Ng, T P; Chan, S L; Lam, K P
Chest radiographs and spirometric tests were performed on 81 patients who had silicosis from two granite quarries in 1975, 73 of whom were followed up for two to 10 (mean 7.2) years. Each patient's initial and most recent chest radiographs were assessed independently by three experienced readers, and the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were estimated from two to four (mean 3.45) serial spirometric readings. Estimates of individual dust exposure were based on extensive historical data on hygiene. All but 11 patients were no longer exposed to dust by the start of follow up, but 24 (45%) of 53 patients who had simple silicosis and 11 (55%) of 20 who had the complicated disease showed radiological evidence of disease progression. In patients who had simple silicosis and showed no radiological progression the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were modest (64 ml/year and 59 ml/year, respectively), whereas significantly greater declines in lung function were seen in those who showed radiological evidence of progression (97 ml/year and 95 ml/year, respectively). In addition to radiological progression the previous average dust concentration to which patients had been exposed also influenced declines in both forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after allowing for the effects of age, smoking, duration of exposure, history of tuberculosis, initial state of disease, and baseline lung function. The probability of radiological progression was most strongly influenced by the average dust concentration previously exposed to. The progression of simple silicosis is thus accompanied by appreciable declines in lung function and is strongly affected by previous levels of exposure to dust. PMID:3115361
Walter, Uwe; Heilmann, Robert; Kaulitz, Lara; Just, Tino; Krause, Bernd Joachim; Benecke, Reiner; Höppner, Jacqueline
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been associated with an increased risk of subsequent Parkinson's disease (PD) in case-control and cohort studies. However, depression alone is unlikely to be a useful marker of prodromal PD due to its low specificity. In this longitudinal observational study, we assessed whether the presence of other potential markers of prodromal PD predicts the subsequent development of PD in MDD patients. Of 57 patients with severe MDD but no diagnosis of PD who underwent a structured interview, olfactory and motor investigation and transcranial sonography at baseline, 46 (36 women; mean age 54.9 ± 11.7 years) could be followed for up to 11 (median, 10) years. Three patients (2 women; age 64, 65 and 70 years) developed definite PD after 1, 7, and 9 years, respectively. The combined finding of mild asymmetric motor slowing, idiopathic hyposmia, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity predicted subsequent PD in all patients who could be followed for longer than 1 year. Out of the whole study cohort, only the subjects with subsequent PD presented with the triad of asymmetric motor slowing, idiopathic hyposmia, and substantia nigra hyperechogenicity in combination with at least two out of four reportable risk factors (family history of PD, current non-smoker, non-coffee drinker, constipation) at baseline investigation. Post-hoc analysis revealed that additional rating of eye and eye-lid motor abnormalities might further improve the prediction of PD in larger cohorts. Findings of this pilot-study suggest that MDD patients at risk of subsequent PD can be identified using an inexpensive non-invasive diagnostic battery. PMID:25217967
Schmeidler, James; Labinsky, Ellen; Bell, Amanda; Morris, Adam; Zemelman, Shelly; Grossman, Robert A.
Objective We performed a longitudinal study of Holocaust survivors with and without PTSD by assessing symptoms and other measures at two intervals, approximately 10 years apart. Method The original cohort consisted of 63 community-dwelling subjects, of whom 40 were available for follow-up. Results There was a general diminution in PTSD symptom severity over time. However, in 10% of the subjects (n=4), new instances of Delayed Onset PTSD developed between the Time 1 and Time 2. Self-report ratings at both assessments revealed a worsening of trauma related symptoms over time in persons without PTSD at Time 1, but an improvement in those with PTSD at Time 1. Conclusion The findings suggest that a nuanced characterization of PTSD trajectory over time is more reflective of PTSD symptomatology than simple diagnostic status at one time. The possibility of Delayed Onset trajectory complicates any simplistic overall trajectory summarizing the longitudinal course of PTSD. PMID:18785948
Haddad, F S; Konan, S; Tahmassebi, J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ten-year clinical and functional outcome of hip resurfacing and to compare it with that of cementless hip arthroplasty in patients under the age of 55 years. Between 1999 and 2002, 80 patients were enrolled into the study: 24 were randomised (11 to hip resurfacing, 13 to total hip arthroplasty), 18 refused hip resurfacing and chose cementless total hip arthroplasty with a 32 mm bearing, and 38 insisted on resurfacing. The mean follow-up for all patients was 12.1 years (10 to 14). Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically at one year, five years and ten years. Outcome measures included EuroQol EQ5D, Oxford, Harris hip, University of California Los Angeles and University College Hospital functional scores. No differences were seen between the two groups in the Oxford or Harris hip scores or in the quality of life scores. Despite a similar aspiration to activity pre-operatively, a higher proportion of patients with a hip resurfacing were running and involved in sport and heavy manual labour after ten years. We found significantly higher function scores in patients who had undergone hip resurfacing than in those with a cementless hip arthroplasty at ten years. This suggests a functional advantage for hip resurfacing. There were no other attendant problems. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:617-22. PMID:25922454
Carpentier, Melissa Y.; Silovsky, Jane F.; Chaffin, Mark
This study prospectively follows 135 children 5-12 years of age with sexual behavior problems from a randomized trial comparing a 12-session group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with group play therapy and follows 156 general clinic children with nonsexual behavior problems. Ten-year follow-up data on future juvenile and adult arrests and…
Prentice, Jennifer R.; Blackwell, Christopher S.; Raoof, Naz; Bacon, Paul; Ray, Jaydip; Hickman, Simon J.; Wilkinson, J. Mark
Case reports of patients with mal-functioning metal-on-metal hip replacement (MoMHR) prostheses suggest an association of elevated circulating metal levels with visual and auditory dysfunction. However, it is unknown if this is a cumulative exposure effect and the impact of prolonged low level exposure, relevant to the majority of patients with a well-functioning prosthesis, has not been studied. Twenty four male patients with a well-functioning MoMHR and an age and time since surgery matched group of 24 male patients with conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA) underwent clinical and electrophysiological assessment of their visual and auditory health at a mean of ten years after surgery. Median circulating cobalt and chromium concentrations were higher in patients after MoMHR versus those with THA (P<0.0001), but were within the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (UK) investigation threshold. Subjective auditory tests including pure tone audiometric and speech discrimination findings were similar between groups (P>0.05). Objective assessments, including amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio of transient evoked and distortion product oto-acoustic emissions (TEOAE and DPOAE, respectively), were similar for all the frequencies tested (P>0.05). Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and cortical evoked response audiometry (ACR) were also similar between groups (P>0.05). Ophthalmological evaluations, including self-reported visual function by visual functioning questionnaire, as well as binocular low contrast visual acuity and colour vision were similar between groups (P>0.05). Retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and macular volume measured by optical coherence tomography were also similar between groups (P>0.05). In the presence of moderately elevated metal levels associated with well-functioning implants, MoMHR exposure does not associate with clinically demonstrable visual or auditory dysfunction. PMID:24621561
Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Meksin, Robert; Vaidya, Chandan J; Johnson, Marcia K; Mitchell, Karen J; Buckner, Randy L; Budson, Andrew E; Gabrieli, John D E; Lustig, Cindy; Mather, Mara; Ochsner, Kevin N; Schacter, Daniel; Simons, Jon S; Lyle, Keith B; Cuc, Alexandru F; Olsson, Andreas
Within a week of the attack of September 11, 2001, a consortium of researchers from across the United States distributed a survey asking about the circumstances in which respondents learned of the attack (their flashbulb memories) and the facts about the attack itself (their event memories). Follow-up surveys were distributed 11, 25, and 119 months after the attack. The study, therefore, examines retention of flashbulb memories and event memories at a substantially longer retention interval than any previous study using a test-retest methodology, allowing for the study of such memories over the long term. There was rapid forgetting of both flashbulb and event memories within the first year, but the forgetting curves leveled off after that, not significantly changing even after a 10-year delay. Despite the initial rapid forgetting, confidence remained high throughout the 10-year period. Five putative factors affecting flashbulb memory consistency and event memory accuracy were examined: (a) attention to media, (b) the amount of discussion, (c) residency, (d) personal loss and/or inconvenience, and (e) emotional intensity. After 10 years, none of these factors predicted flashbulb memory consistency; media attention and ensuing conversation predicted event memory accuracy. Inconsistent flashbulb memories were more likely to be repeated rather than corrected over the 10-year period; inaccurate event memories, however, were more likely to be corrected. The findings suggest that even traumatic memories and those implicated in a community's collective identity may be inconsistent over time and these inconsistencies can persist without the corrective force of external influences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25751741
Niemelä, S; Karttunen, T; Kerola, T; Karttunen, R
AIMS--To examine the course of lymphocytic gastritis and its relation to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection in a 10 year follow up. METHODS--Ninety six patients were originally examined for dyspepsia in 1981. Gastroscopies with stepwise biopsies were performed on all the patients initially and after an interval of 10 years. RESULTS--Nine per cent of the patients (9/96) had features of lymphocytic gastritis in gastric biopsy at the first examination, and 12.5% (12/96) at the second examination; 7/9 patients (78%) had persistent lymphocytic gastritis during the follow up; in two the diagnostic features of lymphocytic gastritis had disappeared, and five had a new diagnosis of lymphocytic gastritis at the second examination. At the second examination 9/12 lymphocytic gastritis patients (75%) were H pylori positive histologically, while all had specific antibodies to H pylori. The lymphocytic gastritis patients had higher grades of gastritis (p = 0.009), neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes, mononuclear inflammatory cells, and foveolar hyperplasia in the corpus mucosa, but smaller numbers of H pylori, than the H pylori positive patients without lymphocytic gastritis. The appearance of lymphocytic gastritis during the 10 year interval was associated with increases in the grades of corpus gastritis and neutrophilic granulocytes (p = 0.043 for both). During the follow up, the patients with lymphocytic gastritis, but not the H pylori positive patients without lymphocytic gastritis, appeared to have a significant increase in the grade of intestinal metaplasia in the corpus mucosa (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS--In some patients H pylori may cause a gastritis that predominates in the corpus and is associated with an increase in the intraepithelial lymphocyte count. This form of gastritis may cause progression of intestinal metaplasia. Images PMID:8567997
Rubin, Simon Shimshon; Shechory-Stahl, Mor
This article examines how varieties of the continuing relationship to the deceased child are associated with life functioning among bereaved parents. The research employed a longitudinal design utilizing both quantitative and qualitative research methodology. Six bereaved parents who lost sons in war and who had extensive interview material and research protocols spaced 10 years apart were selected for this study. Half had improved over time and half had not improved or deteriorated. Analyses of the ongoing relationship to the deceased focused upon: (a) perceptions of the deceased and (b) nature of the ongoing relationship to the deceased son. On perception, parents who improved tended to describe their sons in very favorable terms. The parents whose condition remained static or deteriorated tended to describe their sons less positively, and with superficial and shallow descriptions. Regarding the nature of the ongoing relationship, parents whose condition improved over the years describe a close and significant relationship with the son. We conclude that while the relationship to the son continues for all the bereaved parents, it is how the deceased is recollected that is associated with the direction of bereavement outcome. PMID:23785986
Preti, Alessandro; Vano, Michele; Derchi, Giacomo; Mangani, Francesco; Cerutti, Antonio
Objectives: The aim of this clinical trial was to evaluate posterior indirect composite resin restoration ten years after placement luted with two different procedures. Study Design: In 23 patients 22 inlays/onlays (Group A) were luted using a dual-cured resin composite cement and 26 inlays/onlays (Group B) were luted using a light cured resin composite for a total of 48 Class I and Class II indirect composite resin inlays and onlays. The restorations were evaluated at 2 time points: 1) one week after placement (baseline evaluation) and 2) ten years after placement using the modified USPHS criteria. The Mann-Whitney and the Wilcoxon tests were used to examine the difference between the results of the baseline and 10 years evaluation for each criteria. Results: Numerical but not statistically significant differences were noted on any of the recorded clinical parameters (p>0.05) between the inlay/onlays of Group A and Group B. 91% and 94 % of Group A and B respectively were rated as clinically acceptable in all the evaluated criteria ten years after clinical function. Conclusions: Within the limits of the study the results showed after ten years of function a comparable clinical performance of indirect composite resin inlays/onlays placed with a light cure or dual cure luting procedures. Key words:Light curing composite, dual curing composite, indirect composite restoration, inlays/onlays, clinical trial. PMID:25810842
The outcome of femoral component revision arthroplasty with impaction allograft bone grafting and a cemented polished Exeter stem: A prospective cohort study of 208 revision arthroplasties with a mean follow-up of ten years.
Te Stroet, M A J; Rijnen, W H C; Gardeniers, J W M; van Kampen, A; Schreurs, B W
We report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 208 consecutive femoral revision arthroplasties performed in 202 patients (119 women, 83 men) between March 1991 and December 2007 using the X-change Femoral Revision System, fresh-frozen morcellised allograft and a cemented polished Exeter stem. All patients were followed prospectively. The mean age of the patients at revision was 65 years (30 to 86). At final review in December 2013 a total of 130 patients with 135 reconstructions (64.9%) were alive and had a non re-revised femoral component after a mean follow-up of 10.6 years (4.7 to 20.9). One patient was lost to follow-up at six years, and their data were included up to this point. Re-operation for any reason was performed in 33 hips (15.9%), in 13 of which the femoral component was re-revised (6.3%). The mean pre-operative Harris hip score was 52 (19 to 95) (n = 73) and improved to 80 (22 to 100) (n = 161) by the last follow-up. Kaplan-Meier survival with femoral re-revision for any reason as the endpoint was 94.9% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 90.2 to 97.4) at ten years; with femoral re-revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint it was 99.4% (95% CI 95.7 to 99.9); with femoral re-operation for any reason as the endpoint it was 84.5% (95% CI 78.3 to 89.1); and with subsidence ? 5 mm it was 87.3% (95% CI 80.5 to 91.8). Femoral revision with the use of impaction allograft bone grafting and a cemented polished stem results in a satisfying survival rate at a mean of ten years' follow-up. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:771-9. PMID:26033056
Hu, Chi-Chien; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin
Background. Two-stage revision hip arthroplasty is the gold standard for treatment of patients with chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but few studies have reported outcomes beyond short-term follow-up. Methods. A total of 155 patients who underwent two-stage revision arthroplasty for chronic PJI in 157 hips were retrospectively enrolled in this study between January 2001 and December 2010. The mean patient age was 57.5 years, the mean prosthetic age was 3.6 years, and the interim interval was 17.8 weeks. These patients were followed up for an average of 9.7 years. Results. At the latest follow-up, 91.7% of the patients were free of infection. The mean Harris hip score improved significantly from 28.3 points before operation to 85.7 points at the latest follow-up. Radiographically, there was aseptic loosening of the stem or acetabular components in 4 patients. In the multivariate survival analysis using a Cox regression model, repeated debridement before final reconstruction, an inadequate interim period, bacteriuria or pyuria, and cirrhosis were found to be the independent risk factors for treatment failure. Conclusion. Our data show that two-stage revision hip arthroplasty provides reliable eradication of infection and durable reconstruction of the joint in patients with PJI caused by a variety of pathogens.
Pinto, Sergio Wyton L.; Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna; Sesso, Ricardo
Background Scarce information on outcomes of epidemic post infectious glomerulonephritis is available. This is a 10-year follow-up of the patients that developed acute glomerulonephritis in an epidemic outbreak caused by group C Streptococcus zooepidemicus in Brazil in 1998, that were also previously evaluated 2 and 5 years after the acute episode. Methods In this prospective study 60 cases (out of 134 in 1998) were reevaluated after 10 years, as well as community controls matched by gender and age. They underwent clinical and renal function evaluation, including serum creatinine and cystatin C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and hematuria. Results Comparisons of clinical and renal function aspects of 60 patients and 48 community controls have not shown significant differences (eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or albuminuria >30mg/g creatinine: 13.8% vs. 12.2%, respectively, p = 0.817) except for a higher frequency of hypertension in the cases (45.0% vs. 20.8%, p = 0.009). Comparing the same patients affected in the acute episode, 2, 5 and 10 years later, it was observed an improvement of median eGFR levels at 2 years and a trend toward subsequent stabilization in these levels, associated with decrease in albuminuria and increased hypertension rates in the last survey. At 10 years it was not observed additional reduction of renal function using serum creatinine, eGFR and cystatin C. Conclusions During the acute episode of epidemic GN a considerable proportion of patients presented hypertension and reduced renal function; after 2 years and particularly at this 10-year follow-up survey there was no worsening of renal function parameters, except for persistent higher frequency of hypertension. Nevertheless, a longer follow up is necessary to confirm that progressive loss of renal function will not occur. PMID:25962068
Emeryk-Szajewska, Barbara; Strugalska-Cynowska, Halina; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Szyluk, Beata; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna
A case is presented of a 34-year-old man who developed weakness of the proximal muscles of the extremities, particularly lower, slight myalgia, and vegetative symptoms (dryness in the mouth). Those symptoms progressed within a month. On examination weakness of the muscles of the extremities was found as well as weak tendon reflexes, slight atrophy of muscles of the arms and thighs and apokamnosis. Edrophonium test was slightly positive. Electrostimulation revealed changes typical of the Lambert-Eaton syndrome: low amplitude of the compound muscle action potential on single stimulus, decreasing amplitude of the subsequent responses to 3 Hz stimulation, marked facilitation on 30 Hz stimulation. Neoplastic etiology was excluded by chest X-ray and CT, as well as by bronchoscopy, abdominal and prostatic USG, and thyroid USG and scintigraphy. Antibodies to AChR were not found in the serum. The titre of the antibodies against voltage-gated calcium channels was highly positive which was decisive in the diagnosing of the Lambert-Eaton syndrome. The patient was treated with pyridostigmine, corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and immunoglobulins. Ten years of follow-up have fully confirmed the diagnosis of a non-neoplastic Lambert-Eaton syndrome. PMID:16794965
Lee, Young-Kyun; Ha, Yong-Chan; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong
We previously reported the five-to-six-year results of the use of third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings in a consecutive series of 100 primary cementless total hip arthroplasties. This report presents the longer-term outcomes of these same bearings, at a minimum of ten years postoperatively. Eighty-six of eighty-eight hips available for the study retained the original bearings at the time of the latest follow-up. Thirteen hips were associated with noise, and six hips demonstrated fretting of the femoral neck on radiographs. Two hips required a change of the bearings because of a ceramic head fracture. The ten-year survival rate of the alumina-on-alumina total hip prostheses, with revision of any implant for any reason as the end point, was 99.0%. On the basis of those results, we concluded that the rate of survival of primary cementless total hip prostheses with third-generation alumina-on-alumina bearings is excellent at ten years. However, the risk of ceramic fracture, noise, and impingement between the metal neck and the ceramic liner should be a concern to surgeons, and patients should be informed of these risks before surgery. PMID:20660234
The incidence of anencephaly at the Los Angeles County General Hospital during the period of July, 1948 through June, 1958 was 0.049 per cent. Worldwide the range of reported incidence is 0.012 per cent to 0.671 per cent. In this study 65 per cent of the total number of anencephalics delivered were females, a predominance agreeing with reports by other investigators. Polyhydramnios appeared in 38 per cent of the anencephalic pregnancies of this study, while 15 per cent of the deliveries were complicated by placenta praevia. A significant number (48 per cent) of the multiparae gave a history of previous stillbirths or abortions. The present study does not support observations by other investigators which indicated an increase in anencephalic births during the winter months. Evidence from stillbirth statistics would seem to indicate that anencephaly is primarily a genetically induced phenomenon. Further evaluation and analysis of the predominance of females in anencephalic stillbirths and abortions is suggested, in order to study whether the observed secondary or birth sex ratio (in which males predominate) is, in fact, due to genetic effect. PMID:13914041
Puri, Vinita; Mahendru, Sanjay; Rana, Roshani; Deshpande, Manish
Fireworks are used worldwide to celebrate popular events (e.g. festivals, official celebrations, weddings). The festival of lights (Diwali) is celebrated with fireworks in India. During this period, many patients from all age groups present to hospital with injuries due to fireworks. Prevalence, period of occurrence, sex and age variation, adult supervision, causative fireworks, mode of lighting, age groups prone to injury, patterns of injury caused by individual fireworks, and the body parts injured were studied. One hundred and fifty-seven cases (92 retrospective, 65 prospective) with injury due to fireworks presenting to the Department of Plastic Surgery at KEM Hospital between 1997 and 2006 were studied. The prevalence of injuries has decreased steadily over the last 10 years (41 cases in 1997, 3 cases in 2006). The maximum number of injuries (35%) was seen in the age group 5-14 years; 92% of these children were unsupervised. The commonest cause of injury was firework misuse (41% of cases), followed by device failure (35%). Device failure was commonest with flares/fountains (ground firework emitting sparks upwards) and aerial devices. Flare/fountains caused most injury (39%), sparklers the least (0.6%). Flare/fountains, ground spinners, sparklers, and gunpowder (explosive material from cracker, obtained by tearing paper wrapper and obtaining chemicals) caused only soft tissue burns; stringbombs (high-intensity fire cracker made by wrapping chemicals with jute strings/coir in layers) and rockets (aerial device that zooms upwards and bursts) caused blast injuries, leading to soft tissue disruption and bony injuries. Emergency surgery was done if indicated: tendon and/or neurovascular repair, fracture fixation, flap cover or amputation. Superficial burns were treated with dressings. Certain wounds needed only thorough cleansing of the wound and primary suturing. We concluded that, over a 10-year period, the prevalence of firework injury decreased due to increased awareness in the community. Aggressive awareness campaigns by government and non-government organisations was the cause. We can minimise the number and severity of accidents by raising awareness regarding safety precautions, encouraging professional displays and motivating manufacturers to adhere to strict quality control. PMID:18603491
Millikan, W J; Warren, W D; Henderson, J M; Smith, R B; Salam, A A; Galambos, J T; Kutner, M H; Keen, J H
From 1971 to 1975, 55 patients with variceal bleeding secondary to cirrhosis were entered into a prospective randomized trial comparing distal splenorenal (selective) and H-graft interposition (nonselective) shunt. This 10-year follow-up documents that selective shunt is better (p less than 0.05) in four of the five variables monitored. Control of bleeding: selective shunt prevented variceal bleeding better than interposition shunt due to the higher (0.05 less than p less than 0.1) occlusion rate (30%) of interposition shunt. Selective shunt maintained postoperative portal perfusion better (p less than 0.01) than patent interposition shunt. Seventy-five per cent of selective shunt survivors have portal perfusion at 10 years: no patient with a patent nonselective shunt perfuses the liver. Quantitative liver function was better preserved (p less than 0.01) 10 years after selective shunt than nonselective shunt. Postoperative encephalopathy occurred in fewer (p less than 0.01) selective (27%) than nonselective (75%) shunt patients over the 10 years. Survival: in the randomized population, the improved survival in the selective shunt subgroup did not reach statistical significance. However, improved survival was confirmed in nonalcoholics. Five of eight nonalcoholics operated with selective shunt are alive at 10 years with patent shunts. No nonalcoholic, of seven total, operated with nonselective shunt survived 10 years with a patent shunt. These data show that selective shunt was superior to nonselective shunt. There was less rebleeding and encephalopathy after distal splenorenal shunt; postoperative portal perfusion and hepatic function were maintained. Images FIG. 4. PMID:3890781
Casey, E. B.; Harrison, M. J. G.
A clinical follow-up study of 12 patients with diabetic amyotrophy is reported. Re-examination after an interval indicated that improvement had occurred in all but one instance, and had been maintained over an average follow-up period of four and a half years. Improvement in the neurological syndrome appeared to follow improvement in diabetic control or institution of treatment in those whose diabetes had not previously been diagnosed. Seven patients made a good functional recovery, three no longer having any muscular weakness. Five showed significant residual disability. PMID:5015293
Porta, M; Jick, H; Habakangas, J A
A follow-up study of over 100,000 persons below age 65 years who filled a total of 243,286 prescriptions for pseudoephedrine indicated that there were no hospitalizations among users that could be attributed to the drug. There were no admissions within 15 days of filling a prescription for pseudoephedrine for cerebral hemorrhage, thrombotic stroke, or hypertensive crisis. There were a small number of hospitalizations for myocardial infarction, seizures and neuropsychiatric disorders, but the rate of such admissions among the pseudoephedrine users was close to the expected rate in the population at large. PMID:3777533
Bonner, D; Ron, M; Chalder, T; Butler, S; Wessely, S
Forty-six of 47 patients diagnosed as having chronic fatigue and offered treatment four years previously were followed up. Twenty-nine patients were interviewed, three patients refused an interview, and information on the remaining 14 was obtained from their general practitioners. All the instruments used at interview had been used in the initial study. The long-term prognosis for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome who have initially responded to treatment is good. Spontaneous recovery in those who declined or who did not benefit from treatment is unlikely. Patients who continue to fulfil the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome four years after they were initially diagnosed are likely to have had more somatic disorders, to have been more fatigued, and to have had a previous psychiatric history when they were initially assessed. PMID:8201336
Ekenvall, L; Carlsson, A
To study the course of vibration white finger (VWF) 55 men were re-examined three and a half to six years after the first examination. The patients were interviewed and finger systolic pressure after general body and local finger cooling was measured. The test results at the two examinations were compared. At the follow up examination some patients experienced a subjective improvement of VWF symptoms but not until more than three years had passed after they had stopped working with vibrating tools. To study the effect of diminished cold exposure on subjective symptoms, vibration exposed outdoor workers who changed to unexposed indoor work were studied separately. In this subgroup also improvement was reported only when more than three years has passed after the change of work, indicating that diminished cold exposure is not the primary explanation for the improvement. The cold provocation test, however, showed no tendency towards a diminished reaction of the vessels to cooling. Patients who continue to work with vibrating tools report a subjective increase in symptoms. This subjective impairment was reflected in an increased reaction to cold as measured in the cold provocation test. PMID:3620371
Zhenzhong Ma; Yender Lee; Kuo-Hsun Yu
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to map the intellectual structure of conflict management studies and to investigate the key themes, concepts, and their relationships of conflict management literature in the past decade. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Citation and co-citation analysis and social network analysis were used to trace the development path of conflict management research. The data were collected
M. J. WILDMAN; E. G. SMITH; J. GROVES; J. M. BEATTIE; E. O. CAUL; J. G. AYRES
ICF was found in 25 (32.5%) of Q-exposed patients and 11(14.3%) of controls (p= 0.01). There were 36 (46.8%) GHQ cases in Q-exposed subjects, vs. 18 (23.4%) controls (p =0.004). A matched analysis of those more intensively studied showed fatigue in 48 (66.7%) Q-exposed patients and 25 (34.7%) con- trols, (p-0.0001), ICF in 25 (34.7%) Q-exposed and 10 (13.9%) controls
Bitunjac, Kristina; Saraga, Marijan
Aim To examine the changes in the number of children younger than 18 who were hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication at the Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital of Split, from November 1, 1997 to October 31, 2007. Methods Data on children hospitalized due to intoxication were retrieved from hospital medical records. Children were classified into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-9, 10-13, and 14-18 years, and their sex and type of intoxication were recorded. For children with alcohol intoxication, data on time of intoxication, reason for drinking, presence of injuries or suspected suicide attempts, and possible presence of other drugs in the organism were collected. Results Out of 29?506 hospitalized children, 594 were hospitalized due to intoxications. Out of these, 239 (40.2%) were hospitalized due to intoxication by alcohol. More boys than girls were hospitalized (71.1%). The proportion of alcohol intoxication cases among all types of intoxication cases increased from 16.7% in 1997/98 to 66.3% in 2006/07. The proportion of patients hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication increased from 0.3% of all hospitalized children in the first year to 1.7% in the last year of the study (P?=?0.015, z test for comparison of two proportions). Eighty two per cent of cases of alcohol intoxication were in the 14-18 age-group. The number of alcohol intoxication cases increased among girls from 1 case (6.3% of all intoxication cases among girls) in 1997/98 to 15 cases (45.5%) in 2006/07, while among boys it increased from 6 cases (23.1% of all intoxicated boys) in 1997/98 to 44 cases (78.6%) in 2006/07. Children usually drank outside their homes (79.4%) and mostly on weekends and holidays (73.2%). Conclusion The alarming increase in the number of hospitalizations due to alcohol intoxication in children, especially among girls and in the adolescent age group, represents a serious problem, which requires further attention and research. PMID:19399948
P Tyrer; H Seivewright; B Ferguson; T Johnson
Background: The ethics of cold calling—visiting subjects at home without prior appointment agreed—in follow up research studies has received little attention although it is perceived to be quite common. We examined the ethical implications of cold calling in a study of subjects with defined neurotic disorders followed up 12 years after initial assessment carried out to determine outcome in terms
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of
Mary Whitton_SIGGRAPH09 1 Lessons Learned from Ten Years of Studies of Virtual Environments User lessons the Effective Virtual Environments (EVE) research team learned while doing a dozen or more studies and lessons learned by another, cross-disciplinary team in the Distributed nanoManipulator project
Agrawal, K C; Kellam, S G; Klein, Z E; Turner, J
Elementary school children in a large public urban school system (Chicago) can be tracked into adolescence, together with their families, by using student numbers established by the Chicago Public Schools. This paper reports on the linkage between a psychiatric follow-up study and the data bank of the Chicago Public Schools. The authors were able to find information about the location and grade placement of 87% of an urban ghetto neighborhood's first grade children after a seven to ten-year lapse in contact. The children about whom information was found did not differ from those missing in the early measures of their school achievement and psychological wellbeing. However, first grade measures of school success of failure did relate to grade placement of children ten years later, as did first grade ratings of bizarreness. PMID:626256
Marian K. DeMyer; Sandra Barton; William E. DeMyer; James A. Norton; John Allen; Robert Steele
A follow-up study involving 85 autistic boys and 35 girls, c. 5 1\\/2 years of age at initial evaluation and 12 years at follow-up, is presented and discussed in considerable detail. Measures, also applied to 26 non-psychotic subnormal controls, included speech, social, educational, and family adequacy ratings, IQ's, and neurological data. Most autistic children remained educationally retarded and 42% were
The Follow-Up Study involves locating and interviewing a group of young adults who, as 10-year-old children, were included in the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study, an investigation of the prevalence and risk factors for developmental disabilities that was con...
