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, a system for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the system for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the system for receiving the light and the system for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light through an optical element to the detector array.

  11. Dynamic global sensitivity analysis in bioreactor networks for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, M P; Estrada, V; Di Maggio, J; Hoch, P M

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic global sensitivity analysis (GSA) was performed for three different dynamic bioreactor models of increasing complexity: a fermenter for bioethanol production, a bioreactors network, where two types of bioreactors were considered: aerobic for biomass production and anaerobic for bioethanol production and a co-fermenter bioreactor, to identify the parameters that most contribute to uncertainty in model outputs. Sobol's method was used to calculate time profiles for sensitivity indices. Numerical results have shown the time-variant influence of uncertain parameters on model variables. Most influential model parameters have been determined. For the model of the bioethanol fermenter, ?max (maximum growth rate) and Ks (half-saturation constant) are the parameters with largest contribution to model variables uncertainty; in the bioreactors network, the most influential parameter is ?max,1 (maximum growth rate in bioreactor 1); whereas ? (glucose-to-total sugars concentration ratio in the feed) is the most influential parameter over all model variables in the co-fermentation bioreactor. PMID:26556401

  12. Immersive Earth: Teaching Earth and Space with inexpensive immersive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.; Sumners, C.; Law, C. C.; Handron, K.

    2003-12-01

    In 1995 we pioneered "Space Update", the Digital Library for the rest of us", software that was so simple that a child could use it without a keyboard and yet would allow one-click updating of the daily earth and space science images without the dangers of having an open web browser on display. Thanks to NASA support, it allowed museums and schools to have a powerful exhibit for a tiny price. Over 40,000 disks in our series have been distributed so far to educators and the public. In 2003, with our partners we are again revolutionizing educational technology with a low-cost hardware and software solution to creating and displaying immersive content. Recently selected for funding as part of the REASoN competition, Immersive Earth is a partnership of scientists, museums, educators, and content providers. The hardware consists of a modest projector with a special fisheye lens to be used in an inflatable dome which many schools already have. This, coupled with a modest personal computer, can now easily project images and movies of earth and space, allows training students in 3-D content at a tiny fraction of the cost of a cave or fullscale dome theater. Another low-cost solution is the "Imove" system, where spherical movies can play on a personal computer, with the user changing the viewing direction with a joystick. We were the first to create immersive earth science shows, remain the leader in creating educational content that people want to see. We encourage people with "allsky" images or movies to bring it and see what it looks like inside a dome! Your content could be in our next show!

  13. Human cell culture in a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1988-01-01

    Microgravity offers new ways of handling fluids, gases, and growing mammalian cells in efficient suspension cultures. In 1976 bioreactor engineers designed a system using a cylindrical reactor vessel in which the cells and medium are slowly mixed. The reaction chamber is interchangeable and can be used for several types of cell cultures. NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first Space Bioreactor was designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small Bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle Middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption and control of low shear stress on cells.

  14. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  15. Continuous-Flow Gas-Phase Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Donald L.; Trantolo, Debra J.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous-flow gas-phase bioreactors proposed for biochemical, food-processing, and related industries. Reactor contains one or more selected enzymes dehydrated or otherwise immobilized on solid carrier. Selected reactant gases fed into reactor, wherein chemical reactions catalyzed by enzyme(s) yield product biochemicals. Concept based on discovery that enzymes not necessarily placed in traditional aqueous environments to function as biocatalysts.

  16. HIGH-PERFORMANCE STEREOSPECIFIC ELASTOMERS FROM BIOREACTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, 10 million tons of natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, will be produced for commercial use. Every molecule of that product will be produced in a microscopic bioreactor known as the rubber particle. These particles, suspended in an aqueous phase called latex, evolved to produce and store n...

  17. Cultivation of mammalian cells in bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.S.; Dodge, T.C.

    1985-12-01

    The use of bioreactors for the cultivation of mammalian cells in vitro has the potential for systematic scale up to meet future demand. The complexity of mammalian cells in culture and their characteristics is described here as is a number of cultivation methods including simple suspension, microcarrier, hollow fiber, ceramic matrix and microencapsulation.

  18. Establishing Liver Bioreactors for In Vitro Research.

    PubMed

    Rebelo, Sofia P; Costa, Rita; Sousa, Marcos F Q; Brito, Catarina; Alves, Paula M

    2015-01-01

    In vitro systems that can effectively model liver function for long periods of time are fundamental tools for preclinical research. Nevertheless, the adoption of in vitro research tools at the earliest stages of drug development has been hampered by the lack of culture systems that offer the robustness, scalability, and flexibility necessary to meet industry's demands. Bioreactor-based technologies, such as stirred tank bioreactors, constitute a feasible approach to aggregate hepatic cells and maintain long-term three-dimensional cultures. These three-dimensional cultures sustain the polarity, differentiated phenotype, and metabolic performance of human hepatocytes. Culture in computer-controlled stirred tank bioreactors allows the maintenance of physiological conditions, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature, with minimal fluctuations. Moreover, by operating in perfusion mode, gradients of soluble factors and metabolic by-products can be established, aiming at resembling the in vivo microenvironment. This chapter provides a protocol for the aggregation and culture of hepatocyte spheroids in stirred tank bioreactors by applying perfusion mode for the long-term culture of human hepatocytes. This in vitro culture system is compatible with feeding high-throughput screening platforms for the assessment of drug elimination pathways, being a useful tool for toxicology research and drug development in the preclinical phase. PMID:26272143

  19. In Vivo Bioreactors for Mandibular Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Tatara, A.M.; Wong, M.E.; Mikos, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Large mandibular defects are difficult to reconstruct with good functional and aesthetic outcomes because of the complex geometry of craniofacial bone. While the current gold standard is free tissue flap transfer, this treatment is limited in fidelity by the shape of the harvested tissue and can result in significant donor site morbidity. To address these problems, in vivo bioreactors have been explored as an approach to generate autologous prefabricated tissue flaps. These bioreactors are implanted in an ectopic site in the body, where ossified tissue grows into the bioreactor in predefined geometries and local vessels are recruited to vascularize the developing construct. The prefabricated flap can then be harvested with vessels and transferred to a mandibular defect for optimal reconstruction. The objective of this review article is to introduce the concept of the in vivo bioreactor, describe important preclinical models in the field, summarize the human cases that have been reported through this strategy, and offer future directions for this exciting approach. PMID:25139360

  20. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: LANDFILL BIOREACTOR DESIGN AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    These proceedings are from a conference on the subject of municipal waste landfill (MSWLF) bioreactors that was held in Wilmington, Delaware on March 23-24, 199-5. iologically active landfill operation represents a fundamentally different operational technique foro MSWLFs because...

  1. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  2. Engineering stem cell niches in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meimei; Liu, Ning; Zang, Ru; Li, Yan; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and amniotic fluid stem cells have the potential to be expanded and differentiated into various cell types in the body. Efficient differentiation of stem cells with the desired tissue-specific function is critical for stem cell-based cell therapy, tissue engineering, drug discovery and disease modeling. Bioreactors provide a great platform to regulate the stem cell microenvironment, known as “niches”, to impact stem cell fate decision. The niche factors include the regulatory factors such as oxygen, extracellular matrix (synthetic and decellularized), paracrine/autocrine signaling and physical forces (i.e., mechanical force, electrical force and flow shear). The use of novel bioreactors with precise control and recapitulation of niche factors through modulating reactor operation parameters can enable efficient stem cell expansion and differentiation. Recently, the development of microfluidic devices and microbioreactors also provides powerful tools to manipulate the stem cell microenvironment by adjusting flow rate and cytokine gradients. In general, bioreactor engineering can be used to better modulate stem cell niches critical for stem cell expansion, differentiation and applications as novel cell-based biomedicines. This paper reviews important factors that can be more precisely controlled in bioreactors and their effects on stem cell engineering. PMID:24179601

  3. Canoeists' disorientation following cold immersion

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S.; Atha, J.

    1981-01-01

    As an initial step to a broader study of the disorientating effects of cold water immersions on top class competitive canoeists a survey was made of the incidence of hazardous immersions amongst a majority sample of the better canoeists in the country. Virtually the entire entry to one of the most important national competitive meets was canvassed. A total of 288 canoeists in the 1st and 2nd divisions were identified and asked to participate. Replies were received from 247 (86%). All those responding had had extensive experience of canoeing in winter spate and were capable of fast and efficient first-time canoe rolls in cases of capsize. Particular interest was focussed on the 85 (34%) who had experienced at least one capsize in cold water during training or competition in mid-winter. Respondents viewed the winter capsize seriously. Despite their familiarity with the conditions in which they trained all 85, recalling their capsize experiences, reported being concerned, most (79%) only modestly so, but a significant proportion (21%) confessed to feelings of extreme alarm. A number of marked physical symptoms that regularly attend on a capsize were widely reported, the most usual of which was severe pain in the forehead (89%) and breathing and speaking difficulties when afloat (64%). Additionally 62% reported sensory problems including visual difficulties, dizziness and disorientation. Five canoeists admitted fainting. Despite these hazards few preventive measures were taken and clothing with negligible thermal insulation properties was commonly worn. It is concluded that transient cold immersions can be disturbing, and can disorientate the canoeist, but that although conscious of this and to his own potentially high cost, he takes little notice of it in his desire to compete successfully. Imagesp111-ap111-bp112-ap113-ap114-a PMID:7272652

  4. Gestural interfaces for immersive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Todd

    2014-02-01

    We are witnessing an explosion of new forms of Human Computer Interaction devices lately for both laboratory research and home use. With these new affordance in user interfaces (UI), how can gestures be used to improve interaction for large scale immersive display environments. Through the investigation of full body, head and hand tracking, this paper will discuss various modalities of gesture recognition and compare their usability to other forms of interactivity. We will explore a specific implementation of hand gesture tracking within a large tiled display environment for use with common collaborative media interaction activities.

  5. Immersive interfaces for engagement and learning.

    PubMed

    Dede, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Immersion is the subjective impression that one is participating in a comprehensive, realistic experience. Interactive media now enable various degrees of digital immersion. The more a virtual immersive experience is based on design strategies that combine actional, symbolic, and sensory factors, the greater the participant's suspension of disbelief that she or he is "inside" a digitally enhanced setting. Studies have shown that immersion in a digital environment can enhance education in at least three ways: by allowing multiple perspectives, situated learning, and transfer. Further studies are needed on the capabilities of immersive media for learning, on the instructional designs best suited to each type of immersive medium, and on the learning strengths and preferences these media develop in users. PMID:19119219

  6. Pathogenesis of sudden death following water immersion (immersion syndrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buhring, M.; Spies, H. F.

    1981-01-01

    Sympathetic activity under cold stress is investigated. Predominantly vagal cardio-depressive reflexes are discussed besides currently known mechanisms of sudden death after water immersion. Pronounced circulatory centralization in diving animals as well as following exposure in cold water indicates additional sympathetic activity. In cold water baths of 15 C, measurements indicate an increase in plasma catecholamine levels by more than 300 percent. This may lead to cardiac arrhythmias by the following mechanisms: cold water essentially induces sinus bradycardia; brady-and tachycardiarrhythmias may supervene as secondary complications; sinusbradycardia may be enhanced by sympathetic hypertonus. Furthermore, ectopic dysrhythmias are liable to be induced by the strictly sympathetic innervation of the ventricle. Myocardial ischemia following a rise in peripheral blood pressure constitutes another arrhythmogenic factor. Some of these reactions are enhanced by alcohol intoxication.

  7. Coronal microleakage with five different temporary restorative materials following walking bleach technique: An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, G. P. V.; Varma, K. Ravi; Shetty, K. Harish; Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Context: Walking bleach technique uses 30% hydrogen peroxide and sodium perborate, and this paste mixture causes loosening of the coronal temporary restorative materials and thus decreasing its clinical effectiveness and causing irritation to the patients oral tissues. In the present study, sealing ability of hygroscopic coronal temporary restorative materials were compared with the other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Aim: To evaluate the effects of walking bleach material on the marginal sealing ability and coronal microleakage of the hydrophilic temporary restorative materials with that of the other commonly used temporary restorative materials in endodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were prepared chemo-mechanically and obturated with gutta-percha in lateral condensation technique. Surface of each tooth was double coated with cyanoacrylate glue. All the teeth were randomly divided in to five groups. Out of 15 teeth in each group, 10 teeth served as experimental specimens, in which bleaching agent was placed in the pulp chamber and 5 teeth served as control, in which no bleaching agent was placed. The access cavities were restored with temporary restorative materials being tested per each group respectively. The specimens were then immersed in 1% India ink dye and subjected to thermo cycling for 7 days. All the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and observed with stereomicroscope and were graded according to the depth of linear dye penetration. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Hydrophilic temporary restorative materials Cavit G and Coltosol F have shown minimal coronal dye leakage with better sealing ability when exposed to walking bleach paste mixture in the dye penetration tests compared to other commonly used temporary restorative materials. Conclusion: Marginal sealing ability of Cavit G and Coltosol F were not influenced by the effects of bleaching agent compared to other temporary restorative materials used in the study. PMID:23633802

  8. Immersion in water during labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Immersion in water has been suggested as a beneficial alternative for labor, delivery, or both and over the past decades has gained popularity in many parts of the world. Immersion in water during the first stage of labor may be associated with decreased pain or use of anesthesia and decreased duration of labor. However, there is no evidence that immersion in water during the first stage of labor otherwise improves perinatal outcomes, and it should not prevent or inhibit other elements of care. The safety and efficacy of immersion in water during the second stage of labor have not been established, and immersion in water during the second stage of labor has not been associated with maternal or fetal benefit. Given these facts and case reports of rare but serious adverse effects in the newborn, the practice of immersion in the second stage of labor (underwater delivery) should be considered an experimental procedure that only should be performed within the context of an appropriately designed clinical trial with informed consent. Facilities that plan to offer immersion in the first stage of labor need to establish rigorous protocols for candidate selection, maintenance and cleaning of tubs and immersion pools, infection control procedures, monitoring of mothers and fetuses at appropriate intervals while immersed, and immediately and safely moving women out of the tubs if maternal or fetal concerns develop. PMID:24652300

  9. Bioreactor Development for Lung Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Much recent interest in lung bioengineering by pulmonary investigators, industry and the organ transplant field has seen a rapid growth of bioreactor development ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems. A comprehension of the findings from these models is needed to provide the basis for further bioreactor development. Objective The goal was to comprehensively review the current state of bioreactor development for the lung. Methods A search using PubMed was done for published, peer-reviewed papers using the keywords “lung” AND “bioreactor” or “bioengineering” or “tissue engineering” or “ex vivo perfusion”. Main Results Many new bioreactors ranging from the microfluidic scale to the human-sized whole lung systems have been developed by both academic and commercial entities. Microfluidic, lung-mimic and lung slice cultures have the advantages of cost-efficiency and high throughput analyses ideal for pharmaceutical and toxicity studies. Perfused/ventilated rodent whole lung systems can be adapted for mid-throughput studies of lung stem/progenitor cell development, cell behavior, understanding and treating lung injury and for preliminary work that can be translated to human lung bioengineering. Human-sized ex vivo whole lung bioreactors incorporating perfusion and ventilation are amenable to automation and have been used for whole lung decellularization and recellularization. Clinical scale ex vivo lung perfusion systems have been developed for lung preservation and reconditioning and are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Conclusions Significant advances in bioreactors for lung engineering have been made at both the microfluidic and the macro scale. The most advanced are closed systems that incorporate pressure-controlled perfusion and ventilation and are amenable to automation. Ex vivo lung perfusion systems have advanced to clinical trials for lung preservation and reconditioning. The biggest challenges that lie ahead for lung bioengineering can only be overcome by future advances in technology that solve the problems of cell production and tissue incorporation. PMID:25729638

  10. Cell Separations in Microgravity and Development of a Space Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    A bioreactor optimized for operations in space is now being developed. The current research is focused on determining the optimum cell-bead ratios, medium content and proper maintenance conditions required to keep living cell specimens alive and healthy for the entire flight. The bioreactor development project has recently added a microprocessor/computer to the JSC prototype for control and data analysis. Appropriate new technology is being combined with the current bioreactor designs and tested to determine what specific features must be included in the fabrication of a bioreactor designed to operate for STS demonstration tests. Considerations include: (1) circulation and resupply of culture media; (2) sensors required to monitor temperature, cell growth, mass transport, and oxygen consumption; and (3) inflight control of shear stress on cells, gas transfer in microgravity, diffusion, and intracellular transport. These data and results from the JSC prototype bioreactor test will be used for the design and construction of a small space bioreactor for the Orbiter middeck.

  11. Mechanical properties of endothelialized fibroblast-derived vascular scaffolds stimulated in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tondreau, Maxime Y; Laterreur, Véronique; Gauvin, Robert; Vallières, Karine; Bourget, Jean-Michel; Lacroix, Dan; Tremblay, Catherine; Germain, Lucie; Ruel, Jean; Auger, François A

    2015-05-01

    There is an ongoing clinical need for tissue-engineered small-diameter (<6mm) vascular grafts since clinical applications are restricted by the limited availability of autologous living grafts or the lack of suitability of synthetic grafts. The present study uses our self-assembly approach to produce a fibroblast-derived decellularized vascular scaffold that can then be available off-the-shelf. Briefly, scaffolds were produced using human dermal fibroblasts sheets rolled around a mandrel, maintained in culture to allow for the formation of cohesive and three-dimensional tubular constructs, and then decellularized by immersion in deionized water. Constructs were then endothelialized and perfused for 1week in an appropriate bioreactor. Mechanical testing results showed that the decellularization process did not influence the resistance of the tissue and an increase in ultimate tensile strength was observed following the perfusion of the construct in the bioreactor. These fibroblast-derived vascular scaffolds could be stored and later used to deliver readily implantable grafts within 4weeks including an autologous endothelial cell isolation and seeding process. This technology could greatly accelerate the clinical availability of tissue-engineered blood vessels. PMID:25749291

  12. Le Point sur L'immersion au Canada (The Argument for...Immersion in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebuffot, Jacques

    A discussion of French immersion education in Canada begins with a general examination of language immersion, including the historical context and social climate from which the immersion approach has grown in Canada, its beginnings in Quebec and spread throughout Canada, and the status of the approach in the United States, a number of European…

  13. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop

  14. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop…

  15. Game engines and immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  16. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ?0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure.

  17. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the fluid on the granular microstructure. PMID:25353783

  18. Chromium detoxification by fixed-film bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Chirwa, E.M.N.; Wang, Y.T.

    1996-11-01

    In this study, completely mixed, continuous flow bioreactors were utilized to detoxify chromium. Glass beads were incorporated as a support medium for two strains of bacteria, Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens LB300 (LB300), growing aerobically in two separate reactors. Aerobic conditions were maintained in the reactors by continuously supplying fresh air to the liquid through gas exchange chambers installed on the recycle line of the bioreactors. Results obtained showed that near complete removal of chromate was possible for influent concentrations up to 200 mg/L for Bacillus sp., and up to 100 mg/L for LB300 at 24 hours liquid detention time. Similar results were obtained for corresponding loading rates at 12 hours and 6 hours liquid detention time.

  19. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.

    1993-12-31

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids, and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst, leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  20. Using a membrane bioreactor to reclaim wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Cicek, N.; Franco, J.P.; Suidan, M.T.; Urbain, V.

    1998-11-01

    A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor sufficiently purified simulated municipal wastewater for indirect recharge to groundwater or nonpotable uses. Throughout more than 500 days of steady-state operation, total organic carbon concentrations of <1.1 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand of <3.5 mg/L were consistently achieved. No suspended solids were detected in the effluent during this period. The treated water was fully nitrified, resulting in low ammonia and organic nitrogen concentrations but high nitrate concentrations. Cyclic oxic-anoxic operation of an additional denitrification process would be necessary to meet potable water reuse standards. Phosphorus was fully used in the bioreactor for biological growth. Heterotrophic bacteria and MS-2 viruses were completely retained by the membrane system, reducing the extent of final disinfection required.

  1. Bioreactor and process design for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is regarded as an attractive future clean energy carrier due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. It has the potential for renewable biofuel to replace current hydrogen production which rely heavily on fossil fuels. While biohydrogen production is still in the early stage of development, there have been a variety of laboratory- and pilot-scale systems developed with promising potential. This work presents a review of advances in bioreactor and bioprocess design for biohydrogen production. The state-of-the art of biohydrogen production is discussed emphasizing on production pathways, factors affecting biohydrogen production, as well as bioreactor configuration and operation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. PMID:21624834

  2. Advanced bioreactors for enhanced production of chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1993-06-01

    A variety of advanced bioreactors are being developed to improve production of fuels, solvents, organic acids and other fermentation products. One key approach is immobilization of the biocatalyst leading to increased rates and yields. In addition, there are processes for simultaneous fermentation and separation to further increase production by the removal of an inhibitory product. For example, ethanol productivity in immobilized-cell fluidized-bed bioreactors (FBRs) can increase more than tenfold with 99% conversion and near stoichiometric yields. Two modified FBR configurations offer further improvements by removing the inhibitory product directly from the continuous fermentation. One involves the addition and removal of solid adsorbent particles to the FBR. This process was demonstrated with the production of lactic acid by immobilized Lactobacillus. The second uses an immiscible organic extractant in the FBR. This increased total butanol yields in the anaerobic acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

  3. Bioreactor Yields Extracts for Skin Cream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Johnson Space Flight Center researchers created a unique rotating-wall bioreactor that simulates microgravity conditions, spurring innovations in drug development and medical research. Renuèll Int'l Inc., based in Aventure, Florida, licensed the technology and used it to produce a healing skin care product, RE`JUVEL. In a Food and Drug Administration test, RE`JUVEL substantially increased skin moisture and elasticity while reducing dark blotches and wrinkles.