In 1990, a follow-up study was conducted of former students of Lane Community College (LCC) and their employers. The survey targeted three groups of former LCC students: all 1988-89 graduates who earned degrees or certificates, all no-formal-award leavers with 70 or more credits, and all early leavers who had earned less than 70 credits while…
Lucci, J A; Brockway, J A
This is a follow-up study of the 20 junior students admitted into an occupational therapy educational program under a selection process described in a previous article in AJOT in 1974. It reports the outcome resulting from the use of the selection process and t test findings between the upper ten ranked students and the remaining lower ranked students. Academic achievements and employment patterns of the 19 students completing the program are presented. PMID:7369074
French, Scott C.; Chan, Shu B.; Ramaker, Jill
Introduction: The most common reason patients seek medical attention is pain. However, there may be significant delays in initiating prehospital pain therapy. In a 2001 quality improvement (QI) study, we demonstrated improvement in paramedic knowledge, perceptions, and management of pain. This follow-up study examines the impact of this QI program, repeated educational intervention (EI), and effectiveness of a new pain management standard operating procedure. Methods: 176 paramedics from 10 urban and suburban fire departments and two private ambulance services participated in a 3-hour EI. A survey was performed prior to the EI and repeated one month after the EI. We reviewed emergency medical services (EMS) runs with pain complaints prior to the EI and one month after the EI. Follow-up results were compared to our prior study. We performed data analysis using descriptive statistics and chi-square tests. Results: The authors reviewed 352 surveys and 438 EMS runs with pain complaints. Using the same survey questions, even before the EI, 2007 paramedics demonstrated significant improvement in the knowledge (18.2%; 95% CI 8.9%, 27.9%), perceptions (9.2%; 95% CI 6.5%, 11.9%), and management of pain (13.8%; 95% CI 11.3%, 16.2%) compared to 2001. Following EI in 2007, there were no significant improvements in the baseline knowledge (0%; 95% CI 5.3%, 5.3%) but significant improvements in the perceptions of pain principles (6.4%; 95% CI 3.9%, 9.0%) and the management of pain (14.7%; 95% CI 11.4%, 18.0%). Conclusion: In this follow up study, paramedics’ baseline knowledge, perceptions, and management of pain have all improved from 6 years ago. Following a repeat educational intervention, paramedics further improved their field management of pain suggesting paramedics will still benefit from both initial and also ongoing continuing education on the topic of pain management. PMID:23599840
Jon Dahl; Per Söderlund; Bo Nivbrant; Lars Nordsletten; Stephan M. Röhrl
Purpose Wear is a major contributor to osteolysis and aseptic loosening of total hip replacements (THR). Both alumina (Al2O3) and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral heads are commonly used. We investigated wear comparing alumina heads to cobalt-chrome\\u000a heads against conventional cemented polyethylene (PE) cups for up to ten years.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Linear wear was measured with radiostereometry (RSA). Our material was derived from two prospective randomised
Background Medical school attrition is important - securing a place in medical school is difficult and a high attrition rate can affect the academic reputation of a medical school and staff morale. More important, however, are the personal consequences of dropout for the student. The aims of our study were to examine factors associated with attrition over a ten-year period (2001–2011) and to study the personal effects of dropout on individual students. Methods The study included quantitative analysis of completed cohorts and qualitative analysis of ten-year data. Data were collected from individual student files, examination and admission records, exit interviews and staff interviews. Statistical analysis was carried out on five successive completed cohorts. Qualitative data from student files was transcribed and independently analysed by three authors. Data was coded and categorized and key themes were identified. Results Overall attrition rate was 5.7% (45/779) in 6 completed cohorts when students who transferred to other medical courses were excluded. Students from Kuwait and United Arab Emirates had the highest dropout rate (RR?=?5.70, 95% Confidence Intervals 2.65 to 12.27;p?0.0001) compared to Irish and EU students combined. North American students had a higher dropout rate than Irish and EU students; RR?=?2.68 (1.09 to 6.58;p?=?0.027) but this was not significant when transfers were excluded (RR?=?1.32(0.38, 4.62);p?=?0.75). Male students were more likely to dropout than females (RR 1.70, .93 to 3.11) but this was not significant (p?=?0.079). Absenteeism was documented in 30% of students, academic difficulty in 55.7%, social isolation in 20%, and psychological morbidity in 40% (higher than other studies). Qualitative analysis revealed recurrent themes of isolation, failure, and despair. Student Welfare services were only accessed by one-third of dropout students. Conclusions While dropout is often multifactorial, certain red flag signals may alert us to risk of dropout including non-EU origin, academic struggling, absenteeism, social isolation, depression and leave of absence. Psychological morbidity amongst dropout students is high and Student Welfare services should be actively promoted. Absenteeism should prompt early intervention. Behind every dropout statistic lies a personal story. All medical schools have a duty of care to support students who leave the medical programme. PMID:23363547
Chen, Yingru; Zhang, Xuekai; Fang, Yigong; Yang, Jinsheng
The use of acupuncture in inducing delivery has a long history in China. With progress over time, it has been applied in many aspects. For further study of acupuncture in delivery, this paper analyzed the papers using acupuncture in delivery in the past ten years in mainland China. 87 literatures were picked out by searching relevant electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant journals. The analysis showed randomized controlled trials that were the major type of research, while preclinical researches and literature reviews only account for around ten percent, respectively. Clinical researches indicated that acupuncture can relieve labor pain, promote maternal uterine contraction, shorten birth process, and treat postpartum disorders. Preclinical researches found that acupuncture can adjust certain hormones and improve uterus contraction of late-stage pregnant rats. However, due to lack of large multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials, standardized evaluations of clinical effects in clinical researches and detailed mechanism study in preclinical researches and unequivocal conclusions about the effectiveness, efficacy, and mechanisms of acupuncture in this field cannot be obtained from those researches yet. Further clinical and preclinical studies about the use of acupuncture in delivery with improved methodology is still needed. PMID:24688593
Robb, J E; Gordon, L; Ferguson, D; Dunhill, Z; Elton, R A; Minns, R A
Twenty-two children with spinal paraplegia were entered into a prospective randomised study to assess the efficacy of two reciprocating orthoses and to identify any prognostic factors that might affect continuing use of the devices. Thirteen received a hip guidance orthosis (HGO) and nine a reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO). They were followed for a mean of ten years. At one year follow-up there were three statistically significant differences between the two groups at the 5% level: repairs were commoner in the RGO group, the RGO group improved in their ability to walk over difficult outdoor surfaces and the HGO group improved more in their ability to rise from a sitting to standing position. At one year follow-up there was a positive parental and child's view of the benefits of the orthoses, but by ten years only 24% of the patients were still using the orthoses. We were not able to show any definite advantage of one device over the other or any statistically significant prognostic factors for walking in the longer term with a reciprocating orthosis. We question whether or not the routine provision of these types of orthosis is justifiable when it appears that, in the longer term, the patients we studied preferred wheelchair mobility. PMID:10661784
Gardner, M J; Winter, P D; Pannett, B; Powell, C A
A cohort study has been carried out of 2167 subjects employed between 1941 and 1983 at an asbestos cement factory in England. The production process incorporated the use of chrysotile asbestos fibre only, except for a small amount of amosite during four months in 1976. Measured airborne fibre concentrations available since 1970 from personal samplers showed mean levels below 1 fibre/ml, although higher levels had probably occurred previously in certain areas of the factory. No excess of lung cancer was observed in the mortality follow up by comparison with either national or local death rates, and analyses of subgroups of the workforce by job, exposure level, duration of employment, duration since entry, or calendar years of employment gave no real suggestion of an asbestos related excess for this cause of death. There was one death from pleural mesothelioma and one with asbestosis mentioned as an associated cause on the death certificate, but neither is thought to be linked to asbestos exposure at this factory. Other suggested asbestos related cancers, such as laryngeal and gastrointestinal, did not show raised risks. Although the durations of exposure were short in this study, the findings are consistent with two other studies of workers exposed to low concentrations of chrysotile fibre in the manufacture of asbestos cement products which reported no excess mortality. PMID:3024695
Background Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are food-borne pathogens of great importance and feature prominently in the etiology of developing world enteritis and travellers’ diarrhoea. Increasing antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter prevalence has been described globally, yet data from Peru is limited. Our objective was to describe the prevalence trends of fluoroquinolone and macrolide-resistant C. jejuni and C. coli stool isolates from three regions in Peru over a ten-year period. Methods Surveillance for enteric pathogens was conducted in Lima, Iquitos and Cusco between 2001 and 2010. Campylobacter stool isolates were tested for susceptibilities to ciprofloxacin, azithromycin and erythromycin. Susceptibilities were reviewed for 4652 isolates from Lima ( n?=?3419), Iquitos ( n?=?625) and Cusco ( n?=?608). Results Comparing the study periods of 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant C. jejuni isolates rose in the study areas of Lima (73.1% to 89.8%, p?0.001) and Iquitos (24.1% to 48.9%, p?0.001). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli rates also increased in Lima (48.1% to 87.4%, p?0.001) and Cusco (10.0% to 65.9%, p?=?0.005). Small but significant increases in azithromycin-resistant and erythromycin-resistant C. jejuni prevalence were noted in Iquitos (2.2% to 14.9%, p?0.001; 3.2% to 14.9%, p?=?0.002), and erythromycin-resistant C. coli rates increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p?=?0.038). The prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and azithromycin increased in Iquitos (0.3% to 14.9%, p?0.001) and Lima (0.3% to 1.6%, p?=?0.011), and prevalence of C. jejuni isolates resistant to both ciprofloxacin and erythromycin rose in Iquitos (0.0% to 14.9%, p?0.001). Ciprofloxacin and erythromycin resistant C. coli prevalence increased in Lima (0.0% to 5.3%, p?=?0.034). Conclusions These results have implications for the empirical management of enterocolitis in Peru. Ongoing surveillance is essential to guide appropriate antimicrobial use in this setting. Local epidemiological studies to explore the relationship between increasing antimicrobial resistance and agricultural or human antibiotic use may be valuable. PMID:22898609
Ozkan, Türker; Lajunen, Timo; Summala, Heikki
The aim of the present study was to investigate time-across stability of different factor solutions (two to six factors) of the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ) and to examine the changes on self-reported driving pattern in a follow-up sample (n=622) after three years of the first responses. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated that there was a significant change between Time 1 and Time 2 scores in six items of the DBQ. Drivers reported less competitiveness while driving at Time 2 but more speeding, drinking and driving, driving to wrong destinations and having no recollection of the road just travelled. Significant Time x Sex x Age interactions were found in change scores of four items. Young males and middle-aged female drivers emerged as a group of drivers who changed their self-reported driving pattern over three years. Additionally, sex, age or both had main effects on scores of 21 items. Males and young drivers reported more violations than females and older drivers, whereas female drivers reported more errors and lapses. After running possible factor solutions with Tucker's Phi agreement coefficients, the results indicated that the four- and two-factor solutions were the most stable and interpretable ones. The two-factor solution showed better time-across stability than the four-factor structure did, although the factor solutions found at Time 1 and Time 2 were not as identical as expected. Separate analysis revealed that drivers who had high annual mileage at Time 1 and Time 2 showed the strongest two-factor time-across stability. The test-retest reliability was 0.50 for errors, 0.76 for violations and 0.61 for the whole scale. PMID:16310749
Cook, Jimmie Ellis
Selected eight to ten year old Maryland children were used in this study measuring the effect of lessons in becoming aware of propaganda employed by commercial advertisers in television programs. Sixteen 45-minute lessons directed to the propaganda techniques of Band Wagon, Card Stacking, Glittering Generalities, Name Calling, Plain Folks,…
Wasteson, E; Sandelin, K; Brandberg, Y; Wickman, M; Arver, B
Women from families with an increased risk for breast/ovarian cancer have undergone bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) since the early 1990s at the Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. Perceptions of BPM as reported by the first women who underwent the procedure have previously been evaluated on a short-term basis (1-3 years). The present study aims to evaluate the long-term (10 years) physical and psychological consequences of BPM in the same cohort of women. Some of the very first women to undergo BPM participated in the present interview study (n= 13). The semi-structured interviews focused on the women's long-term experiences related to BPM and immediate breast reconstruction. Overall, the women were satisfied with their decision to undergo BPM and perceived a negligible remaining risk of getting breast cancer. For most women, the operation had not resulted in changes in family life or lifestyle (n= 8), although some described that the relationship with their spouse was affected (8/13), either in a negative (n= 5) or positive (n= 3) way. The cosmetic results were mainly positive (n= 10). Recurrent counselling and support during the whole process of decision, treatment and follow up is recommended. PMID:20597955
Astur, Diego C; Gouveia, Gustavo B; Borges, José H. de Souza; Astur, Nelson; Arliani, Gustavo G; Kaleka, Camila C; Cohen, Moises
Background : The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two popular surgical techniques for medial patellofemoral ligament MPFL reconstruction with a minimum of two-year follow-up. Methods : Fifty-eight patients with traumatic tear of the medial patellofemoral ligament were included in one of the two surgical groups. Group 1 MPFLs were reconstructed through graft endobutton fixation and Group 2 through graft anchor fixation into the patella. After two to five-year follow-up, patients were asked to answer knee function questionnaires (Fulkerson and Kujala) as well as the SF-36 life quality score. Results : There were no statistical difference among postoperative Kujala, Fulkerson, and SF-36 questionnaires scores between Groups 1 and 2. There were statistical significant differences favorable to patients in Group 1 with a shorter follow-up length (2-5 years) compared to those with a longer period of 5-10 years for both Kujala and Fulkerson scores and no difference for group 2. Conclusion : Both medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction techniques had similar results in a two to ten-year follow-up according to functions and life quality questionnaires. Furthermore, endobutton fixation for the patellar edge of the graft had better results in patients with 2 years of follow-up than those with 5 years. Gender was not significant for surgical results. Moreover, group 1 patients had higher number of complications. PMID:26161157
Jane H. Brice; Herbert G. Garrison; Arthur T. Evans
Objective. Lack of rigorous study design and failure to follow diverse patient outcomes have been identified as critical gaps in the medical research literature. This study sought to determine whether similar gaps exist in the literature for out-of-hospital interventions. Methods. A computerized MEDLINE search was conducted for the ten-year period 1985 through 1994 using the MeSH terms “emergency medical services,”
Patchett, J.; Ross, G. M.
Ten years of effort, principally employing Nd isotopes, have resulted in substantial advances in understanding of the movements of sedimentary material around North America from Cambrian to Cretaceous time. This synthesis has depended upon work of current and former students S. Samson, J. Gleason, N. Boghossian, C. Garzione, M. Roth, B. Canale and E. Rosenberg, as well as collaborators W. Dickinson and A. Embry, among others. Nd isotopes are particularly good at documenting movements of sedimentary material on the largest (continental) scale and over extended times. What has emerged is a picture of a largely exposed North America-Greenland craton from Neoproterozoic to Ordovician time, a partial to complete burial by detritus from Caledonian-Appalachian mountains starting in the Ordovician, a gradual exhumation during Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic time, followed by a partial burial with Cordilleran detritus during Late Jurassic to Tertiary time. One current question is the nature of the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary material eroded from the North American Cordillera, and its relevance for Cordilleran orogenesis. Another current question is the extent to which Caledonian-Appalachian detritus covered the craton in Devonian-Carboniferous time, and the timing and manner of its removal during Mesozoic time. At first glance, available Nd isotopic data appear to suggest that the Canada-Greenland Shield was largely covered during most of Mesozoic time, a conclusion that would have profound effects on models of dynamic topography. However, this conclusion is also very dependent on the relationship between topography and erosion, because in certain situations a geographically-restricted cover sequence could dominate over low-relief cratonic terrain as a sediment source.
Pezzoli, Jean A.; Ainsworth, Donald
The purposes of this study were to collect feedback from Sustainable Technologies interns regarding the usefulness and effectiveness of their education and training from the Maui Community College Instruction in Sustainable Technologies (MIST) program, and to further assess community need for a new Associate Degree program in Sustainable…
Keene, James W.
A followup study of the 1966 and 1967 graduates of the registered nurses program at Foothill College (Calif.) sought to identify characteristics which distinguished students who completed the program from those who did not graduate, analyze scores on the state licensing examination for the licensing of nurses to determine what significant…
The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus groups comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...
Glennen, Robert E.; Martin, David J.
This study examined the impact of the Kansas Regents Honors Academy on students who had completed the program since its inception in 1986. A total of 504 of the approximately 1,640 academically superior graduating high school students completed a survey questionnaire that focused on demographic data, college data (degrees, majors, grade point…
Frank J. Andera
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the SAP Academy and SAP Certification for Central Michigan University's past undergraduate and graduate participants. Data was collected through a survey which asked participants about their satisfaction with the Academy and how it has impacted their careers and professional life. While there has been research done regarding the impact
Tsukahara, M; Okabe, T; Ohtsuka, M; Furukawa, S
We report on an 8-year-old Japanese boy with Setleis syndrome. The patient had a very characteristic "coarse" facial appearance, bitemporal "forceps marks," skin aplasia, sparse hair, and skin hypo- and hyperpigmentation. He also had previously undescribed manifestations, including an aberrant hair pattern of the forehead, linear skin lesions on the forehead, short palpebral fissures, a small skin tag on the right cheek, cone-shaped teeth, and pectus carinatum. Dermatoglyphic studies documented aberrant distal palmar creases (simian crease variant), 8 arches, and reduced total finger ridge count. When serial photographs were reviewed, his facial characteristics became more obvious with increasing age. PMID:7677148
Marcia, J E
Thirty male subjects, given identity status interviews 6-7 years previously, were reinterviewed for identity status, as well as intimacy status, life style, and participation in the 1969-1970 campus demonstrations. High identity status appeared more vulnerable to change than did low. The Moratorium status showed a 100% change rate. The establishment of intimate relationships was related both to previous identity status (when that status remained stable) and to current identity status. In life style, Identity Achievement and Moratorium subjects were "open"; Foreclosure subjects were "closed"; and Identity Diffusion subjects tended to be "diffuse". Subjects currently high in identity tended to feel more positively about and participated more in the 1969-1970 demonstrations than did lower identity status subjects. A new status, Foreclosure/Diffusion, is described. The theoretical anomaly of Identity Achievement and Moratorium subjects moving into the Foreclosure status has led to the suggestion of a process, as opposed to typological, approach to identity. Brief sketches of individuals as they currently appear in the identity statuses conclude the study. PMID:24408027
Reviews the literature and difficulties of school follow-up studies. Describes the purpose, design, and methodology of the Peel Secondary Follow-up study. Shows how results from the first round of the study raise important issues about students' expectations and how they are or are not borne out. (SB)
Michael P. Hagan; Karyn L. Gust-Brey
The purpose of this study was to follow the transition of adolescent perpetrators of sexual assault against children upon their return to the community to help determine the minimal base level of risk they present for sexual and other re-offending. The results of this study found that the majority of adolescent perpetrators of sexual assault against children re-offended, but were
AHM Feroz; MH RAHMAN
Summary: Aims: To study the demographic, clinical features, treatment as well as outcomes of tetanus patients in the Bangladeshi population from 1994 to 2003. Design: A retrospective descriptive study. Setting: A large public Medical college hospital with a regional as well as referral service. Materials and Methods: All cases of tetanus in adult patients from January 1994 to December 2003
This study involved the third administration of a survey of drug and alcohol use among students at Middle Tennessee State University. The original study was completed in 1977 (N=1,551), the second in 1983 (N=1,198), and the third in 1987 (N=1,535). Findings from the 1987 survey revealed that females and fraternity and sorority members were…
Cheng, Winnie; Lam, Phoenix W. Y.
This article studies the Western perceptions of and relations with Hong Kong a decade after the reversion of the sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997. Previous studies have demonstrated that the West had a significantly negative view on the future of Hong Kong with respect to the handover. According to recent observations, however, the…
Shillington, Audrey M.; Reed, Mark B.; Clapp, John D.
This study is the first to examine adolescent cigarette report stability over 10 years. Six waves of data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. This study examined internal/logical consistency and external consistency. Report stability was higher for lifetime use reports than the age of onset reports. Wave-by-wave…
Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chien, Wu-Chien; Su, Sui-Lung; Wu, Jia-Ling
The severity of autism spectrum disorder was strongly related to the education and service outcome. Without a clear profile of autistic population and its change, efforts to understand its nature and improve the quality of service or education will be impossible. The present study aims to describe the over time reported rate of autism severity…
Mutagenicity has been found in several aquatic systems in the world; however, this activity usually is not associated with any of the compounds that are currently regulated. Attempting to identify these hazardous compounds, an integrated study was conducted, employing several dif...
C. A. Walter; D. Nelson; J. I. Earle
Abandoned coal mine drainage (AMD) impacts over 6,500 km of streams in Pennsylvania. AMD alters stream pH and dissolved ions, and often produces precipitated metals that coat stream substrates. We studied 3 streams from 1994 to 2004, before and after treatment wetlands were constructed in 1997-9 to intercept discharges with high iron (60-90 ppm) and alkalinity (100-130 mg\\/L CaCO3) and
Walter, C. A.; Nelson, D.; Earle, J. I.
Abandoned coal mine drainage (AMD) impacts over 6,500 km of streams in Pennsylvania. AMD alters stream pH and dissolved ions, and often produces precipitated metals that coat stream substrates. We studied 3 streams from 1994 to 2004, before and after treatment wetlands were constructed in 1997-9 to intercept discharges with high iron (60-90 ppm) and alkalinity (100-130 mg/L CaCO3) and low manganese and aluminum. Receiving streams are circumneutral with 5-40 ppm total iron and thick iron precipitate. Annual replicate sets of Surber and D nets, rock wash, and leaf packs were sampled. Regression analysis of genus level data showed statistically significant improvement in the two second-order streams. Community profiles are now statistically similar in sites upstream and downstream from AMD. The larger third stream showed moderate AMD impacts before 1997 and no statistically significant biological trends after wetlands substantially decreased levels of AMD in all three streams. This study indicated biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery by at least 3 years. The patterns of appearance of macroinvertebrate taxa in alkaline AMD sites indicate that commonly used tolerance indices developed for organic pollution do not predict macroinvertebrate responses to AMD. Our study can provide a basis for broader benchmarks in bioassessment of coal mine pollution.
Objective: To study late onset systemic infections with coagulase negative staphylococci. Methods: Prospective longitudinal study of coagulase negative staphylococcal infection in 18 Australasian neonatal nurseries. Results: From 1991 to 2000 inclusive, there were 1281 cases of coagulase negative staphylococcal (CoNS) sepsis, comprising 57.1% of all late onset infections. The male/female ratio was 1.27:1 (p < 0.05). The incidence of CoNS sepsis was 3.46 episodes per 1000 live births. Most infected babies (71%) were 24–29 weeks gestation at birth (mode 26 weeks). The first positive culture was day 7–14 in 49% of babies (mode 10 days). Five cases of meningitis were reported, an incidence of 0.4% of all CoNS infections. Twenty nine babies (2.3%) had concurrent necrotising enterocolitis and CoNS septicaemia. Four babies (0.3%) died from CoNS infection, but CoNS infection possibly contributed to the death of an additional 20 babies (1.6%). The mortality directly attributable to CoNS infection was significantly lower than that from late onset infections with Staphylococcus aureus (13.1%; relative risk (RR) = 36.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.0 to 100.2) or with Gram negative bacilli (14.2%; RR = 45.5 (95% CI 16.8 to 123.3)). Conclusions: CoNS are currently responsible for most late onset neonatal infections. Most infected babies are < 30 weeks gestation at birth, and usually present between 7 and 14 days of age. CoNS infections may be associated with necrotising enterocolitis, although causality is unproven. Neonatal CoNS infections are relatively benign: meningitis is rare and mortality low compared with infection from other organisms. Over-vigorous attempts to reduce the incidence of CoNS infections using prophylactic antibiotics are not advisable. PMID:12598493
Background The initial symptoms of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma are often similar to those of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In our study, we analyzed the frequency and characteristics of musculoskeletal complaints as the initial presenting symptoms of newly diagnosed leukaemia and lymphoma patients in the past 10 years in our clinic. Methods Using the Hungarian Tumour Register, we performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 166 new leukaemia and 95 new lymphoma pediatric patients treated from 1999 to 2009 at the 2nd. Dept. of Paediatrics of the Semmelweis University in Budapest. Results Twenty percent of the leukaemic (33 children) and 2% of the lymphoma patients (2 children) had musculoskeletal symptoms at first presentation. Two-thirds of both groups of patients had other general symptoms like fever and/or fatigue. The hip was the most frequently affected joint (7/33) in the leukaemic patients. Twenty-four percent of all the children had been previously evaluated by an orthopaedist; 12% had visited another rheumatologist prior to diagnosis. Imaging had been done in an unexpectedly low number of patients prior to referral to our unit (radiographs: 16 or 48%, ultrasound: 5 patients or 15%). Radiographs of the affected joints were abnormal in only one case (1/16, 6%). The joint ultrasound was abnormal in only three children of 5 studied (3/5, 60%). Anaemia (26/32, 6%), thrombocytopenia (78%) and LDH elevation (3–4 times the normal count) were frequent in the leukaemic patients. Half of the cases had a normal leukocyte count. The lymphoma group had similar results. Two patients of the leukaemia group received steroid treatment before the final diagnosis. Severe pain out of proportion to physical findings is another clue. Conclusions Haematologic malignancies must be excluded before initiation of therapy for childhood arthritis among children presenting with musculoskeletal signs and symptoms, particularly in atypical cases. Malignancies are to be suspected when pain is disproportionately severe compared to the physical examination findings, and when anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and an elevated LDH level are present. Diagnosing leukaemia early is important because the use of steroids and immunosuppressive medications may mask and delay its diagnosis. Additionally, pre-treatment of presumed JIA patients with these drugs who eventually are diagnosed to have a malignancy may lead to the malignancy being steroid-resistant and more difficult to treat. PMID:23641776
Schiff, Lara; Comstock, Bryan A.
Introduction: Young adults who avoid their emotions may be at risk for starting smoking or not quitting smoking. This study investigated whether a preliminary measure of avoidant coping longitudinally predicts young adults’ smoking escalation and cessation. Methods: In a sample of the 3,305 participants, originally from Washington State, a preliminary measure of self-reported avoidant coping at age 18 was used to predict both smoking escalation and cessation at ages 20 and 28 with both probability and logistic regression models (10-year retention: 98.5%). Results: Individuals who scored high on avoidant coping at 18 were 2.52 (p = .001) times more likely to acquire smoking by 20. However, there was no evidence that avoidant coping at age 18 predicted smoking escalation at 28 or cessation for 20- and 28-year-olds. Conclusions: An avoidant coping style may have a short-term effect on young adults’ smoking acquisition. Future research using a precise and well-validated measure of avoidant coping is now needed to test this possibility. PMID:21543547
Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.
For more than two decades, federal agencies have been enthusiastically supporting summer research experiences for undergraduates. These REU programs are tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. Numerous authors (viz., Laursen, Lopatto, Dolan, among many others) have enthusiastically described positive impacts of summer REU programs from exit interview data. These results include enhanced persistence to pursue STEM careers and confirmed desire to attend graduate school in the field targeted by a particular REU. Perhaps surprisingly, negative student experiences are rarely described in the scholarly literature, but do appear in more informal publications (viz., Gueterma, 2007). One wonders how REU alumni, looking back over their entire collective portfolio of experiences, now perceive the educational value of their REU experience relative to their other educational experiences. To obtain a backwards-looking, reflective description from REU alumni on the value of their REU experiences, we conducted a 10-year, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women from a single geoscience sub-discipline. The first phase was an ex post facto longitudinal analysis of data, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes, over a 10-year period. This analysis informed the second phase, a clinical interview. Over 10 hours of interviews with 8 participants were conducted and analyzed. These 8 participants were selected to represent a variety of career stages, and for their potential to reflect on a wide variety of educational experiences. Results from the interviews, done many years after their REU experience, indicate that the interviewees' REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, or the culture of academia when considered in a comparative context of students' other educational experiences. Results further indicated that the REU did not serve to transform participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, and learning gains with regard to other aspects of the self, were somewhat limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women arrived at the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently the result of interactions with mentors/scientists from middle school until well into the undergraduate period.
Fetsch, Robert J.; Yang, Raymond K.; Pettit, Matthew J.
This study is the first follow-up assessment of the RETHINK Parenting and Anger Management Program. Parent participants (N = 168) reduced their anger, violence, and family conflict levels from posttest to follow-up, on average, at 2.5 months on 13 of 15 dependent variables. Current findings are consistent with a small, albeit growing body of…
Joseph Biederman; Carter R. Petty; Maggie Evans; Jacqueline Small; Stephen V. Faraone
The main aim of this study was to examine the age-dependent persistence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in boys transitioning from adolescence into early adulthood attending to different definitions of persistence. We conducted a 10-year follow-up study (mean follow-up time=11years) of 110 boys with ADHD and 105 non-ADHD controls. Both groups were 6–17years of age at ascertainment. ADHD was considered
Faecal incontinence (FI) is a taboo subject, and people living with it can feel stigmatised. This article reports on a 10-year qualitative follow-up to an initial constructivist-grounded theory project, investigating living with FI. This article will also look back at the initial study and the 5-year follow-up study undertaken. The research examines the challenges associated with living with FI and different ways of managing the condition, including the importance of social support. PMID:25757581
Hirst, William; Phelps, Elizabeth A.; Meksin, Robert; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Johnson, Marcia K.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Buckner, Randy L.; Budson, Andrew E.; Gabrieli, John D. E.; Lustig, Cindy; Mather, Mara; Ochsner, Kevin N.; Schacter, Daniel; Simons, Jon S.; Lyle, Keith B.; Cuc, Alexandru F.; Olsson, Andreas
, in the main, Facebook, Google+, and LinkedIn. Although we could not associate contact information with a particular survey, codes that participants generated allowed us to connect the responses of a given individual across the surveys they filled out. Some...
Nicole Renee Vincent
Little is known about children's long-term adjustment following a disaster. Thus, the current study was conducted as a 44-month follow-up investigation, examining children's reactions to Hurricane Andrew over time. Previous data collection was conducted at 3, 7, and 10 months post-hurricane with a sample of 442 children. Subjects at follow-up were a subset of the original sample, consisting of 43
Wu, Chun-Ching; Young, Yi-Ho
This longitudinal study investigated how chronic gunshot noise exposure affects cochlear and saccular function in police officers who engaged in regular target shooting practice using dual protection (ear plugs plus earmuffs) for >10 years. In 1997, 20 male police officers underwent audiometry before and two weeks after shooting. Twelve of the original subjects were re-examined by audiometry coupled with vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test in 2007. Significant deterioration of mean hearing thresholds at frequencies of 500 Hz through 4000 Hz was noted ten years later, affecting both ears. However, only the frequencies of 4000 and 6000 Hz on the left ear revealed significant difference in mean hearing thresholds compared with healthy controls. Abnormal VEMP responses were evident in nine police officers (75%), including absent VEMPs 7 and delayed VEMPs 2. In conclusion, deterioration to hearing may occur after long term exposure to gunshots, even when double hearing protection is used. Further study is in progress regarding how to preserve both cochlear and saccular function during long term gunshot exposure. PMID:19925337
Farhana, F; Jamaiah, I; Rohela, M; Abdul-Aziz, N M; Nissapatorn, V
This is a ten year (1999-2008) retrospective study of amebiasis in patients admitted to UMMC. A total of 34 cases were analyzed. The most common were amebic liver abscess 22(65%) and the rest were amoebic dysentery 12(35%). Majority of the cases occurred among Malaysians 29(85%), with Chinese 14(41%), followed by the Malays 9(26%) and the Indians 6(18%). Foreigners made up of one Indonesian, one Pakistani and three Myanmarese and constituted 5(15%) of the total cases. Males 24(71%) were more commonly affected. Most of the cases occurred between the age group of 40-49 years, 8(23%) and 60 years and above, 8(23%). Age group of 20-50 years constituted 20(60%) of the cases. The most common clinical presentations were fever with chills and rigors 26(76%), diarrhoea 20 (59%), right hypochondrium pain 17(50%), abdominal pain 17(50%), hepatomegaly 16 (47%) and jaundice 7(20%). All were discharged well after treatment except for one case of death in a 69-year-old Chinese male with amebic liver abscess. PMID:20237439
Vedder-Weiss, Dana; Fortus, David
This is a mix methods follow-up study in which we reconfirm the findings from an earlier study [Vedder-Weiss & Fortus  "Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 48(2)", 199-216]. The findings indicate that adolescents' declining motivation to learn science, which was found in many previous studies [Galton  "Moving to secondary school:…
Ellingsen, Dag G; Chashchin, Maxim; Bast-Pettersen, Rita; Zibarev, Evgenij; Thomassen, Yngvar; Chashchin, Valery
Welders may be exposed to high amounts of manganese (Mn). In this study 63 welders and 65 referents were followed up with neurobehavioral tests approximately 6 years after the initial examination at baseline. The welders were exposed to the geometric mean (GM) Mn concentration of 116?g/m(3) at baseline and 148?g/m(3) at follow-up. Their mean duration of employments as welders was 19.5 years at follow-up. Being exposed as a welder was associated with a decline between baseline and follow-up in the performance on the Static Steadiness Test, Finger Tapping Test and Grooved Pegboard Test. However, the decline was also associated with having high concentrations of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in serum (sCDT), indicating high alcohol consumption. When subjects with sCDT above the upper reference limit of the laboratory (?1.7%) were excluded from the analyses, no difference in the decline in performance was observed between welders and referents for any of the applied neurobehavioral tests. Three welders had developed bradykinesia at follow-up, as assessed by a substantial decline in their Finger Tapping Test performance. They had also experienced a severe decline in Foot Tapping, Grooved Pegboard and Postural Sway Test scores (while blindfolded), while postural tremor as assessed with the CATSYS Tremor 7.0 was normal. Their neurobehavioral test performance at baseline 6 years previously had been normal. PMID:25579701
Vinson, David R.; Ballard, Dustin W.; Huang, Jie; Rauchwerger, Adina S.; Reed, Mary E.; Mark, Dustin G.
Introduction Historically, emergency department (ED) patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) have been admitted for several days of inpatient care. Growing evidence suggests that selected ED patients with PE can be safely discharged home after a short length of stay. However, the optimal timing of follow up is unknown. We hypothesized that higher-risk patients with short length of stay (<24 hours from ED registration) would more commonly receive expedited follow up (?3 days). Methods This retrospective cohort study included adults treated for acute PE in six community EDs. We ascertained the PE Severity Index risk class (for 30-day mortality), facility length of stay, the first follow-up clinician encounter, unscheduled return ED visits ?3 days, 5-day PE-related readmissions, and 30-day all-cause mortality. Stratifying by risk class, we used multivariable analysis to examine age- and sex-adjusted associations between length of stay and expedited follow up. Results The mean age of our 175 patients was 63.2 (±16.8) years. Overall, 93.1% (n=163) of our cohort received follow up within one week of discharge. Fifty-six patients (32.0%) were sent home within 24 hours and 100 (57.1%) received expedited follow up, often by telephone (67/100). The short and longer length-of-stay groups were comparable in age and sex, but differed in rates of low-risk status (63% vs 37%; p<0.01) and expedited follow up (70% vs 51%; p=0.03). After adjustment, we found that short length of stay was independently associated with expedited follow up in higher-risk patients (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.5; 95% CI [1.0–11.8]; p=0.04), but not in low-risk patients (aOR 2.2; 95% CI [0.8–5.7]; p=0.11). Adverse outcomes were uncommon (<2%) and were not significantly different between the two length-of-stay groups. Conclusion Higher-risk patients with acute PE and short length of stay more commonly received expedited follow up in our community setting than other groups of patients. These practice patterns are associated with low rates of 30-day adverse events. PMID:25671009
Background Controversy exists with regard to the impact that the different components of diagnosis delay may have on the degree of invasion and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer. The follow-up strategies after treatment also vary considerably. The aims of this study are: a) to determine if the symptoms-to-diagnosis interval and the treatment delay modify the survival of patients with colorectal cancer, and b) to determine if different follow-up strategies are associated with a higher survival rate. Methods/Design Multi-centre study with prospective follow-up in five regions in Spain (Galicia, Balearic Islands, Catalonia, Aragón and Valencia) during the period 2010-2012. Incident cases are included with anatomopathological confirmation of colorectal cancer (International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes 153-154) that formed a part of a previous study (n = 953). At the time of diagnosis, each patient was given a structured interview. Their clinical records will be reviewed during the follow-up period in order to obtain information on the explorations and tests carried out after treatment, and the progress of these patients. Symptoms-to-diagnosis interval is defined as the time calculated from the diagnosis of cancer and the first symptoms attributed to cancer. Treatment delay is defined as the time elapsed between diagnosis and treatment. In non-metastatic patients treated with curative intention, information will be obtained during the follow-up period on consultations performed in the digestive, surgery and oncology departments, as well as the endoscopies, tumour markers and imaging procedures carried out. Local recurrence, development of metastases in the follow-up, appearance of a new tumour and mortality will be included as outcome variables. Actuarial survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, Cox regression and competitive risk survival analysis will be performed. Discussion This study will make it possible to verify if the different components of delay have an impact on survival rate in colon cancer and rectal cancer. In consequence, this multi-centre study will be able to detect the variability present in the follow-up of patients with colorectal cancer, and if this variability modifies the prognosis. Ideally, this study could determine which follow-up strategies are associated with a better prognosis in colorectal cancer. PMID:20920369
Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri
This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…
Teasley, Martell L.; Archuleta, Adrian; Miller, Christina
The purpose of this article is to report on findings from a follow-up study that examined the relationship among social work education programs, postgraduate professional development, and school social workers' perceived levels of cultural competence in practice with urban minority youth. The initial study demonstrated that African Americans…
Borich, Gary D.
The rise of interest in the evaluation of teacher education and training during the decade 1967-1977 is charted; a review of related concepts and studies is presented; and three evaluation models for conducting follow-up studies on training effectiveness are examined. Three issues arising to prominence in the last decade are identified and…
Ikekubo, K.; Habuchi, Y.; Jeong, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Saiki, Y.; Ito, H.; Hino, M.; Higa, T.
A new radiopharmaceutical, I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-131 MIBG) was used to determine the location and to follow-up tumors in a 13-month-old girl with neuroblastoma. I-131 MIBG imaging revealed both a primary abdominal tumor and a distant metastatic orbital tumor. Follow-up study with I-131 MIBG imaging demonstrated significant resolution of tumors after external radiotherapy and chemotherapy. I-131 MIBG imaging is a simple, safe, and specific method of determining the location of tumors and also is clinically useful in the evaluation and management of patients with neuroblastoma.
Largent, P; Waylett, J
This paper describes the results of a follow-up evaluation of a bracing program for severely athetoid, mentally retarded children. Bracing to improve upper extremity control was started in 1968 and was described in a 1971 AJOT article. The follow-up study was done in order to provide criteria for selecting patients in future bracing programs, to identify the type of motion problems that could be successfully braced, and to determine the bracing configurations most effecive in aiding arm control. PMID:1180315
Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, Hakim; Ko, Ahra; Han, Chan-Jung; Chung, Hye Won
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The immigrant population has grown considerably in South Korea since the early 1990s due to international marriages. Dietary changes in immigrants are an important issue, because they are related to health and disease patterns. This study was conducted to compare changes in dietary intake between baseline and follow-up periods. SUBJECTS/METHODS Two hundreds thirty three Vietnamese female married immigrants. Baseline data were collected during 2006-2009, and the follow-up data were collected during 2008 and 2010. Food consumption was assessed using a 1-day 24-hour recall. RESULTS The amount of the total food consumed (P < 0.001) including that of cereals (P = 0.004), vegetables (P = 0.003), and fruits (P = 0.002) decreased at follow-up compared to that at baseline, whereas consumption of milk and dairy products increased (P = 0.004). Accordingly, the overall energy and nutrient intake decreased at follow-up, including carbohydrates (P = 0.012), protein (P = 0.021), fiber (P = 0.008), iron (P = 0.009), zinc (P = 0.006), and folate (P = 0.002). Among various anthropometric and biochemical variables, mean skeletal muscle mass decreased (P = 0.012), plasma high density lipoprotein-cholesterol increased, (P = 0.020) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased at follow-up (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS A long-term follow-up study is needed to investigate the association between changes in food and nutrient intake and anthropometric and biochemical variables in these Vietnamese female marriage immigrants. PMID:24944778
Lass, Jonathan H.; Benetz, Beth Ann; Gal, Robin L.; Kollman, Craig; Raghinaru, Dan; Dontchev, Mariya; Mannis, Mark J.; Holland, Edward J; Chow, Christopher; McCoy, Kristen; Price, Francis W.; Sugar, Alan; Verdier, David D.; Beck, Roy W.
Objective To examine the effect of donor age and other perioperative factors on long term endothelial cell loss after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) Design Multi-center, prospective, double-masked clinical trial Participants 176 participants from the Cornea Donor Study cohort who had not experienced graft failure 10 or more years after PKP for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic/aphakic corneal edema) Methods Corneas from donors 12 to 75 years old were assigned to participants using a randomized approach, without respect to recipient factors. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Images of the central endothelium were obtained preoperatively and at intervals for ten years postoperatively. Images were analyzed by a central image analysis reading center to determine endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 10 years Results Among study participants with a clear graft at 10 years, the 125 who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 76%, resulting in a 10-year median ECD of 628 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 522-850), whereas the 51 who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 79%, resulting in a median 10-year ECD of 550 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 483-694) (P adjusted for baseline ECD=0.03). In addition to younger donor age, higher ECD values were significantly associated with higher baseline ECD (P<0.001) and larger donor tissue size (P<0.001). Forty-two (24%) of the 176 participants had an ECD below 500 cells/mm2 at 10 years and only 24 (14%) had an ECD above 1,000 cells/mm2. Conclusions Substantial cell loss occurs in eyes with a clear graft 10 years after PKP, with the rate of cell loss being slightly higher with older donor age. Higher pre-operative ECD and larger donor tissue size are associated with higher ECD at 10 years. Trial Registration NCT00006411 PMID:24246826
Lucas, John A.; Meltesen, Cal
In an attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of its nursing program, William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) (Illinois) conducted a follow-up study of 1992 nursing graduates or alumni. In spring 1993, a survey instrument, inquiring about employment status, future educational plans, and evaluation of their experience at WRHC, was mailed to all 142 WRHC…
David A Sbarra; Sara E Rimm-Kaufman; Robert C Pianta
This 7-year follow-up study examined the behavioral and emotional adjustment of 29 adolescents who experienced regular moderate seizures during middle childhood. Compared with national nonreferred norms on Achenbach checklists, both mothers and adolescents reported clinically significant difficulties in multiple areas regardless of current seizure status. Adolescents who currently experience regular seizures (N=10) reported no differences on psychological outcomes compared with
A follow-up study to discover to what extent the education provided by the Medical Laboratory Technician program at Western Wisconsin Technical Institute has benefited the graduates and their employers was conducted. It was determined that 17 of the first 22 graduates were working successfully as medical laboratory technicians in eight states;…
Grigg, Charles M.; And Others
The present report is a follow up study of disabled public assistance clients in four States. It attempts to evaluate the effects of cooperative efforts--between personnel of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Division of Family Services--to intervene in the poverty/dependence cycle of selected disabled welfare applicants and/or recipients. Between…
Henry Brodaty; Ian Hickie; Catherine Mason; Leanne Prenter
Background: This study examined the relationship between age and outcome of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Method: This was a naturalistic, prospective follow-up of 81 consecutive in-patients with primary major depression. ECT outcome was compared for three age groups — under 65, 65–74 and 75 years and over — on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), Global Assessment of Functioning scale
Bucks County Community Coll., Newtown, PA. Office of Institutional Research.
In this follow-up study, information was obtained regarding the educational and employment patterns of students who withdrew from Bucks County Community College, their reasons for withdrawing, and their evaluation of the college's programs and services. The questionnaire used (a copy of which is provided in an appendix) was similar to the one used…
Tafa, Eufimia; Manolitsis, George
The aim of this follow-up study was to examine the progress made by 13 Greek-speaking precocious readers in phonological awareness, reading and spelling from the fourth to sixth grades of primary education, and to compare their progress with that of 11 nonprecocious reader classmates. It was hypothesised that because of the linguistic…
Postareff, Liisa; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; Nevgi, Anne
The present follow-up study examines the effect of university teachers' pedagogical training on approaches to teaching and self-efficacy beliefs measured by Approaches to Teaching Inventory and an additional part measuring motivational strategies. The effect of pedagogical training on teaching is analysed among 35 teachers who had not participated…
Dincher, J.; Meltesen, Cal
In 1989, a follow-up study of nursing program graduates was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) to examine their employment patterns, further education plans, and evaluate particular aspects of their WRHC experience. Questionnaires were mailed to 105 nursing students who graduated in 1988. Results were compared with previous surveys…
Courtenay, Bradley C.; Merriam, Sharan; Reeves, Patricia; Baumgartner, Lisa
A follow-up study of 14 of 18 HIV-positive adults showed that their perspective transformation had been maintained 2 years later. Their meaning schemes changed to include a future-oriented perspective, greater attention to self-care, and integration of their HIV-positive status into their self-definition. (SK)
Minuchin, Patricia P.
In a follow-up study of curiosity and exploratory behavior, subjects were 18 disadvantaged inner-city black children who had been observed at age four in their first year of a Head Start program, and who were now finishing first grade. Data were obtained from teachers, observations in the classrooms, and an individual session with each child. Each…
Marnie E. Rice; Grant T. Harris
In order to facilitate comparisons across follow-up studies that have used different measures of effect size, we provide a table of effect size equivalencies for the three most common measures: ROC area (AUC), Cohen's d, and r. We outline why AUC is the preferred measure of predictive or diagnostic accuracy in forensic psychology or psychiatry, and we urge researchers and
Hobson, R. Peter; Lee, Anthony
Background: Atypical forms of autism may yield insights into the development and nature of the syndrome. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of nine congenitally blind and seven sighted children who, eight years earlier, had satisfied formal diagnostic criteria for autism and had been included in groups matched for chronological age and verbal…
Boger, David; Simms, Richard L.
A report is given of the findings of a follow-up study of a field-based program for preparing preservice teachers for inner-city schools. This program moves preservice teacher education from the realm of isolated theoretical instruction toward a realistic clinical approach through the use of a professional semester format. During this semester…
Follow-up Study of the Finances of Chemistry and Physics Departments in UK Universities An Institute of Physics and Royal Society of Chemistry report | June 2010 #12;Acknowledgements I would like to thank all of the staff in the chemistry and physics departments and the staff in central finance
Holt, Marianne; Lucas, John A.
In a continuing effort to measure the quality of their Dental Hygiene program, explore the need for changes, and substantiate the program's goals for accreditation standards, a follow-up study was conducted of the 1990 Dental Hygiene program graduates from William Rainey Harper (WRHC) College in Palatine, Illinois. A survey was mailed to all 30…
T. Tallberg; H. Tykkä
The results of a 15-year follow-up study on 127 patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with immunotheapy are presented. All patients were suffering from advanced renal cell carcinoma and were treated by palliative nephrectomy and specific active immunotherapy using polymerized autologous tumour tissue with adjuvant and supportive dietary measures. The longest survival time was 164 months. Of the patients nephrectomized
Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others
This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…
Di Stasio, Maria Rosaria; Savage, Robert; Abrami, Philip C.
This paper reports the follow-up of a randomised control trial study of the ABRACADABRA web-based literacy intervention that contrasted synthetic versus analytic phonics (Comaskey, Savage & Abrami, 2009) in kindergarten children from urban low-SES backgrounds. Participants who received a "synthetic" phonics+phoneme awareness training (n = 26) or…
Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Senyeong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chung, Shiu-Dong
The risk for stroke in alopecia areata (AA) patients is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the risk for subsequent risk of a stroke in AA patients in a large-scale retrospective cohort study. We identified 3231 patients with AA included in the study group from 2004 to 2011 in the "Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000" in Taiwan. We randomly selected 16,155 matched patients as the comparison group. We individually tracked each patient for a 3-year period to identify patients who had received a diagnosis of stroke during the follow-up period. We found that incidence rates of stroke during the 3-year follow-up periods were 5.44 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?4.03?~?7.20) and 2.75 (95% CI?=?2.30?~?3.27) per 1000 person-years for patients with and those without AA, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio for stroke for those patients with AA was 1.61 (95% CI?=?1.13?~?2.30) within the follow-up period compared to the controls. We concluded that patients with AA were associated with a higher risk of stroke in the 3-year follow-up period. PMID:26114569
Kang, Jiunn-Horng; Lin, Herng-Ching; Kao, Senyeong; Tsai, Ming-Chieh; Chung, Shiu-Dong
The risk for stroke in alopecia areata (AA) patients is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate the risk for subsequent risk of a stroke in AA patients in a large-scale retrospective cohort study. We identified 3231 patients with AA included in the study group from 2004 to 2011 in the “Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000” in Taiwan. We randomly selected 16,155 matched patients as the comparison group. We individually tracked each patient for a 3-year period to identify patients who had received a diagnosis of stroke during the follow-up period. We found that incidence rates of stroke during the 3-year follow-up periods were 5.44 (95% confidence interval (CI)?=?4.03?~?7.20) and 2.75 (95% CI?=?2.30?~?3.27) per 1000 person-years for patients with and those without AA, respectively. Cox proportional hazard regressions showed that the adjusted hazard ratio for stroke for those patients with AA was 1.61 (95% CI?=?1.13?~?2.30) within the follow-up period compared to the controls. We concluded that patients with AA were associated with a higher risk of stroke in the 3-year follow-up period. PMID:26114569
Katharine A. Phillips; Gene Quinn; Robert L. Stout
Cross-sectional\\/retrospective studies indicate that individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have markedly impaired psychosocial functioning. However, no study has prospectively examined functioning in BDD. In this study, which is to our knowledge the first prospective study of the course of BDD, psychosocial functioning was assessed at baseline and over 1–3 years (mean=2.7±0.9 years) of follow-up with the Global Assessment of
A pilot study conducted to measure the effects of art therapy with prison inmates (Gussak, 2004) demonstrated marked improvement in mood. The results of this study encouraged a quantitative follow-up study the following year. This study used the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) and the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-II) as pre and post-test assessments to assess the effects
Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Jodeiry, Behzad; Hosseini, Mohammad Baqer; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Habbibollahi, Abbas; Moazzen, Sara; Dastgiri, Saeed
Background. A follow-up program for high risk infants was initiated in Alzahra Maternity Hospital in Tabriz city, Iran, in 2013. The aim of this paper is to give a brief report of the program. Material and Methods. Two groups of high risk neonates were studied. The first group comprising 509 infants received services in Alzahra Maternity Hospital implemented by the follow-up program. This included a full package for family to look after high risk infant and periodic clinical evaluation at two and four weeks after birth and then two, three, four, five, and six months later again. The second group including 131 infants in Taleqani Maternity Hospital received routine services after birth with no specific follow-up care. Results. Some anthropometric indices showed a significant improvement in the intervention hospital compared to control group. These included the following: head circumference at first and second months; weight in the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth months; and height in sixth month only. Clinical evaluation of infants showed an improvement for some of the medical conditions. Conclusion. Follow-up care program for a minimum of six months after discharge from maternity hospitals may help to avoid adverse and life threatening consequences in high risk infants. PMID:26136787
Anne Buist; Helen Janson
Objective: This study is the second and final phase of a 3-year follow-up study of women who had been admitted with a major depressive episode in the postpartum period, along with their children and partners where present. The effect of a maternal sexual abuse history on the women’s well-being and child outcome compared to those women without such a history
T. KEMPPAINEN; H Kröger; E. JANATUINEN; I. ARNALA; C. LAMBERG-ALLARDT; M Kärkkäinen; V.-M Kosma; R Julkunen; J Jurvelin; E Alhava; M Uusitupa
The purpose of our study was to investigate the recovery of bone disease in celiac patients during 5 years of a gluten-free diet. The study group consisted of 28 newly diagnosed celiac patients (9 men, 19 women) recruited between 1990 and 1991. Six patients withdrew from the 5-year follow-up. Compliance with the gluten-free diet was good: 96% at 1 year
Axel C. Carlsson; Holger Theobald; Per E. Wändell
Health factors have the power to prevent and postpone diseases and death; however, studies using the same methodology in both\\u000a men and women are sparse. We aimed to study the ability of health factors to prevent mortality in a population-based, 26-year\\u000a follow-up of Swedish men and women. During 1969–70, a health-screening programme was offered to a stratified sample of 3,064
Morgan, R W; Claxton, K W; Kaplan, S D; Parsons, J M; Wong, O
Extensive follow-up of production workers in the paint and coatings industry failed to indicate any important hazard that was previously unsuspected. The authors are more confident of the results of their original study since studying a subsample of persons lost to follow-up in the original study. Some efforts to investigate certain diseases (skin and liver cancer) more vigorously met with failure, which illustrates the problem of attempting retrospective studies by using death certificates for case ascertainment. Of the successful studies, the leukemia case-control analysis showed a possible relationship to lacquer production, which probably included benzene exposure. For lung cancer, no exposure category was associated with increased risk. The bowel cancer excesses, concentrated in three plants, are probably not job related and in any case do not represent an industry-wide problem. Cerebrovascular accidents showed a mild elevation of risk for vehicle workers. Although strong statements concerning the safety of this industry probably await more studies or further follow-up of this cohort, there is every indication that it is an industry without a major excess of any job-related disease. In drawing this conclusion, however, one must be aware that an individual job or individual plant could harbor health problems that would not be detected by a study of this type. PMID:4009308
Podio, V; Spinnler, M T; Spandonari, T; Moretti, C; Castellano, G; Bessone, M; Brusca, A
Previous studies in dogs have shown that experimental infarction produces myocardial sympathetic denervation not only in the infarcted area, but also in a region apical to the infarction. In these dogs MIBG myocardial scintigraphy detected denervation but returned to normal in a few months at which time reinnervation was shown to have occurred. Myocardial sympathetic denervation was studied with MIBG scintigraphy in ten patients after their first acute transmural myocardial infarction; scans were repeated at 4 months, one year and 30 months to follow the time course of possible reinnervation. Except during the first 48 hours following the infarction, no therapy except for antiaggregants was administered to the patients; during this follow-up period no cardiac events were seen. One week after infarction, comparison of MIBG images with perfusion scans revealed that the denervated area was larger than the infarcted area; no difference in MIBG uptake by the infarcted myocardium was found during the 30 months follow-up. PMID:9002747
K. Miller; E. Hell
Background: A body mass index of ?40 kg\\/m2 represents clinically severe obesity and warrants operative treatment if requested. The adjustable silicone gastric band\\u000a and the Swedish adjustable gastric band are recently produced laparoscopic gastric restrictive devices. The aim of this study\\u000a was to assess all complications linked to both the available gastric bands in a long-term follow-up. Methods: In a
Kelley D. Drummond; Susan J. Bradley; Michele Peterson-Badali; Kenneth J. Zucker
This study provided information on the natural histories of 25 girls with gender identity disorder (GID). Standardized assessment data in childhood (mean age, 8.88 years; range, 3–12 years) and at follow-up (mean age, 23.24 years; range, 15–36 years) were used to evaluate gender identity and sexual orientation. At the assessment in childhood, 60% of the girls met the Diagnostic and
G. Belcaro; A. N. Nicolaides; B. M. Errichi; M. R. Cesarone; M. T. De Sanctis; L. Incandela; R. Venniker
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different treatment plans (compression only, early surgery, low-dose subcutaneous heparin [LDSH], low- molecular-weight heparin [LMWH], and oral anticoagulant [OC] treatment) in the management of superficial thrombophlebitis (STP), by considering efficacy and costs in a 6-month, randomized, follow-up trial. Patients with STP, with large varicose veins without any suspected\\/documented
H. J. M. Majoie; M. W. Berfelo; A. P. Aldenkamp; W. O. Renier; A. G. H. Kessels
Purpose: To establish the long-term efficacy and tolerability of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in children with a Lennox-like syndrome. Method: This study was a longitudinal observational prospective cohort analysis. Baseline: 6 months. Follow-up: 24 months. Screening (baseline and every 6 months): MRI (baseline only), EEG, neuropsychological evaluation, ECG and blood sampling for antiepileptic drug levels. Nineteen children are included. Results:
EH Coakley; EB Rimm; G Colditz; I Kawachi; W Willett
OBJECTIVE: Since the prevalence of adult obesity is increasing in the United States, we examined the effect of changing common habits (exercise, TV viewing, smoking and eating habits) on four year change in body weight.DESIGN: A prospective cohort study of US male health professionals with follow-up from 1988–1992. Participants were 19 478 men aged 40–75 in 1986, who were free
Oerbeck, Beate; Stein, Murray B; Pripp, Are H; Kristensen, Hanne
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is generally considered the recommended approach for selective mutism (SM). Prospective follow-up studies of treated SM and predictors of outcome are scarce. We have developed a CBT home and school-based intervention for children with SM previously found to increase speech in a pilot efficacy study and in a randomized controlled treatment study. In the present report we provide outcome data 1 year after having completed the 6-month course of CBT for 24 children with SM, aged 3-9 years (mean age 6.5 years, 16 girls). Primary outcome measures were the teacher rated School Speech Questionnaire (SSQ) and diagnostic status. At follow-up, no significant decline was found on the SSQ scores. Age and severity of SM had a significant effect upon outcome, as measured by the SSQ. Eight children still fulfilled diagnostic criteria for SM, four were in remission, and 12 children were without diagnosis. Younger children improved more, as 78 % of the children aged 3-5 years did not have SM, compared with 33 % of children aged 6-9 years. Treatment gain was upheld at follow-up. Greater improvement in the younger children highlights the importance of an early intervention. PMID:25267381
Mouridsen, S E; Rich, B; Isager, T
In order to study the validity of disintegrative psychosis (DP), the authors compared 13 patients given this diagnosis in childhood with a control group of 39 patients with infantile autism (IA) matched for sex, age, IQ and social class on measures of psychiatric morbidity. Almost the same proportion of the two groups had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital during a 22-year follow-up period. However, there was a slight tendency (statistically nonsignificant) for the DP group to utilize the psychiatric health care system more frequently than the IA group. They had more admissions and stayed longer in hospital than patients with IA suggesting that they had more psychiatric symptoms than the IA group. The original IA diagnoses were confirmed fairly consistently during the follow-up period, while the DP group was given more heterogenous diagnoses. No diagnosis of schizophrenia was made in either group. PMID:10364726
Shackleton, D P; Westendorp, R G; Trenité, D G; Vandenbroucke, J P
To investigate the extent of and the causes of excess mortality in patients with epilepsy, mortality was studied in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy over an extended follow up period. All patients (both inpatients and outpatients) of the Instituut voor Epilepsiebestrijding in Heemstede, the Netherlands between 1953 and 1967 were included in the study. Complete follow up was obtained for 1355 patients, 746 men and 609 women. The mean follow up was 28 years (range 6 months-41 years). In total, 38 665 person years were surveyed, in which 404 patients died. All cause mortality was threefold increased (risk ratio (RR) 3.2; 95%CI 2.9-3. 5), and was only slightly higher for men than for women. Mortality was highest under 20 years of age (RR 7.6; 95%CI 6.5-8.7), and during the first 2 years of follow up (RR 16; 95%CI 12-20). Mortality directly related to epilepsy accounted for 18 of the 53 deaths in the first 2 years after diagnosis, which is equivalent to an incidence rate of 6.8 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 4.1-10). After 2 years 110 of the 351 deaths could be attributed to epilepsy itself, or were epilepsy related, with an incidence rate of 3.1 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 2.5-3.6). The data presented suggest that the increased mortality risk in patients with epilepsy is attributable in part to epilepsy itself, and is predominantly present at younger age and early after diagnosis. However, the absolute risk is moderate. PMID:10209177
La Raja, Massimo; Barcobello, Monica; Bet, Nicola; Dolfini, Paolo; Florean, Marina; Tomasella, Federica; De Angelis, Vincenzo; Mascaretti, Luca
Background. The incidental finding of monoclonal immunoglobulin in the sera of healthy blood donors is a relatively frequent event and in such cases the subjects are commonly deferred permanently from donating blood. However, no follow-up studies of these cases have been published so far. Materials and methods. Since 2000, all regular blood donors at Trieste Blood Bank have undergone annual screening by serum protein electrophoresis. Cases presenting with monoclonal gammopathy between January 2000 and December 2008 were registered and follow-up was performed until December 2010. Results. Out of 8,197 regular blood donors, monoclonal gammopathy was detected in 104 subjects (1.3%). The median age at detection was 53 years, the median monoclonal protein concentration was 0.2 g/dL and the cumulative follow-up of these cases amounted to 763 person/years. In two cases asymptomatic multiple myeloma was diagnosed within 6 months of detection of the gammopathy and in 14 cases, the monoclonal gammopathy was transient. The remaining 88 cases were classified as having monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Out of these, two events related to monoclonal gammopathy were observed during the follow up: one lymphoma and one light chain deposition nephropathy. Discussion. According to current prognostic staging systems, the majority of blood donors with monoclonal gammopathy were classified as having low-risk MGUS and had a very low incidence of lymphoproliferative diseases. Permanent deferral of blood donors with stable MGUS causes about a 1% loss of potential blood donations and it represents a “precautionary measure” that needs to be substantiated and validated. PMID:22507857
Hood, S.; Northcote, R. J.
OBJECTIVES: Sustained aerobic dynamic exercise is beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease. The effect of lifelong endurance exercise on cardiac structure and function is less well documented, however. A 12 year follow up of 20 veteran athletes was performed, as longitudinal studies in such cohorts are rare. METHODS: Routine echocardiography was repeated as was resting, exercise, and 24 hour electrocardiography. RESULTS: Nineteen returned for screening. Mean (SD) age was 67 (6.2) years (range 56-83). Two individuals had had permanent pacemakers implanted (one for symptomatic atrial fibrillation with complete heart block, the other for asystole lasting up to 15 seconds). Only two athletes had asystolic pauses in excess of two seconds compared with seven athletes in 1985. Of these seven, five had no asystole on follow up. Two of these five had reduced their average running distance by about 15-20 miles a week. One athlete sustained an acute myocardial infarction during a competitive race in 1988. Three athletes had undergone coronary arteriography during the 12 years of follow up but none had obstructive coronary artery disease. Ten of 19 (53%) had echo evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 1997 but only two (11%) had left ventricular dilatation. Ten athletes had ventricular couplets on follow up compared with only two in 1985. CONCLUSIONS: Although the benefits of moderate regular exercise are undisputed, high intensity lifelong endurance exercise may be associated with altered cardiac structure and function. These adaptations to more extreme forms of exercise merit caution in the interpretation of standard cardiac investigations in the older athletic population. On rare occasions, these changes may be deleterious. ??? PMID:10450477
Karukivi, Max; Pölönen, Tuukka; Vahlberg, Tero; Saikkonen, Suvi; Saarijärvi, Simo
The aim of the present study was to assess the stability of alexithymia in adolescents and the effects of parental factors and social support thereon. The sample comprised 315 late adolescents, of whom 259 were female and 56 male. At baseline, the mean age of the subjects was 19 years (range 17-21 years). The follow-up period was 4 years (2008-2012). The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was used for the assessment of alexithymia both at baseline and follow-up. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) were used as measures at baseline. Regarding absolute stability, the changes in the TAS-20 total scores and two subscales (DIF and EOT) were statistically significant but the effect sizes for the changes were small (Cohen?s d 0.21-0.24). The test-retest correlations for the TAS-20 total and subscale scores were high (?=0.50-0.64, P<0.001), indicating relative stability. While several parental and social support variables were associated with alexithymia at baseline, low social support from friends was the only to predict higher alexithymia at follow-up. Alexithymia is a stable personality trait also in late adolescence. Low social support from friends is related to alexithymia in young adulthood. PMID:24953425
Choy, Won-Sik; Lee, Sang Ki; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Hwang, Yoon Sub; Park, Chang Kyu
Background This study examines the clinical and radiologic results of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties with regard to wear, osteolysis, and fracture of the ceramic after a minimum follow-up of six years. Methods We evaluated the results of a consecutive series of 148 primary ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties that had been performed between May 2001 and October 2005 in 142 patients. The mean age was 57.2 years (range, 23 to 81 years). The mean follow-up period was 7.8 years (range, 6.1 to 10.1 years). Preoperative diagnosis was avascular necrosis in 77 hips (52%), degenerative arthritis in 36 hips (24.3%), femur neck fracture in 18 hips (12.2%), rheumatoid arthritis in 15 hips (10.1%), and septic hip sequelae in 2 hips (1.4%). Clinical results were evaluated with the Harris hip score, and the presence of postoperative groin or thigh pain. Radiologic analysis was done with special attention in terms of wear, periprosthetic osteolysis, and ceramic failures. Results The mean Harris hip score improved from 58.3 (range, 10 to 73) to 92.5 (range, 79 to 100) on the latest follow-up evaluation. At final follow-up, groin pain was found in 4 hips (2.7%), and thigh pain was found in 6 hips (4.1%). Radiologically, all femoral stems demonstrated stable fixations without loosening. Radiolucent lines were observed around the stem in 25 hips (16.9%), and around the cup in 4 hips (2.7%). Endosteal new bone formation was observed around the stem in 95 hips (64.2%) and around the cup in 88 hips (59.5%). No osteolysis was observed around the stem and cup. There were 2 hips (1.4%) of inclination changes of acetabular cup, 2 hips (1.4%) of hip dislocation, 1 hip (0.7%) of ceramic head fracture, and 1 hip (0.7%) of squeaking. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate of the prostheses was 98.1% at postoperative 7.8 years. Conclusions The ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty produced excellent clinical results and implant survival rates with no detectable osteolysis on a minimum six-year follow-up study. The ceramic-on-ceramic couplings could be a reasonable option of primary total hip arthroplasty for variable indications. PMID:24009902
Dr. Marilie Gammon, of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and collaborating scientists in New York City, conducted a follow-up study on 1,098 women with breast cancer who participated in the parent population-based case-control study of Long Island women. The primary aims of the study were to determine whether environmental and other lifestyle factors influence breast cancer survival and overall survival among a population-based sample of Long Island women diagnosed with the disease.
Norberg, Monika; Magnusson, Eva; Thyme, Karin Egberg; Åström, Sture; Lindh, Jack; Öster, Inger
In this article the authors present a follow-up study of women's interview narratives about life 5 to 7 years after a breast cancer operation. The women had taken part in a study during the 6-month postoperation period. Art therapy contributed to well-being, including strengthening personal boundaries. In the new study, interview analysis informed by critical discursive psychology indicated three problematic discourses that the women still struggled with several years after the operation: the female survivor, the "good woman," and individual responsibility. We concluded that many women with a history of breast cancer need support several years after their medical treatment is finished. PMID:25692802
The Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information concerning the activities within the household during the sampling week. The information is from 201 Follow-up Questionnaires for 91 households. Medication and supplemental dietary information is provided. The Follow-up...
Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475
Kao, Li-Ting; Kao, Senyeong; Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Cha-Ze
Many studies have reported a possible association of an appendectomy with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, findings of the relationship between an appendectomy and RA remain inconsistent. Furthermore, all such studies were conducted in Western societies, and relevant studies on the relationship between an appendectomy and RA in Asian countries are still lacking. In this study, we investigated the relationship between an appendectomy and the subsequent risk of RA using a population-based dataset. We retrieved data for this retrospective cohort study from the Taiwan “Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005”. We included 4,294 subjects who underwent an appendectomy in the study cohort and 12,882 matched subjects in the comparison cohort. We individually tracked each subject for a 5-year period from their index date to identify those who developed RA. A stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for the subsequent development of RA during the 5-year follow-up period between subjects who underwent an appendectomy and comparison subjects. Of the sampled subjects, 93 (0.54%) received a diagnosis of RA during the 5-year follow-up period: 33 from the study cohort (0.77% of subjects who underwent an appendectomy) and 60 from the comparison cohort (0.47% of comparison subjects) (p<0.001). After censoring individuals who died during the follow-up period and adjusting for subjects’ monthly income and geographic region, the HR of RA during the 5-year follow-up period was 1.61 (95% CI = 1.05~2.48) for subjects who underwent an appendectomy compared to comparison subjects. We found that among females, the adjusted HR of RA was 1.76 (95% CI = 1.04~2.96) for subjects who underwent an appendectomy compared to comparison subjects. However, there was no increased hazard of RA for males who underwent an appendectomy compared to comparison subjects. We concluded that female subjects who undergo an appendectomy have a higher risk of RA than comparison female subjects. PMID:25970542
Tarkkila, Laura; Furuholm, Jussi; Tiitinen, Aila; Meurman, Jukka H
This study aims to investigate salivary flow and biochemical constituents of menopausal-age women with the hypothesis that women using hormone therapy (HT) might present better saliva values than non-users. Two hundred HT users and 200 non-users were selected at random from a cohort study of 3,173 peri- and postmenopausal women and invited to a 2-year clinical follow-up study. Clinical examination with saliva sampling was made at baseline and 2 years later. Salivary total protein, albumin, and immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations were analyzed. Final material included 106 consistent HT users and 55 non-users. Backward logistic regression analysis was made to determine the risk factors for higher or lower than medium salivary protein values. No difference was seen in salivary flow rate, total protein, and IgA values between baseline and follow-up measurements or between the groups. Albumin, IgG, and IgM concentrations were significantly lower in the 2-year samples of the HT group when compared with baseline. IgA and IgM values were higher in the non-HT 2-year samples when compared with the corresponding HT samples. The only significant explanatory factor for higher than median salivary albumin concentration was the number of teeth both at baseline and 2 years later. HT possibly improved epithelial integrity since the concentrations of serum components albumin, IgG, and IgM decreased during the follow-up. HT as such does not seem to affect saliva, although it may modify it. The clinical relevance of these results needs to be assessed in future studies. PMID:21637984
Rockette, H E; Redmond, C K
The current standard for exposure to coke oven emissions sets a permissible exposure of 150 micrograms benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter/m3. The major epidemiologic study that formed the basis for this standard including a review of the evidence of a dose-response relationship between exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles and lung cancer is reviewed. Particular attention was given to the selection of the cohort, follow-up procedures, and the evolution of the analysis. PMID:4047156
The grant provides for continued follow-up for and research on the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS) of 51,529 men who completed an extensive dietary questionnaire first in 1986 and again in 1990, 1994,1998, 2002, 2006, and 2010. The program project grant also supports the food composition database and nutrient analysis system used by the Nurses' Health Study, Nurses' Health Study II, and many other studies.