  4. Oxygen transfer in a pressurized airlift bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Campani, Gilson; Ribeiro, Marcelo Perencin Arruda; Horta, Antnio Carlos Luperni; Giordano, Roberto Campos; Badino, Alberto Colli; Zangirolami, Teresa Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Airlift bioreactors (ALBs) offer advantages over conventional systems, such as simplicity of construction, reduced risk of contamination, and efficient gas-liquid dispersion with low power consumption. ALBs are usually operated under atmospheric pressure. However, in bioprocesses with high oxygen demand, such as high cell density cultures, oxygen limitation may occur even when operating with high superficial gas velocity and air enriched with oxygen. One way of overcoming this drawback is to pressurize the reactor. In this configuration, it is important to assess the influence of bioreactor internal pressure on the gas hold-up, volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), and volumetric oxygen transfer rate (OTR). Experiments were carried out in a concentric-tube airlift bioreactor with a 5 dm(3) working volume, equipped with a system for automatic monitoring and control of the pressure, temperature, and inlet gas flow rate. The results showed that, in disagreement with previous published results for bubble column and external loop airlift reactors, overpressure did not significantly affect k(L)a within the studied ranges of pressure (0.1-0.4 MPa) and superficial gas velocity in the riser (0.032-0.065 m s(-1)). Nevertheless, a positive effect on OTR was observed: it increased up to 5.4 times, surpassing by 2.3 times the oxygen transfer in a 4 dm(3) stirred tank reactor operated under standard cultivation conditions. These results contribute to the development of non-conventional reactors, especially pneumatic bioreactors operated using novel strategies for oxygen control. PMID:25903476

  5. Design concepts for bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seshan, P. K.; Peterson, G. R.; Beard, B.; Boshe, C.; Dunlop, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    Microbial food sources are becoming viable and more efficient alternatives to conventional food sources, especially in the context of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) in space habitats. Two bioreactor design concepts presented represent two dissimilar approaches to grappling with the absence of gravity in space habitats and deserve to be tested for adoption as important components of the life support function aboard spacecraft, space stations and other extra-terrestrial habitats.

  6. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary... (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging... transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of...

  7. Research on evaluation techniques for immersive multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Aslinda M.; Romli, Fakaruddin Fahmi; Zainal Osman, Zosipha

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays Immersive Multimedia covers most usage in tremendous ways, such as healthcare/surgery, military, architecture, art, entertainment, education, business, media, sport, rehabilitation/treatment and training areas. Moreover, the significant of Immersive Multimedia to directly meet the end-users, clients and customers needs for a diversity of feature and purpose is the assembly of multiple elements that drive effective Immersive Multimedia system design, so evaluation techniques is crucial for Immersive Multimedia environments. A brief general idea of virtual environment (VE) context and `realism' concept that formulate the Immersive Multimedia environments is then provided. This is followed by a concise summary of the elements of VE assessment technique that is applied in Immersive Multimedia system design, which outlines the classification space for Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques and gives an overview of the types of results reported. A particular focus is placed on the implications of the Immersive Multimedia environments evaluation techniques in relation to the elements of VE assessment technique, which is the primary purpose of producing this research. The paper will then conclude with an extensive overview of the recommendations emanating from the research.

  8. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students

  9. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Lerner, Scott A.

    2005-12-20

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, lens means for receiving the light, refracting the light, and focusing the light; an immersed diffraction grating that receives the light from the lens means and defracts the light, the immersed diffraction grating directing the detracted light back to the lens means; and a detector that receives the light from the lens means.

  10. Immersive virtual reality simulations in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Kilmon, Carol A; Brown, Leonard; Ghosh, Sumit; Mikitiuk, Artur

    2010-01-01

    This article explores immersive virtual reality as a potential educational strategy for nursing education and describes an immersive learning experience now being developed for nurses. This pioneering project is a virtual reality application targeting speed and accuracy of nurse response in emergency situations requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Other potential uses and implications for the development of virtual reality learning programs are discussed. PMID:21086871

  11. Immersion Education in China: Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Stella; Hoare, Philip; Chi, Yanping

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the views of immersion teachers in Hong Kong and Xi'an towards the immersion curriculum they are teaching. Teachers are important stakeholders in any curriculum implementation and their views are significant in both evaluating progress and determining future directions. The teachers' views were gathered from questionnaires

  12. The Balancing Act of Bilingual Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadi-Tabassum, Samina

    2005-01-01

    Hadi-Tabassum believes having a separate life context for each language she learned in childhood enabled her to switch easily among five different tongues. She states that the success of dual immersion bilingual programs is largely dependent on whether they immerse students in each of the involved languages separately and help students have a

  13. Libraries of La Pocatiere: French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Many times summer language immersion administrators and instructors overlook the rich collections housed in various town libraries. Students of French immersion programs have an opportunity to utilize local libraries. This essay describes the facilities and services of five libraries in La Pocatiere, Quebec. A series of interviews of librarians

  14. Social Interaction Development through Immersive Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Jason; Wendt, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participants could improve their social interaction skills by participating in a virtual immersive environment. The participants used a developing virtual reality head-mounted display to engage themselves in a fully-immersive environment. While in the environment, participants had an opportunity…

  15. Bringing Chinese Immersion to Western Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Pioneer Valley Chinese Immersion Charter School (PVCICS), a regional public charter school in western Massachusetts, which opened in 2007 and the only Chinese immersion school in New England. The school draws students from over twenty-five towns and cities in a predominantly rural area of Massachusetts that includes the

  16. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  17. Replaceable Sensor System for Bioreactor Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, Mike; Savoy, Steve; Bruno, John

    2006-01-01

    A sensor system was proposed that would monitor spaceflight bioreactor parameters. Not only will this technology be invaluable in the space program for which it was developed, it will find applications in medical science and industrial laboratories as well. Using frequency-domain-based fluorescence lifetime technology, the sensor system will be able to detect changes in fluorescence lifetime quenching that results from displacement of fluorophorelabeled receptors bound to target ligands. This device will be used to monitor and regulate bioreactor parameters including glucose, pH, oxygen pressure (pO2), and carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2). Moreover, these biosensor fluorophore receptor-quenching complexes can be designed to further detect and monitor for potential biohazards, bioproducts, or bioimpurities. Biosensors used to detect biological fluid constituents have already been developed that employ a number of strategies, including invasive microelectrodes (e.g., dark electrodes), optical techniques including fluorescence, and membrane permeable systems based on osmotic pressure. Yet the longevity of any of these sensors does not meet the demands of extended use in spacecraft habitat or bioreactor monitoring. It was therefore necessary to develop a sensor platform that could determine not only fluid variables such as glucose concentration, pO2, pCO2, and pH but can also regulate these fluid variables with controlled feedback loop.

  18. Raman measurement of glucose in bioreactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yijing; Ford, Joseph F.; Mann, Charles K.; Vickers, Thomas J.; Brackett, John M.; Cousineau, Kristen L.; Robey, W. G.

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of chemical species in a bioreactor has been examined. Successful operation of a bioreactor requires that nutrients and metabolic waste products be maintained within narrow ranges, and it is, therefore, important to provide accurate, reliable and timely measurement of the composition in the reactor. Raman spectroscopy offers the possibility of real time simultaneous monitoring of molecular components present in the millimolar and higher concentration range. Work reported here has focused on four analytes: glucose, glutamine, lactic acid and ammonia. Measurements have been made with a spectrograph providing a spectral window for simultaneous measurement of about 1800 cm-1 on a multichannel CCD detector. Most measurements were made with an argon ion laser emitting at 514.5 nm. Some measurements are reported with a solid state diode laser operating at 785 nm. Locally constructed inexpensive silica fiber-optic probes delivered the laser light and collected the scattered radiation. Spectra of the four analytes n buffer and reactor media have been obtained. Analytical curves have been constructed and limits of detection measured. Limits of detection in buffer media are about 1 mM. Results are reported for off-line measurements on material drawn from a bioreactor.

  19. Pentachlorophenol mineralization in an immobilized soil bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Karamanev, D.; Chavarie, C.; Samson, R.

    1996-12-31

    The biological degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) was conducted in a new type of reactor-the immobilized soil bioreactor. In this bioreactor soil particles having natural microbial activity in degrading the target pollutant are entrapped into a solid membrane with a large pore size distribution. The resulting {open_quotes}immobilized soil{close_quotes} system can be easily supplied with dissolved mineral salts, oxygen and target pollutant and as a result an active microbial consortium will be quickly established. This consortium is later used for treatment of aqueous solutions of the pollutant, for instance, contaminated ground water. We have studied the process of PCP biodegradation in both batch and continuous regime. our results showed that the volumetric effectiveness of the process of PCP mineralization in the immobilized soil bioreactor is between 7 and 4000 times higher than results reported in the literature. It has been found that both chlorine and carbon atoms of PCP are at least 99% mineralized. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Compact imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Chrisp, Michael P.; Lerner, Scott A.; Kuzmenko, Paul J.; Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-07-03

    A compact imaging spectrometer with an immersive diffraction grating that compensates optical distortions. The imaging spectrometer comprises an entrance slit for transmitting light, means for receiving the light and directing the light, an immersion grating, and a detector array. The entrance slit, the means for receiving the light, the immersion grating, and the detector array are positioned wherein the entrance slit transmits light to the means for receiving the light and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the immersion grating and the immersion grating receives the light and directs the light to the means for receiving the light, and the means for receiving the light directs the light to the detector array.

  1. Depth of immersion as a determinant of the natriuresis of water immersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, M.; Miller, M.; Schneider, N.

    1974-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to further assess the contribution of an immersion-induced hydrostatic pressure gradient on the redistribution of blood volume. The rate of sodium excretion by seated subjects was significantly increased by water immersion up to the chest and neck compared to waist immersion and controls. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that whereas immersion to the level of the diaphragm merely cancels the intravascular hydrostatic pressure gradient by providing an identical external gradient, immersion above the diaphragm level results in increased water pressure which tends to favor a shift in blood volume from the lower extremities.

  2. 36 CFR 9.38 - Temporary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary approval. 9.38 Section 9.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights 9.38 Temporary approval. (a) The Regional Director...

  3. Providing Circulation Services in a Temporary Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolppanen, Bradley P.; Slough, Marlene

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the experience of Circulation Services at Booth Library, Eastern Illinois University, during a 31-month relocation to temporary facilities while the building was undergoing renovation. The move to temporary locations presented new challenges and required unique solutions. Issues such as the rationale for the move to the…

  4. 36 CFR 9.38 - Temporary approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary approval. 9.38 Section 9.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights 9.38 Temporary approval. (a) The Regional Director...

  5. Temporary Storage of Poultry Broiler Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transportation and storage of poultry broiler litter during the winter months is critical to implementing comprehensive nutrient/waste management plans, but acceptable temporary storage near the site of spreading can be difficult to arrange. Alternative, less expensive methods for temporary storage...

  6. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii). (b) The employer's need is considered temporary if justified to the Secretary... defined by the Department of Homeland Security. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B). (c) Except where the employer's... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary need. 655.6 Section 655.6...

  7. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control 1210.24 Temporary permits. A temporary permit will be granted... inspections required by the applicable provisions of section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act....

  8. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control 1210.24 Temporary permits. A temporary permit will be granted... inspections required by the applicable provisions of section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act....

  9. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control 1210.24 Temporary permits. A temporary permit will be granted... inspections required by the applicable provisions of section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act....

  10. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control 1210.24 Temporary permits. A temporary permit will be granted... inspections required by the applicable provisions of section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act....

  11. 21 CFR 1210.24 - Temporary permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control 1210.24 Temporary permits. A temporary permit will be granted... inspections required by the applicable provisions of section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act....

  12. 20 CFR 655.6 - Temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii). (b) The employer's need is considered temporary if justified to the Secretary... defined by the Department of Homeland Security. 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B). (c) Except where the employer's... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary need. 655.6 Section 655.6...

  13. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary tolerance is established will keep records of production, distribution, and performance for a... tolerances. (a) A temporary tolerance (or exemption from a tolerance) established under the authority of FFDCA section 408(r) shall be deemed to be a tolerance (or exemption from the requirement of a...

  14. Age changes in the viscoelasticity of a temporary soft lining material.

    PubMed

    Jepson, N J; McCabe, J F; Storer, R

    1993-08-01

    The viscoelastic properties of a widely used temporary soft lining material have been monitored in vivo and in vitro using a force distance probe. Over a period of 8 weeks' clinical use, Coe Soft demonstrated a significant and continued reduction in compliance with time, the reduction being particularly rapid over the first week. These changes were not associated with a reduction in measured lining thickness for which significant changes were not found. In vitro immersion in water, saline or artificial saliva was characterized by a rapid and significant reduction in compliance values over the first week. Further continued reductions in compliance values were only observed in artificial saliva over 8 weeks, and on prolonged immersion in distilled water over 96 weeks. All reductions in compliance were significantly less than those seen clinically. PMID:8354751

  15. 75 FR 65365 - Disaster Temporary Housing Operational Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Disaster Temporary Housing Operational Guide AGENCY: Federal... Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is accepting comments on the Disaster Temporary Housing Operational Guide... 840, 500 C Street, SW., Washington, DC 20472. II. Background The proposed Disaster Temporary...

  16. Simulations of accidental coal immersion.

    PubMed

    Jaffrennou, Cathy; Giamarchi, Philippe; Cabon, Jean-Yves; Stephan, Ludovic; Burel-Deschamps, Laure; Bautin, François; Thomas, Annabelle; Dumont, Julien; Le Floch, Stéphane

    2007-12-01

    Coal is currently becoming an increasingly interesting fossil energy resource and that is the reason why its maritime transport, and hence the risk of collier accidents, increase. In this work, the environmental impact of an accidental coal immersion at sea is studied: the physicochemical effects are estimated using innovative experimental setups--a laboratory seawater canal called "polludrome" is used to evaluate the behaviour of coal particles submitted to a seawater flow, and a specifically designed tub is used to study the physicochemical consequences induced when coal is introduced into continuously renewed seawater. When coal is introduced into seawater, the most easily visible consequences are physical: fine coal particles reduce the daylight penetration up to 100% and move along with the flow, and coal chunks accumulate on the floor. Chemical effects are also measured: humic matters are dissolved from coal into seawater (up to 2 mg L(-1)), but no release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is evidenced. Some inorganic compounds are dissolved, among which manganese, whose concentrations can reach 1 microg L(-1). Fortunately, the results show that the environmental impact of this type of accident would remain limited. PMID:17964611

  17. Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

    2014-05-01

    The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

  18. ADVANCING THE FIELD EVALUATIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is undertaking a long-term program to conduct field evaluations of landfill bioreactors. The near-term effort is focused on the development of appropriate monitoring strategies to ensure adequate control of the landfill bioreactors an...

  19. LEACHATE NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND BACTERIAL NUMBERS FROM TWO BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA and Waste Management Inc. have entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to study landfills operated as bioreactors. Two different landfill bioreactor configurations are currently being tested at the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY...

  20. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL RESEARCH PROJECT, LOUISVILLE, KY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill, Louisville, KY. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between USEPA and Waste Management, Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. First, new...

  1. USE OF LANDFILL BIOREACTORS IN ACCELERATING WASTE DEGRADATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MSW bioreactors offer an innovative way of optimizing existing landfill volume by actively degrading the waste mass within a waste containment system. Bioreactor leachate, gas, and solids monitoring is part of a 5 year CRADA between US EP A and Waste Mgt., Inc. at the Outer Loop ...

  2. Denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate removal from tile drained cropland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors are a promising technology for mitigation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) losses in subsurface drainage water. Bioreactors are constructed with carbon substrates, typically wood chips, to provide a substrate for denitrifying microorganisms. Researchers in Iowa found that for ...

  3. Evaluation of woodchip bioreactors for improved water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Woodchip bioreactors are gaining popularity with farmers because of their edge-of-field nitrate removal capabilities, which do not require changes in land management practices. However, limited research has been conducted to study the potential of these bioreactors to also reduce downstream transpor...

  4. Bioreactors for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria.

    PubMed

    Markov, Sergei A; Weaver, Paul F

    2008-03-01

    Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H(2) production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H(2) (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubble-train bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N(2)) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1)) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw(-1) h(-1) of H(2) production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days. PMID:18425614

  5. Bioreactors for H2 Production by Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markov, Sergei A.; Weaver, Paul F.

    Two types of laboratory-scale bioreactors were designed for H2 production by purple nonsulfur bacteria. The bioreactors employed a unique type of hydrogenase activity found in some photosynthetic bacteria that functions in darkness to shift CO (and H2O) into H2 (and CO2). The mass transport of gaseous CO into an aqueous bacterial suspension was the rate-limiting step and the main challenge for bioreactor design. Hollow-fiber and bubbletrain bioreactors employing immobilized and free-living bacteria have proven effective for enhancing the mass transfer of CO. The hollow-fiber bioreactor was designed so that both a growth medium and CO (10% in N2) passed from the inside of the fibers to the outside within the bioreactor. Bacteria were immobilized on the outer surface of the hollow fibers. Hydrogen production from CO at an average rate of 125 ml g cdw-1 h-1 (maximum rate of 700 ml g cdw-1 h-1) was observed for more than 8 months. The bubble-train bioreactor was built using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing, wound helically on a vertical cylindrical supporting structure. Small bubbles containing CO were injected continuously through a needle/septum connection from the gas reservoir (20% CO). Up to 140 ml g cdw-1 h-1 of H2 production activity was observed using this bioreactor for more than 10 days.

  6. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. 258.41 Section 258.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a) Buncombe County,...

  7. 40 CFR 258.41 - Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. 258.41 Section 258.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Design Criteria § 258.41 Project XL Bioreactor Landfill Projects. (a) Buncombe County,...

  8. OUTER LOOP BIOREACTOR PROJECT STATUS AND PRELIMINARY DATA SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluate the Performance of As-Built (Aerobic-Anaerobic) and Retrofit (Anaerobic) Landfill Bioreactors cells to that of conventional "dry tomb" landfills. Evaluate the performance of full scale bioreactor landfill on an operational level. Collect statistically sound data that wi...

  9. Microbial community analysis of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Muoz-Palazon, Barbara; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria-Jesus; Osorio, Francisco; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2015-03-01

    Full-scale applications of autotrophic nitrogen removal technologies for the treatment of digested sludge liquor have proliferated during the last decade. Among these technologies, the aerobic/anoxic deammonification process (DEMON) is one of the major applied processes. This technology achieves nitrogen removal from wastewater through anammox metabolism inside a single bioreactor due to alternating cycles of aeration. To date, microbial community composition of full-scale DEMON bioreactors have never been reported. In this study, bacterial community structure of a full-scale DEMON bioreactor located at the Apeldoorn wastewater treatment plant was analyzed using pyrosequencing. This technique provided a higher-resolution study of the bacterial assemblage of the system compared to other techniques used in lab-scale DEMON bioreactors. Results showed that the DEMON bioreactor was a complex ecosystem where ammonium oxidizing bacteria, anammox bacteria and many other bacterial phylotypes coexist. The potential ecological role of all phylotypes found was discussed. Thus, metagenomic analysis through pyrosequencing offered new perspectives over the functioning of the DEMON bioreactor by exhaustive identification of microorganisms, which play a key role in the performance of bioreactors. In this way, pyrosequencing has been proven as a helpful tool for the in-depth investigation of the functioning of bioreactors at microbiological scale. PMID:25245398

  10. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  11. Reduced-Gravity Experiments Conducted to Help Bioreactor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.; Nahra, Henry K.; Kizito, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the NASA Johnson Space Center are collaborating on fluid dynamic investigations for a future cell science bioreactor to fly on the International Space Station (ISS). Project Manager Steven Gonda from the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson is leading the development of the Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor--Space (HFB-S) for use on the ISS to study tissue growth in microgravity. Glenn is providing microgravity fluid physics expertise to help with the design and evaluation of the HFB-S. These bioreactors are used for three-dimensional tissue culture, which cannot be done in ground-based labs in normal gravity. The bioreactors provide a continual supply of oxygen for cell growth, as well as periodic replacement of cell culture media with nutrients. The bioreactor must provide a uniform distribution of oxygen and nutrients while minimizing the shear stresses on the tissue culture.