Platz, Elizabeth A; Drake, Charles G; Wilson, Kathryn M; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Kenfield, Stacey A; Mucci, Lorelei A; Stampfer, Meir J; Willett, Walter C; Camargo, Carlos A; Giovannucci, Edward
Inflammation, and more generally, the immune response are thought to influence the development of prostate cancer. To determine the components of the immune response that are potentially contributory, we prospectively evaluated the association of immune-mediated conditions, asthma and hayfever, with lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We included 47,880 men aged 40-75 years with no prior cancer diagnosis. On the baseline questionnaire in 1986, the men reported diagnoses of asthma and hayfever and year of onset. On the follow-up questionnaires, they reported new asthma and prostate cancer diagnoses. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relative risks (RRs). In total, 9.2% reported ever having been diagnosed with asthma. In all, 25.3% reported a hayfever diagnosis at baseline. During 995,176 person-years of follow-up by 2012, we confirmed 798 lethal prostate cancer cases (diagnosed with distant metastases, progressed to distant metastasis or died of prostate cancer [N?=?625]). Ever having a diagnosis of asthma was inversely associated with risk of lethal (RR?=?0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.51-1.00) and fatal (RR?=?0.64, 95% CI?=?0.42-0.96) disease. Hayfever with onset in the distant past was possibly weakly positively associated with risk of lethal (RR?=?1.10, 95% CI?=?0.92-1.33) and fatal (RR?=?1.12, 95% CI?=?0.91-1.37) disease. Men who were ever diagnosed with asthma were less likely to develop lethal and fatal prostate cancer. Our findings may lead to testable hypotheses about specific immune profiles in the etiology of lethal prostate cancer. PMID:25648070
Riddle, Mark A.; Yershova, Kseniya; Lazzaretto, Deborah; Paykina, Natalya; Yenokyan, Gayane; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Tim; McCracken, James T.; Kollins, Scott H.; Murray, Desiree W.; Wigal, Sharon; Kastelic, Elizabeth; McGough, James J.; dosReis, Susan; Bauzó-Rosario, Audrey; Stehli, Annamarie; Posner, Kelly
Objective To describe the clinical course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom severity and diagnosis from ages 3–5 to 9–12 years during a 6-year follow-up after the original Preschool ADHD Treatment Study (PATS). Method 207 participants (75% male) from the original PATS, assessed at Baseline (mean age 4.4 years, when all met criteria for ADHD) and 3-months later (prior to medication treatment), were re-evaluated in three follow-up assessment visits (Year 3, mean age 7.4 years; Year 4, 8.3 years and Year 6, 10.4 years). Parents and teachers rated symptom severity and clinicians established psychiatric diagnoses. Analyses examined longitudinal changes in symptom severity and ADHD diagnosis. Results Parent- and teacher-rated symptom severity decreased from Baseline to Year 3 but remained relatively stable and in the moderate-to-severe clinical range through Year 6. Girls showed generally steeper decreases in symptom T-scores. At Year 6, 89% (160/180) of remaining participants met ADHD symptom and impairment diagnostic criteria. Comorbidity of oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder was associated with a 30% higher risk of having an ADHD diagnosis at Year 6 in the multiple logistic model. Medication status during follow-up, on vs. off, did not predict symptom severity change from Year 3 to Year 6 after adjustment for other variables. Conclusions ADHD in preschoolers is a relatively stable diagnosis over a 6-year period. The course is generally chronic, with high symptom severity and impairment, in very young children with moderate-to-severe ADHD, despite treatment with medication. Development of more effective ADHD intervention strategies is needed for this age group. PMID:23452683
Jordan, Phil; Melland, Alice; Shore, Mairead; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger; Ryan, David; Crockford, Lucy; Macintosh, Katrina; Campbell, Julie; Arnscheidt, Joerg; Cassidy, Rachel
A complete appraisal of material fluxes in flowing waters is really only possibly with high time resolution data synchronous with measurements of discharge. Defined by Kirchner et al. (2004; Hydrological Processes, 18/7) as the high-frequency wave of the future and with regard to disentangling signal noise from process pattern, this challenge has been met in terms of nutrient flux monitoring by automated bankside analysis. In Ireland over a ten-year period, time-series nutrient data collected on a sub-hourly basis in rivers have been used to distinguish fluxes from different catchment sources and pathways and to provide more certain temporal pictures of flux for the comparative definition of catchment nutrient dynamics. In catchments where nutrient fluxes are particularly high and exhibit a mix of extreme diffuse and point source influences, high time resolution data analysis indicates that there are no satisfactory statistical proxies for seasonal or annual flux predictions that use coarse datasets. Or at least exposes the limits of statistical approaches to catchment scale and hydrological response. This has profound implications for catchment monitoring programmes that rely on modelled relationships. However, using high resolution monitoring for long term assessments of catchment mitigation measures comes with further challenges. Sustaining continuous wet chemistry analysis at river stations is resource intensive in terms of capital, maintenance and quality assurance. Furthermore, big data capture requires investment in data management systems and analysis. These two institutional challenges are magnified when considering the extended time period required to identify the influences of land-based nutrient control measures on water based systems. Separating the 'climate signal' from the 'source signal' in river nutrient flux data is a major analysis challenge; more so when tackled with anything but higher resolution data. Nevertheless, there is scope to lower costs in bankside analysis through technology development, and the scientific advantages of these data are clear and exciting. When integrating its use with policy appraisal, it must be made clear that the advances in river process understanding from high resolution monitoring data capture come as a package with the ability to make more informed decisions through an investment in better information.
Guerrini, Irene; Gentili, Claudio; Nelli, Gloria; Guazzelli, Mario
Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT) Unit – University of Pisa (Italy). We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET) with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL) any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p < 0.0037). Furthermore, the number of drop-outs at three months of treatment was also significantly lower in the MET than in the NULL group (17% vs. 57%; chi square of 23.22, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol. PMID:17176456
Background The purpose of this retrospective follow-up study is to evaluate the prevalence of patients with thyroid eye disease presenting with apparent unilateral proptosis and determine the occurrence of exophthalmos in contralateral non-proptotic eye over the time. Associated features with this event were evaluated. Methods A cohort of 655 consecutive patients affected by thyroid eye disease with a minimum follow-up of 10 years was reviewed. Exophthalmos was assessed by using both Hertel exophthalmometer and computed tomography (CT). The influence of age, gender, hormonal status and of different therapies such as corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgical decompression on this disease progression was evaluated. Results A total of 89 patients (13.5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] 15%-10%) had clinical evidence of unilateral exophthalmos at the first visit. Among these, 13 patients (14%) (95% CI 22%-7%) developed subsequent contralateral exophthalmos. The increase of protrusion ranged from 2 to 7 mm (mean of 4.2). The time of onset varied from 6 months to 7 years (mean time: 29 months). Smoking status, young age and surgical decompression are significantly associated with development of contralateral proptosis (p< .05). Conclusions Asymmetric thyroid eye disease with the appearance of unilateral exophthalmos at the initial examination is a fairly frequent event, while subsequent contralateral proptosis occurs less commonly. However, physicians should be aware that young patients, particularly if smokers, undergoing orbital decompression in one eye may need further surgery on contralateral side over time. PMID:23721066
Huber, G; Gross, G; Schüttler, R
A systematic psychiatric follow-up study of 502 schizophrenics was carried out using the same well-defined criteria to evaluate the patients throughout the investigation. After an average course of disease of 22.4 years, 22.1% of the patients showed complete psychopathological remission, 43.2% had non-characteristic types of remission and 34.7% suffered from characteristic schizophrenic deficiency syndromes. At the time of the last follow-up investigation, 86.7% of the patients were living at home, while 13.3% were permanently hospitalized. Of the entire sample, 55.9% were found to be "socially recovered". Higher education, psychoreactive provocation, depressive traits, perception of delusions, catatonic agitation, non-characteristic thought disorders and symptoms of depersonalization at the onset of the illness tended to carry with them a favorable prognosis. On the other hand, low intelligence, abnormal primary personality, premorbid disturbances in social behavior, broken homes, prolonged prodromal stages, pneumoence-phalographically measurable atrophic or dysplastic changes in the brain ventricles as well as somatic and auditory hallucinations and predominance of hebephrenic symptoms at the onset of the illness tended to lead to an unfavorable prognosis. The principle of the basic reversibility of typical schizophrenic symptoms and the extensive irreversibility of the non-characteristic defect is important for the psychopathological and social long-term prognosis. PMID:1155202
Lipscomb, J A; Goldman, L R; Satin, K P; Smith, D F; Vance, W A; Neutra, R R
To assess the effect of interim clean-up measures on the current health of a community, we conducted a follow-up survey of 193 residents living near the McColl waste disposal site and a comparison area located approximately 5 miles from the site. Results from this survey were compared with results from a similar survey conducted 7 years earlier. Odors were detected at least once per week by 32.7% of "high-exposed" respondents in 1988 compared with 68.5% in 1981, but prevalence odds ratios (PORs) comparing symptom reporting between "high-exposed" and comparison-area respondents were greater than that of the 1981 survey for 89% of symptoms. PORs comparing symptom reporting between these two areas were greater than 2.0 for 64% of symptoms assessed in the current survey. Symptoms reported in excess did not represent a single organ system or suggest a mechanism of response. PORs comparing respondents who were very worried about the environment and those reporting no worry were greater than 2.0 for 86% of symptoms. These finding, along with environmental data from the area, suggest that living near the waste disposal site and being very worried about the environment, rather than a toxicologic effect of chemical from the site, explain excess symptom reporting found in this follow-up study. PMID:1954927
Peletz, Rachel; Simuyandi, Michelo; Simunyama, Martin; Sarenje, Kelvin; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas
Effective household water treatment can improve drinking water quality and prevent disease if used correctly and consistently over time. One year after completion of a randomized controlled study of water filters among households in Zambia with children < 2 years old and mothers who were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive, we conducted a follow-up study to assess use and performance of new filters distributed at the conclusion of the study; 90% of participating households met the criteria for current users, and 75% of participating households had stored water with lower levels of fecal contamination than source water. Microbiologically, the filters continued to perform well, removing an average of 99.0% of fecal indicator bacteria. Although this study provides some encouraging evidence about the potential to maintain high uptake and filter performance, even in the absence of regular household visits, additional research is necessary to assess whether these results can be achieved over longer periods and with larger populations. PMID:24100635
Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Alexander, Christopher P.; Jewell, Donna M.; Lauff, Erich; Mattox, Tiffany L.; Wilson, David
This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the combined base-year to third follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). ELS:2002 is sponsored by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) of the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. The base-year and follow-up studies…
...Review; Comment Request; The Jackson Heart Study: Annual Follow-Up With Third Party...Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI...Proposed Collection Title: The Jackson Heart Study: Annual Follow-up with Third...
Donna Sepulveda Conwell; Ann Mosher; Awal Khan; Jan Tapy; Laurie Sandman; Andrew Vernon; C. Robert Horsburgh
IntroductionLoss to follow-up in clinical trials compromises achievement of study goals. We evaluated factors associated with loss to follow-up after completion of treatment phase in a large tuberculosis treatment trial (TBTC\\/USPHS Study 22) in the U.S. and Canada.
Majumdar, Kunal K.; Ghose, Aloke; Ghose, Nilima; Biswas, Anirban; Mazumder, D.N. Guha
Background: Arsenic pollution in groundwater, used for drinking purposes, has been envisaged as a problem of global concern. Treatment options for the management symptoms of chronic arsenicosis are limited. Mitigation option available for dealing with the health problem of ground water arsenic contamination rests mainly on supply of arsenic safe water in arsenic-endemic region of Indo-Bangladesh subcontinent. Limited information is available regarding the long-term effect of chronic arsenic toxicity after stoppage of consumption of arsenic-containing water. Objective: The current study was, therefore, done to assess, objectively, the effect of drinking arsenic safe water (<50 ?g/L) on disease manifestation of arsenicosis. Results: Manifestations of various skin lesions and systemic diseases associated with chronic arsenic exposure were ascertained initially by carrying on baseline study on 208 participants in Nadia (Cohort-I, with skin lesion and Cohort-II, without skin lesion) using a scoring system, as developed by us, and compared objectively at the end of each year for 3 year follow-up period. All the participants who had arsenic contaminated drinking water source in their houses were supplied with arsenic removal filters for getting arsenic-free water during the follow-up period. In participants belonging to Cohort-I, the skin score was found to improve significantly at the end of each year, and it was found to be reduced significantly from 2.17 ± 1.09 to 1.23 ± 1.17; P < 0.001 at the end of 3 year's intervention study indicating beneficial effect of safe water on skin lesions. The systemic disease symptom score was also found to improve, but less significantly, at the end of 3 years in both the cohorts. Most important observation during the follow-up study was persistence of severe symptoms of chronic lung disease and severe skin lesion including Bowen's disease in spite of taking arsenic-safe water. Further, death could not be prevented to occur because of lung cancer and severe lung disease. Conclusion: It is, therefore, an urgent need to make arrangement for availability of safe water source among the arsenic-affected people in the district. Many of the people in the affected villages are not aware of contamination of their home tube wells with arsenic. Awareness generation and motivation of the people for testing their drinking water sources for arsenic and environmental interventions like rain water harvesting, ground water recharge, and restricting excessive use of ground water for domestic and agricultural purposes are also important to prevent further exposure of arsenic to these people. PMID:25161968
Background Acute and transient psychotic disorder (ATPD) has been described as an acute psychosis with brief onset and polymorphous symptomatology (WHO, 1993). The study of ATPD is growing increasingly relevant as scientists start an active discussion of the possibility of changing the ATPD classification in the next International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The aims of this study were to describe the clinical features of the index episode of ATPD in patients in Latvia, to analyse the stability and longitudinal changes of the diagnosis, to explore potential correlations between the sociodemographic and disease characteristics and to describe stressful life events before the first ATPD episode. Methods A prospective follow-up study of all first-time admitted patients from the Riga Centre of Psychiatry and Addiction Disorders who fulfilled the ICD-10 criteria for ATPD (WHO, 1993) during the 15-month period from 9 January 2010 to 30 March 2011 and followed up until 31 October 2012. Stressful life events, demographics and clinical features during the index episode were assessed. Results One hundred two patients were admitted with first-episode ATPD. The majority were females (60.7%). Over an average 26.5-month follow-up period, 59.8% of the patients were not readmitted. The overall stability rate of ATPD diagnosis in our sample was 67.4% (p?=?0.0001). In the subgroup of patients who were readmitted, 70.7% had their diagnosis converted to schizophrenia in subsequent visits. Stressful life events before the first episode were found in 49.0% of first-episode ATPD patients. Thought disorder was found to be the strongest statistically significant predictor of ATPD diagnosis conversation to schizophrenia (odds ratio 4.3), with high Wald's criterion (9.435) in binary logistic regression. Conclusions ATPD is prevalent in Latvia, with rather high overall stability rate. Combining these data from first-episode ATPD patients in Latvia with data from other countries may help predict the development of the disease and provide a basis for potential changes to ICD-11. PMID:24502369
The Food Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information on the eating patterns and the food identification and preparation methods that occurred during the period the food sample was taken. The information is for 86 Food Follow-up Questionnaires for 86 households. In the...
The Food Follow-up Questionnaire data set provides information on the eating patterns and the food identification and preparation methods that occurred during the period the food sample was taken. The information is for 179 Food Follow-up Questionnaires for 179 households. In t...
Using the Delphi technique, the staff of Project FOLLOW-UP surveyed community college educators in Texas to determine desirable characteristics and uniformity of terminology and definitions for a proposed statewide student follow-up management information system for Texas community colleges. Of 234 individuals invited to become Delphi panel…
Background To describe MRI and clinical findings in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis with cervical spine involvement at onset and follow-up under therapy. Methods 13 patients with signs of cervical spine involvement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a median disease duration of 1.7 years were included in the study. Clinical records and MR images were retrospectively analyzed according to symptoms and findings concerning the cervical spine. Results At the onset of cervical spine involvement all patients showed limited range of motion, whereas only 5 of them complained of pain. In MR images joint hyperintensity, contrast enhancement, malalignment, ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction were found at 28, 32, 15, 2, 2 and 3 sites in 12 (93%), 13 (100%), 8 (62%), 2 (15%), 2 and 3 (20%) patients respectively. 3 of the 5 patients with pain (60%) showed ankylosis, erosions or narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction on MRI. At follow-up - after a median disease duration of cervical spine arthritis of 2.1 years and a variable duration of treatment with methotrexate (all patients) and biological agents (12 patients) - joint hyperintensity, enhancement and malalignment decreased to 15, 19 and 6 sites in 10 (77%), 11 (85%) and 3 (20%) patients respectively whereas ankylosis, erosion and narrowing of the spinal canal at cranio-cervical junction increased to 7, 6 and 4 sites in 3 (20%), 4 (31%) and 4 patients respectively. Pain was no longer reported, but 9 of 13 (69%) patients still had a limited range of motion with 6 of them (46%) showing skeletal changes on MRI. Conclusions This first MRI based follow-up study shows that cervical spine arthritis can follow a severe disease course in juvenile arthritis. While malalignments and inflammation sites decreased osseous changes with erosions, ankylosis, and narrowing of the spinal canal increased under treatment despite only minor subjective complaints. Therefore close MRI monitoring of these patients appears to be reasonable. PMID:24593886
Cederlund, Mats; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, I. Carina; Gillberg, Christopher
Prospective follow-up study of 70 males with Asperger syndrome (AS), and 70 males with autism more than 5 years after original diagnosis. Instruments used at follow-up included overall clinical assessment, the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders, Wechsler Intelligence Scales, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, and Global…
Gulliford, T.; Opomu, M.; Wilson, E.; Hanham, I.; Epstein, R.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the experiences of patients with breast cancer who were conventionally monitored with those in whom routine follow up was restricted to the time of mammography. DESIGN: Randomisation to conventional schedule of clinic visits or to visits only after mammography. Both cohorts received identical mammography and were invited to telephone for immediate appointments if they detected symptoms. SETTING: Combined breast clinic, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. SUBJECTS: 211 eligible outpatients with a history of breast cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Acceptability of randomisation, interim use of telephone and general practitioner, satisfaction with allocation to follow up. RESULTS: Of 211 eligible patients, 196 (93%) opted for randomisation in the study. Of these, 55 were under 50 years, 78 were diagnosed fewer than five years before, 90 had stage T2-4 tumours, and 71 had involved axillary nodes. Patients who did not participate were more likely to be under 50 years, to be two to five years after diagnosis, and to have had aggressive primary disease. Twice as many patients in both groups expressed a preference for reducing rather than increasing follow up. No increased use of local practitioner services or telephone triage was apparent in the cohort randomised to less frequent follow up by specialists. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing the frequency of routine follow up has so far proved popular among patients with breast cancer at standard risk in this cohort. A multicentre study is needed to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of routine follow up with respect to disease outcomes. PMID:9022429
Blackfoot disease is an endemic peripheral vascular disease found among the inhabitants of a limited area on the southwest coast of Taiwan, where artesian well water with a high concentration of arsenic has been used for more than eighty years. The natural history of blackfoot disease, based on a prospective study of 1,300 patients, is presented. The overall male/female ratio was 1.5:1. Although the clinical onset was usually insidious, it may be quite sudden and almost always begins with numbness or coldness in one or more extremities, usually the feet. Ultimately, rest pain develops and progresses to gangrene. In this series, 68% of the patients underwent spontaneous or operative amputation, and the reamputation rate was 23.3%. Lower extremity involvement in blackfoot disease was observed in 97.7% of the cases. The average annual rate for major amputation was 3.81 per 100 patient-years. The factors influencing the prognosis, such as amputation in relation to age and disease onset, are analyzed. The case fatality rate was 66.5% during thirty years; 44% of these were cardiovascular deaths. The annual death rate was 4.84 per 100 patient-years. Other reported case fatality rates for vascular insufficiency are reviewed. A dose-response relationship between blackfoot disease and the duration of water intake was also noted. The survival rates after the onset of blackfoot disease were: five years, 76.0%; ten years, 59.5%; twenty years, 38.2%; thirty years, 28.6%. The 50% survival point was 13.5 years after onset of the disease.
Fischer, E H; Dornelas, E A; Goethe, J W
In a large (N = 1,744) study of previously hospitalized psychiatric patients, multiple follow-up attempts were made to contact the ex-patients over a 1-year period after their discharges. When contacted they were asked to provide information about their posthospital adjustment; 59.5% of the sample was reached at least once and usable data obtained either in a telephone interview or from a mailed survey form. The contacted and noncontacted people represented very different subpopulations, both demographically and in terms of typical psychiatric descriptors. Those who were of lower socioeconomic status, male, unmarried, racial minorities, and those with records of substance abuse or assaultiveness, and who were generally more severely impaired during the baseline hospitalization were underrepresented in the contacted group. Possible reasons for these sample biases, the implications for hospitals conducting outcome assessments (i.e., for research and program evaluation purposes), and strategies for dealing with this kind of methodological problem are discussed. PMID:11206665
Goh, Graham Seow-Hng; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Tay, Darren Keng-Jin; Lo, Ngai Nung; Yeo, Seng Jin
Patellofemoral arthroplasty (PFA) is an option for younger patients with isolated patellofemoral arthritis. Older PFAs had high failure rates due to poor design. This retrospective study reports the outcomes of PFA at a single institution using a second-generation implant. Fifty-one patients (51 knees) with isolated patellofemoral arthritis underwent PFA. Mean follow-up was 4.1years (range, 2.2-6.1). Mean Knee Society objective and function scores, Oxford Knee score, Melbourne Knee score and Physical Component Score improved significantly. 76% had their expectations fulfilled and 76% experienced good satisfaction. Mean Insall-Salvati and Caton-Deschamps ratios increased significantly. Two wound infections (3.92%) were encountered. Survivorship was 92.2% with four revisions, two due to progression of arthritis, one due to patella maltracking, and one due to anterior knee pain. PMID:25660614
Bovenzi, M; Franzinelli, A; Scattoni, L; Vannuccini, L
In a six year follow up study of the handarm vibration syndrome, 62 stoneworkers operating hand held vibrating tools in 10 travertine quarries and mills were first investigated in 1985 and then in 1991. The frequency weighted acceleration of vibration from the rock drills and stone hammers used by the travertine workers exceeded 20 m/s2, indicating a hazardous work activity according to the proposal of the EC directive for physical agents. A clinical examination and a cold provocation test were repeated with the same procedures as those adopted at the time of the first survey. The stoneworkers were divided into groups according to current work state: active stoneworkers who continued to use powered tools during the follow up (n = 21, median exposure time 22 years), and ex-stoneworkers with retirement vibration free intervals of three years (n = 22, median exposure time 27.5 years) and of six years (n = 19, median exposure time 20 years). In the group of active stoneworkers, a 38% onset a new cases of vibration-induced white finger (VWF) was found during the follow up (p < 0.01). Among the retired stoneworkers affected with VWF (n = 24), one recovered from VWF, one showed improvement, 20 remained stationary, and two deteriorated. The ex-stoneworkers experienced no significant change in sensorineural disturbances and a decrease in musculoskeletal symptoms of the upper limbs. At the cold provocation test, the currently active stoneworkers with VWF showed, on a group basis, a delayed finger rewarming time between the two examinations (p = 0.002). An abnormal response to cold provocation persisted in the fingers of the ex-stoneworkers with VWF, even in those reporting subjective improvement. These findings indicate a tendency towards the irreversibility of sensorineural and VWF symptoms in a group of ex-stoneworkers with prolonged exposure to high vibration levels in the past. The increased occurrence of VWF in the active stone workers after a few extra years of vibrating tool usage argues for an urgent implementation of preventive measures in the stone industry. PMID:8044226
Momen, Natalie C; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Li, Jiong
Objective Childhood cancer is a leading cause of child deaths in affluent countries, but little is known about its aetiology. Psychological stress has been suggested to be associated with cancer in adults; whether this is also seen in childhood cancer is largely unknown. We investigated the association between bereavement as an indicator of severe childhood stress exposure and childhood cancer, using data from Danish and Swedish national registers. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting Denmark and Sweden. Participants All live-born children born in Denmark between 1968 and 2007 (n=2?729?308) and in Sweden between 1973 and 2006 (n=3?395?166) were included in this study. Exposure was bereavement by the death of a close relative before 15?years of age. Follow-up started from birth and ended at the first of the following: date of a cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, day before their 15th birthday or end of follow-up (2007 in Denmark, 2006 in Sweden). Outcome measures Rates and HRs for all childhood cancers and specific childhood cancers. Results A total of 1?505?938 (24.5%) children experienced bereavement at some point during their childhood and 9823 were diagnosed with cancer before the age of 15?years. The exposed children had a small (10%) increased risk of childhood cancer (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.17). For specific cancers, a significant association was seen only for central nervous system tumours (HR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.28). Conclusions Our data suggest that psychological stress in early life is associated with a small increased risk of childhood cancer. PMID:23793702
Klit, Henriette; Finnerup, Nanna B.; Overvad, Kim; Andersen, Grethe; Jensen, Troels S.
Background and Purpose Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as a consequence of stroke. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and pain types of new onset chronic pain (“novel pain”) in patients with stroke compared with a randomly selected reference group from the general population and to identify factors associated with pain development in stroke patients. Methods In a population-based follow-up design, development of chronic pain after stroke was assessed by a questionnaire sent to consecutive stroke patients, registered in a Danish national stroke database, two years after their stroke. A randomly selected sex- and age-matched reference group from the same catchment area received a similar questionnaire about development of new types of chronic pain in the same time period. A total of 608 stroke patients and 519 reference subjects were included in the study. Results Development of novel pain was reported by 39.0% of stroke patients and 28.9% of reference subjects (OR 1.57, CI 1.21-2.04), and was associated with low age and depression in a multivariate model. Daily intake of pain medication for novel pain was reported by 15.3% and 9.4% of the stroke and reference population, respectively. Novel headache, shoulder pain, pain from increased muscle stiffness, and other types of novel pain were more common in stroke patients, whereas joint pain was equally common in the two groups. Conclusions Development of chronic pain is more common in stroke patients compared with sex- and age-matched reference subjects. Evaluation of post-stroke pain should be part of stroke follow-up. PMID:22102914
Chambo Filho, Antonio; Garbeloto, Elediane; Guarconi, Juliana Rodrigues Arrabal; Partele, Mariana Pereira
Background The presence of residual cervical lesions was evaluated in patients submitted to repeat conization due to a finding of positive endocervical margins in a previous loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) specimen. In addition, the correlation between the presence of a residual lesion and risk factors for cervical cancer, and the use of repeat conization as first-choice treatment were analyzed. Methods This retrospective study included 44 patients submitted to repeat cervical conization or total hysterectomy following a finding of affected endocervical margins in LEEP specimens. The risk factors analyzed in relation to the presence of residual lesions were age, smoking, cone depth, glandular involvement and the histopathology findings of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1, CIN 2 or CIN 3/carcinoma in situ. The Chi-square test and the Mann-Whitney t-test were used, with significance defined at P < 0.05. Results Residual lesions were found in 23/44 patients (52.3%), with 3/23 cases (13.0%) being compatible with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Of the 23 patients, six (26.1%) were submitted to total hysterectomy, with one case being compatible with a moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Two patients with a histopathology finding of CIN 3/carcinoma in situ in the previous LEEP specimen were diagnosed with invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the repeat conization specimen. Residual lesions were not significantly associated with the risk factors evaluated. Conclusions In view of the high frequency of residual disease found when positive endocervical margins were found in LEEP specimens, the indication for repeat cervical conization rather than colposcopic follow-up is viable and justified. Indeed, since the presence of a residual lesion and its progression in the cervical canal are more difficult to screen and control, patients unable to comply with regular colposcopic follow-up could benefit from repeat conization when trying to avoid a potentially negative outcome. PMID:26015819
Freedman, Mark S
Goals in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) focus on reducing symptoms and disease progression. Registry data indicate that the accumulation of significant disability can take decades. Therefore, long-term follow-up (LTFU) studies are needed to understand the impact of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) in MS. Based on analyses of available LTFU study data, recommendations for future LTFU studies can be made. A disability milestone may be considered because exploratory data show that DMT may slow the progression of disability. Achievement of the EDSS steps 4 or 6 may be sufficient milestones because, once reached, MS progresses inevitably. Since a placebo control cannot be ethically used in LTFU studies, a standard-of-care comparator could be considered. The ideal LTFU study should be performed according to the highest possible standards. A high-quality LTFU study would achieve high retention rates, capture complete data at prespecified assessment intervals, and be powered to the key outcome measure. In addition, propensity scoring is an approach used to reduce bias in treatment comparisons in observational studies and might be a suitable approach for analyzing LTFU studies. With careful consideration of LTFU limitations and study design, it is possible to attain a high degree of rigor in future studies. PMID:21205681
Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years. PMID:24859430
TIM BETTS; HELEN YARROW; LYN GREENHILL; MARY BARRETT
Levetiracetam is a new anti-convulsant with impressive pivotal trial credentials. We examined its effectiveness in refractory clinic patients with epilepsy with a year’s follow up. Six months after initiation 32% of the patients were seizure free, and 26% at one year.By the end of the 12 months follow up 77% of patients were still taking the drug, having gained benefit
Weston-Simons, J S; Pandit, H; Jenkins, C; Jackson, W F M; Price, A J; Gill, H S; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W
The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) is an established treatment option in the management of symptomatic end-stage medial compartmental osteoarthritis (MCOA), which works well in the young and active patient. However, previous studies have shown that it is reliable only in the presence of a functionally intact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This review reports the outcomes, at a mean of five years and a maximum of ten years, of 52 consecutive patients with a mean age of 51 years (36 to 57) who underwent staged or simultaneous ACL reconstruction and Oxford UKR. At the last follow-up (with one patient lost to follow-up), the mean Oxford knee score was 41 (sd 6.3; 17 to 48). Two patients required conversion to TKR: one for progression of lateral compartment osteoarthritis and one for infection. Implant survival at five years was 93% (95% CI 83 to 100). All but one patient reported being satisfied with the procedure. The outcome was not significantly influenced by age, gender, femoral or tibial tunnel placement, or whether the procedure was undertaken at one- or two-stages. In summary, ACL reconstruction and Oxford UKR gives good results in patients with end-stage MCOA secondary to ACL deficiency. PMID:22933493
Background The long-term effect of treatment with donated oocytes on women’s and men’s perception of their relationship has been little studied. Thus the aim of this study was to analyse satisfaction with relationships in couples at the time of acceptance for treatment and 2–5 years after treatment with donated gametes and to compare them with IVF couples treated with their own gametes. Method A prospective follow-up study in which data were collected twice on two groups; cohabitating couples receiving oocyte donation and cohabitating IVF couples using their own gametes. A standardised instrument, the ENRICH inventory, was used to gain information about the couples’ subjective experience of their relationships. Results At acceptance for treatment the couples in the two groups assessed their relationships as being very solid on all dimensions and that the women receiving treatment with oocyte showed a higher satisfaction compared to women treated with own gametes. For couples that did have a child, the group of women who had been through the oocyte donating program reported a better quality of their relationship than women in the control group. There were no significant differences in perceived relationship quality between men in the different groups, whether they had a child or not. Conclusions From a long-term perspective couples using oocyte donation treatment have a balanced and solid view of their relationship and treatment, having children or not after treatment did not affect the nature of the relationships. PMID:24885541
Sinha, R; Krishnan-Sarin, S; Farren, C; O'Malley, S
Administration of alcohol to alcohol-dependent individuals for research purposes, while contributing significantly to the fund of knowledge on etiology and treatment of alcohol dependence, has often raised clinical and ethical concerns that such exposure may adversely affect the individual's motivation to reduce drinking or abstain from drinking. In an attempt to evaluate these concerns, we conducted a naturalistic follow-up of subsequent drinking among individuals who participated in an alcohol self-administration study and also received a brief motivational intervention. Twenty-one non-treatment-seeking alcoholics participated in a study examining the effects of naltrexone on alcohol self-administration. Assessment of drinking during the 3 months following the laboratory study indicated that participants had significantly reduced the total number of drinking days and the number of drinks consumed per occasion, as compared to baseline levels. The findings suggest that participation in alcohol administration research does not adversely influence the subsequent drinking of alcohol-dependent individuals. Further, when the alcohol administration research is conducted carefully, with specific attention to the clinical needs of the participants, the risks of adverse effects on participants' drinking behavior is minimal, and, in fact, there is scientific benefit to society and clinical benefit to the participants with regard to their alcoholism. PMID:10435264
I review recent practices and studies of the Montessori method from 1979and intend to discover some tasks for future studies. I researched fourteen files in the DIALOGdata-base, and tried to find papers from 1979 using the key word \\
Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Miller, R.L.; Webb, J.W.
This study was implemented to examine and characterize the actual environmental impacts of three fuel ethanol plants constructed under the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program, and to compare actual impacts with those predicted about six years ago in environmental assessments (EAs) prepared for these facilities. The objective of the program, established under the Energy Security Act of 1980, was to conserve petroleum resources by promoting the use of fuel ethanol in motor vehicles. The plants were designed to produce fuel-grade ethanol for blending with gasoline and reflect differentfeedstocks, processes, fuel sources, and site locations. Although two of the facilities as constructed differed substantially from those assessed previously, actual environmental impacts generally occurred in the areas predicted by the EAs. Major impacts not anticipated include odor from air emissions, effects of wastewater discharge on operation of a municipal sewage treatment plant, possible classification of treated wastewater from a molasses-based process as a nuisance, and habitat losses from both vegetation removal and unforeseen construction of barge terminals. In all cases, impacts were judged to be not significantn the final outcome, either because plant management (or other involved parties) took corrective action or because the resources affected in these particular cases were not important. Mitigation measures reliedon in the EAs to limit adverse impacts to insignificant levels were implemented and were required by permit condition, law, or regulation. Future follow-up studies would benefit from the availability of ambientmonitoring data to more thoroughly characterize actual impacts.
Panush, R S; Hanson, C S; Caldwell, J R; Longley, S; Stork, J; Thoburn, R
Recreational exercise programs, particularly running, remain popular for a variety of reasons. It has been estimated that as many as 20 to 30 million Americans exercise, and that this includes perhaps 5 to 15 million runners/joggers. Until recently, scant information was available regarding long-term effects, if any, of exercise on the musculoskeletal system. We, and others, therefore studied and reported our observations on the possible association of the development of lower extremity osteoarthritis (OA) in runners. This eight-year, follow-up study of our original 18 nonrunners and 17 runners obtained information on 16 runners (12 of whom were re-examined) and 13 nonrunners (10 of whom were re-examined) in 1992. One runner was deceased (cancer), 14/15 were exercising, 11/15 were running, and 3/15 were engaged in other recreational exercises. In 1992, as in 1984, pain, swelling, and range of motion of hips, knees, ankles, and feet were comparable for runners and nonrunners, and radiographic examinations (for osteophytes, cartilage thickness, and grade of OA) of hips, knees, ankles, and feet were without notable differences between groups. Thus, we did not find an increased prevalence of OA among our runners, now in their seventh decade. These observations support the suggestion that running need not be associated with predisposition to OA of the lower extremities. PMID:19077939
Bella, Rita; Ferri, Raffaele; Lanza, Giuseppe; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Pennisi, Manuela; Puglisi, Valentina; Vinciguerra, Luisa; Spampinato, Concetto; Mazza, Tommaso; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Pennisi, Giovanni
Vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND) is a condition at risk for future dementia and should be the target of preventive strategies. Recently, an enhanced intracortical facilitation observed in VCI-ND patients was proposed as a candidate neurophysiological marker of the disease process. The aim of this study was to monitor the excitability of the motor cortex and the functioning of excitatory/inhibitory intracortical circuits in patients with VCI-ND after a follow-up period of approximately 2 years, in order to pick out early markers of disease progression into dementia. Nine patients and 9 age-matched controls were re-evaluated for single and paired pulse TMS measures of cortical excitability, as well as for neuropsycological and functional assessment. Compared to the first evaluation, patients showed a decrease of the median resting motor threshold (rMT). Patients exhibited a significant worsening at Stroop Color-Word Test Interference scores without substantial functional impairment. Our study represents the first evidence of a decrease of rMT in VCI-ND patients during the progression of cognitive impairment. This result might be considered an index of motor cortex plasticity and interpreted as a compensatory mechanism for the loss of motor cortex neurons. PMID:23274709
Batty, G. David; Kivimaki, Mika; Morrison, David; Huxley, Rachel; Smith, George Davey; Clarke, Robert; Marmot, Michael G.; Shipley, Martin J.
Given the well-established links between diabetes and elevated rates of pancreatic cancer, there are reasons to anticipate that other markers of metabolic abnormality (raised body mass index, plasma cholesterol, and blood pressure) and their correlates (physical activity and socio-economic status) may also confer increased risk of pancreatic cancer. However, to date, the results of a series of population-based cohort studies are inconclusive. We examined these associations in the original Whitehall cohort study of 17,898 men. A maximum of thirty-eight years of follow-up gave rise to 163 deaths due to carcinoma of the pancreas. While Poisson regression analyses confirmed established risk factor disease associations for increasing age, smoking and type II diabetes, there was essentially no evidence that body mass index (rate ratio; 95% confidence interval per one SD increase: 1.01; 0.86, 1.18), plasma cholesterol (per one SD increase: 0.91; 0.78, 1.07), diastolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.93; 0.78, 1.09), systolic blood pressure (per one SD increase: 0.98; 0.83, 1.15), physical activity (sedentary vs. high: 1.37; 0.89, 2.12), or socio-economic status (clerical[low] vs. professional/executive: 0.95; 0.59, 1.51) offered any predictive value for pancreatic cancer mortality. These results were unchanged following control for a range of covariates. PMID:19190162
Batty, G David; Kivimaki, Mika; Morrison, David; Huxley, Rachel; Smith, George Davey; Clarke, Robert; Marmot, Michael G; Shipley, Martin J
Given the well-established links between diabetes and elevated rates of pancreatic cancer, there are reasons to anticipate that other markers of metabolic abnormality (increased body mass index, plasma cholesterol, and blood pressure) and their correlates (physical activity and socioeconomic status) may also confer increased risk. However, to date, the results of a series of population-based cohort studies are inconclusive. We examined these associations in the original Whitehall cohort study of 17,898 men. A maximum of 38 years of follow-up gave rise to 163 deaths due to carcinoma of the pancreas. Although Poisson regression analyses confirmed established risk factor-disease associations for increasing age, smoking, and type II diabetes, there was essentially no evidence that body mass index (rate ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval per 1 SD increase, 0.86-1.18), plasma cholesterol (0.91; 0.78-1.07), diastolic blood pressure (0.93; 0.78-1.09), systolic blood pressure (0.98; 0.83-1.15), physical activity (sedentary versus high: 1.37; 0.89-2.12), or socioeconomic status [clerical (low) versus professional/executive, 0.95; 0.59-1.51] offered any predictive value for pancreatic cancer mortality. These results were unchanged following control for a range of covariates. PMID:19190162
Hansson, Ingrid; Söderström, Claes; Engvall, Eva Olsson; Rautelin, Hilpi
Abstract Contact with poultry or poultry meat is a well-known risk factor for campylobacteriosis, but prospective studies on transmission of Campylobacter from chickens to humans during slaughter are scarce. In this study, we monitored transmission of Campylobacter from slaughtered chicken to originally culture-negative abattoir workers during the peak season of colonized chicken and human Campylobacter infection. Stool samples were obtained from 28 abattoir workers together with data on health status once a month between June and September 2010, with a follow-up sample collected in February 2011. Campylobacter-positive individuals and chicken flocks were identified by culture, and isolates were further characterized using molecular techniques. Campylobacter was isolated from seven asymptomatic individuals. Four of them had been newly employed and had not reported any previous Campylobacter infection. Four human isolates had matching genetic fingerprints with isolates from recently slaughtered chickens. Our results further support the role of chicken as the source of human Campylobacter infection but suggest that asymptomatic Campylobacter infection may occur even in individuals with only limited earlier exposure to Campylobacter. PMID:24885791
Malekzadeh, Masoud M.; Radmard, Amir Reza; Nouroozi, Alireza; Akbari, Mohammad Reza; Amini, Marzie; Navabakhsh, Behrooz; Caleffi, Angela; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Malekzadeh, Reza
BACKGROUND Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a very rare disease in Iran and reported cases are all negative for HFE mutation. We report a family affected by severe juvenile hemochromatosis (JH) with a detailed molecular study of the family members. METHODS We studied a pedigree with siblings affected by juvenile HH and followed them for 3 years. Microsatellite and gene sequencing analysis was performed for all family members. RESULTS Two siblings (the proband and his sister, aged 26 and 30 years, respectively) were found to have clinical findings of JH. The proband’s brother, who presented with hyperpigmentation, died of probable JH at the age of 24 years. Gene sequencing analysis showed that the proband has a homozygote c.265T>C (p.C89R) HJV mutation + a heterozygote c.884T>C (p.V295A) mutation of HFE. The affected proband’s sister presented with the same HJV c.265T>C (p.C89R) homozygote mutation. In addition, we found the HJV c.98-6C>G polymorphic variant in both the sister and proband (homozygote). Sequencing of hepcidin (HAMP), TfR2, and FPN revealed no mutation. CONCLUSION We have shown that molecular analysis of the HH related gene is a powerful tool for reliable diagnosis of JH and, in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and noninvasive liver stiffness measurement by elastography, is adequate tool for management and follow up of HH. PMID:24872867
Fioravanti, Giulia; Castellini, Giovanni; Lo Sauro, Carolina; Ianni, Sirio; Montanelli, Luca; Rotella, Francesco; Faravelli, Carlo; Ricca, Valdo
Emotion dysregulation has been found to be associated with specific eating attitudes and behavior in Eating Disorder (ED) patients. The present study evaluated whether emotional eating profile of ED patients changes over time and the possible effects of a psychotherapeutic intervention on the emotional eating dimension. One hundred and two ED patients (28 with Anorexia Nervosa restricting type [AN-R], 35 with Anorexia Nervosa binge/purging subtype [AN-B/P] and 39 with Bulimia Nervosa [BN]) were evaluated at baseline, at the end of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, at 3 and 6 year follow-up. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Axis I Disorders, the Emotional Eating Scale (EES) and several self-reported questionnaires for eating specific and general psychopathology were applied. A control group of 86 healthy subjects was also studied, in order to compare psychopathological variables at baseline. A significant EES total score reduction was observed among AN-B/P and BN patients, whereas no significant change was found in the AN-R group. Mixed Models analyses showed that a significant effect on EES total score variation was found for cocaine or amphetamine abuse (b = .25; p < .01). Patients who assumed these substances reported no significant EES reduction across time, unlike other patients. The present results suggest that ED patients with a history of cocaine or amphetamine abuse represent a sub-population of patients with lasting dysfunctional mood modulatory mechanisms. PMID:24854803
LIANA LAURIA-PIRES; MARIA S. BRAGA; ANA C. VEXENAT; NADJAR NITZ; AUGUSTO SIMOES-BARBOSA; DOUGLAS L. TINOCO; ANTONIO R. L. TEIXEIRA
A randomized ten-year follow-up study involving 91 Chagas patients and 41 uninfected controls was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of nitroderivative therapy. Anti- Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies were con- sistently lower one year after treatment than 10 years thereafter ( P 0.001). The blood of all treated and 93.7% of untreated Chagas patients yielded polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from probes
Meyenburg, Bernd; Kröger, Anne; Neugebauer, Rebecca
Treatment guidelines for transidentity in children and adolescents are presently under discussion. We present an overview of the various treatment modalities. Further, follow-up data on children and adolescents referred for gender-identity problems are presented. Of the 84 patients seen for the first time more than 3 years before follow-up, 37 mailed in the completed questionnaires. In addition, 33 patients agreed to answer some short follow-up questions. We assessed steps of treatment, gender role, psychopathology, and psychotherapy. We compared differences in psychopathology in patients with vs. without gender role change and in patients with intense vs. less intense psychotherapy. A total of 22 patients had completely changed gender role, and some had started hormonal treatment und sex reassignment surgery. Most patients were satisfied with the treatment results. All patients showed less psychopathology on follow-up, independent of role change or intensity of psychotherapy. In general, the patients reported little psychopathology. Our follow-up results support the present treatment approach. In patients with little psychopathology, low-frequency supportive treatment appears sufficient to obtain safe judgement on hormonal of surgical treatment. PMID:25536896
Christian Åkermark; Tönu Saartok; Zbigniew Zuber
BackgroundThe aim of this prospective study, with a mean 29 (minimum 24) months follow-up was to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment with a longitudinal, plantar incision of primary Morton's neuromas.
Mohsen Elalfy; Nancy Elbarbary; Normine Khaddah; Magy Abdelwahab; Farida El Rashidy; Hoda Hassab; Youssef Al-Tonbary
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years;
Over five years ago the author began his "TechTrends" column, then titled "E-Learning by Design," with a self interview. In that first column he interviewed himself on how he came to develop the Study Guides and Strategies (SGS) Website www.studygs.net. This educational public service and resource now contains 120 topics (200 English webpages) in…
Miller, Carlin J.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Scott, R.; Harty, Seth C.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Objectives: Adults with ADHD experience considerable functional impairment. However, the extent to which comorbid Axis II personality disorders contribute to their difficulties and whether such comorbidities are associated with the childhood condition or the persistence of ADHD into adulthood remains unclear. Methods: This study examined the presence of personality disorders in a longitudinal sample of adolescents diagnosed with ADHD when they were 7 – 11 years-old, as compared to a matched, never-ADHD, control group. Participants were 16-26 years old at follow-up. Based on a psychiatric interview, the ADHD group was subdivided into those with and without persistent ADHD. Axis II symptoms were assessed using the SCID-II. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and odds ratios (OR) were generated. Results: Individuals diagnosed with childhood ADHD are at increased risk for personality disorders in late adolescence, specifically Borderline (OR = 13.16), Antisocial (OR = 3.03), Avoidant (OR = 9.77), and Narcissistic (OR = 8.69) personality disorders. Those with persistent ADHD were at higher risk for Antisocial (OR = 5.26) and Paranoid (OR = 8.47) personality disorders when compared to those in whom ADHD remitted, but not the other personality disorders. Conclusion: Results suggest that ADHD portends risk for adult personality disorders, but the risk is not uniform across disorders, nor is it uniformly related to child or adult diagnostic status. PMID:19193347
McShane, R.; Keene, J.; Gedling, K.; Fairburn, C.; Jacoby, R.; Hope, T.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the contribution of neuroleptic drugs to cognitive decline in dementia. DESIGN: Two year prospective, longitudinal study consisting of interviews every four months, with necropsy follow up. SETTING: Community settings in Oxfordshire. SUBJECTS: 71 subjects with dementia, initially living at home with informant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive function (score from expanded minimental state examination); behavioural problems (physical aggression, hallucinations, persecutory ideas, and disturbance of diurnal rhythm); and postmortem neuropathological assessment (cortical Lewy body pathology). RESULTS: The mean (SE) decline in cognitive score in the 16 patients who took neuroleptics was twice that in the patients who did not (20.7 (2.9) v 9.3 (1.3), P = 0.002). An increased rate of decline was also associated with aggression, disturbed diurnal rhythm, and persecutory ideas. However, only use of neuroleptics and severity of persecutory ideas were independently associated with more rapid cognitive decline when all other variables were adjusted for. The start of neuroleptic treatment coincided with more rapid cognitive decline: median rate of decline was 5 (interquartile range 8.5) points per year before treatment and 11 (12) points per year after treatment (P = 0.02). Cortical Lewy body pathology did not account for association between neuroleptic use and more rapid decline. CONCLUSIONS: Neuroleptic drugs that are sometimes used to treat behavioural complications of dementia may worsen already poor cognitive function. Randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm a causal relation. PMID:9022490
Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.
The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.
Caroline T M van Rossum; Martin J Shipley; Hendrike van de Mheen; Diederick E Grobbee; Michael G Marmot
STUDY OBJECTIVETo test the hypothesis that the association between socioeconomic status and mortality rates cuts across the major causes of death for middle aged and elderly men.DESIGN25 year follow up of mortality in relation to employment grade.SETTINGThe first Whitehall study.PARTICIPANTS18 001 male civil servants aged 40–69 years who attended the initial screening between 1967 and 1970 and were followed up
Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Lundquist, Anders; Nordin, Annelie; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Adolfsson, Rolf
Background/Aims Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280); group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results Age- and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.
Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.
This study examined whether individuals with different personality types (i.e., overcontrollers, undercontrollers, resilients) had different friendship quality development throughout adolescence. It also investigated whether personality types were indirectly related to romantic relationship quality in young adulthood, via friendship quality development in adolescence. The study employed six waves of longitudinal questionnaire data from Dutch youths who had a romantic relationship when they were young adults. Two age cohorts were followed, from 12 to 21 years and from 16 to 25 years, respectively. Findings showed that resilients reported higher mean levels of friendship quality during adolescence (i.e., more support from, less negative interaction with and less dominance from their best friend) than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Through the mean levels of friendship quality throughout adolescence, resilients indirectly experienced higher romantic relationship quality during young adulthood than both overcontrollers and undercontrollers. Thus, results provide support for a developmental model in which adolescent friendship quality is a mechanism linking personality types with young adulthood romantic relationship quality. PMID:25232964
Rice, Amanda D; Patterson, Kimberley; Wakefield, Leslie B; Reed, Evette D; Breder, Kelseanne P; Wurn, Belinda F; King Iii, Richard; Wurn, Lawrence J
Background • Female infertility is a complex issue encompassing a wide variety of diagnoses, many of which are caused or affected by adhesions. Objectives • The study intended to examine the rates of successful treatment of infertile women using a protocol of manual physical therapy to address underlying adhesive disease leading to infertility. Methods • The research team designed a retrospective chart review. Setting • The study took place in a private physical therapy clinic. Participants • Participants were 1392 female patients who were treated at the clinic between the years of 2002 and 2011. They had varying diagnoses of infertility, including occluded fallopian tubes, hormonal dysfunction, and endometriosis, and some women were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Intervention • All patients underwent whole-body, patient-centered treatments that used a protocol of manual physical therapy, which focused on restoring mobility and motility to structures affecting reproductive function. Outcome Measures • Improvements demonstrated in the condition(s) causing infertility were measured by improvements in tubal patency and/or improved hormone levels or by pregnancy. Results • The results included a 60.85% rate of clearing occluded fallopian tubes, with a 56.64% rate of pregnancy in those patients. Patients with endometriosis experienced a 42.81% pregnancy rate. The success rate was 49.18% for lowering elevated levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), with a 39.34% pregnancy rate in that group, and 53.57% of the women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) achieved pregnancy. The reported pregnancy rate for patients who underwent IVF after the therapy was 56.16%. The results also suggested that the treatment was effective for patients with premature ovarian failure (POF). Conclusion • The manual physical therapy represented an effective, conservative treatment for women diagnosed as infertile due to mechanical causes, independent of the specific etiology. PMID:26026143
Quan, L; Gore, E J; Wentz, K; Allen, J; Novack, A H
The factors associated with submersion events among less than 20-year-old persons that occurred in King County from 1974 to 1983 were studied to focus prevention efforts. Near-drowning (n = 103) and drowning (n = 96) victims were identified from medical examiners' reports, paramedics' reports, and hospital discharge registers. Annual incidence was 5.5; the mortality rate was 2.6 per 100,000 children. Although preschool-aged children had the largest incidence (12.8), followed by older adolescents (4.9), adolescents had the largest case fatality rate, 77%. Lake and river victims had the largest incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate; swimming pools, the smallest case fatality rate (25%). A total of 89% of all victims had absent or no supervision; victims supervised by lifeguards had a 42% case fatality rate. Prior seizures were part of the history of 7.5% of all victims; 25% of fatal submersions by adolescents were associated with alcohol. Bathtub submersions were associated with child abuse in three of 16 preschool-aged children and epilepsy in four of five older children. Certain age groups and sites combined had the greatest incidence: preschool-aged children in swimming pools, infants in bathtubs, teenagers in lakes and rivers. Incidence decreased in public and semipublic pools coincident with fencing regulations. These findings suggest prevention strategies: extending fencing requirements to private pools, discouraging alcohol consumption during water sports, changing bathing practices of epileptics, and improving lifeguard efficacy. PMID:2726330
Troise, C; Voltolini, S; Delbono, G; Negrini, A C
Allergy to pollens from Betulaceae and Corylaceae is becoming a leading problem in Genoa, a northern Mediterranean area in Italy. The results of a 10-year retrospective study on combined observations both on the aerobiological presence of Betulaceae and Corylaceae pollens (Alnus, Corylus, Ostrya) and on the incidence of positive SPT in the allergic population living in the same area are reported. Among 3473 patients suffering from seasonal respiratory allergy with positive SPT to one or more pollens, 558 (16.06%) showed SPT positivity to Betulaceae and/or Corylaceae pollens, both isolated and associated with other allergens. These patients suffered from winter or early spring hay fever, with a high incidence of bronchial asthma. A statistically significant increase (0.02 < p < 0.05) in the number of these sensitizations from 1981 to 1990 has been observed. Some possible explanations for this phenomenon, including an increase in the total amount of local airborne pollens, are suggested. About 24% of the patients with positive SPT to these pollens referred oral allergic syndrome associated with the ingestion of some foods, especially apples and nuts, with or without other additional clinical symptoms. PMID:1342915
Gatti, Sylvain; Levréro, Florence; Bigot, Elodie; Caillaud, Damien; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien; Ménard, Nelly
Investigating the recovery capacity of wildlife populations following demographic crashes is of great interest to ecologists and conservationists. Opportunities to study these aspects are rare due to the difficulty of monitoring populations both before and after a demographic crash. Ebola outbreaks in central Africa have killed up to 95% of the individuals in affected western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) populations. Assessing whether and how fast affected populations recover is essential for the conservation of this critically endangered taxon. The gorilla population visiting Lokoué forest clearing, Odzala-Kokoua National Park, Republic of the Congo, has been monitored before, two years after and six years after Ebola affected it in 2004. This allowed us to describe Ebola's short-term and long-term impacts on the structure of the population. The size of the population, which included around 380 gorillas before the Ebola outbreak, dropped to less than 40 individuals after the outbreak. It then remained stable for six years after the outbreak. However, the demographic structure of this small population has significantly changed. Although several solitary males have disappeared, the immigration of adult females, the formation of new breeding groups, and several birth events suggest that the population is showing potential to recover. During the outbreak, surviving adult and subadult females joined old solitary silverbacks. Those females were subsequently observed joining young silverbacks, forming new breeding groups where they later gave birth. Interestingly, some females were observed joining silverbacks that were unlikely to have sired their infant, but no infanticide was observed. The consequences of the Ebola outbreak on the population structure were different two years and six years after the outbreak. Therefore, our results could be used as demographic indicators to detect and date outbreaks that have happened in other, non-monitored gorilla populations. PMID:22649511
Poulsen, Kjeld; Cleal, Bryan; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L.
Objectives The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes. Methods Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity. Results During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR ?=? 6.53; 95% CI 4.68–9.10), overweight (HR ?=? 2.89; CI 2.11–3.96) age 50–69 y (HR ?=? 2.27; 95% CI 1.57–3.43) and high quality of leadership (HR ?=? 1.60; CI 1.19–2.16). Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR ?=? 3.84; CI 2.85–5.17), impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts. Conclusions Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes. PMID:25068830
Linda B. Cottler; Wilson M. Compton; Arbi Ben-Abdallah; Malaika Horne; Daniel Claverie
Longitudinal studies can be hampered by poor follow-up rates, seriously reducing generalizability of the findings. Understanding the barriers, as well as approaches to overcome and adapt to these impediments, resulted in a 96.6% 18 month follow-up rate of 479 drug abusers enrolled in an NIDA funded demonstration project aimed at reducing HIV transmission among St. Louis' most vulnerable drug-using population.
Gerrit Scoliers; Gwendolyn Portzky; Kees van Heeringen; Kurt Audenaert
The present study examines the association between repetition of suicide attempts and sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of patients during a 5-year follow-up period. Participants were 874 suicide attempters referred to the University Hospital of Ghent, among whom 361 (41.3%) patients were available for follow-up analysis. Within 5 years, 29.2% of those admitted for an index suicide attempt repeated non-fatal suicidal
G G Geyskes; C B Puylaert; H Y Oei; E J Mees
Between April 1978 and April 1981, 70 patients with hypertension and renal artery stenosis were treated by percutaneous transluminal arterial dilatation. Selection of the patients was based solely on arteriographic criteria. Arteriography after dilatation showed considerable widening of the stenosed area in all patients. In 65 patients the effect of treatment on the blood pressure was assessed during follow up
Marinos C. Dalakas
Fourteen survivors of paralytic poliomyelitis experienced new symptoms after years of stability. Seven patients had lost functional capacity, with joint pain, instability and recurrent falls, but were again stable and remained essentially unchanged during a 3-year follow-up period. Seven others had late postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy (PPMA) with new weakness, wasting, fasciculations and myalgia in muscles originally spared or seemingly recovered.
ZAX, MELVIN; AND OTHERS
THE PURPOSE OF THIS INVESTIGATION WAS TO FOLLOW-UP, AS SEVENTH GRADERS, TWO GROUPS OF CHILDREN WHO HAD PARTICIPATED IN A PREVENTIVE MENTAL HEALTH PROGRAM IN THE SCHOOL SETTING AND HAD BEEN EVALUATED FOR THEIR POTENTIAL FOR HAVING ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS. THE SEVENTH GRADE EVALUATIONS WERE COMPREHENSIVE, INCLUDING A VARIETY OF SCHOOL RECORD AND…
D. Schiffer; F. Brignolio; A. Chiò; M. T. Giordana; P. Meineri; M. G. Rosso; A. Tribolo
60 cases of chronic spinal muscular atrophy (CSMA) were followed-up for a period varying from 5 to 40 years. The neuromuscular impairment was evaluated by Norris’ ALS score, both at the time of last examination and retrospectively at the time of diagnosis. Age at onset of symptoms was the most important factor in the progression of the neuromuscular damage. Monomelic
P. E. Johnston; G. L. Lilien
By following up on some prior respondents to solar surveys, solar energy purchase intentions are related to actual purchase behavior. Also examined is the relationship between attitudinal and demographic variables and trends in intention variables. Two sets of data are analyzed. The first set was collected in the spring of 1980. The method used was an initial telephone survey followed
Society for Research on Women, Auckland (New Zealand).
Female program completers and dropouts from a one-year course in radio and television servicing at Auckland Technical Institute (New Zealand) were followed up. Respondents included nine completers from the 1977 course, eight completers from the 1978 course, and three dropouts. Background information showed that 10 completers started the course…
Victor, James B.; Halverson, Charles F., Jr.
Two-year follow-up data for an ostensibly normal sample of children (23 males and 25 females in grades 3 through 5) who had been previously characterized on a number of behavior problem dimensions by their teachers and peers were analyzed. (Author/SBH)
A Sunderland; D Fletcher; L Bradley; D Tinson; R L Hewer; D T Wade
Ninety seven patients with stroke who had participated in a randomised trial of conventional physical therapy nu an enhanced therapy for arm function were followed up at one year. Despite the emphasis of the enhanced therapy approach on continued use of the arm in everyday life, the advantage seen for some patients with enhanced therapy at six months after stroke
Using personal interviews, telephone interviews, and, when necessary, mailed questionnaires, Standing Rock Community College (SRCC) conducted follow-up surveys with 64 of the 68 students who had graduated from SRCC between May 1976 and December 1979. The interviews or questionnaires solicited information concerning demographic characteristics,…
Bruininks, Robert H.; And Others
This paper examines considerations for designing a postschool follow-up system in secondary special education, focusing on survey research techniques and special applications of survey methodologies, including data collection techniques, questionnaire construction, sample design and contact, response rates, and tracking procedures. Design and…
Rilki, Ernest; Lucas, John A.