  12. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Final samples from Mir and Earth appeared histologically cartilaginous throughout their entire cross sections (5-8 mm thick), with the exception of fibrous outer capsules. Constructs grown on Earth (A) appeared to have a more organized extracellular matrix with more uniform collagen orientation as compared with constructs grown on Mir (B), but the average collagen fiber diameter was similar in the two groups (22 +- 2 nm) and comparable to that previously reported for developing articular cartilage. Randomly oriented collagen in Mir samples would be consistent with previous reports that microgravity disrupts fibrillogenesis. These are transmission electron micrographs of constructs from Mir (A) and Earth (B) groups at magnifications of x3,500 and x120,000 (Inset). The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  13. Bioreactor Engineering of Stem Cell Environments

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Nina; Marolt, Darja; Cimetta, Elisa; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold promise to revolutionize modern medicine by development of new therapies, disease models and drug screening systems. Standard cell culture systems have limited biological relevance because they do not recapitulate the complex 3-dimensional interactions and biophysical cues that characterize the in vivo environment. In this review, we discuss the current advances in engineering stem cell environments using novel biomaterials and bioreactor technologies. We also reflect on the challenges the field is currently facing with regard to translation of stem cell based therapies into the clinic. PMID:23531529

  14. Bioreactor boats high BTEX removal rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, R.

    1994-04-01

    The oil and gas industries face formidable challenges in treating process wastes to federally mandated standards. The sheer magnitude of the job is daunting: 1,200 Superfund sites and 11,000 military installations have been identified for toxic cleanup. EPA assessments place petroleum as the point source of contamination for fully 50 percent of all identified hazardous waste sites. A new treatment technolgy is a fluidized-bed bioreactor that combines the advantages of a physical carbon adsorption system with bioremediation. The system has been effective in treating tank botton wastes, brines, groundwater contaminated with benzene, toluene, xylene, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  15. Shear and Compression Bioreactor for Cartilage Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Kifah; Doran, Pauline M

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical forces, including hydrodynamic shear, hydrostatic pressure, compression, tension, and friction, can have stimulatory effects on cartilage synthesis in tissue engineering systems. Bioreactors capable of exerting forces on cells and tissue constructs within a controlled culture environment are needed to provide appropriate mechanical stimuli. In this chapter, we describe the construction, assembly, and operation of a mechanobioreactor providing simultaneous dynamic shear and compressive loading on developing cartilage tissues to mimic the rolling and squeezing action of articular joints. The device is suitable for studying the effects of mechanical treatment on stem cells and chondrocytes seeded into three-dimensional scaffolds. PMID:26445842

  16. Immersion diuresis without expected suppression of vasopressin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Silver, J. E.; Wong, N.; Spaul, W. A.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Kravik, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is a shift of blood from the lower parts of the body to the thoracic circulation during bed rest, water immersion, and presumably during weightlessness. On earth, this central fluid shift is associated with a profound diuresis. However, the mechanism involved is not yet well understood. The present investigation is concerned with measurements regarding the plasma vasopressin, fluid, electrolyte, and plasma renin activity (PRA) responses in subjects with normal preimmersion plasma vasopressin (PVP) concentration. In the conducted experiments, PRA was suppressed significantly at 30 min of immersion and had declined by 74 percent by the end of the experiment. On the basis of previously obtained results, it appears that sodium excretion during immersion may be independent of aldosterone action. Experimental results indicate that PVP is not suppressed by water immersion in normally hydrated subjects and that other factors may be responsible for the diuresis.

  17. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  18. Self-segregating materials for immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Daniel P.; Sundberg, Linda K.; Brock, Phillip J.; Ito, Hiroshi; Truong, Hoa D.; Allen, Robert D.; McIntyre, Gregory R.; Goldfarb, Dario L.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we employ the self-segregating materials approach used in topcoat-free resists for water immersion lithography to extend the performance of topcoat materials for water immersion and to increase the contact angles of organic fluids on topcoat-free resists for high index immersion lithography. By tailoring polymers that segregate to the air and resist interfaces of the topcoat, high contact angle topcoats with relatively low fluorine content are achieved. While graded topcoats may extend the performance and/or reduce the cost of topcoat materials, the large amount of unprotected acidic groups necessary for TMAH development prevent them from achieving the high contact angles and low hysteresis exhibited by topcoat-free resists. Another application of this self-segregating approach is tailoring resist surfaces for high index immersion. Due to the low surface tension and higher viscosities of organic fluids relative to water and their lower contact angles on most surfaces, film pulling cannot be prevented without dramatically reducing wafer scan rates; however, tuning the surface energy of the resist may be important to control stain morphology and facilitate fluid removal from the wafer. By tailoring fluoropolymer additives for high contact angles with second generation organic high index immersion fluids, we show herein that topcoat-free resists can be developed specifically for high index immersion lithography with good contact angles and lithographic imaging performance.

  19. High retention membrane bioreactors: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenhai; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    Extensive research has focussed on the development of novel high retention membrane bioreactor (HR-MBR) systems for wastewater reclamation in recent years. HR-MBR integrates high rejection membrane separation with conventional biological treatment in a single step. High rejection membrane separation processes currently used in HR-MBR applications include nanofiltration, forward osmosis, and membrane distillation. In these HR-MBR systems, organic contaminants can be effectively retained, prolonging their retention time in the bioreactor and thus enhancing their biodegradation. Therefore, HR-MBR can offer a reliable and elegant solution to produce high quality effluent. However, there are several technological challenges associated with the development of HR-MBR, including salinity build-up, low permeate flux, and membrane degradation. This paper provides a critical review on these challenges and potential opportunities of HR-MBR for wastewater treatment and water reclamation, and aims to guide and inform future research on HR-MBR for fast commercialisation of this innovative technology. PMID:24996563

  20. LTCC based bioreactors for cell cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, H.; Welker, T.; Welker, K.; Witte, H.; Müller, J.

    2016-01-01

    LTCC multilayers offer a wide range of structural options and flexibility of connections not available in standard thin film technology. Therefore they are considered as material base for cell culture reactors. The integration of microfluidic handling systems and features for optical and electrical capturing of indicators for cell culture growth offers the platform for an open system concept. The present paper assesses different approaches for the creation of microfluidic channels in LTCC multilayers. Basic functions required for the fluid management in bioreactors include temperature and flow control. Both features can be realized with integrated heaters and temperature sensors in LTCC multilayers. Technological conditions for the integration of such elements into bioreactors are analysed. The temperature regulation for the system makes use of NTC thermistor sensors which serve as real value input for the control of the heater. It allows the adjustment of the fluid temperature with an accuracy of 0.2 K. The tempered fluid flows through the cell culture chamber. Inside of this chamber a thick film electrode array monitors the impedance as an indicator for the growth process of 3-dimensional cell cultures. At the system output a flow sensor is arranged to monitor the continual flow. For this purpose a calorimetric sensor is implemented, and its crucial design parameters are discussed. Thus, the work presented gives an overview on the current status of LTCC based fluid management for cell culture reactors, which provides a promising base for the automation of cell culture processes.

  1. Miniature bioreactors: current practices and future opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Jonathan I; Baganz, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the emerging field of miniature bioreactors (MBRs), and examines the way in which they are used to speed up many areas of bioprocessing. MBRs aim to achieve this acceleration as a result of their inherent high-throughput capability, which results from their ability to perform many cell cultivations in parallel. There are several applications for MBRs, ranging from media development and strain improvement to process optimisation. The potential of MBRs for use in these applications will be explained in detail in this review. MBRs are currently based on several existing bioreactor platforms such as shaken devices, stirred-tank reactors and bubble columns. This review will present the advantages and disadvantages of each design together with an appraisal of prototype and commercialised devices developed for parallel operation. Finally we will discuss how MBRs can be used in conjunction with automated robotic systems and other miniature process units to deliver a fully-integrated, high-throughput (HT) solution for cell cultivation process development. PMID:16725043

  2. Novel Hydrogen Bioreactor and Detection Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Joseph A; Ye, Xinhao; Del Campo, Julia Martin; Adams, Michael W W; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2016-01-01

    In vitro hydrogen generation represents a clear opportunity for novel bioreactor and system design. Hydrogen, already a globally important commodity chemical, has the potential to become the dominant transportation fuel of the future. Technologies such as in vitro synthetic pathway biotransformation (SyPaB)-the use of more than 10 purified enzymes to catalyze unnatural catabolic pathways-enable the storage of hydrogen in the form of carbohydrates. Biohydrogen production from local carbohydrate resources offers a solution to the most pressing challenges to vehicular and bioenergy uses: small-size distributed production, minimization of CO2 emissions, and potential low cost, driven by high yield and volumetric productivity. In this study, we introduce a novel bioreactor that provides the oxygen-free gas phase necessary for enzymatic hydrogen generation while regulating temperature and reactor volume. A variety of techniques are currently used for laboratory detection of biohydrogen, but the most information is provided by a continuous low-cost hydrogen sensor. Most such systems currently use electrolysis for calibration; here an alternative method, flow calibration, is introduced. This system is further demonstrated here with the conversion of glucose to hydrogen at a high rate, and the production of hydrogen from glucose 6-phosphate at a greatly increased reaction rate, 157 mmol/L/h at 60 C. PMID:25022362

  3. Insertion and Management of Temporary Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Breandan Lawrence; Bartels, Karsten; Hamilton, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    Temporary pacemakers are used in a variety of critical care settings. These life-saving devices are reviewed in 2 major categories in this review: first, the insertion and management of epicardial pacemakers after and during cardiac surgery; and second, the insertion of transvenous temporary pacemakers for the emergent treatment of bradyarrhythmias. Temporary epicardial pacemakers are used routinely in patients recovering from cardiac surgery. Borrowing from advances in cardiac resynchronization therapy there are many theoretical and untested benefits to pacing the postoperative cardiac surgery patient. Temporary transvenous pacing is traditionally an emergency procedure to stabilize patients suffering from hemodynamically unstable bradyarrhythmia. We review the traditional and expanding use of transvenous pacemakers inside and outside the operating room. PMID:26134176

  4. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  5. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  6. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  7. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements 205.290 Temporary... of conducting research or trials of techniques, varieties, or ingredients used in organic...

  8. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations 180.31 Temporary... seeking an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  9. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations 180.31 Temporary... seeking an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  10. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations 180.31 Temporary... seeking an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  11. 40 CFR 180.31 - Temporary tolerances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 180.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Procedural Regulations 180.31 Temporary... seeking an experimental permit for a pesticide chemical under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide,...

  12. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Studies of the fundamental role of gravity in the development and function of biological organisms are a central component of the human exploration of space. Microgravity affects numerous physical phenomena relevant to biological research, including the hydrostatic pressure in fluid filled vesicles, sedimentation of organelles, and buoyancy-driven convection of flow and heat. These physical phenomena can in turn directly and indirectly affect cellular morphology, metabolism, locomotion, secretion of extracellular matrix and soluble signals, and assembly into functional tissues. Studies aimed at distinguishing specific effects of gravity on biological systems require the ability to: (i) control and systematically vary gravity, e.g. by utilizing the microgravity environment of space in conjunction with an in-flight centrifuge; and (ii) maintain constant all other factors in the immediate environment, including in particular concentrations and exchange rates of biochemical species and hydrodynamic shear. The latter criteria imply the need for gravity-independent mechanisms to provide for mass transport between the cells and their environment. Available flight hardware has largely determined the experimental design and scientific objectives of spaceflight cell and tissue culture studies carried out to date. Simple culture vessels have yielded important quantitative data, and helped establish in vitro models of cell locomotion, growth and differentiation in various mammalian cell types including embryonic lung cells [6], lymphocytes [2,8], and renal cells [7,31]. Studies done using bacterial cells established the first correlations between gravity-dependent factors such as cell settling velocity and diffusional distance and the respective cell responses [12]. The development of advanced bioreactors for microgravity cell and tissue culture and for tissue engineering has benefited both research areas and provided relevant in vitro model systems for studies of astronaut well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in vitro studies in physiologically relevant cell and tissue models. PMID:12951697

  13. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  14. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85... SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion heaters. Each oil immersion heater must have the following: (a) An operating thermostat. (b) Heating...

  15. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certifications... Validity of temporary labor certifications. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid... on the last day of authorized employment. (b) Scope of validity. A temporary labor certification...

  16. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  17. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  18. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  19. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  20. 8 CFR 215.9 - Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. 215.9... ALIENS DEPARTING FROM THE UNITED STATES 215.9 Temporary Worker Visa Exit Program. An alien admitted on certain temporary worker visas at a port of entry participating in the Temporary Worker Visa Exit...

  1. 14 CFR 47.16 - Temporary registration numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary registration numbers. 47.16... AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General 47.16 Temporary registration numbers. (a) Temporary registration numbers... for as many temporary registration numbers as are necessary for his business. The application must...

  2. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads.

    PubMed

    Muths, Erin; Scherer, Rick D; Corn, Paul Stephen; Lambert, Brad A

    2006-04-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. PMID:16676548

  4. The Role of Bioreactors in Ligament and Tendon Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Mace, James; Wheelton, Andy; Khan, Wasim S; Anand, Sanj

    2016-01-01

    Bioreactors are pivotal to the emerging field of tissue engineering. The formation of neotissue from pluripotent cell lineages potentially offers a source of tissue for clinical use without the significant donor site morbidity associated with many contemporary surgical reconstructive procedures. Modern bioreactor design is becoming increasingly complex to provide a both an expandable source of readily available pluripotent cells and to facilitate their controlled differentiation into a clinically applicable ligament or tendon like neotissue. This review presents the need for such a method, challenges in the processes to engineer neotissue and the current designs and results of modern bioreactors in the pursuit of engineered tendon and ligament. PMID:26337379

  5. Engineering biological-based vascular grafts using a pulsatile bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Angela H; Niklason, Laura E

    2011-01-01

    Much effort has been devoted to develop and advance the methodology to regenerate functional small-diameter arterial bypasses. In the physiological environment, both mechanical and chemical stimulation are required to maintain the proper development and functionality of arterial vessels. Bioreactor culture systems developed by our group are designed to support vessel regeneration within a precisely controlled chemo-mechanical environment mimicking that of native vessels. Our bioreactor assembly and maintenance procedures are fairly simple and highly repeatable. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are seeded onto a tubular polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh that is threaded over compliant silicone tubing and cultured in the bioreactor with or without pulsatile stimulation for up to 12 weeks. There are four main attributes that distinguish our bioreactor from some predecessors. 1) Unlike other culture systems that simulate only the biochemical surrounding of native blood vessels, our bioreactor also creates a physiological pulsatile environment by applying cyclic radial strain to the vessels in culture. 2) Multiple engineered vessels can be cultured simultaneously under different mechanical conditions within a controlled chemical environment. 3) The bioreactor allows a mono layer of endothelial cells (EC) to be easily coated onto the luminal side of engineered vessels for animal implantation models. 4) Our bioreactor can also culture engineered vessels with different diameter size ranged from 1 mm to 3 mm, saving the effort to tailor each individual bioreactor to fit a specific diameter size. The engineered vessels cultured in our bioreactor resemble native blood vessels histologically to some degree. Cells in the vessel walls express mature SMC contractile markers such as smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC). A substantial amount of collagen is deposited within the extracellular matrix, which is responsible for ultimate mechanical strength of the engineered vessels. Biochemical analysis also indicates that collagen content of engineered vessels is comparable to that of native arteries. Importantly, the pulsatile bioreactor has consistently regenerated vessels that exhibit mechanical properties that permit successful implantation experiments in animal models. Additionally, this bioreactor can be further modified to allow real-time assessment and tracking of collagen remodeling over time, non-invasively, using a non-linear optical microscopy (NLOM). To conclude, this bioreactor should serve as an excellent platform to study the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of functional small-diameter vascular grafts. PMID:21694696

  6. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  7. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  8. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  9. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  10. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  11. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  12. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  13. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI...

  14. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  15. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels...

  16. Mechanobiologic Research in a Microgravity Environment Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, A.; Dubini, G.; Tominetti, F.; Raimondi, M.

    A current problem in tissue culturing technology is the unavailability of an effective Bioreactor for the in vitro cultivation of cells and explants. It has, in fact, proved extremely difficult to promote the high-density three-dimensional in vitro growth of human tissues that have been removed from the body and deprived of their normal in vivo vascular sources of nutrients and gas exchange. A variety of tissue explants can be maintained for a short period of time on a supportive collagen matrix surrounded by culture medium. But this system provides only limited mass transfer of nutrients and wastes through the tissue, and gravity-induced sedimentation prevents complete three- dimensional cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Several devices presently on the market have been used with only limited success since each has limitations, which restrict usefulness and versatility. Further, no Bioreactor or culture vessel is known that will allow for unimpeded growth of three dimensional cellular aggregates or tissue. Extensive research on the effect of mechanical stimuli on cell metabolism suggests that tissues may respond to mechanical stimulation via loading-induced flow of the interstitial fluids. During the culture, cells are subject to a flow of culture medium. Flow properties such as flow field, flow regime (e.g. turbulent or laminar), flow pattern (e.g. circular), entity and distribution of the shear stress acting on the cells greatly influence fundamental aspects of cell function, such as regulation and gene expression. This has been demonstrated for endothelial cells and significant research efforts are underway to elucidate these mechanisms in various other biological systems. Local fluid dynamics is also responsible of the mass transfer of nutrients and catabolites as well as oxygenation through the tissue. Most of the attempts to culture tissue-engineered constructs in vitro have utilized either stationary cultures or systems generating relatively small mechanical forces. For example, cartilage constructs have been cultured in spinner flasks under mixed or unmixed conditions, in simulated and in real microgravity. In these mixing studies, however, it is difficult to definitively quantify the effects of mixing-induced mechanical forces from those of convection-enhanced transport of nutrients to and of catabolites away from the cells. At the state of the art, the presence of a more controlled mechanical environment may be the condition required in order to study the biochemical and mechanical response of these biological systems. Such a controlled environment could lead to an advanced fluid dynamic design of the culture chamber that could both enhance the local mass transfer phenomena and match the needs of specific macroscopic mechanical effects in tissue development. The bioreactor is an excellent example of how the skills and resources of two distinctly different fields can complement each other. Microgravity can be used to enhance the formation of tissue like aggregates in specially designed bioreactors. Theoretical and experimental projects are under way to improve cell culture techniques using microgravity conditions experienced during space flights. Bioreactors usable under space flight conditions impose constructional principles which are different from those intended solely for ground applications. The Columbus Laboratory as part of the International Space Station (ISS) will be an evolving facility in low Earth orbit. Its mission is to support scientific, technological, and commercial activities in space. A goal of this research is to design a unique bioreactor for use sequentially from ground research to space research. One of the particularities of the simulated microgravity obtained through time averaging of the weight vector is that by varying the rotational velocity the same results can be obtained with a different value of g. One of the first applications of this technique in space biology was in fact the Rotating Wall Vessel developed by NASA, and originally designed to protect cell culture from the high shear forces generated during the launch and the landing of the Space Shuttle. A Bioreactor that is used both for ground and flight experiments provides the additional benefit of isolating dependent variable of gravity. This continuity will provide a means to compare results to a control experiment.

  17. The effect of fine bubble aeration intensity on membrane bioreactor sludge characteristics and fouling.

    PubMed

    De Temmerman, L; Maere, T; Temmink, H; Zwijnenburg, A; Nopens, I

    2015-06-01

    While most membrane bioreactor (MBR) research focuses on improving membrane filtration through air scour, backwashing and chemical cleaning to physically counteract fouling, relatively few studies have dealt with fouling prevention, e.g. minimizing the impact of operational settings that negatively impact sludge filterability. To evaluate the importance of those settings, the effects of bioreactor aeration intensity variations on membrane fouling have been studied in a lab-scale MBR setup while simultaneously monitoring a unique set of key sludge parameters. In particular, this paper focuses on the impact of shear dynamics resulting from fine air bubbles on the activated sludge quality and flocculation state, impacting membrane fouling. When augmenting the fine bubble aeration intensity both the total and irreversible fouling rate increased. Major indications for sludge filterability deterioration were found to be a shift in the particle size distribution (PSD) in the 3-300 μm range towards smaller sludge flocs, and increasing concentrations of submicron particles (10-1000 nm), soluble microbial products and biopolymers. When lowering the aeration intensity, both the sludge characteristics and fouling either went back to background values or stabilized, respectively indicating a temporary or more permanent effect, with or without time delay. The shift in PSD to smaller flocs and fragments likely increased the total fouling through the formation of a less permeable cake layer, while high concentrations of submicron particles were likely causing increased irreversible fouling through pore blocking. The insights from the performed fouling experiments can be used to optimize system operation with respect to influent dynamics. PMID:25794465

  18. Bioreactors Drive Advances in Tissue Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    It was an unlikely moment for inspiration. Engineers David Wolf and Ray Schwarz stopped by their lab around midday. Wolf, of Johnson Space Center, and Schwarz, with NASA contractor Krug Life Sciences (now Wyle Laboratories Inc.), were part of a team tasked with developing a unique technology with the potential to enhance medical research. But that wasn t the focus at the moment: The pair was rounding up colleagues interested in grabbing some lunch. One of the lab s other Krug engineers, Tinh Trinh, was doing something that made Wolf forget about food. Trinh was toying with an electric drill. He had stuck the barrel of a syringe on the bit; it spun with a high-pitched whirr when he squeezed the drill s trigger. At the time, a multidisciplinary team of engineers and biologists including Wolf, Schwarz, Trinh, and project manager Charles D. Anderson, who formerly led the recovery of the Apollo capsules after splashdown and now worked for Krug was pursuing the development of a technology called a bioreactor, a cylindrical device used to culture human cells. The team s immediate goal was to grow human kidney cells to produce erythropoietin, a hormone that regulates red blood cell production and can be used to treat anemia. But there was a major barrier to the technology s success: Moving the liquid growth media to keep it from stagnating resulted in turbulent conditions that damaged the delicate cells, causing them to quickly die. The team was looking forward to testing the bioreactor in space, hoping the device would perform more effectively in microgravity. But on January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart shortly after launch, killing its seven crewmembers. The subsequent grounding of the shuttle fleet had left researchers with no access to space, and thus no way to study the effects of microgravity on human cells. As Wolf looked from Trinh s syringe-capped drill to where the bioreactor sat on a workbench, he suddenly saw a possible solution to both problems. It dawned on me that rotating the wall of the reactor would solve one of our fundamental fluid mechanical problems, specifically by removing the velocity gradient of the tissue culture fluid media near the reactor s walls, says Wolf. It looked as though it would allow us to suspend the growing cells within the reactor without introducing turbulent fluid mechanical conditions.