In spring 1987, a follow-up survey was conducted of former William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) students who had taken five or more data processing courses at the college between 1980 and 1986. The survey focused on the students' employment status and educational intent while attending WRHC, their present employment situation, and their evaluation…
Hjertholm, Peter; Moth, Grete; Ingeman, Mads Lind; Vedsted, Peter
Background Knowledge is sparse on the prevalence of suspicion of cancer and other serious diseases in general practice. Likewise, little is known about the possible implications of this suspicion on future healthcare use and diagnoses. Aim To study the prevalence of GPs’ suspicions of cancer or other serious diseases and analyse how this suspicion predicted the patients’ healthcare use and diagnoses of serious disease. Design and setting Prospective population-based cohort study of 4518 patients consulting 404 GPs in a mix of urban, semi-urban and rural practices in Central Denmark Region during 2008–2009. Method The GPs registered consultations in 1 work day, including information on their suspicion of the presence of cancer or another serious disease. The patients were followed up for use of healthcare services and new diagnoses through the use of national registers. Results Prevalence of suspicion was 5.7%. Suspicion was associated with an increase in referrals (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.22 to 2.96), especially for diagnostic imaging (PR = 3.95, 95% CI = 2.80 to 5.57), increased risk of a new diagnosis of cancer or another serious disease within 2 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.93 to 4.62) — especially for cancer (HR = 7.55, 95% CI = 2.66 to 21.39) — and increased use of general practice (relative risk [RR] = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.24) and hospital visits (RR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.62 to 2.23). The positive predictive value of a GP suspicion was 9.8% (95% CI = 6.4 to 14.1) for cancer or another serious disease within 2 months. Conclusion A GP suspicion of serious disease warrants further investigation, and the organisation of the healthcare system should ensure direct access from the primary sector to specialised tests. PMID:24868072
Yuan, J. M.; Ross, R. K.; Gao, Y. T.; Henderson, B. E.; Yu, M. C.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of death associated with various patterns of alcohol intake. DESIGN: Prospective study of mortality in relation to alcohol consumption at recruitment, with active annual follow up. SETTING: Four small, geographically defined communities in Shanghai, China. SUBJECTS: 18,244 men aged 45-64 years enrolled in a prospective study of diet and cancer during January 1986 to September 1989. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: By 28 February 1995, 1198 deaths (including 498 from cancer, 269 from stroke, and 104 from ischaemic heart disease) had been identified. Compared with lifelong non-drinkers, those who consumed 1-14 drinks a week had a 19% reduction in overall mortality (relative risk 0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.94) after age, level of education, and cigarette smoking were adjusted for. This protective effect was not restricted to any specific type of alcoholic drink. Although light to moderate drinking (28 or fewer drinks per week) was associated with a 36% reduction in death from ischaemic heart disease (0.64; 0.41 to 0.998), it had no effect on death from stroke, which is the leading cause of death in this population. As expected, heavy drinking (29 or more drinks per week) was significantly associated with increased risks of death from cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, hepatic cirrhosis, and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumption of small amounts of alcohol is associated with lower overall mortality including death from ischaemic heart disease in middle aged Chinese men. The type of alcoholic drink does not affect this association. PMID:9001474
Almind, M; Viskum, K; Evald, T; Dirksen, A; Kok-Jensen, A
A study of 343 urban adult outpatients with a history of bronchial asthma was initiated in 1981. Asthma was verified by a reversibility in airflow obstruction of at least 0.5 1 in forced expiratory volume (FEV1) (70%). The rest of the 343 patients was included because of diurnal variations of at least 100 l/min in peak expiratory flow (PEF) (22%), or because of a characteristic history of asthma (8%). In 1988, a follow-up study was performed. Two hundred-fourteen patients replied (80%), 100 women and 114 men. Fifty-four did not respond, but were known to be alive. Twenty-one had emigrated; of these, the fate of five was unknown. The mortality rate was significantly raised among the men (Standard mortality rate (SMR) = 1.55). In 19%, the cause of death was pulmonary. Seventeen percent were found dead. In these, no cause of death was obvious, and they may have died from an exacerbation of their pulmonary disease. One hundred and forty-four had non-allergic and 69 allergic asthma verified retrospectively by positive skin prick test in 1988. One was not tested and not classified. Seventy-five percent of the whole group were smokers. An annual decline of approximately 90 ml per year in FEV1 was found in both groups and was only partially explained by smoking and ageing. The remaining observed decline in lung function may be caused by asthma. Reversibility of 0.5 l in FEV1 was only maintained in the allergic group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1468265
Punnett, L; Gold, J; Katz, J; Gore, R; Wegman, D
Aims: To estimate the one year cumulative incidence and persistence of upper extremity (UE) soft tissue disorders, in a fixed cohort of automotive manufacturing workers, and to quantify their associations with ergonomic exposures. Methods: At baseline and at follow up, cases of UE musculoskeletal disorders were determined by interviewer administered questionnaire and standardised physical examination of the upper extremities. The interview obtained new data on psychosocial strain and updated the medical and work histories. An index of exposure to ergonomic stressors, obtained at baseline interview, was the primary independent variable. Cumulative incidence and persistence of UE disorders (defined both by symptoms and by physical examination plus symptoms) were analysed in relation to baseline ergonomic exposures, adjusting for other covariates. The incidence of new disorders was modelled using multivariate proportional hazards regression among workers who were not cases in the first year and the prevalence on both occasions was modelled by repeated measures analysis. Results: A total of 820 workers (69% of eligible cohort members) was examined. Follow up varied slightly by department group but not by baseline exposure level or other characteristics. Among the non-cases at baseline, the cumulative incidence of UE disorders was 14% by symptoms and 12% by symptoms plus examination findings. These rates increased with index of physical exposures primarily among subjects who had the same jobs at follow up as at baseline. Increased exposure during follow up increased risk of incidence. The persistence of UE disorders from baseline to follow up examination was nearly 60% and somewhat associated with baseline exposure score. Conclusions: These longitudinal results confirm the previous cross sectional associations of UE musculoskeletal disorders with exposure to combined ergonomic stressors. The exposure-response relation was similar for incident cases defined by symptoms alone and those confirmed by physical examination. PMID:15258272
Chan, Sam Chi Chung; Chan, Alice Po Shan
Background A tertiary spinal cord injury (SCI) center was established in the northern region of Hong Kong, China and a multidisciplinary SCI rehabilitation program was developed to reintegrate patients into the community. Objective To investigate functional outcomes for Chinese people with SCI across a 1-year period. Design Longitudinal prospective design. Methods Thirty community-dwelling participants with traumatic SCI were recruited. Functional status was measured using functional independence measure (FIM) on admission, upon discharge, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year post-discharge. Information on use of assistive devices and life role were also obtained. Results Twenty-three (76.67%) participants were men. Seventeen participants (10 with tetraplegia and 7 with paraplegia) were classified ASIA A, B, or C; 13 (7 with tetraplegia and 6 with paraplegia) were classified as ASIA D. Significant differences in FIM motor scores were only found between the tetraplegia group and three other diagnostic groups using Bonferroni post-hoc tests of repeated measure ANOVA (analysis of variance) (P < 0.05). Longitudinally, contrast tests of repeated measure ANOVA showed significant differences during the hospitalization period for all diagnostic groups. People in the ASIA D group showed significant functional improvement even after 1-year post-discharge (P < 0.05). At 1-year post-discharge, only two participants were engaged in either remunerative employment or academic pursuit. Conclusion Despite functional status improvement, few people with traumatic SCI were re-engaged in productive life role 1 year after discharge. Studies with longer follow-up would be beneficial. PMID:23433330
Karin Mogg; Brendan P. Bradley; Neil Millar; Jim White
Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) without concurrent depression (n = 11) and normal controls (n = 17) were tested twice, about 2 months apart, on a modified Stroop colour-naming task, which presented anxiety-related, depression-related and neutral words in masked and unmasked exposure conditions. GAD patients received cognitive behaviour therapy in the test-retest interval, and were also retested at follow-up,
Nora S. Vyas; Michael Hadjulis; Sophia Frangou
Objective To examine the contribution of premorbid function, duration of untreated psychosis (DUP), age of onset, severity of symptoms at presentation, and number of subsequent hospitalisations to the outcome of early onset schizophrenia (EOS; onset before 17th birthday). Method Twenty-three EOS patients (mean age at onset 15.16 ± 1.39 years) were re-assessed after a mean interval of 4 ± 1.08 years. At baseline and follow-up clinical
Ho-Rim Choi; Yukiharu Hasegawa; Seiji Kondo; Takuya Shimizu; Kunio Ida; Hisashi Iwata
. From January 1976 to December 1990, 66 high tibial osteotomies for medial gonarthrosis were performed in 59 patients. Thirty\\u000a knees of 26 patients (18 women and 8 men) were reviewed after a mean follow-up period of 15.3 years (range, 10–24 years).\\u000a The mean age of these 26 patients was 59 years at the time of operation and 75.5 years
M. Ribeiro; J. Dunn; R. Sesso; M. S. Lima; R. Laranjeira
Objectives: To follow-up a group of 131 crack cocaine users and examine drug use, treatment experience, employment status, involvement in crime and mortality at 2 and 5 years. Methods: Consecutive crack-dependent patients who were admitted to a detoxification unit in São Paulo between 1992 and 1994 were re-interviewed on two occasions: 1995–1996 and 1998–1999. Results: 5 years after treatment information
Bhatoe, H S
With improvements in the ballistic physics, patient evacuation, imaging, neurosurgical management and intensive care facilities, there has been overall improvement in the survival of patients with missile injuries of the brain. Patients with retained intracranial fragments have been followed up and the sequelae of such fragments were analysed. We present our observations in 43 such patients who had survived low velocity missile injuries of the brain during military conflicts and had retained intracranial fragments. Over a follow up period of 2 to 7 years, suppurative sequelae (brain abscess, recurrent meningitis) were seen in 6 patients, two of these progressing to formation of brain abscess. Three patients developed hydrocephalus and one seizures. Patients with orbitocranial or faciocranial wound of entry had a higher incidence of suppurative complications (3 out of 4), while those with skull vault entry had a lower incidence of such sequelae (7 out of 30). Nine patients were lost to follow up. Other determinants of suppurative complications were postoperative CSF leak and intraventricular lodgement of the fragment. PMID:11303238
Background Limited data exist documenting the degree to which travelers are inconvenienced by travelers' diarrhea (TD). We performed a prospective follow-up study at the travel clinic of Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands to determine the degree of inconvenience and to determine how experiencing TD affects travelers' perception. Methods Healthy adults who intended to travel to the (sub)tropics for less than two months were invited to take part. Participants filled out a web-based questionnaire before departure and after returning home. TD was defined as three or more unformed stools during a 24-hour period. Results 390 of 776 Eligible travelers completed both questionnaires. Participants' median age was 31 years and mean travel duration 23 days. Of 160 travelers who contracted TD (incidence proportion 41%, median duration of TD episode 2.5 days) the majority (107/160, 67%) could conduct their activity program as planned despite having diarrhea. However, 21% (33/160) were forced to alter their program and an additional 13% (20/160) were confined to their accommodation for one or more daylight days; 53 travelers (33%) used loperamide and 14 (9%) an antibiotic. Eight travelers (5%) consulted a physician for the diarrheal illness. When asked about the degree of inconvenience brought on by the diarrheal illness, 39% categorized it as minor or none at all, 34% as moderate and 27% as large or severe. In those who regarded the episode of TD a major inconvenience, severity of symptoms was greater and use of treatment and necessity to alter the activity program were more common. Travelers who contracted travelers' diarrhea considered it less of a problem in retrospect than they had thought it would be before departure. Conclusion Conventional definitions of TD encompass many mild cases of TD (in our study at least a third of all cases) for which treatment is unlikely to provide a significant health benefit. By measuring the degree of inconvenience brought on by TD, researchers and policy makers may be able to better distinguish 'significant TD' from mild TD, thus allowing for a more precise estimation of the size of the target population for vaccination or stand-by antibiotic prescription and of the benefit of such measures. PMID:22099542
Attanasio, Roberto; Epaminonda, Paolo; Motti, Enrico; Giugni, Enrico; Ventrella, Laura; Cozzi, Renato; Farabola, Mario; Loli, Paola; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Arosio, Maura
Stereotactic radiosurgery by gamma-knife (GK) is an attractive therapeutic option after failure of microsurgical removal in patients with pituitary adenoma. In these tumors or remnants of them, it aims to obtain the arrest of cell proliferation and hormone hypersecretion using a single precise high dose of ionizing radiation, sparing surrounding structures. The long-term efficacy and toxicity of GK in acromegaly are only partially known. Thirty acromegalic patients (14 women and 16 men) entered a prospective study of GK treatment. Most were surgical failures, whereas in 3 GK was the primary treatment. Imaging of the adenoma and target coordinates identification were obtained by high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were treated with multiple isocenters (mean, 8; range, 3-11). The 50% isodose was used in 27 patients (90%). The mean margin dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-35), and the dose to the visual pathways was always less than 8 Gy. After a median follow-up of 46 months (range, 9-96), IGF-I fell from 805 micro g/liter (median; interquartile range, 640-994) to 460 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 217-654; P = 0.0002), and normal age-matched IGF-I levels were reached in 7 patients (23%). Mean GH levels decreased from 10 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 6.4-15) to 2.9 micro g/liter (interquartile range, 2-5.3; P < 0.0001), reaching levels below 2.5 micro g/liter in 11 (37%). The rate of persistently pathological hormonal levels was still 70% at 5 yr by Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median volume was 1.43 ml (range, 0.20-3.7). Tumor shrinkage (at least 25% of basal volume) occurred after 24 months (range, 12-36) in 11 of 19 patients (58% of assessable patients). The rate of shrinkage was 79% at 4 yr. In no case was further growth observed. Only 1 patient complained of side-effects (severe headache and nausea immediately after the procedure, with full recovery in a few days with steroid therapy). Anterior pituitary failures were observed in 2 patients, who already had partial hypopituitarism, after 2 and 6 yr, respectively. No patient developed visual deficits. GK is a valid adjunctive tool in the management of acromegaly that controls GH/IGF-I hypersecretion and tumor growth, with shrinkage of adenoma and no recurrence of the disease in the considered observation period and with low acute and chronic toxicity. PMID:12843150
Danz, J C; Greuter, C; Sifakakis, I; Fayed, M; Pandis, N; Katsaros, C
The purpose of this long-term follow-up study was twofold-firstly, to assess prevalence of relapse after treatment of deep bite malocclusion and secondly, to identify risk factors that predispose patients with deep bite malocclusion to relapse. Sixty-one former patients with overbite more than 50% incisor overlap before treatment were successfully recalled. Clinical data, morphometrical measurements on plaster casts before treatment, after treatment and at long-term follow-up, as well as cephalometric measurements before and after treatment were collected. The median follow-up period was 11.9 years. Patients were treated by various treatment modalities, and the majority of patients received at least a lower fixed retainer and an upper removable bite plate during retention. Relapse was defined as increase in incisor overlap from below 50% after treatment to equal or more than 50% incisor overlap at long-term follow-up. Ten per cent of the patients showed relapse to equal or larger than 50% incisor overlap, and their amount of overbite increase was low. Among all cases with deep bite at follow-up, gingival contact and palatal impingement were more prevalent in partially corrected noncompliant cases than in relapse cases. In this sample, prevalence and amount of relapse were too low to identify risk factors of relapse. PMID:23197574
... Radio Hear about the launch of the largest oil spill health study. Transcript Speaker: Dale Sandler, Ph.D., ... on the potential health effects associated with an oil spill, with nearly 33,000 participants. The GuLF STUDY ...
Bruckner, M. Martha
Summarizes results of follow-up interviews with 10 out of 14 at-risk high school students studied during 1988-89. This study had indicated that students were at-risk in life and in school. Although seven eventually completed school and nine had positive self-perceptions, only one participant was working full time. Most had unstable family…
Terhi Rahkonen; Riitta Luukkainen-Markkula; Satu Paanila; Juhani Sivenius; Raimo Sulkava
Cognitive decline is commonly stated as one of the main risk factors for delirium. The aim was to assess the importance of a delirium episode as a symptom of an underlying dementia among community dwelling healthy elderly people in a prospective 2 year follow up study. The study patients consisted of 51 people living at home and older than 65
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 2010
This chapter covers the methods and measures used in the ERA study, with a special focus on age 15 outcomes. First, the authors outline the sample participation rate for the 15-year follow-up--the percentages in all cases referring to the numbers at the time of initial sample contact. They then describe the measures used in this monograph,…
Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.
This report provides guidance and documentation for users of the public release for the combined base-year and first follow-up data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It provides extensive documentation of the content of the data files and how to access and manipulate them. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction to ELS:2002. It…
Wine, Jennifer S.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Biber, Melissa; Pratt, Daniel J.
This report describes the methods and procedures used for the full-scale data collection effort of the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study First Follow-Up 1996-98 (BPS:96/98). These students, who started their postsecondary education during the 1995-96 academic year, were first interviewed during 1996 as part of the National…
M. R. Pittelkow; H. O. Perry; S. A. Muller; W. Z. Maughan; P. C. OBrien
For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar
Sabine Sonnentag; Michael Frese; Felix C. Brodbeck; Torsten Heinbokel
This article reports an empirical study on effectiveness of software development teams. Itwaspredicted thatboththe extent to whieh designmethods are used and teamleaders' goal orientation is related to team effectiveness. Follow-up data (6-12 months after first assessment) were available from 25 German and Swiss software developmentprojeets. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that use of design methods and team leaders' goal orientation predicted
Sandoz, Sylvia J.
This 2001 follow-up study conducted in the spring of 2001 and reported in the fall of 2001,targeted 2 groups of former Lane Community College (LCC) (Oregon) students. Surveys were mailed to all 1990-2000 graduates (students who earned a degree or certificate). The second group contacted were students who had achieved no formal award (NFA). These…
Kirsi Suominen; Erkki Isometsä; Aini Ostamo; Jouko Lönnqvist
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to comprehensively examine clinical risk factors, including suicide intent and hopelessness, for suicide and risk of death from all causes after attempted suicide over a 12-year follow-up period. METHODS: A systematic sample of 224 patients from consecutive cases of attempted suicide referred to health care in four Finnish cities between 1 January and
S Macgregor; P M Visscher; S A Knott; P Thomson; D J Porteous; J K Millar; R S Devon; D Blackwood; W J Muir
In this study, we report a genome scan for psychiatric disease susceptibility loci in 13 Scottish families. We follow up one of the linkage peaks on chromosome 1q in a substantially larger sample of 22 families affected by schizophrenia (SCZ) or bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). To minimise the effect of genetic heterogeneity, we collected mainly large extended families (average family
Carlo Agostoni; Sabina Trojan; Roberto Bellù; Enrica Riva; Maria Grazia Bruzzese; Marcello Giovannini
AIMA follow up study of developmental quotient (DQ) at 24 months of toddlers whose diets in early infancy differed in fatty acid composition, and in whom an association between diet and DQ was observed at 4 months.METHODS81 toddlers were distributed among three groups according to early type of diet: standard infant formula (SFo, n = 30); long chain polyunsaturated fatty
John O'Brien; David Ames; Edmond Chiu; Isaac Schweitzer; Patricia Desmond; Brian Tress
Objective To determine the difference in outcome among elderly people with major depression who do and do not have severe white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. Design Follow up study. Setting Two psychiatric and two general hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Subjects 60 depressed subjects aged over 55 referred to hospital psychiatric services with major depressive disorder meeting American Psychiatric
Michael Ritsner; Yael Ratner; Anatoly Gibel; Ronit Weizman
We sought to examine stability associations between family history and variability of schizophrenia symptoms repeatedly examined during a naturalistic follow-up study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire, and the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale were administered to 69 patients with familial and 79 patients with sporadic schizophrenia, at hospital admission and at stabilization stage (about
Briggs, Freda; Hawkins, Russell M. F.
A follow-up study examined two programs intended to prevent child sexual abuse: (1) Protective Behaviors (Australia), which develops assertiveness skills to empower children; and (2) Keeping Ourselves Safe (New Zealand), which uses "What if..." problem-solving exercises. Revealed the importance of providing a school-based program that is…
Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas J.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Faraone, Stephen V.
Objective To assess the effect of ADHD and its treatment on growth outcomes in children followed into adulthood. Study design Two identically designed, longitudinal, case-control studies of males and females with and without ADHD were combined. 124 and 137 control and subjects with ADHD, respectively, provided growth information at the 10–11 year follow-up. We used linear growth curve models to estimate the effect of time on change in height, and whether this effect differed by sex and ADHD status. We also examined the effect of stimulant treatment on growth outcomes. Results We found no evidence that ADHD was associated with trajectories of height over time, or differences at follow-up in any growth outcomes. Similarly, we found no evidence that stimulant treatment was associated with differences in growth. However, among subjects with ADHD, major depression was associated with significantly larger weight in females and smaller height in males. Conclusions Our results do not support an association between deficits in growth outcomes and either ADHD or psychostimulant treatment for ADHD. These findings extend the literature on this topic into young adulthood, and should assist clinicians and parents in formulating treatment plans for children with ADHD. PMID:20605163
Six of seven women were recalled after 1 year to remeasure their right- and left-side working disclusion times. Before the occlusal adjustment technique known as immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD), these patients presented lengthy mean disclusion times (> 1.0 second) and multiple chronic myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) symptoms. After ICAGD, these patients presented with short mean disclusion times (< 0.7 second) and no chronic MPDS symptoms were observed. At 1-year follow-up, there was no statistical difference between present measurements of disclusion time and those of 1 year earlier. In addition, all six posttreatment patients demonstrated no observed chronic MPDS symptoms. However, the symptom of nocturnal bruxism appeared to recur with some chronic regularity. These results suggest that, for this population, disclusion time was stable over the 1-year period of observation, and the short disclusion time appears to allow normal daily muscle function with significantly lessened appearance of chronic myofacial pain dysfunction symptoms. PMID:7932263
Pössl, J; Jürgensmeyer, S; Karlbauer, F; Wenz, C; Goldenberg, G
Forty-three patients with severe traumatic brain injury (n = 24), cerebrovascular diseases (n = 15), or other acquired brain damage (n = 4) were followed-up 7-8 years after neuropsychological rehabilitation including a vocational re-entry programme. Current vocational status and work history since rehabilitation were investigated by means of a structured interview. Before interview, the patients were classified on the basis of medical records into four groups: (A) patients with minor residual neuropsychological impairments, (B) patients with minor impairments but psychopathological symptoms, (C) patients with persistent neuropsychological impairments showing no psychopathological symptoms, and (D) patients with persistent impairments and psychopathological symptoms. For patients in group A, a good, and for those in group D, a poor long-term employment outcome was predicted, while no predictions were made for the intermediate groups. Of the 43 interviewed subjects, 16 (37%) reported a stable return to work at pre-morbid level and seven (16%) at a lower level. In eight patients (19%), persisting difficulties in maintaining work were documented. Twelve subjects (28%) had retired within a period of 2 years after work trial. The relationship between patient classification and long-term employment outcome was only weak. Four out of 11 patients with a good prognosis (group A) experienced vocational adjustment problems or had retired. Three out of 10 patients with a poor prognosis (group D) were able to continue successfully with their previous jobs. These cases are described in detail. The employment outcome of the intermediate groups was very heterogeneous. The results suggest that particular attention should be paid to the long-term consequences of a reduced capacity for work, even if minor in degree. The success of patients despite a poor prognosis illustrate unsolved problems in relation to the ecological validity of neuropsychological measures of executive dysfunctions. PMID:11201311
Background It is desirable that those at highest risk of cardiovascular disease should have priority for preventive measures, eg. treatment with prescription drugs to modify their risk. We wanted to investigate to what extent present use of cardiovascular medication (CVM) correlates with cardiovascular risk estimated by three different risk scores (Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK) ten years ago. Methods Prospective logitudinal observational study of 20 252 participants in The Hordaland Health Study born 1950-57, not using CVM in 1997-99. Prescription data obtained from The Norwegian Prescription Database in 2008. Results 26% of men and 22% of women aged 51-58 years had started to use some CVM during the previous decade. As a group, persons using CVM scored significantly higher on the risk algorithms Framingham, SCORE and NORRISK compared to those not treated. 16-20% of men and 20-22% of women with risk scores below the high-risk thresholds for the three risk scores were treated with CVM, while 60-65% of men and 25-45% of women with scores above the high-risk thresholds received no treatment. Among women using CVM, only 2.2% (NORRISK), 4.4% (SCORE) and 14.5% (Framingham) had risk scores above the high-risk values. Low education, poor self-reported general health, muscular pains, mental distress (in females only) and a family history of premature cardiovascular disease correlated with use of CVM. Elevated blood pressure was the single factor most strongly predictive of CVM treatment. Conclusion Prescription of CVM to middle-aged individuals by large seems to occur independently of estimated total cardiovascular risk, and this applies especially to females. PMID:21366925
W. A. Borstlap; P. J. W. Stoelinga; T. J. M. Hoppenreijs; M. A. van’t Hof
The aim of this study was to assess post-operative stability of bilateral sagittal split set-back osteotomies using two miniplates and clinical parameters including nerve function, TMJ function, occlusal relapse and patient satisfaction. The stability was measured on cephalometric radiographs and possible condylar alterations on orthopantomograms.This prospective study implied a 2-year follow-up on a group of 24 patients. The same protocol
Daniel T. Hickey; Ann C. H. Kindfield
A previously reported study in 24 secondary science classrooms showed the GenScope computer-supported learning environment to be at least as effective as conventional curricula at enhancing genetics reasoning ability. A follow-up study in three more classrooms yielded the dramatic reasoning gains we had been seeking, partly by addressing four unresolved issues from the prior research. First, addressing previous difficulties implementing
Selles, Robert R; Arnold, Elysse B; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed anxiety symptoms in youth 10-26 months following treatment completion. Compared to baseline, follow-up scores were associated with large effects for treatment. Relative to post-treatment, a small effect for return in symptoms was present and significantly fewer individuals were rated as responders at follow-up. Future studies should investigate factors associated with poor treatment maintenance and modifications or additions to treatment that may help maintain treatment gains. PMID:24923895
Toledano, Mireille B.; Smith, Rachel B.; Brook, James P.; Douglass, Margaret; Elliott, Paul
Large-scale prospective cohort studies are invaluable in epidemiology, but they are increasingly difficult and costly to establish and follow-up. More efficient methods for recruitment, data collection and follow-up are essential if such studies are to remain feasible with limited public and research funds. Here, we discuss how these challenges were addressed in the UK COSMOS cohort study where fixed budget and limited time frame necessitated new approaches to consent and recruitment between 2009-2012. Web-based e-consent and data collection should be considered in large scale observational studies, as they offer a streamlined experience which benefits both participants and researchers and save costs. Commercial providers of register and marketing data, smartphones, apps, email, social media, and the internet offer innovative possibilities for identifying, recruiting and following up cohorts. Using examples from UK COSMOS, this article sets out the dos and don’ts for today's cohort studies and provides a guide on how best to take advantage of new technologies and innovative methods to simplify logistics and minimise costs. Thus a more streamlined experience to the benefit of both research participants and researchers becomes achievable. PMID:26147611
Lawther, P J; Brooks, A G; Waller, R E
A cohort of medical students first seen in 1962 has now been examined for a third time. The prevalence of symptoms of cough, phlegm, and breathlessness among them has remained low, and smoking habits have been light in comparison with those of the general population. Results of the three successive sets of measurements of lung function indicate that, in general, optimum values were reached in the early 20s, with little further change up to age 29. There was some evidence of reduced ventilatory capacity in subjects with histories of acute chest illnesses. PMID:746504
Griffin, Beth Ann; McCaffery, Daniel F.; Morral, Andrew R.
Participants in longitudinal studies on the effects of drug treatment and criminal justice system interventions are at high risk for institutionalization (e.g., spending time in an environment where their freedom to use drugs, commit crimes, or engage in risky behavior may be circumscribed). Methods used for estimating treatment effects in the presence of institutionalization during follow-up can be highly sensitive to assumptions that are unlikely to be met in applications and thus likely to yield misleading inferences. In this paper, we consider the use of principal stratification to control for institutionalization at follow-up. Principal stratification has been suggested for similar problems where outcomes are unobservable for samples of study participants because of dropout, death, or other forms of censoring. The method identifies principal strata within which causal effects are well defined and potentially estimable. We extend the method of principal stratification to model institutionalization at follow-up and estimate the effect of residential substance abuse treatment versus outpatient services in a large scale study of adolescent substance abuse treatment programs. Additionally, we discuss practical issues in applying the principal stratification model to data. We show via simulation studies that the model can only recover true effects provided the data meet strenuous demands and that there must be caution taken when implementing principal stratification as a technique to control for post-treatment confounders such as institutionalization. PMID:19779599
Michael J. Tullis; R. Eugene Zierler; David J. Glickerman; Robert O. Bergelin; Kim Cantwell-Gab; D. Eugene Strandness
Purpose: The short and long-term anatomic results of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) in the treatment of atherosclerotic renovascular disease have been poorly documented because of a lack of follow-up arteriography. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomic results of PTRA with serial duplex examinations.Methods: The records of 41 patients who underwent 52 primary PTRA procedures and
Jonathan S. Steinberg; Ara Sadaniantz; Jack Kron; Andrew Krahn; D. Marty Denny; James Daubert; W. Barton Campbell; Edward Havranek; Katherine Murray; Brian Olshansky; Gearoid O'Neill; Magdi Sami; Stanley Schmidt; Randle Storm; Miguel Zabalgoitia; John Miller; Mary Chandler; Elaine M. Nasco; H. Leon Greene
Background—Expectations that reestablishing and maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation might improve survival were disproved in the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. This report describes the cause-specific modes of death in the AFFIRM treatment groups. Methods and Results—All deaths in patients enrolled in AFFIRM underwent blinded review by the AFFIRM Events Committee, and a
M. Rigatelli; L. Casolari; I. Massari; S. Ferrari
Background: An appropriate follow-up is considered essential in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting, but it is often neglected. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the psychiatric consultation process in the general hospital, by investigating what occurred to patients 3–5 months after discharge. Methods: We used a three-part questionnaire: (1) the results of the consultation process; (2) a telephone interview with patients,
Kai Gao; Shiyi Chen; Lide Wang; Weiguo Zhang; Yifan Kang; Qirong Dong; Haibin Zhou; Linan Li
Purpose: The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction by use of the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) artificial ligament (Surgical Implants and Devices, Arc-sur-Tille, France) with 3- to 5-year follow-up. Methods: From August 2004 to July 2006, 159 patients with ACL rupture underwent arthroscopic ACL recon- struction with LARS
MICHAEL WEHMEYER; MICHELLE SCHWARTZ
There is increased emphasis on self -determination as an important outcome for youth with disabilities if they are to achieve positive adult outcomes after they leave school. However, the causal link between self-determination and positive adult outcomes has remained untested. The Arc conducted a follow-up study of students with mental retardation or learning disabilities for whom data regarding self-determination had
John K. Triantafillidis; Anastasios Emmanouilidis; Orestis Manousos; Dimitrios Nicolakis; Manolis Kogevinas
The aim of this prospective study was to elucidate the clinical features and natural history of Crohn’s disease in Greece. One hundred and fifty-five Greek patients with definite diagnosis of Crohn’s disease were followed-up for a mean period of 9.7 years and evaluated for clinical patterns and course of illness. The male\\/female ratio was 1.58:1. The peak incidence of the
A. Sasaki; M. Uehara; N. Horiuchi; K. Hasagawa
Summary A systematic 20-year follow-up study of 1,221 diabetic patients was carried out in Osaka, Japan. The mean annual mortality rates were 2.55% for men and 1.64% for women. The ratios of observed to expected numbers of deaths were 1.50 for men and 1.39 for women, indicating an excess mortality for diabetic patients of both sexes, and higher mortality in men
Jouko Karjalainen; Heikki Tikkanen; Miika Hernelahti; Urho M Kujala
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle consists of type-I (slow-twitch) and type-II (fast-twitch) fibers, with proportions highly variable between individuals and mostly determined by genetic factors. Cross-sectional studies have associated low percentage of type-I fibers (type-I%) with many cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We investigated whether baseline type-I% predicts left ventricular (LV) structure and function at 19-year follow-up, and if so, which are the
Tim Bullman; Han Kang
PURPOSE: To determine if there is an increased risk of any cause specific mortality associated with low level mustard gas exposure among World War II Navy veterans.METHODS: A retrospective mortality follow-up study was conducted comparing the mortality of World War II Navy veterans who received low-level non-lethal exposures of mustard gas to that of World War II Navy veterans who
DiMaria-Ghalili, Rose Ann
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which late postoperative health outcomes vary as a function of change in body mass index (BMI) in per-sons > or = 65 years of age undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The mean age of the 90 persons in the original sample was 72.27 (+/-4.85) years. At follow-up x = 18.73, s = 2.56 months postsurgery), 90% (n = 79 alive, n = 2 deceased, proxy completed interview) were contacted; 73% (n = 59)completed the telephone interview; and 9% (n = 8) were alive but lost to follow-up. BMI (kg/m(2)) was calculated from self-reported weight at follow-up. Out-comes included the Physical Component Summary(PCS) scale of the SF-36 Health Survey and readmission data. The (_)x (s) for BMI at preoperative, postoperative, postdischarge, and follow-up were 28.1 (4.9) kg/m(2), 28.76 (4.9) kg/m(2), 27.11 (4.8) kg/m(2), and 27.95(4.7) kg/m(2), respectively. BMI changed over time, P <0.05. Those who were readmitted lost more weight between preoperative and postdischarge than those who were not readmitted ((_)f BMI = -2.26 vs. (_)x BMI =-1.35), t = 2.17, df = 27.05, P = 0.04. Those who lost less weight between preoperative and postdischarge were less likely to be readmitted, X2 = 5.755 (1), P =0.02, with 25% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The (_)x(s(x)(-)) for PCS at preoperative, postdischarge, and follow-up were 36.93 (1.62), 35.72 (1.27), and 42.26 (1.45), respectively, reflecting change over time, F =11.43 (2), P < 0.001. At follow-up, older elective CABG patients do not appear to regain weight lost between preoperative and postdischarge; however,self-reported physical health is improved. Also, initial weight loss is related to readmissions. PMID:15230244
Seow, Wei Jie; Pan, Wen-Chi; Kile, Molly L.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Lin, Xihong
Background: Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with skin lesions. However, it is not known whether reducing arsenic exposure will improve skin lesions. Objective: We evaluated the association between reduced arsenic exposures and skin lesion recovery over time. Methods: A follow-up study of 550 individuals was conducted in 2009–2011 on a baseline population of skin lesion cases (n = 900) previously enrolled in Bangladesh in 2001–2003. Arsenic in drinking water and toenails, and skin lesion status and severity were ascertained at baseline and follow-up. We used logistic regression and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to evaluate the association between log10-transformed arsenic exposure and skin lesion persistence and severity. Results: During the study period, water arsenic concentrations decreased in this population by 41% overall, and 65 individuals who had skin lesions at baseline had no identifiable lesions at follow-up. In the adjusted models, every log10 decrease in water arsenic and toenail arsenic was associated with 22% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.85, 1.78] and 4.5 times (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.94, 11.1) relative increase in skin lesion recovery, respectively. In addition, lower baseline arsenic levels were significantly associated with increased odds of recovery. A log10 decrease in toenail arsenic from baseline to follow-up was also significantly associated with reduced skin lesion severity in cases over time (mean score change of –5.22 units; 95% CI: –8.61, –1.82). Conclusions: Reducing arsenic exposure increased the odds that an individual with skin lesions would recover or show less severe lesions within 10 years. Reducing arsenic exposure must remain a public health priority in Bangladesh and in other regions affected by arsenic-contaminated water. PMID:23060367
Chelala, Elias; Rami, Hala El; Dirani, Ali; Fadlallah, Ali; Fakhoury, Omar; Warrak, Elias
Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the visual outcome of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in patients with mild to moderate stable keratoconus and to assess the risk of progression of the disease after the excimer laser procedure. Methods In this prospective study, carried out at the Clemenceau Medical Center, an affiliate of Johns Hopkins International, in Beirut, Lebanon, 119 eyes from 72 patients with grade 1–2 keratoconus (Amsler–Krumeich classification) underwent PRK. Forty-seven patients had both eyes treated and 25 patients had one eye treated. The procedure was done using the Wavelight Eye Q Excimer laser. Uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, corneal topography, and pachymetry were assessed before the procedure and 3, 6, 12, 36, and 60 months after the procedure. Results Mean uncorrected visual acuity showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) at one, 3, and 5 years follow-up. One hundred and seventeen eyes (98.3%) showed no progression while two eyes (1.7%) showed progression of the disease at 5 years follow-up, as documented by corneal topography and pachymetry. These two eyes were treated with corneal collagen crosslinking. Conclusion PRK in mild to moderate keratoconus is a safe and effective procedure for improving uncorrected vision in patients with mild refractive errors. However, close follow-up of patients is needed to detect any progression of the disease. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the overall effect of this procedure on progression of the disease. PMID:24109172
Lacey, Rosie J.; Jordan, Kelvin P.; Croft, Peter R.
Attrition is a potential source of bias in cohort studies. Although attrition may be inevitable in cohort studies of older people, there is little empirical evidence as to whether bias due to such attrition is also inevitable. Anonymised primary care data, routinely collected in clinical practice and independent of any cohort research study, represents an ideal unselected comparison dataset with which to compare primary care data from consenting responders to a cohort study. Our objective was to use this method as a novel means to assess if (i) responders at follow-up stages in a cohort study remain representative of responders at baseline and (ii) attrition biases estimates of longitudinal associations. We compared primary care consultation morbidities and prescription prevalences among circa 32,000 patients aged 50+ who contribute to an anonymised general practice database (Consultations in Primary Care Archive (CiPCA)) with those from patients aged 50+ in the North Staffordshire Osteoarthritis Project (NorStOP) cohort, United Kingdom (2002–2008; n?=?16,159). 8,197 (51%) persons responded to the NorStOP baseline survey and consented to medical record review. 5,121 and 3,311 responded at 3- and 6-year follow-ups. Differences in consulting prevalence of non-musculoskeletal morbidities between NorStOP responders and CiPCA comparison population did not increase over the two follow-up points except for ischaemic heart disease. Differences observed at baseline for osteoarthritis-related consultations were generally unchanged at the two follow-ups (standardised prevalence ratios for osteoarthritis (1.09–1.13) and joint pain (1.12–1.23)). Age and gender adjusted associations between baseline consultation for chronic morbidity and future new osteoarthritis and related consultations were similar in CiPCA (adjusted Hazard Ratio: 1.40; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.34,1.47) and NorStOP 6-year responders (1.32; 1.15,1.51). There was little evidence that responders at follow-ups represented any further selection bias to that present at baseline. Attrition in cohort studies of older people does not inevitably indicate bias. PMID:24386313
...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...long-term health effects associated with oil spill clean-up activities and...