  19. Effects of resin-based temporary filling materials against dentin demineralization.

    PubMed

    Shiiya, Toru; Tomiyama, Kiyoshi; Iizuka, Junko; Hasegawa, Haruhiko; Kuramochi, Erika; Fujino, Fukue; Ohashi, Katsura; Nihei, Tomotaro; Teranaka, Toshio; Mukai, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anti-demineralization effects of resin-based temporary filling materials containing surface prereacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) filler on dentin. Bovine root dentin specimens with a 3×3 mm experimental surface were divided into four treatment groups: DuraSeal (DU) as a control, S-PRG filler-free temporary material (S0), material containing 10% (S10) and 20% (S20) S-PRG filler. Each material was applied to 3×2 mm of the experimental surface, and the specimens were immersed in 8% methylcellulose gel demineralization system for one week at 37˚C. Mineral profiles and integrated mineral loss (IML) of lesions induced on the surface (3×1 mm) adjacent to the materials were computed by transversal microradiography. S10 and S20 yielded thick surface layers and shallow lesion bodies, with significantly lower IML than DU and S0 (p<0.05, Tukey's test). These findings indicate that temporary filling resin-based materials containing over 10% of S-PRG filler content have anti-demineralization effects on adjacent dentin. PMID:26830825

  20. Eddingtons gravity in immersed spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azri, Hemza

    2015-03-01

    We formulate Eddingtons affine gravity in a spacetime that is immersed in a larger eight-dimensional space endowed with a hypercomplex structure. The dynamical equation of the first immersed Ricci-type tensor leads to gravitational field equations which include matter. We also study the dynamical effects of the second Ricci-type tensor when added to the Lagrangian density. A simple Lagrangian density constructed from a combination of the standard Ricci tensor and a new tensor field that appears due to the immersion, leads to gravitational equations in which the vacuum energy gravitates with a different cosmological strength as in Demir (2014 Phys. Rev. D 90 064017), rather than with Newtons constant. As a result, the tiny observed curvature is reproduced due to large hierarchies rather than fine tuning.

  1. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Spaulding, Glenn F.; Tsao, Yow-Min D.; Flechsig, Scott; Jones, Leslie; Soehnge, Holly

    2003-01-01

    The hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) is a bioreactor system designed for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue-engineering investigations on orbiting spacecraft and in laboratories on Earth. The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear culture environment simultaneously with the "herding" of suspended cells, tissue assemblies, and air bubbles. Under development for use in the Biotechnology Facility on the International Space Station, the HFB has successfully grown large three-dimensional, tissuelike assemblies from anchorage-dependent cells and grown suspension hybridoma cells to high densities. The HFB, based on the principle of hydrodynamic focusing, provides the capability to control the movement of air bubbles and removes them from the bioreactor without degrading the low-shear culture environment or the suspended three-dimensional tissue assemblies. The HFB also provides unparalleled control over the locations of cells and tissues within its bioreactor vessel during operation and sampling.

  2. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN - METHANOTROPHIC BIOREACTOR SYSTEM - BIOTROL, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BioTrol's Methanotrophic Bioreactor is an above-ground remedial system for water contaminated with halogenated volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene (ICE) and related chemicals. Its design features circumvent problems peculiar to treatment of this unique class o...

  3. Salmonella Typhimurium grown in a rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium appears green in on human intestinal tissue (stained red) cultured in a NASA rotating wall bioreactor. Dr. Cheryl Nickerson of Tulane University is studying the effects of simulated low-g on a well-known pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that causes two to four million cases of gastrointestinal illness in the United States each year. While most healthy people recover readily, S. typhimurium can kill people with weakened immune systems. Thus, a simple case of food poisoning could disrupt a space mission. Using the NASA rotating-wall bioreactor, Nickerson cultured S. typhimurium in modeled microgravity. Mice infected with the bacterium died an average of three days faster than the control mice, indicating that S. typhimurium's virulence was enhanced by the bioreactor. Earlier research showed that 3 percent of the genes were altered by exposure to the bioreactor. Nickerson's work earned her a 2001 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.

  4. Upflow bioreactor with septum and pressure release mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Conly L.; Hansen, Carl S.; Pack, Kevin; Milligan, John; Benefiel, Bradley C.; Tolman, C. Wayne; Tolman, Kenneth W.

    2010-04-20

    An upflow bioreactor includes a vessel having an inlet and an outlet configured for upflow operation. A septum is positioned within the vessel and defines a lower chamber and an upper chamber. The septum includes an aperture that provides fluid communication between the upper chamber and lower chamber. The bioreactor also includes means for releasing pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In one configuration, the septum includes a releasable portion having an open position and a closed position. The releasable portion is configured to move to the open position in response to pressure buildup in the lower chamber. In the open position fluid communication between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is increased. Alternatively the lower chamber can include a pressure release line that is selectively actuated by pressure buildup. The pressure release mechanism can prevent the bioreactor from plugging and/or prevent catastrophic damage to the bioreactor caused by high pressures.

  5. A Bioreactor for In Cell Protein NMR

    PubMed Central

    Sharaf, Naima G.; Barnes, Christopher O.; Charlton, Lisa M.; Young, Gregory B.; Pielak, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The inside of the cell is a complex environment that is difficult to simulate when studying proteins and other molecules in vitro. We have developed a device and system that provides a controlled environment for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments involving living cells. Our device comprises two main parts, an NMR detection region and a circulation system. The flow of medium from the bottom of the device pushes alginate encapsulated cells into the circulation chamber. In the chamber, the exchange of oxygen and nutrients occurs between the media and the encapsulated cells. When the media flow is stopped, the encapsulated cells fall back into the NMR detection region, and spectra can be acquired. We have utilized the bioreactor to study the expression of the natively disordered protein ?-synuclein, inside Escherichia coli cells. PMID:19910228

  6. Studies of craniofacial development in rotating bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Duke, P J; Williams, P; Horn, N; Iverson, J; Leonhart, V; Kong, J; Montufar-Solis, D

    2007-07-01

    Several studies in our laboratory assessed the effect of 3-D culture in various rotating bioreactors on craniofacial development. Initially, mouse first branchial arches were cultured. Molar and incisor development occurred in both upper and lower jaws, but maxilla development was deficient because no brain was present. In a second study using excised whole heads, the oral epithelia fused and teeth did not develop. External structure of the face was obliterated, although internally, eye development was excellent. To preserve both internal spaces and external face structure, subsequent experiments used heads encapsulated in alginate. Teeth developed in these heads, though some interior components were necrotic. Additional experiments used older embryos, with already initiated structures, and less concentrated alginate. Orientation and unreserved identification of structures remain unresolved issues. Future studies will identify structures of interest using transcription factors unique to these structures at particular stages of fetal development. PMID:18372730

  7. Orbitally shaken single-use bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Klckner, Wolf; Diederichs, Sylvia; Bchs, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    : Orbitally shaken single-use reactors are promising reactors for upstream processing, because they fulfill three general requirements for single-use equipment. First, the design of the disposable parts is inherently simple and cost-efficient, because no complex built-in elements such as baffles or rotating stirrers are required. Second, the liquid distribution induced by orbital shaking is well-defined and accurately predictable. Third, the scale-up from small-scale systems, where shaken bioreactors are commonly applied, is simple and has been successfully proven up to the cubic meter scale. However, orbitally shaken single-use reactors are only suitable for certain applications such as cultivating animal or plant cells with low oxygen demand. Thus, detailed knowledge about the performance of such systems on different scales is essential to exploit their full potential. This article presents an overview about opportunities and limitations of shaken single-use reactors. PMID:23604207

  8. Microbial Bioreactor Development in the ALS NSCORT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Cary; Whitaker, Dawn; Banks, M. Katherine; Heber, Albert J.; Turco, Ronald F.; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.; Sharvelle, Sybil E.; Li, Congna; Heller, Megan

    The NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advanced Life Support (the ALS NSCORT), a partnership of Alabama A & M, Howard, and Purdue Universities, was established by NASA in 2002 to develop technologies that will reduce the Equivalent System Mass (ESM) of regenerative processes within future space life-support systems. A key focus area of NSCORT research has been the development of efficient microbial bioreactors for treatment of human, crop, and food-process wastes while enabling resource recovery. The approach emphasizes optimizing the energy-saving advantages of hydrolytic enzymes for biomass degradation, with focus on treatment of solid wastes including crop residue, paper, food, and human metabolic wastes, treatment of greywater, cabin air, off-gases from other treatment systems, and habitat condensate. This summary includes important findings from those projects, status of technology development, and recommendations for next steps. The Plant-based Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioreactor-Linked Operation (PAABLO) system was developed to reduce crop residue while generating energy and/or food. Plant residues initially were added directly to the bioreactor, and recalcitrant residue was used as a substrate for growing plants or mushrooms. Subsequently, crop residue was first pretreated with fungi to hydrolyze polymers recalcitrant to bacteria, and leachate from the fungal beds was directed to the anaerobic digester. Exoenzymes from the fungi pre-soften fibrous plant materials, improving recovery of materials that are more easily biodegraded to methane that can be used for energy reclamation. An Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) system was developed for biodegradable solid wastes. Objectives were to increase water and nutrient recovery, reduce waste volume, and inactivate pathogens. Operational parameters of the reactor were optimized for degradation and resource recovery while minimizing system requirements and footprint. The start-up behavior and recycling of effluent supernatant were evaluated to maximize degradation and minimize water input. The off-gases proceeded to a bioregenerative air-treatment reactor, and the sludge effluent was investigated for multiple downstream uses including dewatering by reed beds, use as a nutrient supplement for fish or mushroom growth, and as a growth medium and nutrient source for various crops. The Bio-Regenerative Environmental Air Treatment for Health (BREATHe I) reactor treated greywater and off-gases from the thermophilic aerobic digestion reactor which contained elevated levels of ammonia (NH3 ) and hydrogen sulfide (H2 S). BREATHe I development focused initially on removing greywater contaminants with clean air supplied to a biotrickling filter. Limited removal of organic carbon (70%) led to studies indicating that biodegradation metabolites of the surfactant disodium cocoamphodiacetate are recalcitrant. Subsequent studies showed that NH3 loaded at 150 mg/min and H2 S at 0.83 mg/min were removed completely, while removal of carbonaceous compounds from greywater remained constant. A BREATHe II reactor emphasized biofilters and biotrickling filters for removal of ersatz multicomponent gaseous waste streams representative of habitat air and atmospheric condensate. The model waste stream contained a mixture of acetone, n-butanol, methane, ethylene, and ammonia. Both biofilters and biotrickling filters packed with different media were able to achieve complete removal of easily soluble compounds such as acetone, n-butanol, and ammonia within a short startup period, whereas methane was not removed because of its extreme aqueous insolubility. Different packing media and bioreactor configurations were subsequently assessed, as well as the effect of influent ammonia concentration. Research sponsored in part by NASA grant NAG5-12686.

  9. Platelet bioreactor-on-a-chip

    PubMed Central

    Mazutis, Linas; Wu, Stephen; Sylman, Joanna L.; Ehrlicher, Allen; Machlus, Kellie R.; Feng, Qiang; Lu, Shijiang; Lanza, Robert; Neeves, Keith B.; Weitz, David A.; Italiano, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet transfusions total >2.17 million apheresis-equivalent units per year in the United States and are derived entirely from human donors, despite clinically significant immunogenicity, associated risk of sepsis, and inventory shortages due to high demand and 5-day shelf life. To take advantage of known physiological drivers of thrombopoiesis, we have developed a microfluidic human platelet bioreactor that recapitulates bone marrow stiffness, extracellular matrix composition, micro-channel size, hemodynamic vascular shear stress, and endothelial cell contacts, and it supports high-resolution live-cell microscopy and quantification of platelet production. Physiological shear stresses triggered proplatelet initiation, reproduced ex vivo bone marrow proplatelet production, and generated functional platelets. Modeling human bone marrow composition and hemodynamics in vitro obviates risks associated with platelet procurement and storage to help meet growing transfusion needs. PMID:25606631

  10. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.; Shtern, Vladimir N.

    2015-12-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air-water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, Hw, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small Hw, the AMF effect dominates. As Hw increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors.

  11. Rotating bio-reactor cell culture apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Ray P. (Inventor); Wolf, David A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A bioreactor system is described in which a tubular housing contains an internal circularly disposed set of blade members and a central tubular filter all mounted for rotation about a common horizontal axis and each having independent rotational support and rotational drive mechanisms. The housing, blade members and filter preferably are driven at a constant slow speed for placing a fluid culture medium with discrete microbeads and cell cultures in a discrete spatial suspension in the housing. Replacement fluid medium is symmetrically input and fluid medium is symmetrically output from the housing where the input and the output are part of a loop providing a constant or intermittent flow of fluid medium in a closed loop.

  12. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems.

    PubMed

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is 'biomimetic' in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2-4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  13. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    PubMed Central

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  14. Tissue grown in space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Lisa E. Freed of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and her colleagues have reported that initially disc-like specimens of cartilage tend to become spherical in space, demonstrating that tissues can grow and differentiate into distinct structures in microgravity. The Mir Increment 3 (Sept. 16, 1996 - Jan. 22, 1997) samples were smaller, more spherical, and mechanically weaker than Earth-grown control samples. These results demonstrate the feasibility of microgravity tissue engineering and may have implications for long human space voyages and for treating musculoskeletal disorders on earth. Constructs grown on Mir (A) tended to become more spherical, whereas those grown on Earth (B) maintained their initial disc shape. These findings might be related to differences in cultivation conditions, i.e., videotapes showed that constructs floated freely in microgravity but settled and collided with the rotating vessel wall at 1g (Earth's gravity). In particular, on Mir the constructs were exposed to uniform shear and mass transfer at all surfaces such that the tissue grew equally in all directions, whereas on Earth the settling of discoid constructs tended to align their flat circular areas perpendicular to the direction of motion, increasing shear and mass transfer circumferentially such that the tissue grew preferentially in the radial direction. A and B are full cross sections of constructs from Mir and Earth groups shown at 10-power. C and D are representative areas at the construct surfaces enlarged to 200-power. They are stained red with safranin-O. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Photo credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

  15. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    PubMed

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. PMID:24913752

  16. Options for temporary mechanical circulatory support

    PubMed Central

    Saffarzadeh, Areo

    2015-01-01

    Temporary mechanical circulatory support (MCS) refers to a group of devices generally used for less than 30 days to maintain adequate organ perfusion by compensating for a failure of the pumping mechanism of the heart. The increased availability and rapid adoption of new temporary MCS strategies necessitate physicians to become familiar with devices placed both percutaneously and via median sternotomy. This review will examine the different options for commonly used temporary MCS devices including intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs), veno-arterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO), TandemHeart® (CardiacAssist, Pittsburg, PA, USA) Impella® and BVS 5000® (both Abiomed Inc., Danvers, MA, USA), CentriMag® and Thoratec percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD)® (both Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, USA). A specific emphasis will be made to describe relevant mechanisms of action, standard placement strategies, hemodynamic effects, relevant contraindications and complications, and important daily management considerations. PMID:26793330

  17. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory…

  18. How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allery, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group…

  19. Immersion Calorimetry: Molecular Packing Effects in Micropores.

    PubMed

    Madani, S Hadi; Silvestre-Albero, Ana; Biggs, Mark J; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco; Pendleton, Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Repeated and controlled immersion calorimetry experiments were performed to determine the specific surface area and pore-size distribution (PSD) of a well-characterized, microporous poly(furfuryl alcohol)-based activated carbon. The PSD derived from nitrogen gas adsorption indicated a narrow distribution centered at 0.57±0.05 nm. Immersion into liquids of increasing molecular sizes ranging from 0.33 nm (dichloromethane) to 0.70 nm (α-pinene) showed a decreasing enthalpy of immersion at a critical probe size (0.43-0.48 nm), followed by an increase at 0.48-0.56 nm, and a second decrease at 0.56-0.60 nm. This maximum has not been reported previously. After consideration of possible reasons for this new observation, it is concluded that the effect arises from molecular packing inside the micropores, interpreted in terms of 2D packing. The immersion enthalpy PSD was consistent with that from quenched solid density functional theory (QSDFT) analysis of the nitrogen adsorption isotherm. PMID:26394883

  20. Architectures for Developing Multiuser, Immersive Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Hummel, Hans G. K.; Slootmaker, Aad; van der Vegt, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Multiuser immersive learning scenarios hold strong potential for lifelong learning as they can support the acquisition of higher order skills in an effective, efficient, and attractive way. Existing virtual worlds, game development platforms, and game engines only partly cater for the proliferation of such learning scenarios as they are often

  1. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... appropriate size for each person on board. (b) If watch stations, work stations, or work sites are remote from... suits stowed at the watch stations, work stations, or work sites to equal the number of persons normally on watch in, or assigned to, those locations at any time. (c) The immersion suits required...

  2. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appropriate size for each person on board. (b) If watch stations, work stations, or work sites are remote from... suits stowed at the watch stations, work stations, or work sites to equal the number of persons normally on watch in, or assigned to, those locations at any time. (c) The immersion suits required...

  3. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate size for each person on board. (b) If watch stations, work stations, or work sites are remote from... suits stowed at the watch stations, work stations, or work sites to equal the number of persons normally on watch in, or assigned to, those locations at any time. (c) The immersion suits required...

  4. 46 CFR 199.273 - Immersion suits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suits stowed at the watch stations, work stations, or work sites to equal the number of persons normally on watch in, or assigned to, those locations at any time. (c) The immersion suits required under... appropriate size for each person on board. (b) If watch stations, work stations, or work sites are remote...

  5. Using Immersive Virtual Environments for Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, R.; Cruz-Neira, C.

    1998-01-01

    Immersive virtual environments (VEs) technology has matured to the point where it can be utilized as a scientific and engineering problem solving tool. In particular, VEs are starting to be used to design and evaluate safety-critical systems that involve human operators, such as flight and driving simulators, complex machinery training, and emergency rescue strategies.

  6. ICP Source with Immersed Ferromagnetic Inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery

    2013-09-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) sources have found a wide range of applications in various areas of plasma science and technology. Among different ICP topology, ICPs with immersed inductors have benefits (compared to ICPs with helical side or flat top inductors) of better coupling and electromagnetic (EM) field self-screening by the plasma surrounding the inductor. This allows for EM-free otter plasma boundary, thus making an ICP chamber entirely of metal or glass, with no EM radiation outside the plasma. It's been long known that ICP enhanced with ferromagnetic core immersed inductor is applicable in rf light sources and has demonstrated good performance. In this presentation we report a detailed experimental study of the electrical and plasma characteristics of compact ICPs with immersed ferromagnetic inductors in argon and xenon gas. The extremely high plasma transfer efficiency of this plasma source has been demonstrated in a wide range of gas pressure and rf power. A compact plasma cathode built with ICP having an immersed ferromagnetic inductor, and operating at 70-200 W has shown high power transfer efficiency of 97%, and electron emission efficiency of 25 mA/W. These data are superior compared to those demonstrated for other plasma cathodes.

  7. Immersion versus interactivity and analytic field.

    PubMed

    Civitarese, Giuseppe

    2008-04-01

    Losing oneself in a story, a film or a picture is nothing but another step in the suspension of disbelief that permits one to become immersed in the 'novel' of reality. It is not by chance that the text-world metaphor informs classical aesthetics that, more than anything else, emphasizes emotional involvement. On the contrary, as in much of modern art, self-reflexivity and metafictional attention to the rhetoric of the real, to the framework, to the conventions and to the processes of meaning production, all involve a disenchanted, detached and sceptic vision--in short, an aesthetics of the text as game. By analogy, any analytic style or model that aims to produce a transformative experience must satisfactorily resolve the conflict between immersion (the analyst's emotional participation and sticking to the dreamlike or fictional climate of the session, dreaming knowing it's a dream) and interactivity (for the most part, interpretation as an anti-immersive device that 'wakes' one from fiction and demystifies consciousness). In analytic field theory the setting can be defined--because of the weight given to performativity of language, to the sensory matrix of the transference and the transparency of the medium--the place where an ideal balance is sought between immersion and interaction. PMID:18405284

  8. How One Class Experienced Cultural Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allery, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-one teacher candidates and faculty from Turtle Mountain Community College (TMCC, Belcourt, North Dakota) and Cikana Cankdeska Community College (CCCC, Fort Totten, North Dakota) traveled by train from North Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota, for an immersion experience as part of their Human Relations and Multicultural Education. The group

  9. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  10. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  11. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  12. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  13. 21 CFR 890.5100 - Immersion hydrobath.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immersion hydrobath. 890.5100 Section 890.5100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5100...

  14. Children's Learning Strategies in Language Immersion Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamot, Ana Uhl; El-Dinary, Pamela Beard

    1999-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of learning-strategy applications in elementary French, Japanese, and Spanish immersion classrooms. Focus is on identifying strategies that more and less effective learners use for classroom reading and writing tasks in the target language. Think-aloud data from 3rd-grade and 4th-grade students were quantified and

  15. Late Immersion Foundation Document: Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this document is to give teachers and administrators the contextual and pedagogical tools for the late immersion program. It acts as a guide for beginning and experienced teachers who need to update their knowledge regarding this program and its details. For many working in this area, it also confirms their daily practices as well as

  16. Digital Immersive Virtual Environments and Instructional Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blascovich, Jim; Beall, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews theory and research relevant to the development of digital immersive virtual environment-based instructional computing systems. The review is organized within the context of a multidimensional model of social influence and interaction within virtual environments that models the interaction of four theoretical factors: theory

  17. Temporary migration in Shanghai and Beijing.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, A; Guo, S

    1992-01-01

    The Shanghai Floating Population Study was carried out in 1984 with the objective of estimating the number of temporary residents in the city. This was supplemented by the Shanghai Temporary Migration Survey, which obtained information from a sample of 8716 temporary migrants living in households with permanent residents. The Beijing Temporary Migration Survey of 1985 also obtained information from temporary migrants yielding a sample of 3418. The sex ratio of 68 males per 100 females among Beijing's household temporary migrants was considerably lower than the ratio of 92 for those in Shanghai. The median age was 29.6 years for males and 27.7 years for females in the Beijing sample compared to 20.0 and 22.6 years, respectively, in the Shanghai sample. In the Beijing sample 1/3 came from urban places and 2/3 were of rural origin. In contrast, in Shanghai 2/3 came from other urban locations. 1/3 of migrants in Beijing originated in Hebei, the province immediately adjoining the city. Most other temporary migrants came from the regions closest to Beijing. Migrants who stayed in Beijing's hotels cited business as their motivation: over half the men and almost 1/3 of the women. Multiple logistic analysis using pooled data from both cities suggest that under 10% of migrants migrated for work, but far larger percentages came to visit or to stay. 25-44 year olds, males, and nonrelatives cited mainly the economic motive. Children 5-14 years old, immediate relatives, and those from nonadjacent provinces came to the cities to live, while older people (65-69 years old), not immediate relatives, urban persons, and those from adjacent provinces were more likely to come for visits. Among people 25-29 years old over half were expected to come to Beijing to work, while this was true for only 18% of migrants in Shanghai. Temporary migrants living in Beijing had been there for 34 months, while those in Shanghai had an estimated duration of residence of only 26 months. PMID:12319798

  18. Case Study of a Teacher Retraining Program for French Immersion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Janet M.; Shapson, Stan M.

    1989-01-01

    The design, implementation, and evaluation of a British Columbia program to retrain French teachers in immersion instruction is described. The program's impetus was the need for pedagogically qualified and linguistically competent immersion teachers. (21 references) (Author/MSE)

  19. A Hybrid Immersed Boundary-Immersed Interface Method for Cell Tracking in Microdevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossan, Mohammad; Dutta, Prashanta; Dillon, Robert

    2011-11-01

    The manipulation of cells in microfluidic devices has become routine for biomedical applications such as cell sorting and trapping. To date most of the designs used for cell manipulation are based on experimental trial and error. A fast and accurate numerical algorithm can provide important insight into the design of these devices. In this study, a hybrid immersed boundary-immersed interface method is developed to study the complex behavior of cells in liquid. The immersed boundary method provides an accurate prediction of particle motion in a fluid while the immersed interface method gives second-order accurate solutions for the ion concentrations and electrostatic potential in the presence of moving cells. Both methods employ a fixed computational grid without the need for remeshing at each time step. Cells of different size, shape and charge are allowed to move under both hydrodynamic and electrokinetic forces. Moreover different channel geometries are considered to obtain the best trapping and separation performance. The present immersed boundary-immersed interface model is particularly suitable for bioMEMS devices as this method can accurately predict viscous and electrostatic forces as well as particle velocity, location, and particle membrane deflection.

  20. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Noah, K.S.; Sayer, R.L.; Thompson, D.N.

    1998-06-30

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams. 6 figs.

  1. Modular bioreactor for the remediation of liquid streams and methods for using the same

    DOEpatents

    Noah, Karl S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sayer, Raymond L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a bioreactor system for the remediation of contaminated liquid streams. The bioreactor system is composed of at least one and often a series of sub-units referred to as bioreactor modules. The modular nature of the system allows bioreactor systems be subdivided into smaller units and transported to waste sites where they are combined to form bioreactor systems of any size. The bioreactor modules further comprises reactor fill materials in the bioreactor module that remove the contaminants from the contaminated stream. To ensure that the stream thoroughly contacts the reactor fill materials, each bioreactor module comprises means for directing the flow of the stream in a vertical direction and means for directing the flow of the stream in a horizontal direction. In a preferred embodiment, the reactor fill comprises a sulfate reducing bacteria which is particularly useful for precipitating metals from acid mine streams.

  2. 22 CFR 123.5 - Temporary export licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from a U.S. Post Office (see 39 CFR part 20), as appropriate. The license for temporary export must be... issue a license for the temporary export of unclassified defense articles (DSP-73). Such licenses...

  3. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  4. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  5. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1202 - Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps 75.1202 Temporary notations, revisions, and supplements. Such map shall be kept up-to-date by temporary notations and such...

  10. 33 CFR 211.5 - Temporary use; how granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Temporary Use by Others of Civil Works Real Estate 211.5 Temporary use; how granted. There are three...

  11. 47 CFR 1.931 - Application for special temporary authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wireless Radio Services Applications and Proceedings Application Requirements and Procedures 1.931 Application for special temporary authority. (a) Wireless Telecommunications Services. (1) In circumstances requiring immediate or temporary use of station in the Wireless Telecommunications Services, carriers...

  12. 7 CFR 205.290 - Temporary variances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary variances. 205.290 Section 205.290 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION...

  13. Skills Development While in Temporary Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munchhausen, Gesa

    2008-01-01

    The question of skill development in temporary work has so far been neglected in research and practice. The expansion and speciality of this way of earning a living--particularly as a result of the frequently changing demands on different workplaces and the strategy of lifelong learning favoured by educational policy in order to obtain and improve…

  14. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS ...

  15. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS ...

  16. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS ...

  17. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS ...

  18. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of

  19. 14 CFR 65.13 - Temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... review of his application and supplementary documents and the issue of the certificate and ratings for... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary certificate. 65.13 Section 65.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  20. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... Temporary Mailing Promotion AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... with offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin...

  1. 15 CFR 766.24 - Temporary denials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Temporary denials. 766.24 Section 766.24 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS...

  2. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is temporarily closed, owners and operators must continue operation and maintenance of corrosion protection in... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using...

  3. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (UST) Out-of-Service UST Systems and Closure 280.70 Temporary closure. (a) When an UST system is temporarily closed, owners and operators must continue operation and maintenance of corrosion protection in... the UST system is empty. The UST system is empty when all materials have been removed using...

  4. 22 CFR 120.18 - Temporary import.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (see 27 CFR parts 447, 478, 479, and 555). ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary import. 120.18 Section 120.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS ...

  5. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential Products Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.65 Temporary exemptions. (a) Any... products specified as nonessential in § 82.70 which are manufactured and placed into initial inventory...

  6. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... temporarily closed, owners and operators must continue operation and maintenance of corrosion protection in... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  7. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... temporarily closed, owners and operators must continue operation and maintenance of corrosion protection in... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  8. 40 CFR 280.70 - Temporary closure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... temporarily closed, owners and operators must continue operation and maintenance of corrosion protection in... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Temporary closure. 280.70 Section 280.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES...

  9. 78 FR 46279 - Forchlorfenuron; Temporary Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ...This regulation establishes temporary tolerances for residues of forchlorfenuron in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. KIM-C1, LLC requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) for uses associated with an experimental use permit. The tolerances expire on December 31,...

  10. Combination of photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor for the removal of ethyl violet from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yu; Yen, Shao-Hsiung; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2014-12-01

    An efficient treatment system that combines a photoreactor and packed bed bioreactor (PBR) was developed and evaluated for treating ethyl violet (EV)-containing wastewater. Initial experiments demonstrated that the optimal operating parameters for the photoreactor in treating EV-containing wastewater were 2h reaction time, pH of 7, and 2 min liquid retention time. Under these conditions, the photocatalytic reaction achieved a 61% EV removal efficiency and resulted in a significant BOD/COD increase in the solution. The results displayed by the coupled photobiological system achieved a removal efficiency of 85% and EC50 of the solution increased by 19 times in a semi-continuous mode when the EV concentration was <150 mg +L(-)(1). The effect of shock loading on the EV removal was temporary but coexisting substrate (glucose and crystal violet) at specific levels would affect the EV removal efficiency of the PBR. Phylogenetic analysis in the PBR indicated that the major bacteria species were Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus, Ralstonia pickettii, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Comamonas sp. Furthermore, the possible degrading mechanisms of this coupled system were demethylation, deethylation, aromatic ring opening, nitrification, and carbon oxidation. The intermediates were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. These results indicated that the coupled photobiological system provides an effective method of EV removal. PMID:25259784

  11. The Flostation - an Immersive Cyberspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brian

    2006-01-01

    A flostation is a computer-controlled apparatus that, along with one or more computer(s) and other computer-controlled equipment, is part of an immersive cyberspace system. The system is said to be immersive in two senses of the word: (1) It supports the body in a modified form neutral posture experienced in zero gravity and (2) it is equipped with computer-controlled display equipment that helps to give the occupant of the chair a feeling of immersion in an environment that the system is designed to simulate. Neutral immersion was conceived during the Gemini program as a means of training astronauts for working in a zerogravity environment. Current derivatives include neutral-buoyancy tanks and the KC-135 airplane, each of which mimics the effects of zero gravity. While these have performed well in simulating the shorter-duration flights typical of the space program to date, a training device that can take astronauts to the next level will be needed for simulating longer-duration flights such as that of the International Space Station. The flostation is expected to satisfy this need. The flostation could also be adapted and replicated for use in commercial ventures ranging from home entertainment to medical treatment. The use of neutral immersion in the flostation enables the occupant to recline in an optimal posture of rest and meditation. This posture, combines savasana (known to practitioners of yoga) and a modified form of the neutral posture assumed by astronauts in outer space. As the occupant relaxes, awareness of the physical body is reduced. The neutral body posture, which can be maintained for hours without discomfort, is extended to the eyes, ears, and hands. The occupant can be surrounded with a full-field-of-view visual display and nearphone sound, and can be stimulated with full-body vibration and motion cueing. Once fully immersed, the occupant can use neutral hand controllers (that is, hand-posture sensors) to control various aspects of the simulated environment.

  12. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river that significantly contributed to the hundred-year flooding in Dresden in 2002, we empirically evaluated the usefulness of this immersive 3D technology towards learning success. Results show that immersive 3D geovisualisation have educational and content-related advantages compared to 2D geovisualisations through the mentioned benefits. This innovative way of geovisualisation is thus not only entertaining and motivating for students, but can also be constructive for research studies by, for instance, facilitating the study of complex environments or decision-making processes.

  13. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    PubMed

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register. PMID:25118373

  14. Two-Way Immersion: A Key to Global Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of two-way immersion education to provide students with opportunities to understand and appreciate other countries and cultures. The main features of two-way immersion education are bilingual language instruction, cross-cultural understanding, and international exchanges. Includes case study of two-way immersion at the Alicia

  15. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's

  16. Plating on aluminum: influence of varying zinc immersion treatment times

    SciTech Connect

    Overturf, G.E. III; Dini, J.W.

    1983-07-18

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for copper electrodeposits applied to 1100, 6061 and 7075 aluminum alloys. The substrates were prepared for plating by the zinc immersion process. In all cases, a double zinc immersion treatment was used and the time of immersion for the first and second zincate steps was varied. Ring shear tests were used to measure adhesion.

  17. Electrode immersion depth determination and control in electroslag remelting furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Melgaard, David K.; Beaman, Joseph J.; Shelmidine, Gregory J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method for controlling an electroslag remelting furnace comprising adjusting electrode drive speed by an amount proportional to a difference between a metric of electrode immersion and a set point, monitoring impedance or voltage, and calculating the metric of electrode immersion depth based upon a predetermined characterization of electrode immersion depth as a function of impedance or voltage.

  18. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjrklund, Siv; Mrd-Miettinen, Karita; Savijrvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first

  19. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  20. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  1. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  2. Two Bioreactors for Removing Methyl Bromide Following Contained Fumigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, L. G.; Baesman, S. M.; Oremland, R. S.

    2002-12-01

    The continued use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity or structural fumigant is in question because its release to the atmosphere contributes to depletion of stratospheric ozone. However, no single alternative to the use of MeBr as a fumigant has been identified. Nonetheless, future regulation of the amount of MeBr released by structural and commodity fumigations is likely. Hence, if MeBr use is to continue, it is imperative to lower the amount released to the atmosphere by collecting the gas following fumigation for eventual recycling or destruction. We report here on two bioreactors that remove MeBr from waste air streams. The bioreactors utilize the enzymatic activity of a previously described, methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, to oxidize MeBr directly during growth. The first bioreactor, operated as a closed system, consisted of 0.5 L of growing culture of strain IMB-1 which removed MeBr (>2,500 ppm) from re-circulating air. Strain IMB-1 grew to high cell densities in this bioreactor by using pulsed additions of MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr) which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Addition of oxygen was required for long-term (>30 days) operation of the closed-system bioreactor. Strain IMB-1 was capable of oxidizing large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 days). The second bioreactor, operated as an open system, consisted of a 10-L flow-through fermenter, in which strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (5,000 ppm in air). NaOH was added by pH stat to maintain neutrality. Growth was continuous and 500 mmol (46 g) of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 days. Bioreactors using strain IMB-1 can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr. Considerable range in the inlet concentration of MeBr can be tolerated, however very high concentrations of MeBr (>10,000 ppm) are toxic to the organisms comprising the bioreactor. Strategies for limiting the range of inlet concentrations may include load dampening by adsorption of MeBr on solids such as activated charcoal or zeolite, followed by desorption and subsequent controlled introduction of MeBr, along with a supply of air, into the bioreactor.

  3. Progress in ultrasonic bioreactors for celss applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, K. J.

    1998-11-01

    An important issue in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) is the recycling of inedible crop residues to recover inorganic plant nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates, potassium and other macro- and micro-nutrients. In a closed system in space, such regeneration is vital to the long term viability of plant growth necessary for the food production and waste handling process. Chemical approaches to recycling such as incineration and wet oxidation are not compatible with low energy and environmentally friendly regeneration of such nutrients. Biological regeneration is more acceptable environmentally, but it is a very slow process and does not typically result in complete recovery of inorganic and organic nutrients. A new approach to biological regeneration is described here involving the combined use of special enzymatic catalysts and ultrasonic energy in a bioreactor system. This new system has the potential for rapid, efficient, environmentally friendly and complete conversion of crop wastes to inorganic plant nutrients and food recovery from cellulose materials. A series of experimental tests were carried out with a soybean crop residue meal substrate. Biochemical conversion rates were significantly expedited with the addition of enzymes and further enhanced through ultrasonic stimulation of these enzymes. The difference in conversion rates was particularly increased after the initial period of soluble organics conversion. The remaining cellulose substrate is much more difficult to biodegrade, and the ultrasonically-enhanced reaction was able to demonstrate a much higher rate of substrate conversion.

  4. Osteocytes Mechanosensing in NASA Rotating Wall Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spatz, Jordan; Sibonga, Jean; Wu, Honglu; Barry, Kevin; Bouxsein, Mary; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2010-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant (90%) yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. However, recent discoveries in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating bone remodeling and phosphate homeostasis. The aim of this project was to characterize gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of MLO-Y4, a very well characterized murine osteocyte-like cell line, to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. To determine mechanistic pathways of the osteocyte's gravity sensing ability, we evaluated in vitro gene and protein expression of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of mechano transduction at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to revolutionary treatment otions to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth.

  5. [Production of ligninolytic enzymes in bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Qian, Yi

    2006-02-01

    Production of ligninolytic enzymes under nitrogen limited conditions(C/N = 56/2.2) was studied in a 5-L stirred tank bioreactor with a working volume of 2 L for obtaining higher production of ligninolytic enzymes by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and its control strategy. Results show that the manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac) reached peak at the sixth day and the seventh day, respectively, and the variation of them with time in a batch cultivation are similar to the results by agitated Erlenmeyer flasks; however higher enzyme activity was not achieved by applying a fed-batch strategy, in which nitrogen limited medium was fed to the reactor. In addition, variation of pH during cultivation was related to the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during both batch and fed-batch cultivation. The pH value of liquid medium began to decline when the enzyme activity occurred in the system, and the decline became more and more slow along with the decrease of enzyme activity at the end of fermentation. So, pH would be as a control parameter to find out the growth of P. chrysosporium and enzymes production during incubating P. chrysosporium. However, fed-batch strategy still need further study. PMID:16686200

  6. Drinking water denitrification using a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ergas, Sarina J; Rheinheimer, David E

    2004-01-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated for denitrification of nitrate (NO3(-)) contaminated drinking water. In the MBR, NO3(-) contaminated water flows through the lumen of tubular microporous membranes and NO3(-) diffuses through the membrane pores. Denitrification takes place on the shell side of the membranes, creating a driving force for mass transfer. The microporous membranes provide a high NO3(-) permeability, while separating the treated water from the microbial process, reducing carryover of organic carbon and sloughed biomass to the product water. Specific objectives of this research were to develop a model for NO3(-) mass transfer in the MBR, investigate the effect of shell and lumen velocity on NO3(-) mass transfer and investigate the effects of NO3(-) and organic carbon loading on denitrification rate and product water quality. A mathematical model of NO3(-) mass transfer was developed, which fit abiotic mass transfer data well. Correlations of dimensionless parameters were found to underestimate the overall NO3(-) mass transfer coefficient by 30-45%. The MBR achieved over 99% NO3(-) removal at an influent concentration of 200 mg NO3(-)-NL(-1). The average NO3- flux to the biomass was 6.1g NO3(-)-Nm(-2)d(-1). Low effluent turbidity was achieved; however, approximately 8% of the added methanol partitioned into the product water. PMID:15276738

  7. Oxygen Transfer Characteristics of Miniaturized Bioreactor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Timothy V; Szita, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2001 miniaturized bioreactor systems have made great advances in function and performance. In this article the dissolved oxygen (DO) transfer performance of submilliliter microbioreactors, and 1–10 mL minibioreactors was examined. Microbioreactors have reached kLa values of 460 h-1, and are offering instrumentation and some functionality comparable to production systems, but at high throughput screening volumes. Minibioreactors, aside from one 1,440 h-1 kLa system, have not offered as high rates of DO transfer, but have demonstrated superior integration with automated fluid handling systems. Microbioreactors have been typically limited to studies with E. coli, while minibioreactors have offered greater versatility in this regard. Further, mathematical relationships confirming the applicability of kLa measurements across all scales have been derived, and alternatives to fluorescence lifetime DO sensors have been evaluated. Finally, the influence on reactor performance of oxygen uptake rate (OUR), and the possibility of its real-time measurement have been explored. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1005–1019. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23280578

  8. The Envirostat - a new bioreactor concept.

    PubMed

    Kortmann, Hendrik; Chasanis, Paris; Blank, Lars M; Franzke, Joachim; Kenig, Eugeny Y; Schmid, Andreas

    2009-02-21

    One major goal of biology is to provide a quantitative description of cellular physiology. This task is complicated by population effects, which perturb culture conditions and mask the behavior of the individual cell. To overcome these limitations, the construction and operation of a microfluidic bioreactor is presented. The new reactor concept guarantees constant environmental conditions and single cell resolution, thus it was named Envirostat (environment, constant). In the Envirostat, cells are contactless trapped by negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) and cultivated in a constant medium flow. To control chip temperature, a Peltier device was constructed. Joule heating by nDEP was quantified with Rhodamine B in dependence of applied voltage, field mode, medium conductivity, and flow velocity. The integration of the Joule heating effect in the temperature control allowed setting and maintaining the cultivation temperature. For single cell cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, medium composition changes below 0.001% were estimated by computational fluid dynamic simulation. These changes were considered not to influence cell physiology. Finally, single S. cerevisiae cells were cultivated for more than four generations in the Envirostat, thus showing the applicability of the new reactor concept. The Envirostat facilitates single cell research and might simplify the investigation of hitherto difficult to access biological phenomena such as the true regulatory and physiological response to genetic and environmental perturbations. PMID:19190793

  9. Bioreactor for acid mine drainage control

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluski, Marek H.; Manchester, Kenneth R.