...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...Long-Term Follow-Up Study for Oil Spill Clean-Up Workers and Volunteers...long-term health effects associated with oil spill clean-up activities and...
Zhang, Xin; Sahlberg, Bo; Wieslander, Gunilla; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn; Norback, Dan
There are few longitudinal studies on health effects of dampness and moulds in workplace buildings. We studied associations between dampness and indoor moulds in workplace buildings and selected biomarkers as well as incidence and remission of sick building syndrome (SBS). The study was based on a ten-year prospective study (1992-2002) in a random sample of adults (N=429) from the Uppsala part of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). The 10-year incidence (onset) of general, mucosal, dermal symptoms and any symptom improved when away from the workplace (work-related symptoms) was 7.2%, 11.6%, 6.4% and 9.4% respectively. The 10-year remission of general, mucosal, dermal symptoms and work-related symptoms was 71.4%, 57.1%, 70.4% and 72.2% respectively. Signs of dampness in the floor construction in any workplace building during follow up (cumulative exposure) was associated with incidence of mucosal symptoms (OR=2.43). Cumulative exposure to moldy odor was associated with incidence of work-related symptoms (OR=2.69). Cumulative exposure to dampness or moulds was associated with decreased remission of work-related symptoms (OR=0.20 for water leakage, OR=0.17 for floor dampness, and OR=0.17 for visible indoor mould growth). Working in a building repaired because of dampness (repaired building) or mould was associated with decreased remission of work-related symptoms (OR=0.32). Any dampness or moulds at baseline in the workplace building was associated with increased bronchial responsiveness (BR) and higher levels of Eosinphilic Cationic Protein (ECP) in serum and Eosinophilic counts in blood at baseline. Cumulative exposure to dampness and moulds, and work in a repaired building, was associated with increased BR at follow-up. In general, dampness and moulds in the workplace building is associated with increased incidence and decreased remission of SBS, as well as increased bronchial responsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:22634552
Kivling-Bodén, G; Sundbom, E
Posttraumatic symptoms were assessed by means of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire among 27 severely traumatized refugees from the former Yugoslavia in psychiatric treatment and then 3 years later, after an average of 5.5 years in Sweden. At follow-up the subjects also answered a questionnaire about their life situations. No significant change in average symptom level had taken place at follow-up. Seventeen subjects met the DSM IV criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at both times. However, five subjects who met the PTSD criteria in the first study did not at follow-up, and the opposite was true for another five subjects. Fifteen subjects reported contact with psychiatric care during the past year. Unemployment and dependence on social welfare were high at follow-up. The unemployment rate of 32% was almost six times greater than that for the regular Swedish labor force but comparable to that of the whole Bosnian labor force in Sweden. Social contacts with the majority population were as common as with compatriots, but two-thirds of the subjects expressed a wish for more social contacts outside the family. Positive factors in the subjects' life situations were the housing situation and the fact that most subjects had at least reasonable knowledge of the majority language. However, a minority of the group still had no formal competence in Swedish, with negative consequences for labor market integration and social contact with Swedes. Two-thirds of the group had made no definite decision to stay in Sweden. PMID:11839133
Scheel, A K; Hermann, K?G A; Ohrndorf, S; Werner, C; Schirmer, C; Detert, J; Bollow, M; Hamm, B; Müller, G A; Burmester, G R; Backhaus, M
Objective To perform a prospective long term follow up study comparing conventional radiography (CR), ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the detection of bone erosions and synovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) finger joints. Methods The metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints II–V (128 joints) of the clinically dominant hand of 16 patients with RA were included. Follow up joint by joint comparisons for erosions and synovitis were made. Results At baseline, CR detected erosions in 5/128 (4%) of all joints, US in 12/128 (9%), and MRI in 34/128 (27%). Seven years later, an increase of joints with erosions was found with CR (26%), US (49%) (p<0.001 each), and MRI (32%, NS). In contrast, joint swelling and tenderness assessed by clinical examination were decreased at follow up (p?=?0.2, p<0.001). A significant reduction in synovitis with US and MRI (p<0.001 each) was seen. In CR, 12 patients did not have any erosions at baseline, while in 10/12 patients erosions were detected in 25/96 (26%) joints after 7?years. US initially detected erosions in 9 joints, of which two of these joints with erosions were seen by CR at follow up. MRI initially found 34 erosions, of which 14 (41%) were then detected by CR. Conclusion After 7?years, an increase of bone erosions was detected by all imaging modalities. In contrast, clinical improvement and regression of synovitis were seen only with US and MRI. More than one third of erosions previously detected by MRI were seen by CR 7?years later. PMID:16192290
Mapp, C.E.; Corona, P.C.; De Marzo, N.; Fabbri, L.
Thirty-five subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) exposure were examined. All the subjects were studied with inhalation challenges with TDI and with methacholine. TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to low levels of TDI. Airway responsiveness to methacholine was in the range of asthmatic patients at the time of diagnosis. After an average follow-up interval of 10 months, all the subjects were re-examined. Of the 35 subjects examined, 30 subjects (85.7%) left the workplace, and 5 remained in the same job. Twenty-seven subjects (77.1%) continued to have asthmatic attacks requiring medication for relief of symptoms. At follow-up examination, TDI asthma was documented by a positive inhalation challenge to TDI in 27 subjects. Of these 27 TDI reactors, 22 subjects were removed from occupational exposure to TDI. The TDI reactors had persistent respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. At follow-up visit, 8 subjects (22.9%) lost sensitization to TDI; 5 subjects (62.5%) in this group had also normal airway responsiveness to methacholine after removal from exposure. Only 1 subject among the TDI nonreactors complained of mild respiratory symptoms. At diagnosis, there were no significant differences between subjects who recovered and those who did not with regard to age, smoking habits, atopy, duration of exposure to isocyanates, duration of symptoms, baseline FEV1 (% pred), and baseline airway responsiveness to methacholine.
Backhaus, M; Burmester, G; Sandrock, D; Loreck, D; Hess, D; Scholz, A; Blind, S; Hamm, B; Bollow, M
Objective: To carry out a prospective two year follow up study comparing conventional radiography, three-phase bone scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), and three dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with precontrast and dynamic postcontrast examination in detecting early arthritis. The aim of the follow up study was to monitor the course of erosions during treatment with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs by different modalities and to determine whether the radiographically occult changes like erosive bone lesions of the finger joints detected by MRI and US in the initial study would show up on conventional radiographs two years later. Additionally, to study the course of soft tissue lesions depicted in the initial study in comparison with the clinical findings. Methods: The metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints (14 joints) of the clinically more severely affected hand (soft tissue swelling and joint tenderness) as determined in the initial study of 49 patients with various forms of arthritis were examined twice. The patients had initially been divided into two groups. The follow up group I included 28 subjects (392 joints) without radiographic signs of destructive arthritis (Larsen grades 0–1) of the investigated hand and wrist, and group II (control group) included 21 patients (294 joints) with radiographs showing erosions (Larsen grade 2) of the investigated hand or wrist, or both, at the initial examination. Results: (1) Radiography at the two year follow up detected only two erosions (two patients) in group I and 10 (nine patients) additional erosions in group II. Initial MRI had already detected both erosions in group I and seven (seven patients) of the 10 erosions in group II. Initial US had depicted one erosion in group I and four of the 10 erosions in group II. (2) In contrast with conventional radiography, 3D MRI and US demonstrated an increase in erosions in comparison with the initial investigation. (3) The abnormal findings detected by scintigraphy were decreased at the two year follow up. (4) Both groups showed a marked clinical improvement of synovitis and tenosynovitis, as also shown by MRI and US. (5) There was a striking discrepancy between the decrease in the soft tissue lesions as demonstrated by clinical findings, MRI, and US, and the significant increase in erosive bone lesions, which were primarily evident at MRI and US. Conclusions: Despite clinical improvement and a regression of inflammatory soft tissue lesions, erosive bone lesions were increased at the two year follow up, which were more pronounced with 3D MRI and less pronounced with US. The results of our study suggest that owing to the inadequate depiction of erosions and soft tissue lesions, conventional radiography alone has limitations in the intermediate term follow up of treatment. US has a high sensitivity for depicting inflammatory soft tissue lesions, but dynamic 3D MRI is more sensitive in differentiating minute erosions. PMID:12228160
Iran was one of the major contributors to the international student population in the United States. For some years, the number of Iranian students studied in America mounted such that there were more Iranians studying at colleges and universities in the United States than from any other foreign country. This study examined the satisfaction of…
Summary Background In the 2·8 years of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) randomised clinical trial, diabetes incidence in high-risk adults was reduced by 58% with intensive lifestyle intervention and by 31% with metformin, compared with placebo. We investigated the persistence of these effects in the long term. Methods All active DPP participants were eligible for continued follow-up. 2766 of 3150 (88%) enrolled for a median additional follow-up of 5·7 years (IQR 5·5–5·8). 910 participants were from the lifestyle, 924 from the metformin, and 932 were from the original placebo groups. On the basis of the benefits from the intensive lifestyle intervention in the DPP, all three groups were offered group-implemented lifestyle intervention. Metformin treatment was continued in the original metformin group (850 mg twice daily as tolerated), with participants unmasked to assignment, and the original lifestyle intervention group was offered additional lifestyle support. The primary outcome was development of diabetes according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00038727. Findings During the 10·0-year (IQR 9·0–10·5) follow-up since randomisation to DPP, the original lifestyle group lost, then partly regained weight. The modest weight loss with metformin was maintained. Diabetes incidence rates during the DPP were 4·8 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI 4·1–5·7) in the intensive lifestyle intervention group, 7·8 (6·8–8·8) in the metformin group, and 11·0 (9·8–12·3) in the placebo group. Diabetes incidence rates in this follow-up study were similar between treatment groups: 5·9 per 100 person-years (5·1–6·8) for lifestyle, 4·9 (4·2–5·7) for metformin, and 5·6 (4·8–6·5) for placebo. Diabetes incidence in the 10 years since DPP randomisation was reduced by 34% (24–42) in the lifestyle group and 18% (7–28) in the metformin group compared with placebo. Interpretation During follow-up after DPP, incidences in the former placebo and metformin groups fell to equal those in the former lifestyle group, but the cumulative incidence of diabetes remained lowest in the lifestyle group. Prevention or delay of diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin can persist for at least 10 years. Funding National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK). PMID:19878986
Gummesson, Christina; Isacsson, Sven-Olof; Isacsson, Agneta H; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ektor-Andersen, John; Östergren, Per-Olof; Hanson, Bertil
Background The course of pain at a specific region such as the lower back has previously been shown as well as for generalized pain. However we have not found any report on the course of pain from various different specific regions. The aim of this investigation was to study the one-year transition of reported pain in different body locations. Methods From a general population 14555 men and women, 46–68 years, responded to an extensive health questionnaire including the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The population represented 27% of the total population within the age group in Malmö, Sweden. At the one year follow-up 12607 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 87%. The one year prevalence of long-lasting pain and the pattern of pain reporting from different regions were studied for men and women. Results The one-year prevalence of long-lasting neck pain was 14% (95% CI 13–15) among men and 25% (95% CI 24–26) among women at baseline and 15% (95% CI 14–16) for the men and 23% (95% CI 22–24) for the women at follow-up. Of those reporting neck pain "all the time" at baseline, 48% of the men and 54% of the women also reported neck pain "all the time" at the one-year follow-up. At the follow-up neck pain was reported as present "often" by 43% of the men and 47% of the women who reported neck pain "often" at baseline. Similar transition pattern were found for neck, shoulders, elbow/wrist/hand and lower back symptoms, as well as consistent prevalence rates. Conclusion The one-year transition pattern of reported pain was similar in different body regions and among men and women. Furthermore the prevalence rates of long-lasting pain in the population were consistent at baseline and the follow-up. The findings of similar transition patterns support the interpretation of long-lasting pain as a generalized phenomenon rather than attributed to specific exposure. This may have implications for future pain research. PMID:16504100
Oster-Aaland, Laura; Sellnow, Timothy; Nelson, Paul; Pearson, Judy
While service learning in communication appears to be gaining in acceptance, few previous empirical studies examine changes in its availability and implementation over time. The present study compared a 1995 (Sellnow & Oster, 1997) and a 2001 survey of department chairs to reveal how service learning fared in communication departments. The survey…
Shaw, Shana M.; Walls, Stephen M.; Dacy, Breana Sylvester; Levin, Joel R.; Robinson, Daniel H.
Robinson, Levin, Thomas, Pituch, and Vaughn (2007) examined 74 articles reporting nonintervention studies (i.e., studies with no researcher-manipulated variables) that appeared in 5 educational journals in 1994. Of these articles, 22 contained prescriptive statements (e.g., if teachers or students did X, then student outcome Y would result). In…
The purpose of the study was to explore students' alternative conceptions and their associative thinking regarding internal transport in plants through administration of a refined diagnostic test. Questions of associative thinking and explanation were added to form a third tier of the previous two-tier test. The study found three terms related to…
Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty; Malope, Nomxolisi
This study presents data that extend an earlier analysis of predictors of academic performance from one to three years. None of the adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress and perceived academic overload) could predict success at university at the end of three years of study.…
Temme, Lloyd V.
The purpose of this report is to document and describe the origin, procedures, and progress to date of the longitudinal study of students from James Coleman's "The Adolescent Society" study. The organization of this report follows chronologically the sequence of events that were initiated by Coleman. A historical account of Coleman's early work is…
Girija Kaimal; Annie G. Steinberg; Sara Ennis; Sue Moyer Harasink; Rachel Ewing; Yuelin Li
Few studies examine whether and how parental attitudes towards genetic testing change over time. In this study we interviewed\\u000a parents of 14 children with newly identified hearing loss at two time points: after referral to genetics and 1 year later.\\u000a Qualitative analyses of parental narratives indicate that parental attitudes did not change significantly over this time.\\u000a Parents who perceived genetic testing
Jennifer B. Massie; Scott T. Ball; Michael E. Amiel; Albert C. Chen; Won C. Bae; Robert L. Sah; David Amiel
Background: Osteochondral transfer procedures are increasingly used to resurface full-thickness articular cartilage defects. There has not been long-term assessment\\/description of autogenous donor and recipient sites.Hypothesis: The healing process occurs at the donor\\/host cartilage and bone interfaces.Study Design: Histologic, biochemical, and biomechanical changes were assessed 6 months after an osteochondral transfer in a goat model.Methods: Eight adult goats were studied. In
Oak Ridge Associated Universities
Through sponsorship of science education programs for undergraduates and graduates, such as research participation programs and fellowships, the Department of Energy (DOE) encouraged the development of adequate numbers of qualified science and engineering (S&E) personnel to meet its current and future research and development (R&D) needs. This retrospective study summarizes impacts of selected programs on these participants. The summary data are from follow-up studies conducted from 1953 through 2003 by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and its predecessor, the Oak Ridge Institute for Nuclear Studies (ORINS).
Kuek, Angeline; Utpala, Ranjani; Lee, Huei Yen
INTRODUCTION The prevalence rate of anorexia nervosa is lower in Asia than in the West, although studies have found that it is on the rise in Asia. This study aims to present the clinical profile of patients presenting with anorexia nervosa in Singapore. METHODS The present study used archival data from the Eating Disorder Programme registry of the Department of Psychiatry, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Patient records from 2003 to 2010 were collected and analysed. Presenting characteristics of the patients were also compared with those of another local study conducted eight years earlier. RESULTS From 2003 to 2010, a total of 271 patients were diagnosed with anorexia nervosa by a psychiatrist in our hospital. Of these, 251 (92.6%) were female and 238 (87.8%) were Chinese. Our patients had a lower mean weight (36.83 kg, p < 0.001) and a lower mean body mass index (BMI) (14.43 kg/m2, p < 0.001) than patients from the previous local study. Almost half of all our patients (n = 135, 49.8%) were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric comorbidity and 50 (18.5%) had a history of self-harm. CONCLUSION The presenting characteristics of our study cohort were similar to those of the Western population. However, the lower presenting weight and BMI in our cohort indicates that cases seen today are more severe than those seen eight years ago. Therefore, it is important to put in place prevention programmes to help adolescents cultivate a healthy body image as well as early intervention programmes to improve detection rates and treatment outcomes.
Kaj Thuresson; Åke Bergman; Klaus Rothenbacher; Thomas Herrmann; Sverker Sjölin; Lars Hagmar; Olaf Päpke; Kristina Jakobsson
Workers at an electronics recycling plant have previously been shown to have elevated serum levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) compared to referents without occupational PBDE exposure. Subsequent structural changes and industrial hygiene measures at the plant were applied to improve the work environment. The present study aims to assess the impact of these work environment changes on the occupational
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari
Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…
Fitzpatrick, Jody L.; Mertens, Donna M.
This report presents the results of followup studies concerning participants' attitudes and reactions to two courses delivered during the experimental phase of the Appalachian Education Satellite Project (AESP). Graduate level teacher training was the objective of the courses, entitled Diagnostic and Prescriptive Reading Instruction and Career…
D. B. Jr. Hunsaker; G. K. Eddlemon; R. L. Miller; J. W. Webb
This study was implemented to examine and characterize the actual environmental impacts of three fuel ethanol plants constructed under the US Department of Energy, Office of Alcohol Fuels Loan Guarantee Program, and to compare actual impacts with those predicted about six years ago in environmental assessments (EAs) prepared for these facilities. The objective of the program, established under the Energy
Grace L. Lu-Yao; Arnold L. Potosky; Peter C. Albertsen; John H. Wasson; Michael J. Barry; John E. Wennberg
Background: Radical prostatectomy is one of the most com- monly used curative procedures for the treatment of local- ized prostate cancer. The probability that a patient will undergo additional cancer therapy after this procedure is largely unknown. Purpose: The objective was to determine the likelihood of additional cancer therapy after radical prostatectomy. Methods: Data for this study were derived from
Prasher, V.; Gomez, G.
Background: The natural history of thyroid function in adults with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. Method: This study investigated annual thyroid function tests in 200 adults with DS over a 10-year period. Results: Transient and persistent thyroid dysfunction was common. The 5- and 10-year incidence of definite hypothyroidism was 0.9%-1.64% and…
Shulman, Shmuel; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Levran, Elisheva; Anbar, Shmuel
This study examined the predictors of longevity among 40 late adolescent romantic couples (mean age males=17.71 years; mean age females=17.18 years). Subjects were given a revealed differences task where they were asked to solve their disagreements. The joint task was recorded, transcribed and analysed by two raters. At 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24…
Hoffman, Margaret G.
In 1989, a study was conducted at Orange County Community College to measure the effectiveness of business training provided by the college's Institute for Business, Industry, and Government (IBIG). Between September 1988 and February 1989, IBIG offered 27 business training programs and 6 customized firm-specific programs. In May 1989, 80…
Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.
In March 1994, a study was conducted to determine the perspectives of Illinois community college graduates regarding their preparation for employment, their continuing education goals, and their satisfaction with their major and college services. A total of 6,245 occupational program graduates, including graduates of agriculture; conservation and…
Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward
The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…
Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.
This report provides information from graduates of selected occupational programs regarding the effectiveness of their Illinois community college experience. The study surveyed a pool of 2,190 occupational program graduates, which yielded a usable response rate of 58.6%. The majority of graduate respondents (64.5%) came from programs in four…
Woodard, Teresa; Burkett, Sexton
This article presents a study that compared the success rates of students in Arithmetic (MTH 02), Algebra I (MTH 03), and Algebra II (MTH 03) when they were offered at Southwest Virginia Community College (SWCC) for three credits versus five credits. The authors' findings showed no significant differences in the success rates of students who were…
Hobert, Thomas Milton
The purpose of the study is to determine student views of the influence of the Eco Education Urban Stewards program's impact on their involvement in community environmental initiatives. Eco Education is a non-profit organization in St. Paul that facilitates an urban, environmental, year-long science curriculum delivered in middle schools in…
David Scott; Fern K. Willits
The relationship between adolescent and adult leisure activities was assessed by utilizing longitudinal data from 1298 subjects studied during their high school years and again when they were in their early fifties. For the sample members, the greater the involvement in a specific type of activity during adolescence, the more frequent the participation in the same type of activity at
Broadbooks, Wendy J.
This paper describes the nature and scope of evaluation services provided within the training division of Arthur Andersen & Company, and highlights some of the evaluation results. The cycle of assessment began with a needs assessment study at the curriculum level. Curriculum planning was undertaken for first-year trainees in the Tax Division. A…
Andre Sourander; Leila Helstelä; Hans Helenius; Jorma Piha
Objective: To examine factors associated with bullying and victimization from age 8 to 16.Method: An 8-year longitudinal study included questions about bullying and victimization at age 8 and 16. Children were evaluated with Rutter scales by parents and teachers and with the Child Depression Inventory filled in by the children at age 8. When the children were at the age
Hilde Thørnquist; Gaute Sandhei Jacobsen; Lauritz Bredrup Dahl; Gudmund Marhaug
Fifteen patients with coeliac disease diagnosed in infancy and early childhood between 1959 and 1971 were included in the study. The primary diagnosis was made on the basis of typical symptoms and signs, stool examination for fat, xylose test and clinical and laboratory improvement after introduction of gluten-free diet. All patients were challenged with gluten for a minimum of 4
Rogan, Laura Lehtinen; Hartman, Lenore Dumas
The study looked at the adult attainments of 91 children with learning disabilities who received remedial education in a private school for an average of 3 years between the ages 6 and 13. Methodology included questionnaires, interviews, and psychological testing. Approximately 60% were employed, 16% were in college. Major occupations were…
Graham, Andrew; Reid, Greg
Examined changes in physical fitness of middle-aged adults with mental retardation over 13 years. The subjects had participated in a physical fitness study in 1983. They were re-evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Fitness levels declined over the 13 years and were low…
Magoun, Dale; Eaton, Virginia; Owens, Charlotte
The 2-year NSF (National Science Foundation)-funded Girls Research Opportunities in Computing (Girls R.O.C.) project conducted an intense 3-week residential program to encourage and motivate seventh and eighth grade female students to pursue the study of computer science with emphasis on Information Technology (IT). Forty-eight girls were selected…
Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2012
This report provides the results of analysis of more than 40,000 students who received baccalaureate degrees from the public baccalaureate institutions in Washington during the 2005-06 and 2006-07 academic years. The purpose of this study was to follow students after graduation to determine the extent to which degree recipients were able to secure…
Sarkamo, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Soinila, Seppo; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M.; Laine, Matti; Hietanen, Marja
Recent evidence on amusia suggests that our ability to perceive music might be based on the same neural resources that underlie other higher cognitive functions, such as speech perception and spatial processing. We studied the neural correlates of acquired amusia by performing extensive neuropsychological assessments on 53 stroke patients with a…
Fastame, Maria Chiara; Callai, Daniela
The current study was primarily aimed at verifying the effect of a combined computer-assisted and pencil-and-paper training that was developed to empower visuo-spatial abilities in primary school pupils. One hundred and twenty third grade (mean average: eight years old) and fourth grade (mean age: nine years old) students attending several Italian…
Kahraman, Hasan; Sucakli, Mustafa Haki; Kilic, Talat; Celik, Mustafa; Koksal, Nurhan; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin
Background Occupational exposure to cotton dust causes several diseases affecting the lungs, but only limited information is available on effects of long-term exposure. In this study, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal changes in selected parameters of pulmonary function in textile workers. Material/Methods This prospective cohort study began with 196 textile workers in 2006 and was completed in 2011 with 49 workers. We used standardized tests for pulmonary function on participants on the first day of the workweek in June of 2006 and 2011. Environmental samples of cotton dust were gathered with a vertical elutriator. Loss of pulmonary function was assessed based on gender and smoking status. Results The mean number of years participants worked in the textile factory was 7.61±1.83 years, and the mean age was 35.3+5.8 years. The annual FEV1 loss of all workers was 53.2 ml, giving a ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 of 1.4%. Pulmonary function parameters of all participants in 2011 were significantly lower than those in 2006 (for all, p<0.05). In both surveys, pulmonary function in current smokers was lower, but this difference was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions This study provides the first data on pulmonary functional loss in Turkish textile workers and supports the findings of other cohort studies that workers with long-term exposure to cotton dust may lose some pulmonary function. The ratio of annual FEV1 loss to baseline FEV1 appears to be a more accurate and comparable method than annual FEV1 loss for evaluating pulmonary functional loss. PMID:24346118
JOSEPH BIEDERMAN; MICHAEL C. MONUTEAUX; ERIC MICK; THOMAS SPENCER; TIMOTHY E. WILENS; JULIE M. SILVA; LINDSEY E. SNYDER; STEPHEN V. FARAONE
Background. Our objective was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of psychopathology in a sample of youth with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) through young adult- hood using contemporaneous diagnostic and analytic techniques. Method. We conducted a case-control, 10-year prospective study of ADHD youth. At baseline, we assessed consecutively referred male, Caucasian children with (n=140) and without (n=120) DSM-
J. J. Ardesch; H. P. J. Buschman; L. J. J. C. Wagener-Schimmel; H. E. van der Aa; G. Hageman
Introduction\\u000aVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is thought to have a cumulative effect in time on seizure frequency reduction. There also might be other variables than reduction of seizure frequency in order to determine VNS efficacy. In this study we describe the long-term outcome of the first group of vagus nerve stimulation patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy at the Medisch Spectrum Twente,
C Nagata; N Takatsuka; N Kawakami; H Shimizu
Objective: The estrogenicity of dietary soy may increase the risk of diseases, such as uterine leiomyoma and endometriosis, which originate from uterine tissue and are predominant indications for hysterectomy. We sought to determine whether soy product intake is associated with an increased risk of premenopausal hysterectomy.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Takayama City, Gifu, Japan.Subjects: A cohort of 1172 female residents randomly
Gay, J. D. L.
Of 136 patients studied at an average of 10.6 years after a distal radial fracture, 37.6% of the 109 women and 7.4% of the 27 men suffered a subsequent fracture. “Osteoporosis-related” fractures accounted for the majority of subsequent fractures sustained by the women. The prognostic significance of distal radial fracture in the adult female is discussed. PMID:4842567
Moshe Tishler; Ofer Levy; Mirit Amit-Vazina
The objective of this study is to assess the long-term outcome and natural history of a cohort of patients with whiplash injury\\u000a regarding the development of fibromyalgia. Of the 153 patients who were admitted to the emergency room after whiplash injury\\u000a in 2004, 126 were reassessed 3 years later. Also, 33 of 53 patients from the original control group of hospitalized
SKEELS, HAROLD M.
TO STUDY EFFECTS OF EARLY INTERVENTION ON CHILDREN, AN EXPERIMENTAL GROUP OF 13 SUBJECTS (AGED 7 TO 30 MONTHS, IQ 35 TO 89) WAS TRANSFERRED FROM AN ORPHANAGE TO THE INTENSE STIMULATION OF A MOTHER SURROGATE AT AN INSTITUTION FOR THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED. A CONTRAST GROUP OF 12 SUBJECTS (AGED 11.9 TO 21.8 MONTHS, IQ 50 TO 103) REMAINED AT THE…
Katrin Mägi; Eve Kikas
The aim of the present study was to investigate children’s achievement goal orientations and their relations to math achievement in the primary grades. The sample consisted of 179 children who were in the 2nd and 3rd grades during the first measurement and in the 3rd and 4th grades during the second measurement. Children’s self?ratings were obtained on their goal orientations,
Pérez Benítez, Carlos I; Sibrava, Nicholas J; Kohn-Wood, Laura; Bjornsson, Andri S; Zlotnick, Caron; Weisberg, Risa; Keller, Martin B
The present study was a prospective, naturalistic, longitudinal investigation of the two year course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of African Americans with anxiety disorders. The study objectives were to examine the two year course of PTSD and to evaluate differences between African Americans with PTSD and anxiety disorders and African Americans with anxiety disorders but no PTSD with regard to comorbidity, psychosocial impairment, physical and emotional functioning, and treatment participation. The participants were 67 African Americans with PTSD and 98 African Americans without PTSD (mean age 41.5 years, 67.3% female). Individuals with PTSD were more likely to have higher comorbidity, lower functioning, and they were less likely to seek treatment than those with other anxiety disorders but no PTSD. The rate of recovery from PTSD over two years was 0.10 and recovery from comorbid Major Depressive Disorder was 0.55. PTSD appears to be persistent over time in this population. The rates of recovery were lower than what has been reported in previous longitudinal studies with predominantly non-Latino Whites. It is imperative to examine barriers to treatment and factors related to treatment engagement for this population. PMID:25086766
Hansen, T W; Henrichsen, B; Rasmussen, R K; Carling, A; Andressen, A B; Skjeldal, O
Many galactosaemics appear to have neuropsychological and/or linguistic problems in spite of dietary treatment. Because the neonatal screening program in Norway does not include galactosaemia, we have re-examined Norwegian galactosaemics. Of 16 known patients, 8 patients participated in the study. They had been diagnosed between 2 and 11 weeks of age, and were between 9 months and 19 years old at the time of this study. All had very low or 0 activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. As part of the study all were examined neurologically, and had an age-appropriate developmental/IQ test, an ABR and an EEG, and a comprehensive psycholinguistic evaluation. The three youngest patients had normal developmental/IQ tests, while the five older patients had IQ scores in or below low range of normal. The majority had delayed language development and three patients were classified as having verbal dyspraxia. ABR and EEG showed mild pathology in the oldest patient only. Galactosaemia appears to be associated with significant risks of developmental and language delays in this unscreened population. PMID:8922083
Golbe, L I; Rubin, R S; Cody, R P; Belsh, J M; Duvoisin, R C; Grosmann, C; Lepore, F E; Mark, M H; Sachdeo, R C; Sage, J I; Zimmerman, T R
The cause of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is not known and has been little studied. The one previous controlled epidemiologic survey, performed at our center in 1986, found small-town experience and greater educational attainment as PSP risks, but, in retrospect, these results may have been produced by ascertainment bias. Since that time, several anecdotal reports have implicated heredity and various environmental exposures in the cause of some cases of PSP. To clarify the results of the previous study and to evaluate the more recently implicated candidate factors in a controlled fashion, we mailed a validated 69-item questionnaire to 91 personally examined patients with PSP and 104 unmatched controls with other neurologic conditions for which they had been referred to our tertiary neurologic center. We were able to match 75 subjects from each group by year of birth, sex, and race and subjected them to a separate matched-pair analysis. We allowed surrogates to supply any or all of the responses. Questions concerned hydrocarbon, pesticide, and herbicide exposure; urban/rural living; auto repair and other occupations; head trauma; educational attainment; maternal age; and family history of PSP, parkinsonism, dementia, and other neurologic conditions. A statistically significant finding was that patients with PSP were less likely to have completed at least 12 years of school (matched odds ratio = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.12-0.95, p = 0.022; unmatched odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.21-0.89, p = 0.020). We hypothesize that this result may be a proxy for poor early-life nutrition or for occupational or residential exposure to an as-yet unsuspected toxin. Future studies should examine these potential risk factors in PSP. PMID:8710069
Alcalá, J. M.; Pannella, M.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Silvotti, R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; De Lucia, G.; Grado, A.; Longo, G.; Mercurio, A.; Musella, I.; Napolitano, N.; Pavlov, M.; Rifatto, A.; Ripepi, V.; Scaramella, R.
We present the Capodimonte Deep Field (OACDF), a deep field covering an area of 0.5 ° 2 in the B, V, R optical bands plus six medium-band filters in the wavelength range 773-913 nm. The field reaches the following limiting magnitudes: BAB˜ 25.3, VAB˜ 24.8 and RAB˜25.1 and contains ˜50 000 extended sources in the magnitude range 18 ?RAB ?25.0. Hence, it is intermediate between deep pencil beam surveys and very wide but shallow surveys. The main scientific goal of the OACDF is the identification and characterization of early-type field galaxies at different look-back times in order to study different scenarios of galaxy formation. Parallel goals include the search for groups and clusters of galaxies and the search for rare and peculiar objects (gravitational lenses, QSOs, halo White Dwarfs). In this paper we describe the OACDF data reduction, the methods adopted for the extraction of the photometric catalogs, the photometric calibration and the quality assessment of the catalogs by means of galaxy number counts, spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and star colors. We also present the first results of the search for galaxy overdensities. The depth of the OACDF and its relatively large spatial coverage with respect to pencil beam surveys make it a good tool for further studies of galaxy formation and evolution in the redshift range 0-1, as well as for stellar studies. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile under proposals numbers 63.O-0464(A), 64.O-0304(A), 65.O-0298(A) and 67.B-0457(A). Tables A.1-A.3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/428/339
I present a review of observational efforts to study known extrasolar planets by methods that are complementary to the radial velocity technique. I describe the current state of attempts to detect and characterize such planets by astrometry, by reflected light, by thermal emission, by transit photometry, by atmospheric transmission spectroscopy, by planet-induced chromospheric activity, and by long-wavelength radio emission. With a few exceptions,these efforts have yielded only upper limits. Nonetheless, the diversity and vivacity of these pursuits has rapidly pushed many of these techniques into the realm where realistic models of the planets and their atmospheres can now be confronted.