    2001-01-01

    A bioreactor for reacting an aqueous heavy metal and sulfate containing mine drainage solution with sulfate reducing bacteria to produce heavy metal sulfides and reduce the sulfuric acid content of the solution. The reactor is an elongated, horizontal trough defining an inlet section and a reaction section. An inlet manifold adjacent the inlet section distributes aqueous mine drainage solution into the inlet section for flow through the inlet section and reaction section. A sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition in the inlet section provides sulfate reducing bacteria that with the sulfuric acid and heavy metals in the solution to form solid metal sulfides. The sulfate reducing bacteria and bacteria nutrient composition is retained in the cells of a honeycomb structure formed of cellular honeycomb panels mounted in the reactor inlet section. The honeycomb panels extend upwardly in the inlet section at an acute angle with respect to the horizontal. The cells defined in each panel are thereby offset with respect to the honeycomb cells in each adjacent panel in order to define a tortuous path for the flow of the aqueous solution.

  10. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-05-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment.

  11. Hydrodynamics of an Electrochemical Membrane Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Zhou; Wang, Yun-Kun; He, Chuan-Shu; Yang, Hou-Yun; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Shen, Jin-You; Mu, Yang; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical membrane bioreactor (EMBR) has recently been developed for energy recovery and wastewater treatment. The hydrodynamics of the EMBR would significantly affect the mass transfers and reaction kinetics, exerting a pronounced effect on reactor performance. However, only scarce information is available to date. In this study, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the EMBR were investigated through various approaches. Tracer tests were adopted to generate residence time distribution curves at various hydraulic residence times, and three hydraulic models were developed to simulate the results of tracer studies. In addition, the detailed flow patterns of the EMBR were acquired from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Compared to the tank-in-series and axial dispersion ones, the Martin model could describe hydraulic performance of the EBMR better. CFD simulation results clearly indicated the existence of a preferential or circuitous flow in the EMBR. Moreover, the possible locations of dead zones in the EMBR were visualized through the CFD simulation. Based on these results, the relationship between the reactor performance and the hydrodynamics of EMBR was further elucidated relative to the current generation. The results of this study would benefit the design, operation and optimization of the EMBR for simultaneous energy recovery and wastewater treatment. PMID:25997399

  12. Feasibility study of a novel urinary bladder bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Wallis, M Chad; Yeger, Herman; Cartwright, Lisa; Shou, Zhiping; Radisic, Milica; Haig, Jennifer; Suoub, Mohammed; Antoon, Roula; Farhat, Walid A

    2008-03-01

    We have devised a bioreactor to simulate normal urinary bladder dynamics. The design permits a cell-seeded scaffold made from a modified porcine acellular matrix to be placed between 2 closed chambers filled with culture medium and be mechanically stimulated in a physiologically relevant manner. Specifically designed software increased hydrostatic pressure from 0 to 10 cm of water in a linear fashion in 1 chamber, resulting in mechanical stretch and strain on the scaffold. Pressure was increased over 55 min (filling) and then decreased to 0 over 10 s (voiding). Commercially available small intestinal submucosa scaffolds were used to test the mechanical capabilities of the bioreactor, and pressure waveforms were generated for up to 18 h. Scaffolds were seeded with bladder smooth muscle or urothelial cells and incubated in the bioreactor, which generated pressure waveforms for 6 h. Scaffold integrity was preserved as seen through Masson's trichrome staining. No obvious contamination of the system was noted. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed presence of cells after incubation in the bioreactor, and immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction suggested continued cellular activity. Cellular orientation tended to be perpendicular to the applied pressure. Preliminary results suggest that our bioreactor is a suitable model for simulating normal physiological conditions of bladder cycling in an ex vivo system. PMID:18333786

  13. Bioreactors for Connective Tissue Engineering: Design and Monitoring Innovations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj, A. J. El; Hampson, K.; Gogniat, G.

    The challenges for the tissue engineering of connective tissue lie in creating off-the-shelf tissue constructs which are capable of providing organs for transplantation. These strategies aim to grow a complex tissue with the appropri ate mechanical integrity necessary for functional load bearing. Monolayer culture systems lack correlation with the in vivo environment and the naturally occur ring cell phenotypes. Part of the development of more recent models is to create growth environments or bioreactors which enable three-dimensional culture. Evidence suggests that in order to grow functional load-bearing tissues in a bioreactor, the cells must experience mechanical loading stimuli similar to that experienced in vivo which sets out the requirements for mechanical loading bioreactors. An essential part of developing new bioreactors for tissue growth is identifying ways of routinely and continuously measuring neo-tissue formation and in order to fully identify the successful generation of a tissue implant, the appropriate on-line monitoring must be developed. New technologies are being developed to advance our efforts to grow tissue ex vivo. The bioreactor is a critical part of these develop ments in supporting growth of biological implants and combining this with new advances in the detection of tissue formation allows us to refine our protocols and move nearer to off-the-shelf implants for clinical applications.

  14. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such...

  19. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  20. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according to its terms but not later than...

  1. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1907 - Temporary bona fide trials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary bona fide trials. 76.1907 Section 76... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Encoding Rules 76.1907 Temporary bona fide trials. The... not apply in the case of a temporary bona fide trial of a service....

  3. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  6. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification... States (H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations 655.55 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid only for the period as approved...

  7. 29 CFR 503.18 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 503.18 Section... SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Enforcement 503.18 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid only for the period of time...

  8. 29 CFR 503.18 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 503.18 Section... SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Enforcement 503.18 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid only for the period of time...

  9. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification... States (H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations 655.55 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid only for the period as approved...

  10. 29 CFR 503.18 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification. 503.18 Section... SECTION 214(c)(1) OF THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT Enforcement 503.18 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid only for the period of time...

  11. 20 CFR 655.55 - Validity of temporary labor certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Validity of temporary labor certification... States (H-2B Workers) Labor Certification Determinations 655.55 Validity of temporary labor certification. (a) Validity period. A temporary labor certification is valid only for the period as approved...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  15. Temporary Work and Insecurity in Britain: A Problem Solved?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Temporary workers in Britain experience lower job quality. However, the proportion of employees on temporary contracts has fallen since a decade ago to just 5.5% in 2005. There have also been qualitative improvements. Many temporary workers now fall under the protection of the Fixed Term Employees' (Prevention of Less Favourable Treatment)

  16. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under § 655.6(b) as defined by DHS under 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B); and (4) If applicable, a statement... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supporting evidence for temporary need. 655... States (H-2B Workers) § 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary need. (a) Statement of temporary...

  17. 33 CFR 174.21 - Contents of temporary certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contents of temporary certificate. 174.21 Section 174.21 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....21 Contents of temporary certificate. A temporary certificate issued pending the issuance of...

  18. The Role of Temporary Agency Employment in Tight Labor Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseman, Susan N.; Kalleberg, Arne L.; Erickcek, George A.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies of six hospitals and five auto parts suppliers showed that in high-skilled occupations, employers paid more to temporary agency help than regular staff. In low-skilled occupations, temporary agencies facilitated use of riskier workers. Temporaries may relieve pressure to raise wages in tight labor markets, perhaps contributing to

  19. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under 655.6(b) as defined by DHS under 8 CFR 214.2(h)(6)(ii)(B); and (4) If applicable, a statement... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supporting evidence for temporary need. 655... States (H-2B Workers) 655.21 Supporting evidence for temporary need. (a) Statement of temporary...

  20. 76 FR 68192 - Temporary Certification Program; Notice of Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ...) published a final rule (75 FR 36158) to establish a temporary certification program for health information... published a final rule (76 FR 1262) to establish a permanent certification program for health information... discussed in the temporary certification program final rule (75 FR 36184), the temporary...

  1. 33 CFR 174.29 - Temporary certificate of number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary certificate of number. 174.29 Section 174.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY....29 Temporary certificate of number. A State may issue a temporary certificate of number that...

  2. 46 CFR 112.15-1 - Temporary emergency loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary emergency loads. 112.15-1 Section 112.15-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Loads § 112.15-1 Temporary emergency loads. On vessels required by § 112.05-5(a) to have a temporary emergency...

  3. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  4. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a)...

  5. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notification of temporary accreditation... ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Procedures and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of temporary...

  6. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a)...

  7. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of temporary accreditation decisions. There is...

  8. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of temporary accreditation decisions. There is...

  9. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of temporary accreditation... ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Procedures and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of temporary...

  10. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  11. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of temporary accreditation decisions. There is...

  12. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of temporary accreditation... ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Procedures and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of temporary...

  13. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a)...

  14. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of temporary accreditation decisions. There is...

  15. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of temporary accreditation... ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Procedures and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of temporary...

  16. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  17. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a)...

  18. 22 CFR 96.98 - Length of temporary accreditation period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Length of temporary accreditation period. 96.98 Section 96.98 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.98 Length of temporary accreditation period. (a)...

  19. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  20. 22 CFR 96.101 - Notification of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of temporary accreditation... ACCREDITATION OF AGENCIES AND APPROVAL OF PERSONS UNDER THE INTERCOUNTRY ADOPTION ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Procedures and Standards Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.101 Notification of temporary...

  1. 22 CFR 96.111 - Fees charged for temporary accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fees charged for temporary accreditation. 96.111 Section 96.111 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.111 Fees charged for temporary accreditation. (a) Any fees...

  2. 22 CFR 96.102 - Review of temporary accreditation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Review of temporary accreditation decisions. 96.102 Section 96.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES ACCREDITATION OF... Relating to Temporary Accreditation § 96.102 Review of temporary accreditation decisions. There is...

  3. 32 CFR 147.29 - Temporary eligibility for access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access. 147.29 Section... AND CIVILIAN ADJUDICATIVE GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.29 Temporary eligibility for access. Based on a justified need...

  4. 5 CFR 316.402 - Procedures for making temporary appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Temporary Limited Employment 316.402 Procedures for making... by a notice of retirement or discharge due to service-connected disability from active military... noncompetitive appointment expires or is lost during the authorized period of temporary employment....

  5. 30 CFR 75.603 - Temporary splice of trailing cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary splice of trailing cable. 75.603... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.603 Temporary splice of trailing cable. One temporary splice may be made in any trailing cable. Such trailing cable...

  6. 18 CFR 157.209 - Temporary compression facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary compression... Act for Certain Transactions and Abandonment 157.209 Temporary compression facilities. (a) Automatic....2011 of this chapter; (1) A description of the temporary compression facility, including the size,...

  7. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  8. Immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopacz, Adrian M.; Liu, Wing K.

    2013-07-01

    A unique simulation technique has been developed capable of modeling electric field induced detection of biomolecules such as viruses, at room temperatures where thermal fluctuations must be considered. The proposed immersed molecular electrokinetic finite element method couples electrokinetics with fluctuating hydrodynamics to study the motion and deformation of flexible objects immersed in a suspending medium under an applied electric field. The force induced on an arbitrary object due to an electric field is calculated based on the continuum electromechanics and the Maxwell stress tensor. The thermal fluctuations are included in the Navier-Stokes fluid equations via the stochastic stress tensor. Dielectrophoretic and fluctuating forces acting on the particle are coupled through the fluid-structure interaction force calculated within the surrounding environment. This method was used to perform concentration and retention efficacy analysis of nanoscale biosensors using gold particles of various sizes. The analysis was also applied to a human papillomavirus.

  9. Immersion in water in labour and birth

    PubMed Central

    Cluett, Elizabeth R; Burns, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    Background Enthusiasts suggest that labouring in water and waterbirth increase maternal relaxation, reduce analgesia requirements and promote a midwifery model of care. Critics cite the risk of neonatal water inhalation and maternal/neonatal infection. Objectives To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials about immersion in water during labour and waterbirth on maternal, fetal, neonatal and caregiver outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (30 June 2011) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing immersion in any bath tub/pool with no immersion, or other non-pharmacological forms of pain management during labour and/or birth, in women during labour who were considered to be at low risk of complications, as defined by the researchers. Data collection and analysis We assessed trial eligibility and quality and extracted data independently. One review author entered data and the other checked for accuracy. Main results This review includes 12 trials (3243 women): eight related to just the first stage of labour: one to early versus late immersion in the first stage of labour; two to the first and second stages; and another to the second stage only. We identified no trials evaluating different baths/pools, or the management of third stage of labour. Results for the first stage of labour showed there was a significant reduction in the epidural/spinal/paracervical analgesia/anaesthesia rate amongst women allocated to water immersion compared to controls (478/1254 versus 529/1245; risk ratio (RR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.99, six trials). There was also a reduction in duration of the first stage of labour (mean difference ?32.4 minutes; 95% CI ?58.7 to ?6.13). There was no difference in assisted vaginal deliveries (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.05, seven trials), caesarean sections (RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.87 to 1.68, eight trials), use of oxytocin infusion (RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.32 to 1.28,five trials), perineal trauma or maternal infection. There were no differences for Apgar score less than seven at five minutes (RR 1.58; 95% CI 0.63 to 3.93, five trials), neonatal unit admissions (RR 1.06; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.57, three trials), or neonatal infection rates (RR 2.00; 95% CI 0.50 to 7.94, five trials). Of the three trials that compared water immersion during the second stage with no immersion, one trial showed a significantly higher level of satisfaction with the birth experience (RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.80). A lack of data for some comparisons prevented robust conclusions. Further research is needed. Authors conclusions Evidence suggests that water immersion during the first stage of labour reduces the use of epidural/spinal analgesia and duration of the first stage of labour. There is limited information for other outcomes related to water use during the first and second stages of labour, due to intervention and outcome variability. There is no evidence of increased adverse effects to the fetus/neonate or woman from labouring in water or waterbirth. However, the studies are very variable and considerable heterogeneity was detected for some outcomes. Further research is needed. PMID:19370552

  10. High temperature immersion type ultrasonic imaging probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-04-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, are operated in the pulse-echo mode. The operating temperature is up to 215 C and there is no need for a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is attached with a piezoelectric transducer and the other end is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape that provides the focus. The operating frequency is 5 MHz. Ultrasonic images produced using mechanical raster scan and the measurements, when the probes are fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  11. Ultrasonic probes for high temperature immersion measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.-U.; Jen, C.-K.; Ihara, I.

    2001-03-01

    Ultrasonic probes for high temperature measurements in immersion are presented. These probes consist of piezoelectric transducers and buffer rods, and may be operated in the pulse echo mode. The probes can operate to temperatures as high as 215 C without requiring a cooling system. For imaging purposes, one end of the clad buffer rod is machined into a semi-spherical concave shape, of which the purpose is to focus the ultrasound. The operating frequency is between 5 and 9 MHz. Ultrasonic images, produced using a mechanical raster scan with the probes fully immersed in silicone oil at elevated temperatures, are presented. The importance of the signal-to-noise ratio in the pulse-echo measurement is discussed.

  12. An Immersive VR System for Sports Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Peng; Xu, Shuhong; Fong, Wee Teck; Chin, Ching Ling; Chua, Gim Guan; Huang, Zhiyong

    The development of new technologies has undoubtedly promoted the advances of modern education, among which Virtual Reality (VR) technologies have made the education more visually accessible for students. However, classroom education has been the focus of VR applications whereas not much research has been done in promoting sports education using VR technologies. In this paper, an immersive VR system is designed and implemented to create a more intuitive and visual way of teaching tennis. A scalable system architecture is proposed in addition to the hardware setup layout, which can be used for various immersive interactive applications such as architecture walkthroughs, military training simulations, other sports game simulations, interactive theaters, and telepresent exhibitions. Realistic interaction experience is achieved through accurate and robust hybrid tracking technology, while the virtual human opponent is animated in real time using shader-based skin deformation. Potential future extensions are also discussed to improve the teaching/learning experience.

  13. First: Florida Ir Silicon Immersion Grating Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jian; Zhao, B.; Wang, J.; Wan, X.; Powell, S.

    2012-01-01

    The FIRST silicon immersion grating spectrometer is being developed at UF to search for habitable Earth-like planets around M dwarfs and giant planets around young active stars. This compact cryogenic IR instrument is designed to have a spectral resolution of R=72,000 at 1.4-1.8 µm with a silicon immersion grating and R=60K at 0.8-1.35 µm with an R4 echelle. The goal is to reach a long term Doppler precision of 1-3 m/s for bright M dwarfs. The FIRST silicon immersion grating, with 54.74 degree blaze angle and 16 l/mm groove density, has been fully characterized in the lab. The 50x50 mm square grating entrance pupil is coated with a single layer of anti-reflection coating resulting in a 2.1% measured reflection loss. The grating surface was coated with a gold layer to increase grating surface reflectivity. It has produced R=110,000 diffraction limited spectral resolution at 1.523 micron in a lab test spectrograph with 20 mm pupil diameter. The integrated scattered light is less than 0.2\\% and grating has no visible ghosts down to the measuring instrument noise level. The grating efficiency is 69\\% at the peak of the blaze. This silicon immersion grating is ready for scientific observations with FIRST. FIRST is scheduled to be integrated in the lab during the spring of 2012 and see the first light at an astronomical telescope (TBD) the summer of 2012.

  14. Decoupling, situated cognition and immersion in art.

    PubMed

    Reboul, Anne

    2015-09-01

    Situated cognition seems incompatible with strong decoupling, where representations are deployed in the absence of their targets and are not oriented toward physical action. Yet, in art consumption, the epitome of a strongly decoupled cognitive process, the artwork is a physical part of the environment and partly controls the perception of its target by the audience, leading to immersion. Hence, art consumption combines strong decoupling with situated cognition. PMID:26224273

  15. Immersion pulmonary oedema and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Andrew; Edmonds, Carl

    2015-12-01

    A 67-year-old female scuba diver developed a typical immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE), but investigations strongly indicated Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC). The cardiac abnormalities included increased cardiac enzymes, electrocardiographic anomalies and echocardiographic changes, all reverting to normal within days. This case demonstrates a similarity and association between IPE and TC, and the importance of prompt cardiac investigations both in the investigation of IPE and in making the diagnosis of TC. PMID:26687314

  16. Liquid immersion apparatus for minute articles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. G., Jr.; Hollis, B. R., Jr. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus is disclosed for immersing minute integrated circuit chips in an etching solution in manufacturing integrated circuits during research and development. The apparatus includes a holder, having a handle and basket support for carrying a removable unitary basket and lid structure where fluid flow-through passages are formed, and wherein graduated openings in the handle provide for adjustably supporting the basket in a breaker at a desired level.

  17. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOEpatents

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  18. Amphibian XIS: an immersion lithography microstepper platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bruce W.; Bourov, Anatoly; Fan, Yongfa; Cropanese, Frank; Hammond, Peter

    2005-05-01

    Recent advances in immersion lithography have created the need for a small field microstepper to carry out the early learning necessary for next generation device application. Combined with fluid immersion, multiple-beam lithography can provide an opportunity to explore lithographic imaging at oblique propagation angles and extreme NA imaging. Using the phase preserving properties of Smith Talbot interferometry, the Amphibian XIS immersion lithography microstepper has been created for research and development applications directed toward sub-90nm patterning. The system has been designed for use at ArF and KrF excimer laser wavelengths, based on a fused silica or sapphire prism lens with numerical aperture values up to 1.60. Combined with a chromeless phase grating mask, two and four beam imaging is made possible for feature resolution to 35nm. The approach is combined with X-Y staging to provide immersion imaging on a microstepper platform for substrates ranging up to 300mm. The Amphibian system consists of single or dual wavelength sources (193nm and 248nm), a 2mm exposure field size, stage accuracy better than 1 um, polarization control over a full range from linear polarization to unpolarized illumination, full control of exposure dose and demodulation (to synthesize defocus), and the ability to image both line patterns as well as contact features. A fluid control system allows use of water or alternative fluids, with the ability to change fluids rapidly between wafers. The Amphibian system is fully enclosed in a HEPA and amine controlled environment for use in fab or research environments.

  19. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  20. The Fluid Mechanics of a Wavy-Wall Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sucosky, Philippe; Bilgen, Bahar; Aleem, Alexander; Neitzel, Paul; Barabino, Gilda

    2004-11-01

    Bioreactors are devices used for the production of mammalian tissue in vitro. Although mixing has been shown to stimulate the growth of cartilage constructs, high shear-stress levels can damage the cells. In order to enhance mixing while minimizing shear, a wavy-wall bioreactor (WWB) featuring a sinusoidal internal profile has been designed. The turbulent hydrodynamic environment produced in this device is investigated experimentally using particle-image velocimetry. A model bioreactor made of acrylic and filled with an index-matching solution of zinc iodide is used to compensate for the refraction of light at the walls. The flow observed in different planes is shown to be periodic, spatially dependent, and dominated by mean-shear rather than Reynolds stresses in the vicinity of constructs. Finally, a comparison between the mean-shear stresses obtained in the WWB and in a standard spinner flask reveals similar stress levels near the construct walls.

  1. Bioreactor droplets from liposome-stabilized all-aqueous emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Daniel C.; Strulson, Christopher A.; Cacace, David N.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.; Keating, Christine D.

    2014-08-01

    Artificial bioreactors are desirable for in vitro biochemical studies and as protocells. A key challenge is maintaining a favourable internal environment while allowing substrate entry and product departure. We show that semipermeable, size-controlled bioreactors with aqueous, macromolecularly crowded interiors can be assembled by liposome stabilization of an all-aqueous emulsion. Dextran-rich aqueous droplets are dispersed in a continuous polyethylene glycol (PEG)-rich aqueous phase, with coalescence inhibited by adsorbed ~130-nm diameter liposomes. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and dynamic light scattering data indicate that the liposomes, which are PEGylated and negatively charged, remain intact at the interface for extended time. Inter-droplet repulsion provides electrostatic stabilization of the emulsion, with droplet coalescence prevented even for submonolayer interfacial coatings. RNA and DNA can enter and exit aqueous droplets by diffusion, with final concentrations dictated by partitioning. The capacity to serve as microscale bioreactors is established by demonstrating a ribozyme cleavage reaction within the liposome-coated droplets.

  2. Growth processes in a cascade of bioreactors: Mathematical models

    SciTech Connect

    Mantzaris, N.V.; Daoutidis, P.; Srienc, F.; Fredrickson, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of continuous bioreactors is complicated by two factors. First, the chemical environments differ in different reactors, so biomass receives an environmental shock when it is transferred between reactors. Second, biomass occurs as discrete cells, which of course are and remain segregated from one another, so an element of biomass that enters a reactor does not mix with the biomass already present. This differs from the behavior of an element of liquid which enters a reactor in that such an element quickly mixes with the liquid already present. The biomass in a bioreactor receiving biomass from an external source is therefore heterogeneous with respect to the history of environmental conditions and composition. This article shows how to construct a mathematical model of multiple bioreactor apparatus that accounts for these complications. It also describes simpler models that do not account for both of them.

  3. Miniature Bioreactor System for Long-Term Cell Culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Kleis, Stanley J.; Geffert, Sandara K.

    2010-01-01

    A prototype miniature bioreactor system is designed to serve as a laboratory benchtop cell-culturing system that minimizes the need for relatively expensive equipment and reagents and can be operated under computer control, thereby reducing the time and effort required of human investigators and reducing uncertainty in results. The system includes a bioreactor, a fluid-handling subsystem, a chamber wherein the bioreactor is maintained in a controlled atmosphere at a controlled temperature, and associated control subsystems. The system can be used to culture both anchorage-dependent and suspension cells, which can be either prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Cells can be cultured for extended periods of time in this system, and samples of cells can be extracted and analyzed at specified intervals. By integrating this system with one or more microanalytical instrument(s), one can construct a complete automated analytical system that can be tailored to perform one or more of a large variety of assays.

  4. Organic ionic salt draw solutions for osmotic membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Katie S; Achilli, Andrea; Childress, Amy E

    2012-10-01

    This investigation evaluates the use of organic ionic salt solutions as draw solutions for specific use in osmotic membrane bioreactors. Also, this investigation presents a simple method for determining the diffusion coefficient of ionic salt solutions using only a characterized membrane. A selection of organic ionic draw solutions underwent a desktop screening process before being tested in the laboratory and evaluated for performance using specific salt flux (reverse salt flux per unit water flux), biodegradation potential, and replenishment cost. Two of the salts were found to have specific salt fluxes three to six times lower than two commonly used inorganic draw solutions, NaCl and MgCl(2). All of the salts tested have organic anions with the potential to degrade in the bioreactor as a carbon source and aid in nutrient removal. Results demonstrate the potential benefits of organic ionic salt draw solutions over currently implemented inorganics in osmotic membrane bioreactor systems. PMID:22771022

  5. Microbial biomass production from rice straw hydrolysate in airlift bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu-Guo; Chen, Xiao-Long; Wang, Zhao

    2005-09-10

    Rice straw is a by-product of rice production, and a great bioresource as raw biomass material for manufacturing value-adding protein for animal feedstock, which has been paid more and more attention. In the present work, utilizing rice straw hydrolysate as a substrate for microbial biomass production in 11.5L external-loop airlift bioreactors was investigated. Rice straw hydrolysate obtained through acid-hydrolyzing rice straw was used for the culture of yeast Candida arborea AS1.257. The influences of gas flow rate, initial liquid volume, hole diameter of gas sparger and numbers of sieve plates on microbial biomass production were examined. The best results in the external-loop airlift bioreactor were obtained under 9.0 L initial liquid volume, 1.1 (v/v)/min gas flow rate during culture time of 0-24 h and 1.4 (v/v)/min gas flow rate of 24-48 h at 29+/-1 degrees C. The addition of the sieve plates in the riser of the external-loop airlift bioreactor increased productivity. After 48 h, under optimized operation conditions, crude protein productivity with one sieve and two sieves were 13.6 mg/mL and 13.7 mg/mL, respectively, comparing 12.7 mg/mL without sieves in the airlift bioreactor and 11.7 mg/mL in the in the 10-L mechanically stirred tank bioreactor. It is feasible to operate the external-loop airlift bioreactors and possible to reduce the production cost for microbial biomass production from the rice straw hydrolysate. PMID:15978690

  6. Learning Relative Motion Concepts in Immersive and Non-immersive Virtual Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikov, Michael; Gurlitt, Johannes; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2013-12-01

    The focus of the current study is to understand which unique features of an immersive virtual reality environment have the potential to improve learning relative motion concepts. Thirty-seven undergraduate students learned relative motion concepts using computer simulation either in immersive virtual environment (IVE) or non-immersive desktop virtual environment (DVE) conditions. Our results show that after the simulation activities, both IVE and DVE groups exhibited a significant shift toward a scientific understanding in their conceptual models and epistemological beliefs about the nature of relative motion, and also a significant improvement on relative motion problem-solving tests. In addition, we analyzed students' performance on one-dimensional and two-dimensional questions in the relative motion problem-solving test separately and found that after training in the simulation, the IVE group performed significantly better than the DVE group on solving two-dimensional relative motion problems. We suggest that egocentric encoding of the scene in IVE (where the learner constitutes a part of a scene they are immersed in), as compared to allocentric encoding on a computer screen in DVE (where the learner is looking at the scene from "outside"), is more beneficial than DVE for studying more complex (two-dimensional) relative motion problems. Overall, our findings suggest that such aspects of virtual realities as immersivity, first-hand experience, and the possibility of changing different frames of reference can facilitate understanding abstract scientific phenomena and help in displacing intuitive misconceptions with more accurate mental models.

  7. Resist interaction in 193-/157-nm immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Shinji; Endo, Masayuki; Sasago, Masaru

    2004-05-01

    We have investigated the interaction of resists with water and perfluoropolyether (PFPE) as immersion fluids. We found that some unique behaviors occurred in immersion lithography. An acetal protected poly(p-hydroxystyrene) type resist in water immersion showed decreased resist thickness after exposure. The deprotection reaction during exposure appeared to be accelerated by water. A COMA (cycloolefine-mareic anhydride alt-copolymer) type resist in water immersion showed an increased dissolution rate. FT-IR measurements indicated that the hydrolysis of maleic anhydride occurred during exposure and post-exposure baking. A reduction in the dissolution rate was observed in the immersion lithography of most resists. In water immersion, the formation of a surface insoluble layer and swelling was observed. We confirmed that a photochemical acid generator (PAG) or generated acid eluted into the water by TOF-SIMS. In PFPE immersion, we think that PFPE penetrating across the resist film blocks the penetration of the alkaline aqueous developer.

  8. Art, science, and immersion: data-driven experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ruth G.; Monroe, Laura; Ford Morie, Jacquelyn; Aguilera, Julieta

    2013-03-01

    This panel and dialog-paper explores the potentials at the intersection of art, science, immersion and highly dimensional, "big" data to create new forms of engagement, insight and cultural forms. We will address questions such as: "What kinds of research questions can be identified at the intersection of art + science + immersive environments that can't be expressed otherwise?" "How is art+science+immersion distinct from state-of-the art visualization?" "What does working with immersive environments and visualization offer that other approaches don't or can't?" "Where does immersion fall short?" We will also explore current trends in the application of immersion for gaming, scientific data, entertainment, simulation, social media and other new forms of big data. We ask what expressive, arts-based approaches can contribute to these forms in the broad cultural landscape of immersive technologies.

  9. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  10. Hydrofocusing Bioreactor Produces Anti-Cancer Alkaloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Valluri, Jagan V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for growing three-dimensional plant tissue models in a hydrodynamic focusing bioreactor (HFB) has been developed. The methodology is expected to be widely applicable, both on Earth and in outer space, as a means of growing plant cells and aggregates thereof under controlled conditions for diverse purposes, including research on effects of gravitation and other environmental factors upon plant growth and utilization of plant tissue cultures to produce drugs in quantities greater and at costs lower than those of conventional methodologies. The HFB was described in Hydro focus - ing Bioreactor for Three-Dimensional Cell Culture (MSC-22358), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 66. To recapitulate: The HFB offers a unique hydrofocusing capability that enables the creation of a low-shear liquid culture environment simultaneously with the herding of suspended cells and tissue assemblies and removal of unwanted air bubbles. The HFB includes a rotating cell-culture vessel with a centrally located sampling port and an internal rotating viscous spinner attached to a rotating base. The vessel and viscous spinner can be made to rotate at the same speed and direction or different speeds and directions to tailor the flow field and the associated hydrodynamic forces in the vessel in order to obtain low-shear suspension of cells and control of the locations of cells and air bubbles. For research and pharmaceutical-production applications, the HFB offers two major benefits: low shear stress, which promotes the assembly of cells into tissue-like three-dimensional constructs; and randomization of gravitational vectors relative to cells, which affects production of medicinal compounds. Presumably, apposition of plant cells in the absence of shear forces promotes cell-cell contacts, cell aggregation, and cell differentiation. Only gentle mixing is necessary for distributing nutrients and oxygen. It has been postulated that inasmuch as cells in the simulated microgravitation of an HFB do not need to maintain the same surface forces as in normal Earth gravitation, they can divert more energy sources to growth and differentiation and, perhaps, to biosynthesis of greater quantities of desired medicinal compounds. Because one can adjust the HFB to vary effective gravitation, one can also test the effects of intermediate levels of gravitation on biosynthesis of various products. The potential utility of this methodology for producing drugs was demonstrated in experiments in which sandalwood and Madagascar periwinkle cells were grown in an HFB. The conditions in the HFB were chosen to induce the cells to form into aggregate cultures that produced anti-cancer indole alkaloids in amounts greater than do comparable numbers of cells of the same species cultured according to previously known methodologies. The observations made in these experiments were interpreted as suggesting that the aggregation of the cells might be responsible for the enhancement of production of alkaloids.

  11. Gas phase acetaldehyde production in a continuous bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Soon Ook . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Trantolo, D.J. . Center for Biotechnology Engineering); Wise, D.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA . Center for Biotechnology Engineering)

    1993-08-20

    The gas phase continuous production of acetaldehyde was studied with particular emphasis on the development of biocatalyst (alcohol oxidase on solid phase support materials) for a fixed bed reactor. Based on the experimental results in a batch bioreactor, the biocatalysts were prepared by immobilization of alcohol oxidase on Amberlite IRA-400, packed into a column, and the continuous acetaldehyde production in the gas phase by alcohol oxidase was performed. The effects of the reaction temperature, flow rates of gaseous stream, and ethanol vapor concentration on the performance of the continuous bioreactor were investigated.

  12. Computer control of a microgravity mammalian cell bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1987-01-01

    The initial steps taken in developing a completely menu driven and totally automated computer control system for a bioreactor are discussed. This bioreactor is an electro-mechanical cell growth system cell requiring vigorous control of slowly changing parameters, many of which are so dynamically interactive that computer control is a necessity. The process computer will have two main functions. First, it will provide continuous environmental control utilizing low signal level transducers as inputs and high powered control devices such as solenoids and motors as outputs. Secondly, it will provide continuous environmental monitoring, including mass data storage and periodic data dumps to a supervisory computer.

  13. Sunlight supply and gas exchange systems in microalgal bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, K.; Ohya, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Furune, H.

    1987-01-01

    The bioreactor with sunlight supply system and gas exchange systems presented has proved feasible in ground tests and shows much promise for space use as a closed ecological life support system device. The chief conclusions concerning the specification of total system needed for a life support system for a man in a space station are the following: (1) Sunlight supply system - compactness and low electrical consumption; (2) Bioreactor system - high density and growth rate of chlorella; and (3) Gas exchange system - enough for O2 production and CO2 assimilation.

  14. Modeling of a foamed emulsion bioreactor: II. model parametric sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kan, Eunsung; Deshusses, Marc A

    2009-02-15

    The sensitivity of a conceptual model of a foam emulsion bioreactor (FEBR) used for the control of toluene vapors in air was examined. Model parametric sensitivity studies showed which parameters affect the removal of toluene (as model pollutant) in the FEBR the most significantly, and enabled definition of the limits of the process. Detailed examination of the results indicated that the process is highly complex and that both mass transfer and kinetic limitations can coexist in the bioreactor system. These results will help with the optimization of the design and operation of FEBRs. PMID:18949760

  15. Use of immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis in a novel fluidized bioreactor to produce ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Wallace, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    A novel 2-L fluidized bioreactor was designed and built and its performance characteristics were compared with those of an ordinary stirred-tank bioreactor. Calcium alginate beads containing immobilized cells of Zymomonas mobilis were used in both types of bioreactors to produce ethanol from glucose. The Ca-alginate beads were exposed to low shear rates inside the fluidized bioreactor and as a result the cell leakage from the beads was found to be about 100 times less than the cell leakage obtained in the mechanically stirred bioreactor. For the operating conditions studied, the fluidized bioreactor system gave at least 64% higher maximum rate of ethanol production and the power consumption per unit volume was found to be about four times less than that obtained with the mechanically stirred bioreactor. 9 figures, 1 table.

  16. Immersion lithography: its history, current status and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owa, Soichi; Nagasaka, Hiroyuki

    2008-11-01

    Since the 1980's, immersion exposure has been proposed several times. At the end of 1990's, however, these concepts were almost forgotten because other technologies, such as electron beam projection, EUVL, and 157 nm were believed to be more promising than immersion exposures. The current work in immersion lithography started in 2001 with the report of Switkes and Rothschild. Although their first proposal was at 157 nm wavelength, their report in the following year on 193 nm immersion with purified water turned out to be the turning point for the introduction of water-based 193 nm immersion lithography. In February, 2003, positive feasibility study results of 193 nm immersion were presented at the SPIE microlithography conference. Since then, the development of 193 nm immersion exposure tools accelerated. Currently (year 2008), multiple hyper NA (NA>1.0) scanners are generating mass production 45 nm half pitch devices in semiconductor manufacturing factories. As a future extension, high index immersion was studied over the past few years, but material development lagged more than expected, which resulted in the cancellation of high index immersion plans at scanner makers. Instead, double patterning, double dipole exposure, and customized illuminations techniques are expected as techniques to extend immersion for the 32 nm node and beyond.

  17. Cavitation Inception in Immersed Jet Shear Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockett, R. D.; Ndamuso, N.; Price, R.

    2015-12-01

    Cavitation inception occurring in immersed jets was investigated in a purpose-built mechanical flow rig. The rig utilized custom-built cylindrical and conical nozzles to direct high-velocity jets of variable concentration n-octane-hexadecane mixtures into a fused silica optically accessible receiver. The fluid pressure upstream and down-stream of the nozzles were manually controlled. The study employed a variety of acrylic and metal nozzles. The results show that the critical upstream pressure to downstream pressure ratio for incipient cavitation decreases with increasing n-octane concentration for the cylindrical nozzles, and increases with increasing n-octane concentration for the conical nozzle.

  18. Immersing carbon nanotubes in cold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, C. T.; Mironova, P. V.; Fortgh, J.; Schleich, W. P.; Walser, R.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the sympathetic relaxation of a free-standing, vibrating carbon nanotube that is mounted on an atom chip and is immersed in a cloud of ultracold atoms. Gas atoms colliding with the nanotube excite phonons via a Casimir-Polder potential. We use Fermi's golden rule to estimate the relaxation rates for relevant experimental parameters and develop a fully dynamic theory of relaxation for the multimode phononic field embedded in a thermal atomic reservoir. Based on currently available experimental data, we identify the relaxation rates as a function of atom density and temperature that are required for sympathetic ground-state cooling of carbon nanotubes.

  19. Film stacking architecture for immersion lithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Tomohiro; Sanada, Masakazu; Miyagi, Tadashi; Shigemori, Kazuhito; Kanaoka, Masashi; Yasuda, Shuichi; Tamada, Osamu; Asai, Masaya

    2008-03-01

    In immersion lithography process, film stacking architecture will be necessary due to film peeling. However, the architecture will restrict lithographic area within a wafer due to top side EBR accuracy In this paper, we report an effective film stacking architecture that also allows maximum lithographic area. This study used a new bevel rinse system on RF3 for all materials to make suitable film stacking on the top side bevel. This evaluation showed that the new bevel rinse system allows the maximum lithographic area and a clean wafer edge. Patterning defects were improved with suitable film stacking.

  20. Ultrasound assisted production of a fibrinolytic enzyme in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Avhad, Devchand N; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-01-01

    The present work illustrates ultrasound assisted production of a fibrinolytic enzyme at 1L bioreactor scale from Bacillus sphaericus MTCC 3672. To alleviate the shortcomings of one factor at a time method of optimization, central composite rotatable design of response surface methodology was employed for optimization of ultrasound assisted production. Different process parameters such as irradiation time, duty cycle and power of ultrasound were varied in 3 different levels in 11 experimental runs. For evaluating mass transfer enhancement effect of ultrasonication on production, control non sonicated fermentation was optimized by varying different agitation speed (300-500rpm) and aeration rate (8.33-33.33cc/s). Optimized ultrasonication protocol resulted in 1.48-fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme yield as compared to non sonicated fermentation, which comprised of ultrasound irradiation at 25kHz for 10min with 40% duty cycle and 160W power on 12h of growth phase in 1L bioreactor operated at 400rpm agitation speed and 16.66cc/s aeration rate. Declined glucose concentration from 0.1% w/v (non sonicated control run) to 0.05% w/v and breakage of cells cluster emphasized on increased substrate utilization potential and enhanced convection of ultrasound assisted fermentation in a bioreactor. Deliverables of current studies will provide significant insights for enhancement of productivity of various enzymes at a bioreactor level. PMID:24889547

  1. Continuous Production of Alkyl Esters Using an Immobilized Lipase Bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An immobilized lipase packed-bed bioreactor was developed for esterifying the free fatty acids in greases as a pretreatment step in the production of their simple alkyl esters for use as biodiesel. The immobilized lipases used in the study were immobilized preparations of Candida antarctica (C. a.)...

  2. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  3. MODULAR FIELD-BIOREACTOR FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation focuses on the improvements to engineered features of a passive technology that has been used for remediation of acid rock drainage (ARD). This passive remedial technology, a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) bioreactor, takes advantage of the ability of SRB that,...

  4. Selective fengycin production in a modified rotating discs bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Chtioui, Omar; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Gancel, Frdrique; Dhulster, Pascal; Nikov, Iordan

    2014-02-01

    Production of lipopeptides fengycin and surfactin in rotating discs bioreactor was studied. The effects of rotation velocity and the addition of agitators between the discs on volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient k L a were firstly studied in model media. Then the production of lipopeptides was also studied at different agitation conditions in the modified bioreactor (with agitators). The effect of agitation on dissolved oxygen, on submerged and immobilized biomass, on lipopeptide concentrations and yields and on the selectivity of the bioreaction was elucidated and discussed. The proposed modified rotating discs bioreactor allowed to obtain high fengycin concentrations (up to 787 mg L(-1)), but also better selectivity of the bioreaction towards fengycin (up to 88%) and better yields of fengycin per glucose (up to 62.9 mg g(-1)), lipopeptides per glucose (up to 71.5 mg g(-1)), fengycin per biomass (up to 309 mg g(-1)) and lipopeptides per biomass (up to 396 mg g(-1)) than those reported in the literature. Highest fengycin production and selectivity were obtained at agitation velocity of 30 min(-1). The proposed non-foaming fermentation process could contribute to the scale-up of lipopeptide fermentors and promote the industrial production of fengycin. The proposed bioreactor and bioprocess could be very useful also for the production of other molecules using bioprocesses requiring bubbleless oxygen supply. PMID:23694986

  5. Membrane bioreactor for control of volatile organic compound emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergas, S.J.; McGrath, M.S.

    1997-06-01

    A membrane bioreactor system that overcomes many of the limitations of conventional compost biofilters is described. The system utilizes microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membranes for mass transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the gas phase to a microbially active liquid phase. The reactor design provides a high biomass concentration, a method for wasting biomass, and a method for addition of pH buffers, nutrients, cometabolites, and/or other amendments. A theoretical model is developed, describing mass transfer and biodegradation in the membrane bioreactor. Reactor performance was determined in a laboratory scale membrane bioreactor over a range of gas loading rates using toluene as a model VOC. Toluene removal efficiency was greater than 98% at an inlet concentration of 100 ppm, and a gas residence time of less than 2 s. Factors controlling bioreactor performance were determined through both experiments and theoretical modeling to include: compound Henry`s law constant, membrane specific surface area, gas and VOC loading rates, liquid phase turbulence, and biomass substrate utilization rate.

  6. Airlift bioreactors. (Latest citations from the Biobusiness database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning industrial and research applications of airlift bioreactors. Citations include biofilm formation, patents, pharmaceutical production, oxygen mass transfer studies, antibiotic production, wastewater treatment, culture media aspects, and growth kinetics. Topics also explore the culturing of bacterial, fungal, insect, and animal cells. (Contains a minimum of 99 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. NASA's Bioreactor: Growing Cells in a Microgravity Environment. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses growing cells in a microgravity environment for grades 9-12. Students are provided with plans for building a classroom bioreactor that can then be used with the included activity on seed growth in a microgravity environment. Additional experimental ideas are also suggested along with a history and background on microgravity…

  8. Expression Systems and Species Used for Transgenic Animal Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanli; Zhao, Sihai; Bai, Liang; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animal bioreactors can produce therapeutic proteins with high value for pharmaceutical use. In this paper, we compared different systems capable of producing therapeutic proteins (bacteria, mammalian cells, transgenic plants, and transgenic animals) and found that transgenic animals were potentially ideal bioreactors for the synthesis of pharmaceutical protein complexes. Compared with other transgenic animal expression systems (egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma, and silkworm cocoon), the mammary glands of transgenic animals have enormous potential. Compared with other mammalian species (pig, goat, sheep, and cow) that are currently being studied as bioreactors, rabbits offer many advantages: high fertility, easy generation of transgenic founders and offspring, insensitivity to prion diseases, relatively high milk production, and no transmission of severe diseases to humans. Noticeably, for a small- or medium-sized facility, the rabbit system is ideal to produce up to 50 kg of protein per year, considering both economical and hygienic aspects; rabbits are attractive candidates for the mammary-gland-specific expression of recombinant proteins. We also reviewed recombinant proteins that have been produced by targeted expression in the mammary glands of rabbits and discussed the limitations of transgenic animal bioreactors. PMID:23586046

  9. Nutrient removal efficiency in a rice-straw denitrifying bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xinqiang; Lin, Limin; Ye, Yushi; Gu, Jiatao; Wang, Zhibo; Xu, Lixian; Jin, Yi; Ru, Qiukai; Tian, Guangming

    2015-12-01

    Rice straw was used as a carbon source in a denitrifying bioreactor, for the removal of nutrients from agricultural drainage. Nutrient removal efficiency was evaluated by: (a) nutrient loading rates (low, medium, and high); (b) hydraulic retention time, and (c) comparison with another carbon source (woodchip). The results show that concentrations of nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and orthophosphate phosphorus (PO4(3-)-P) in the rice-straw bioreactor effluents were reduced by 53%, 25%, 40%, and 35%, respectively, compared with influents at the medium nutrient loading rate (NO3(-)-N: 10-15mgNL(-1), NH4(+)-N: 10-15mgNL(-1), PO4(3-)-P: 1.0-1.5mgPL(-1)) and long hydraulic retention time (HRT, 24h), with a corresponding denitrification rate (DR) of 0.40mgNL(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the rice-straw bioreactor showed significantly higher (p<0.05) nutrient removal efficiency than the woodchip bioreactor at the medium nutrient loading rate and 24h HRT. PMID:26454040

  10. Fluid dynamics analysis of a novel micropatterned cell bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yuhong; Huo, Bo; Sun, Shujin; Yang, Fan; Gao, Yuxin; Pan, Jun; Long, Mian

    2011-05-01

    Although flow-based bioreactor has been widely used to provide sufficient mass transportation and nutrient supply for cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, the underlying mechanism of cell responses to applied flow at single cell level remains unclear. This study has developed a novel bioreactor that combines flow bioreactor with microfabrication technique to isolate individual cells onto micropatterned substrate. A mechanical model has also been developed to quantify the flow field or the microenvironment around the single cell; flow dynamics has been analyzed on five geometrically different patterns of circle-, cube-, 1:2 ellipse-, 1:3 ellipse-, and rectangle-shaped "virtual cells." The results of this study have demonstrated that the flow field is highly pattern dependent, and all the hydrodynamic development length, cell spacing, and orientation of inlet velocity vector are crucial for maintaining a fully developed flow. This study has provided a theoretical basis for optimizing the design of micropatterned flow bioreactor and a novel approach to understand the cell mechanotransduction and cell-surface interaction at single cell level. PMID:21249451

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSTING OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE IN A BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research was initiated to determine the feasibility of composting municipal sludge in an aerated tank bioreactor system and to develop baseline data for the rational operation and design of enclosed reactor composting systems. A variety of conditions was tested and various mi...

  12. Oxygen Sensors Monitor Bioreactors and Ensure Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    In order to cultivate healthy bacteria in bioreactors, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Needham Heights, Massachusetts-based Polestar Technologies Inc. to develop sensors that could monitor oxygen levels. The result is a sensor now widely used by pharmaceutical companies and medical research universities. Other sensors have also been developed, and in 2013 alone the company increased its workforce by 50 percent.

  13. A load dampening system for vapor phase bioreactors

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Rayes, A.W.; Kinney, K.A.; Seibert, F.; Corsi, R.L.

    1999-07-01

    Vapor phase bioreactors have been used extensively to control odorous gases and are receiving increased attention as an efficient and cost-effective treatment method for volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, an important issue related to bioreactors is their high sensitivity to shock loads and periods of process shutdown, which can significantly reduce treatment efficiency. The focus of this paper is the use of a novel closed absorption and humidification system to dampen dynamic loads of toluene, methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE), and acetone, and to reduce their detrimental effect on a downstream bioreactor. A model based on the mass transfer characteristics of target pollutants was developed and takes into account the closed water recirculation loop that minimizes fugitive emissions and simultaneously humidifies the influent gas stream. When water is used as the scrubbing liquid, model and experimental results indicate that the system effectively dampens hydrophilic compounds and segregates them from the hydrophobic compounds in the waste gas stream. The response of a vapor phase bioreactor to the pretreated stream has also been assessed and shows that the system works effectively with hydrophilic, but not hydrophobic, VOCs.

  14. Mathematical model for methane production from landfill bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.Y.; Gallardo, V.J.; Tabak, H.H.

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this discussion is to explain the experimental results of a landfill bioreactor (LFBR) from a microbiological perspective and to provide a feasible strategy to evaluate methane production performance, since suitable models and complicated and not sufficiently reliable for anaerobic-system design, as concluded by the authors. The discussers point out that the LFBR system with a leachate recycle significantly increased the overall residence time of reactants available for biodegradation. Thus, a higher conversion of organic carbon resulted compared with the system without leachate recycle. For the degradation of recalcitrant compounds, it is crucial to acquire relatively longer residence times in order to induce and synthesize essential enzymes in optimum amounts to transform pollutants to CH{sub 4}. Pirt (1975) mentioned that, as the age of the culture used to inoculate a bioreactor approached the time of late logarithmic phase, the lag time for the bioreactor reached a minimum. This suggests that the degradation rate of the LFBR system can be maximized by using an inoculum of optimum age. This further suggests that biomass age is a critical parameter in the performance of bioreactors. In addition, the discussers propose that certain observations in the authors' paper can be explained in terms of biomass age.

  15. TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS BY THE FLUIDIZED BED BIOREACTOR PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 2-year, large-scale pilot investigation was conducted at the City of Newburgh Water Pollution Control Plant, Newburgh, NY, to demonstrate the application of the fluidized bed bioreactor process to the treatment of municipal wastewaters. The experimental effort investigated the ...

  16. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

  17. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  18. Cell culture experiments planned for the space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Cross, John H.

    1987-01-01

    Culturing of cells in a pilot-scale bioreactor remains to be done in microgravity. An approach is presented based on several studies of cell culture systems. Previous and current cell culture research in microgravity which is specifically directed towards development of a space bioprocess is described. Cell culture experiments planned for a microgravity sciences mission are described in abstract form.

  19. Numerical study of fluid motion in bioreactor with two mixers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheleva, I.; Lecheva, A.

    2015-10-01

    Numerical study of hydrodynamic laminar behavior of a viscous fluid in bioreactor with multiple mixers is provided in the present paper. The reactor is equipped with two disk impellers. The fluid motion is studied in stream function-vorticity formulation. The calculations are made by a computer program, written in MATLAB. The fluid structure is described and numerical results are graphically presented and commented.

  20. Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

  1. Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions

  2. REMOVAL OF VOLATILE ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS IN A SOIL BIOREACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil removal of propane, isobutane and n-butane from a waste air stream was evaluated in the laboratory and in a prototype soil bioreactor. Laboratory investigations indicated first-order kinetics and the potential to degrade light aliphatic hydrocarbons and trichlorethylene, a c...

  3. Pilot study: Fixed-film bioreactor to enhance carbon adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gromicko, G.J.; Smock, M.; Wong, A.D.; Sheridan, B.

    1995-12-31

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate a novel bioreactor for treatment of groundwater at a former wood-preserving facility. Groundwater, impacted with wood-treating preservatives, is currently being recovered and treated using chemical/physical pretreatment followed by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption. The bioreactor was evaluated to reduce GAC usage. The study tested AlliedSignal`s Immobilized Cell Bioreactor (ICB) on a sidestream from the groundwater treatment system. The ICB technology is a fixed-film, fixed-bed bioreactor that utilizes a dual microbe support media system consisting of (1) a patented, carbon-coated, polyurethane foam packing; and (2) conventional, random, plastic packing. The ICB was tested at four discrete operating conditions representing hydraulic retention times of 16.6, 8.3, 4.2, and 2.1 h. Influent and effluent samples collected at each condition were analyzed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenolics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Results indicated that a maximum removal of 86.9% for COD, 96.3% for total phenols, 98.9% for total PAHs, and 97.2% for BTEX. Based on these data, a full-scale ICB as a pretreatment step would decrease GAC usage by a factor of 3.5.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF FUGITIVE EMISSIONS AT A BIOREACTOR LANDFILL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on three field campaigns performed in 2002 and 2003 to measure fugitive emissions at a bioreactor landfill in Louisville, KY, using an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The study uses optical remote sensing-radial plume mapping. The horizontal...

  5. LEACHATE RECIRCULATION, METHANOGENS AND METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The idea of operating landfills as bioreactors has received a lot of attention owing to many of the economic and waste treatment benefits. Portions of the Outer Loop landfill in Louisville, KY, owned and operated by WMI, Inc., are currently being used to test two different decom...

  6. Bioreactors for Tissue Engineering of Cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concaro, S.; Gustavson, F.; Gatenholm, P.

    The cartilage regenerative medicine field has evolved during the last decades. The first-generation technology, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) involved the transplantation of in vitro expanded chondrocytes to cartilage defects. The second generation involves the seeding of chondrocytes in a three-dimensional scaffold. The technique has several potential advantages such as the ability of arthroscopic implantation, in vitro pre-differentiation of cells and implant stability among others (Brittberg M, Lindahl A, Nilsson A, Ohlsson C, Isaksson O, Peterson L, N Engl J Med 331(14):889-895, 1994; Henderson I, Francisco R, Oakes B, Cameron J, Knee 12(3):209-216, 2005; Peterson L, Minas T, Brittberg M, Nilsson A, Sjogren-Jansson E, Lindahl A, Clin Orthop (374):212-234, 2000; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Feyerabend F, Petersen JP, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, et al. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 27(4):273-280, 2005; Portner R, Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, J Biosci Bioeng 100(3):235-245, 2005; Nagel-Heyer S, Goepfert C, Adamietz P, Meenen NM, Portner R, J Biotechnol 121(4):486-497, 2006; Heyland J, Wiegandt K, Goepfert C, Nagel-Heyer S, Ilinich E, Schumacher U, et al. Biotechnol Lett 28(20):1641-1648, 2006). The nutritional requirements of cells that are synthesizing extra-cellular matrix increase along the differentiation process. The mass transfer must be increased according to the tissue properties. Bioreactors represent an attractive tool to accelerate the biochemical and mechanical properties of the engineered tissues providing adequate mass transfer and physical stimuli. Different reactor systems have been [5] developed during the last decades based on different physical stimulation concepts. Static and dynamic compression, confined and nonconfined compression-based reactors have been described in this review. Perfusion systems represent an attractive way of culturing constructs under dynamic conditions. Several groups showed increased matrix production using confined and unconfined systems. Development of automatic culture systems and noninvasive monitoring of matrix production will take place during the next few years in order to improve the cost affectivity of tissue-engineered products.

  7. The CPF Immersion Registry, 1996. A Guide to French Immersion Programs throughout Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Judy, Ed.

    The directory lists French immersion programs at the elementary and secondary school levels in each province and territory of Canada. They are arranged alphabetically by province or territory, then by city or town within those categories. Data pertain to the 1995-96 school year. Information provided for each region includes general information on

  8. Immersion francaise precoce: Musique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Music for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide in music is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The program is presented as one that contributes to the development of the child, calls for flexibility and diversification, and requires a solid music education on the part of the teacher. The guide presents the following topics: (1) statements

  9. The Feel Good Factor: Comparing Immersion by Design and Immersion by Default Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Fiona; Leahy, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploratory research project entitled "Gaelscoileanna and Multicultural classrooms: the potential for transfer to enhance L2 learning experiences". The project focussed on two language immersion contexts in Ireland which, despite obvious differences, share a range of significant commonalities. One

  10. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,

  11. Immersion francaise precoce: Musique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Music for Grades 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This curriculum guide in music is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. The program is presented as one that contributes to the development of the child, calls for flexibility and diversification, and requires a solid music education on the part of the teacher. The guide presents the following topics: (1) statements…

  12. Immersion francaise precoce: Mathematique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Mathematics 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This mathematics curriculum guide is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. After an initial listing of textbooks in French for teachers and students, it presents: (1) a general overview of the theory of modern mathematics and a suggested sequence of activities; (2) some notes on the application of the theory and a

  13. Reclassification Patterns among Latino English Learner Students in Bilingual, Dual Immersion, and English Immersion Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.; Reardon, Sean F.

    2014-01-01

    Schools are under increasing pressure to reclassify their English learner (EL) students to "fluent English proficient" status as quickly as possible. This article examines timing to reclassification among Latino ELs in four distinct linguistic instructional environments: English immersion, transitional bilingual, maintenance bilingual,…

  14. Immersion francaise precoce: Mathematique 1-7 (Early French Immersion: Mathematics 1-7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Andy; And Others

    This mathematics curriculum guide is intended for use in grades 1-7 in the early French immersion program. After an initial listing of textbooks in French for teachers and students, it presents: (1) a general overview of the theory of modern mathematics and a suggested sequence of activities; (2) some notes on the application of the theory and a…

  15. Construction and Characterization of a Novel Vocal Fold Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Zerdoum, Aidan B.; Tong, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Short Abstract A novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of delivering physiologically relevant, vibratory stimulation to cultured cells is constructed and characterized. This dynamic culture device, when combined with a fibrous poly(?-caprolactone) scaffold, creates a vocal fold-mimetic environment that modulates the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells. Long Abstract In vitro engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of ~40 ?m. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:25145349

  16. Evaluation of abiotic fate mechanisms in soil slurry bioreactor treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.A.; McCauley, P.T.; Dosani, M.A.

    1995-10-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil slurries may offer a viable technology for soil bioremediation. Slurry bioreactor treatment of soils, however, has not sufficiently progressed to be a durable, reliable, and cost-effective treatment option. Critical to the evaluation of slurry bioreactors is a better description of pollutant mass transfer during the treatment phase. Losses attributable to abiotic means are generally overlooked in field application of the technology. Discussions with EPA regional personnel and inspection of active soil slurry bioreactor operations have identified operational problems such as foaming which could result in possible abiotic loss. Field bioslurry operations have adopted various approaches to reduce foaming: (1) the addition of defoaming agents, (2) the reduction of rotational speed of the agitator, and (3) the reduction of gas flow through the bioreactor system. We have conducted two bench-scale slurry bioreactor treatability studies, at the U.S. EPA Testing & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio, which were designed to investigate some of the operating factors leading to foam formation and identify the most advantageous means to deal with foaming. The initial study has been previously presented as a general treatability study for treatment of creosote contamination in a soil. During this study, foaming became a major problem for operation. The foaming conditions were mitigated by use of defoamer and, in the more extreme cases, through reduction of the mixer rotational speed and gas flow. A subsequent study which was devoted specifically to investigating the causes and conditions of foaming using a different batch of soil from the same site as the earlier study showed little foaming at the very beginning of the study.

  17. Integrating human stem cell expansion and neuronal differentiation in bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Margarida; Brito, Catarina; Costa, Eunice M; Sousa, Marcos FQ; Alves, Paula M

    2009-01-01

    Background Human stem cells are cellular resources with outstanding potential for cell therapy. However, for the fulfillment of this application, major challenges remain to be met. Of paramount importance is the development of robust systems for in vitro stem cell expansion and differentiation. In this work, we successfully developed an efficient scalable bioprocess for the fast production of human neurons. Results The expansion of undifferentiated human embryonal carcinoma stem cells (NTera2/cl.D1 cell line) as 3D-aggregates was firstly optimized in spinner vessel. The media exchange operation mode with an inoculum concentration of 4 105 cell/mL was the most efficient strategy tested, with a 4.6-fold increase in cell concentration achieved in 5 days. These results were validated in a bioreactor where similar profile and metabolic performance were obtained. Furthermore, characterization of the expanded population by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry showed that NT2 cells maintained their stem cell characteristics along the bioreactor culture time. Finally, the neuronal differentiation step was integrated in the bioreactor process, by addition of retinoic acid when cells were in the middle of the exponential phase. Neurosphere composition was monitored and neuronal differentiation efficiency evaluated along the culture time. The results show that, for bioreactor cultures, we were able to increase significantly the neuronal differentiation efficiency by 10-fold while reducing drastically, by 30%, the time required for the differentiation process. Conclusion The culture systems developed herein are robust and represent one-step-forward towards the development of integrated bioprocesses, bridging stem cell expansion and differentiation in fully controlled bioreactors. PMID:19772662

  18. Immersive 3D Visualization of Astronomical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaff, A.; Berthier, J.; Da Rocha, J.; Deparis, N.; Derriere, S.; Gaultier, P.; Houpin, R.; Normand, J.; Ocvirk, P.

    2015-09-01

    The immersive-3D visualization, or Virtual Reality in our study, was previously dedicated to specific uses (research, flight simulators, etc.) The investment in infrastructure and its cost was reserved to large laboratories or companies. Lately we saw the development of immersive-3D masks intended for wide distribution, for example the Oculus Rift and the Sony Morpheus projects. The usual reaction is to say that these tools are primarily intended for games since it is easy to imagine a player in a virtual environment and the added value to conventional 2D screens. Yet it is likely that there are many applications in the professional field if these tools are becoming common. Introducing this technology into existing applications or new developments makes sense only if interest is properly evaluated. The use in Astronomy is clear for education, it is easy to imagine mobile and light planetariums or to reproduce poorly accessible environments (e.g., large instruments). In contrast, in the field of professional astronomy the use is probably less obvious and it requires to conduct studies to determine the most appropriate ones and to assess the contributions compared to the other display modes.

  19. An immersed boundary method for endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-09-01

    Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

  20. Visuospatial astronomy education in immersive digital planetariums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. C.; Sahami, K.

    2008-06-01

    Even simple concepts in astronomy are notoriously difficult for the general public to understand. Many ideas involve three-dimensional (3D) spatial relationships among astronomical objects. However much of the traditional teaching materials used in astronomy education are two-dimensional (2D) in nature, while studies show that visualising mental rotations and perspective changes can be difficult for many. The simplifications that occur when explaining one phenomenon may lead to new misconceptions in other concepts. Properly constructed 3D simulations can provide students with the multiple perspectives necessary for understanding. As a venue for virtual astronomical environments, the new class of digital video planetariums that are appearing in museums and science centres have the potential to bridge the comprehension gap in astronomy learning. We describe a research project which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of visualisations in both immersive and non-immersive settings, by using freshmen undergraduate students from a four-year college. The retention of students over the course of a semester for this study means that student misconceptions can be tracked and recorded weekly via curriculum tests.