Rufino M. Silva; M. Luz Cachulo; João Figueira; José R. Faria de Abreu; J. G. Cunha-Vaz
Background To evaluate the two-year efficacy of photodynamic therapy with Visudyne (PDT) in neovascular age-related macular degeneration\\u000a (AMD) eyes with chorioretinal anastomosis (CRA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods A non-randomized, institutional, prospective study, of 28 consecutive eyes of 23 patients, with CRA, treated with PDT. Masked\\u000a best corrected visual acuity (VA) and angiographic features at baseline and during the period of two years were evaluated.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results Twenty
Sakyi, Kwame S; Surkan, Pamela J; Fombonne, Eric; Chollet, Aude; Melchior, Maria
Childhood friendships have been shown to impact mental health over the short term; however, it is unclear whether these effects are sustained into young adulthood. We studied the prospective association between childhood friendships and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Data come from 1,103 French 22-35 year olds participating in the TEMPO study. Childhood friendships were ascertained in 1991 when participants were 4-16 years old. Psychological difficulties were measured in 2009 using the Adult Self-Report. Logistic regression models controlled for participants' age, sex, childhood psychological difficulties and parental characteristics. Young adults who had no childhood friends had higher odds of psychological difficulties than those with at least one friend: (adjusted ORs 2.45; 95 % CI 1.32-4.66, p = 0.01 for high internalizing symptoms; 1.81; 95 % CI 0.94-3.54, p = 0.08 for high externalizing symptoms). Social relations early in life may have consequences for adult psychological well-being. PMID:25316094
Abutalebi, Jubin; Rosa, Pasquale Anthony Della; Tettamanti, Marco; Green, David W; Cappa, Stefano F
In a world that is becoming more multilingual, bilingual aphasia is a clinical problem with a major clinical impact. However, at present we lack causal explanations of the many features of recovery patterns and there is no consensus about the language in which the patient should receive speech therapy. Further advance requires an understanding of the dynamics of recovery. In a novel longitudinal, single-case study, we combine fMRI and dynamic causal modeling to examine the effects of specific language treatment for picture naming on the representation and control of language areas during the course of recovery. Improved performance in the treated language was associated with increased activation in language areas. Consistent with theoretical expectations, causal modeling indicated increased connectedness of the control and language networks for the treated language. This functional approach holds great promise for investigating recovery patterns and the effects of specific language treatment in bilingual aphasic patients. PMID:19427522
Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Núria; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria
Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's Depression Inventory and the MINI-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Kids. Body fat percentage (%BF), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were also determined. Following analysis with adjusted multiple regression models, the results indicated that symptoms of depression and separation anxiety were significantly associated with increased WC and BMI in boys, and that somatic symptoms were associated with increased WC and %BF in girls. Diagnosis of social phobia, panic disorder or dysthymia led to significantly increased WC and/or BMI in boys and dysthymia increased WC in girls. These findings suggest that emotional psychopathology in preadolescence is associated with increased weight gain and abdominal fat in adolescence. PMID:23434271
Altman, Gary; Staley, James Douglas; Wener, Pamela
This study intended to examine the impact of TD on adult psychosocial functioning. A 29-item self-report questionnaire was mailed to 180 former and current adult TD patients. Adult TD patients reported relatively good psychosocial adjustment although many continued to be dependent upon their families for living and financial support. For adults with TD, personal acceptance and medication use were the most important factors in coping with the disorder. The severity of vocal tics had a much greater influence on adult functioning than the severity of motor tics. Although TD continued to interfere with patient's lives in adulthood, the impact was relatively modest. Most patients were able to cope utilizing family and medical support. Clinicians need to be aware of the greater influence of vocal tics on adult functioning compared with motor tics. PMID:19440102
Páldi-Haris, P; Bartha, A; Bátai, A; Nahajevszky, S; Pálóczi, K; Földi, J
The study of structures polymorphic in size found in the human genom (the VNTR loci) enables us to differentiate two individuals or--after bone marrow transplantation--to detect the simultaneous presence of two genoms in patients' blood or marrow. The existence of mixed chimerism may influence the therapy. The authors have screened 54 patients, transplanted in their Institute, and their donors by determination of four polymorphic loci. Informative marker was found in 43 cases. The bone marrow transplantation immunotherapy of 29 patients could be followed over 2-36 months. To increase the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction method used, the authors introduced the blotting/hybridization steps using isotop labeled repetitive sequences. The results are presented in comparison with literature data. PMID:9914728
Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kawakami, Naomi; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Kristina
Background In recent years, research on the association between physical environments and cardiovascular disease outcomes has gained momentum with growing attention being paid to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This nationwide study is the first to examine the effect of neighbourhood physical environments on individual-level stroke, using GIS-based measures of neighbourhood availability of potentially health-damaging (fast food restaurants and pubs/bars) and health-promoting (physical activity and healthcare) resources. Methods The study population comprised a nationwide sample of 2,115,974 men and 2,193,700 women aged 35–80 years who were followed between 1 December 2005 and 31 December 2007 in Sweden. Totally 42,270 first-ever strokes (both morbidity and mortality) were identified. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between neighbourhood availability of four different resources (fast food restaurants, pubs/bars, physical activity and healthcare) and individual-level stroke. Principal Findings There were significant associations between neighbourhood availability of the four types of neighbourhood resources and individual-level stroke. The significant odds ratios varied between 1.06 and 1.12 for men and 1.07 and 1.24 for women. After adjustment for age, income, and neighbourhood-level deprivation, the increased odds remained statistically significant for neighbourhood availability of fast food restaurants in both men and women. Conclusions Specific neighbourhood availability of resources were associated with individual-level stroke but most of these associations were explained by individual-level sociodemographic factors and neighbourhood-level deprivation. PMID:23457603
Boyette-Davis, Jessica A.; Cata, Juan P.; Zhang, Haijun; Driver, Larry C.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R.; Dougherty, Patrick M.
Many frontline chemotherapeutic agents produce robust neuropathy as a dose-limiting side effect; however, the persistence of chemotherapy-related sensory disturbances and pain are not well-documented. We have previously investigated the qualities of bortezomib-induced pain, and now seek to determine the ongoing nature of this pain. Twenty-six control subjects and eleven patients who had previously been treated with bortezomib and who were experiencing ongoing pain consented to recurring quantitative sensory testing. A pilot immunohistochemistry study of skin innervation was also performed on patient obtained biopsies. Psychophysical testing in patients revealed persistent changes including decreased skin temperature in the area of pain, diminished touch and sharpness detection, increased pegboard completion times, and decreased sensitivity to skin heating. Additionally, the intensity of pain, as captured by the use of a visual analog scale and pain descriptors, was reported by patients to be unchanged during the retest despite similar morphine equivalent daily doses. The patient skin biopsies displayed a marked decrease in the density of epidermal nerve fibers and Meissner’s corpuscles. These results signify a persistent and severe impairment of A?, A?, and C fibers in patients with chronic bortezomib-induced chemoneuropathy. Further, this study reports a loss of both epidermal nerve fibers and Meissner’s corpuscles. Perspective The results of this article indicate a persistent, painful peripheral neuropathy in patients treated with bortezomib. Pilot data indicates a loss of nerve fibers innervating the area of pain. This is the first paper to address the persistence, and potential contributing factors, of bortezomib chemoneuropathy. PMID:21703938
Graeter, Tilmann; Ehing, Franziska; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Mason, Richard Andrew; Haenle, Mark Martin; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Seufferlein, Thomas; Gruener, Beate
AIM: To determine the long-term hepatobiliary complications of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and treatment options using interventional methods. METHODS: Included in the study were 35 patients with AE enrolled in the Echinococcus Multilocularis Data Bank of the University Hospital of Ulm. Patients underwent endoscopic intervention for treatment of hepatobiliary complications between 1979 and 2012. Patients’ epidemiologic data, clinical symptoms, and indications for the intervention, the type of intervention and any additional procedures, hepatic laboratory parameters (pre- and post-intervention), medication and surgical treatment (pre- and post-intervention), as well as complications associated with the intervention and patients‘ subsequent clinical courses were analyzed. In order to compare patients with AE with and without history of intervention, data from an additional 322 patients with AE who had not experienced hepatobiliary complications and had not undergone endoscopic intervention were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: Included in the study were 22 male and 13 female patients whose average age at first diagnosis was 48.1 years and 52.7 years at the time of intervention. The average time elapsed between first diagnosis and onset of hepatobiliary complications was 3.7 years. The most common symptoms were jaundice, abdominal pains, and weight loss. The number of interventions per patient ranged from one to ten. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was most frequently performed in combination with stent placement (82.9%), followed by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (31.4%) and ERCP without stent placement (22.9%). In 14.3% of cases, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography was performed. A total of eight patients received a biliary stent. A comparison of biochemical hepatic function parameters at first diagnosis between patients who had or had not undergone intervention revealed that these were significantly elevated in six patients who had undergone intervention. Complications (cholangitis, pancreatitis) occurred in six patients during and in 12 patients following the intervention. The average survival following onset of hepatobiliary complications was 8.8 years. CONCLUSION: Hepatobiliary complications occur in about 10% of patients. A significant increase in hepatic transaminase concentrations facilitates the diagnosis. Interventional methods represent viable management options. PMID:25945006
Kersting, Anette; Kroker, K; Steinhard, J; Lüdorff, K; Wesselmann, U; Ohrmann, P; Arolt, V; Suslow, T
The traumatic loss of an unborn child after TOP due to fetal malformation and/or severe chromosomal disorders in late pregnancy is a major life-event and a potential source of serious psychological problems for those women. To obtain information on the course of grief following a traumatic loss, 62 women who had undergone TOP between the 15th and 32nd gestational week were investigated in a longitudinal study design and compared with 65 women after spontaneous delivery of a full-term healthy child. Grief, posttraumatic stress, depression, anxiety and psychiatric disorders were evaluated 14 days, 6 months and 14 months after the event, implementing validated self-report and clinician rated instruments. Compared to women after spontaneous delivery, women after induced TOP were significantly more stressed regarding all psychological outcomes at all three measuring points. Especially, 14 months after TOP 13.7% of the women fulfilled all criteria of a complicated grief diagnoses following Horowitz et al. (1997, Am J Psychiat 154:7904-7910). 16.7% were diagnosed as having a manifest psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV. All in all, 25% of these women were critically affected by the traumatic loss. TOP for fetal anomaly is to be seen as a major life event, which causes complicated grief reactions and psychiatric disorders for a substantial number of women. PMID:17629729
Szabari, M V; Tolnai, J; Maár, B A; Parameswaran, H; Bartolák-Suki, E; Suki, B; Hantos, Z
Structural and functional longitudinal alterations of the lungs were followed in an emphysema model. Rats were treated with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE, n=21) or saline (controls, C, n=19). Before the treatment and 3, 10, 21 and 105 days thereafter, absolute lung volumes (FRC, TLC and RV) and tissue mechanical parameters (elastance: H; damping: G) were determined. At 3, 21 and 105 days the lungs were fixed in subgroups of rats. From histological samples the equivalent diameter of airspaces (Dalv), elastin (Mec) and collagen densities were assessed. In the PPE group, FRC and RV were higher from 3 days after treatment compared to controls (p<0.001), while TLC exhibited a delayed increase. H and G decreased in the PPE group throughout the study (p<0.001). Higher Mec (p<0.001) and late-phase inflammation were observed at 105 days. We conclude that during the progression of emphysema, septal failures increase Dalv which decreases H; this reveals a strong structure-function relationship. PMID:25896285
Hobert, Thomas Milton
The purpose of the study is to determine student views of the influence of the Eco Education Urban Stewards program's impact on their involvement in community environmental initiatives. Eco Education is a non-profit organization in St. Paul that facilitates an urban, environmental, year-long science curriculum delivered in middle schools in Minnesota. The year-long program ends with an urban, environmental service-learning project. Ten high school students from the Inter District Downtown School who had completed Urban Stewards in middle school took a survey and were interviewed and compared with ten high school students who had a more traditional middle school science experience. Semi-structured oral interviews were conducted with each student. Transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed and compared to the survey results. The survey results were tabulated and given numerical values to compare the Eco Education and non-Eco Education students. Common themes and differences were discovered when comparing the survey results and interview transcriptions of the two groups. Urban Stewards students demonstrated more awareness of environmental issues, concerns and community projects but not by a significant amount.
Klepp, K I; Aas, H N; Maeland, J G; Alsaker, F
The purpose of this study was to investigate how school pupils perceive their own health and how this perception changes over time. A representative sample of 7th grade pupils in Hordaland county (510 boys and 414 girls) were surveyed every year from 1990 to 1993. The results indicated that boys and girls in the lower secondary school had very different conceptions of their own health. The girls reported more frequent somatic health problems than the boys did, were more often depressed, and did not perceive their own health to be as good as boys of the same age did. This gender difference seemed to increase with increasing age. A high degree of stability in reported health problems was seen overtime. To a large extent, it is the same pupils who report having poor somatic health and being depressed and who perceive their general health as less good. Health complaints among adolescents should be taken seriously, since this may indicate a need for both medical and psychological intervention. PMID:8766648
Waller, K V; Wyatt, D; Karni, K R
A national study was conducted in 1996 to compare clinical laboratory science faculty demographics, scholarly activities, and perceptions of the research environment with corresponding data reported in 1988. Faculty have made progress in earning doctorates (46%), achieving higher ranks (49%), and getting tenured (50%). Relatively few faculty are conducting much of the research, with the greater majority serving as teachers. Research productivity, as evaluated via research publications and presentations, showed that in 1996, full professors and those with doctorates published the most articles and abstracts in refereed journals; they also made more presentations than junior faculty. Faculty in research universities were more productive than those in four-year colleges and universities. The faculty surveyed in 1985 and those surveyed in 1996 perceived their research skills and environments to be almost identical. In both 1985 and 1996, the importance of research for promotion and tenure decisions ranked highest as a characteristic of the environment. Financial resources and time available for research ranked lowest. PMID:9785182
Neudorfer, Meira; Kessner, Rivka; Goldenberg, Dafna; Lavie, Anat; Kessler, Ada
Purpose We sought to assess long-term changes in the flow parameters of retrobulbar vessels in diabetic patients. Methods The retrobulbar circulation of 138 eyes was evaluated between 1994 and 1995 and 36 eyes were reevaluated between 2004 and 2008 (study group). They were divided into four groups: eyes of diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy (DR), eyes with nonproliferative DR, eyes with proliferative DR, and eyes of nondiabetic patients (controls). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess the flow velocities in the major retrobulbar vessels. The resistive index (RI) was calculated and compared among the groups and between the two time periods. Results RI values of the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery had increased in the two non-DR groups and in the nonproliferative DR group, with a surprising decrease measured in eyes with proliferative DR (P= nonsignificant [NS]). Combining the nonproliferative DR and proliferative DR groups resulted in a milder increase of the RI of the posterior ciliary artery (P= NS) and the central retinal artery (P=0.02) in the DR group compared to the other groups. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that an increase of the resistance in the retrobulbar vessels, as a part of DR, can lessen over time and may even be reversed. PMID:25473257
van Eijk-Hustings, Yvonne; Kroese, Mariëlle; Boonen, Annelies; Bessems-Beks, Monique; Landewé, Robert
Fibromyalgia (FM) has a high impact on all aspects of health. The effect from interventions is usually small and characterized by uncertainty. Better insight in predictors for improved health is essential. The present study aimed to understand predictors for patient global impression of change and changes in overall health. Data from a longitudinal cohort of recently diagnosed FM patients (n?=?203) were used. Within this cohort, patients were pre-randomized to either a multidisciplinary (n?=?108) or an, aerobic exercise (n?=?47) program, or usual care (n?=?48). Only a limited number of patients started with the programs (n?=?86) or participated fully, i.e., attended >70 % of the scheduled sessions (n?=?68). Patients completed questionnaires covering all components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) bio-psycho-social model of health, which was used as a framework to structure potential predictors. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of potential predictors. Regression analyses were used to explore associations with the outcome variables. Principal component analysis yielded five factors representing areas that covered different ICF components and chapters. "Being employed" and "full participation in a program" were independently associated with a better global impression of change. A longer duration of FM-related symptoms and more limitations in physical areas of body functions were independently associated with a worse impression of overall health. Higher levels of perceived limitations in physical and mental activities were associated with "starting to participate in a program" and with "full participation in a program." Recently diagnosed FM patients that report fewer physical limitations may experience more improvement in health if they are at work and have a positive attitude towards participating in an offered health-care intervention. These findings give support to an active rather than to a care-avoiding attitude of health-care workers in their contacts to these patients. PMID:23975362
Mitrea, Ioan Liviu; Enachescu, Violeta; Ionita, Mariana
Neospora caninum is an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide for which dogs are the definitive host. The present study was aimed at investigating the exposure to N. caninum infection based on lifestyle categories of dogs from southern Romania. For this purpose, randomly selected rural and urban dogs were examined for fecal N. caninum -like oocysts and were serologically tested for the presence of anti- N. caninum IgG antibodies. Of the 386 dog fecal samples, N. caninum -like oocysts were found in 19 (4.9%; 95% CI = 2.89-7.59) as follows: rural guard dogs (4/41; 9.8%), cattle farm dogs (6/118; 5.1%), and stray dogs (9/192; 4.7%) (P > 0.05). None of the 35 urban guard dogs was positive. Serum samples (n = 84) from all of the 19 N. caninum -like oocysts-positive dogs and another 65 randomly selected canines (15 cattle farm dogs, 21 rural guard dogs, and 29 strays) were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). None of these dogs exhibited any symptoms of clinical neosporosis. However, IgG antibodies against N. caninum were detected in 17/84 (20.2%) (P < 0.05) serum samples. The highest prevalence was registered in cattle farm dogs (38.1%) followed by strays (18.4%) and rural guard dogs (8.0%). The seropositivity to N. caninum increased significantly with age (P < 0.05), reaching 66.7% in dogs >10 yr of age, suggesting post-natal exposure to N. caninum is the predominant mechanism of N. caninum recruitment. PMID:22931541
Background and objectives The aim of this study was to study the role of menopausal status and physical activity on quality of life. Methods A total of 1,165 Finnish women aged 45-64 years from a national representative population-based study were followed up for 8 years. Study participants completed the Health 2000 study questionnaire and follow-up questionnaire in 2008. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to measure the effect of menopausal status on global quality of life (QoL). Other variables included in the analyses were age, education, change of physical activity as assessed with metabolic equivalents, change of weight and hormone therapy (HRT) use. Results Peri- and postmenopausal women increased their physical activity (28% and 27%) during the eight-year follow up period slightly more often than premenopausal (18%) women (p = 0.070). Menopausal status was not significantly correlated with change of QoL. QoL of the most highly educated women was more likely to improve than among the less educated (eb = 1.28, 95%CI 1.08 to 1.51 p = 0.002). Women whose physical activity increased or remained stable had greater chances for improved QoL than women whose physical activity decreased (eb = 1.49, 95%CI 1.23 p < 0.001 to 1.80, eb = 1.46, 95%CI 1.24 to 1.73 p < 0.001 respectively). Women whose weight remained stable during follow-up also improved their QoL compared to women who gained weight (eb = 1.26, 95%CI 1.07 to 1.50 p > 0.01). Women who had never used HRT had 1.26 greater odds for improved QoL (95%CI 1.02 to 1.56 p = < 0.05). Conclusion Improvement of global QoL is correlated with stable or increased physical activity, stable weight and high education, but not with change in menopausal status. PMID:22269072
K. Auro; K. Kristiansson; B. Zethelius; C. Berne; L. Lannfelt; M.-R. Taskinen; M. Jauhiainen; M. Perola; L. Peltonen; A.-C. Syvänen
Aims\\/hypothesis Genetic variants of upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) have previously been associated with dyslipidaemias in family studies. Our aim was to further address the role of USF1 in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular traits at the population level in a large Swedish male cohort (n?=?2,322) with multiple measurements for risk factors during 32 years of follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Participants, born in 1920–1924, were examined
Background Many young paediatric patients with severe dental caries receive dental treatment under general anaesthesia. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) can be evaluated to assess the outcome of dental general anaesthesia (DGA) treatment. The aim of our study was to examine the OHRQoL of young Lithuanian children in need of DGA treatment and analyse the impact of DGA treatment on children’s OHRQoL. Methods We carried out a prospective clinical follow-up study on OHRQoL among all young Lithuanian child patients who received DGA treatment at the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Hospital during 2010–2012. The study consisted of clinical dental examinations of patients younger than six years, data collected from their patient files, and an OHRQoL survey completed by their parents prior to the child’s dental treatment. We conducted a follow-up OHRQoL survey one month after the DGA treatment. The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and its effect size (ES) served to evaluate children’s OHRQoL, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test served for statistical analyses. Results We obtained complete baseline and follow-up data for 140 and 122 participants, respectively (84.7% follow-up rate). Pain and eating problems among children and parents feeling upset and guilty were the most frequently reported impacts at baseline. The parents reported greater impacts on boys than on girls. The ECOHIS score decreased significantly (69.5%, p?0.001) after DGA treatment, revealing a large ES for the child (1.6) and family (2.4) sections of the ECOHIS. Conclusions The OHRQoL of young Lithuanian children requiring DGA treatment is seriously impaired. Dental general anaesthesia treatment results in significant improvement of the children’s OHRQoL. The children’s parents also greatly appreciate this treatment modality for its positive impact on the family’s quality of life. PMID:24984901
Lappalainen-Lehto, Riitta; Koistinen, Noora; Aalto, Mauri; Huhtala, Heini; Sand, Juhani; Nordback, Isto; Seppä, Kaija
The aim of this study was to find out if an acute pancreatitis leads the patients to reduce their alcohol consumption and if there are factors predicting the outcome. We also observed which factors affected the choice of patient's personal drinking goal, e.g., abstinence or moderate drinking, how this goal changed during the follow-up and how the goal affected the change in drinking habits. In 2001-2005, 120 patients treated in Tampere University Hospital for their first alcohol-related acute pancreatitis were interviewed before discharge from the hospital and at the two-year follow-up. All patients had at least one intervention session for their alcohol use. Of the patients 87 (72.5%) completed the study. The alcohol consumption level and its changes, personal drinking goal of the patients, the factors affecting the choice and the changes of the goal were observed. Most (96.4%) of the patients were willing to reduce their drinking. At follow-up, 34 (40.5%) patients succeeded in reducing their alcohol consumption under the pre-set moderate drinking level. The only factor predicting alcohol use was the number of hospitalization days due to the acute alcohol-related pancreatitis (p=0.015). Those who chose abstinence seemed to succeed more often in stopping drinking or reducing their drinking below risk levels as compared to those with moderation goal (47.9% vs. 28.6%, p=0.075). The only abstinence-goal predicting factor was the concern of the relatives, friends or doctors (p=0.001). All 6 patients who needed intensive care chose abstinence-goal. During the follow-up period the goal changed. At baseline, the majority chose abstinence but two years after pancreatitis, the majority was striving for moderate drinking. A serious illness seems to be a good opportunity to change and to motivate patients. Even if abstinence is recommended to patients with alcohol-related pancreatitis, communication of individual goals is important in the motivation process of the patients. PMID:24018221
Objective To examine whether diabetes mellitus increases the risk of pneumonia mortality among seniors in the U.S. general population. Methods & Results The NHANES III follow-up study data were used. After excluding individuals from other minorities, being hospitalized with pneumonia in the previous year at baseline, or death of pneumonia during the first year of follow-up, a total of 3,707 subjects aged 65 years or older (1,794 men and 1,913 women) who had no missing information on variables for the analysis were included. Approximately 16% of seniors at baseline were diabetics, which was defined as either having been diagnosed by a physician, currently taking pills/insulin lowering blood glucose, or HbA1c higher than 6.4%. During an average 11 years of follow-up, a total of 98 deaths due to pneumonia were recorded (ICD-10: J12–J18). Cox-regression models were used to estimate the risk association between pneumonia mortality and diabetes mellitus. After adjustment for the covariates at baseline, the hazard ratios of pneumonia death were 1.30 (95% CI: 0.64–2.70) for pre-diabetics and 2.28 (95% CI: 1.18–4.39) for diabetics, respectively. Among those covariates, only age (HR (95% CI); 1.16 (1.13–1.20)), gender as female (0.35 (0.22–0.61)) and physical fitness measured as having no problem walking 1+ mile during the previous month (0.38 (0.20–0.67)) reached statistical significance. Conclusions The results suggest that diabetes mellitus is a strong risk predictor of pneumonia mortality and the evaluation of physical fitness may also be useful in the risk prediction of pneumonia mortality for seniors. PMID:24133515
Johnson, E S
Cohort mortality studies may differ from morbidity and other follow-up studies in that, in many of the methods of follow-up employed, the identification or follow-up process and the process of determination of outcome (death) are essentially the same. Furthermore, some of the methods may involve preferential identification of deaths over live persons, or vice versa. This latter area of difference is particularly problematic in situations in which the comparison group (the general population) has not been subjected to tracing, and in which certain persons who are being traced are not covered by the universe defined by the follow-up method. Because of these peculiarities, it is shown that, during the analysis, the usual practice of withdrawing persons lost to follow-up at the time of loss can lead to seriously biased results when follow-up rate is not very high. PMID:2319358
Liu, Fan; Visser, Mijke; Duffy, David L; Hysi, Pirro G; Jacobs, Leonie C; Lao, Oscar; Zhong, Kaiyin; Walsh, Susan; Chaitanya, Lakshmi; Wollstein, Andreas; Zhu, Gu; Montgomery, Grant W; Henders, Anjali K; Mangino, Massimo; Glass, Daniel; Bataille, Veronique; Sturm, Richard A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Palstra, Robert-Jan T S; Spector, Timothy D; Martin, Nicholas G; Nijsten, Tamar E C; Kayser, Manfred
In the International Visible Trait Genetics (VisiGen) Consortium, we investigated the genetics of human skin color by combining a series of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a total of 17,262 Europeans with functional follow-up of discovered loci. Our GWAS provide the first genome-wide significant evidence for chromosome 20q11.22 harboring the ASIP gene being explicitly associated with skin color in Europeans. In addition, genomic loci at 5p13.2 (SLC45A2), 6p25.3 (IRF4), 15q13.1 (HERC2/OCA2), and 16q24.3 (MC1R) were confirmed to be involved in skin coloration in Europeans. In follow-up gene expression and regulation studies of 22 genes in 20q11.22, we highlighted two novel genes EIF2S2 and GSS, serving as competing functional candidates in this region and providing future research lines. A genetically inferred skin color score obtained from the 9 top-associated SNPs from 9 genes in 940 worldwide samples (HGDP-CEPH) showed a clear gradual pattern in Western Eurasians similar to the distribution of physical skin color, suggesting the used 9 SNPs as suitable markers for DNA prediction of skin color in Europeans and neighboring populations, relevant in future forensic and anthropological investigations. PMID:25963972
This paper describes a follow-up study conducted in 1991 to examine how the informal education and representational strategies of the Zinacantecos have been affected by modernization since the original study of their culture was conducted in 1969-70. The follow-up study tracked two generations of mothers and children as the Zinacantecos society…
Henriksen, Christine A; Mather, Amber A; Mackenzie, Corey S; Bienvenu, Oscar Joseph; Sareen, Jitender
Our aim was to examine the longitudinal associations between obesity and mental health variables (psychiatric diagnoses and suicidal behaviors). Data were from waves 3 and 4 of the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area study (N = 1071). Participants were aged 30 to 86 years at wave 3 (mean, 47.6 years; SD, 12.8). The prevalence of obesity increased from 27.6% to 39.1% during the follow-up. Logistic regression analyses revealed no associations between baseline obesity and onset of mental disorders or suicidal behaviors between waves 3 and 4 in fully adjusted models; however, baseline obesity predicted new-onset suicide attempts in models adjusted for sociodemographics and mental disorders. Baseline depression predicted weight gain during the 11-year follow-up period (F = 4.014, p < 0.05), even after controlling for important confounders. Overall, most mental health variables were not associated with obesity, suggesting that clinicians and others should be wary of "weight-ism" and avoid making the assumption that higher body weight relates to mental health problems. PMID:24727724
Draycott, Simon; Short, Roxanna; Kirkpatrick, Tim
Psychopathy is a disorder that is partly defined by with maladaptive interpersonal behaviour and has significant effects on treatment outcomes. A previous study (Draycott et al., ) found that higher levels of psychopathy led to a specific interpersonal 'trajectory' amongst patients in a secure psychiatric treatment programme during the first 9?months of their admission. In that programme, more psychopathic patients became increasingly dominant over time, and less psychopathic patients became increasingly hostile. This study is a longer-term follow-up and extension of that study, extending the window of observation to 33?months of treatment. It was found that the more psychopathic patients' increased dominance returned to baseline levels by 33?months, as did the less psychopathic patients' increased hostility. This suggests that treatment for this group is not idiopathic but leaves unanswered the question as to what these divergent trajectories represent. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25622564
Pittelkow, M.R.; Perry, H.O.; Muller, S.A.; Maughan, W.Z.; O'Brien, P.C.
For many years, crude coal tar has been used for the treatment of psoriasis. The possible carcinogenic effect of crude coal tar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Goeckerman regimen), considered individually or in combination, has been of some concern to physicians. A 25-year follow-up study was completed on 280 patients with psoriasis who were hospitalized and treated with crude coal tar and UV radiation at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn, during the years 1950 through 1954. The results of this study suggest that the incidence of skin cancer is not appreciably increased above the expected incidence for the general population when patients are treated with coal tar ointments. It seems that the Goeckerman regimen (topical crude coal tar combined with UV radiation) can be used with minimal risk for skin cancer in the treatment of psoriasis.
Background Common mental disorders (CMD) are prevalent in working populations and have adverse consequences for employee well-being and work ability, even leading to early retirement. Several studies report associations between psychosocial working conditions and CMD. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research within a broad framework of psychosocial working conditions and improvement in CMD. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between several psychosocial working conditions and deteriorating and improving CMD among ageing employees over a five-to-six-year follow-up period. Methods The study is based on the Helsinki Health Study baseline survey in 2001–2002 and a follow-up in 2007 (N?=?4340, response rate 83%) conducted among 40-60-year-old female and male employees. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure common mental disorders. Psychosocial working conditions were measured in terms of job strain, organisational justice, work-family interface, social support and workplace bullying. The covariates included sociodemographic and health factors. Results Following adjustment for all the covariates, family-to-work (OR 1.41, 95% Cl 1.04-1.91) and work-to-family conflicts (OR 1.99, 95% Cl 1.42-2.78) and workplace bullying (OR 1.40, 95% Cl 1.09-1.79) were associated with deterioration, and family-to-work conflicts (OR 1.65, 95% Cl 1.66-2.34) and social support (OR 1.47, 95% Cl 1.07-2.00) with improvement in CMD. Conclusions Adverse psychosocial working conditions contribute to poor mental health among employees. Preventing workplace bullying, promoting social support and achieving a better balance between work and family may help employees to maintain their mental health. PMID:24916716
National Center for Education Statistics (DHEW), Washington, DC.
As part of the third follow-up to the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, the Third Follow-Up Questionnaire was administered to a sample of the members of the high school class of 1972 who had been surveyed in 1972 and 1974. This file contains the responses to that questionnaire. The questionnaire has 158 items about work…
Research Triangle Inst., Durham, NC. Center for Educational Research and Evaluation.
The "National Longitudinal Study (NLS) of the High School Class of 1972: Base Year (1972) through Fourth Follow-up (1979)" machine-readable data file (MRDF) is a single merged file of student responses to the original interviews or tests in 1972 and the mail follow-up surveys of 1973, 1974, 1976, and 1979. The 1972 data were gathered by the…
The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Food Diary Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the Border study. Keywords: data; coding; food diary follow up questionnaire. The U.S.-Mexico Border ...
The purpose of this SOP is to define the coding strategy for the Food Diary Follow Up Questionnaire. This questionnaire was developed for use in the Arizona NHEXAS project and the "Border" study. Keywords: data; coding; food diary follow up questionnaire. The National Human Ex...
Dommergues, M A; de La Rocque, F; Guy, C; Lécuyer, A; Jacquet, A; Guérin, N; Fagot, J P; Boucherat, M; d'Athis, Ph; Cohen, R
In a 12-month cohort follow-up study of 2435 children vaccinated in 2007 by Statens Serum Institute BCG strain (BCG SSI, 17.8% had an adverse event (AE): erythema 12.4%, induration 12.2%, abscesses 2.5%, ulceration 0.9%, lymphadenitis 0.1%. The factors associated with a lower risk of AE were: age at vaccination <1 year compared to age >1 year (OR=0.35 [0.2-0.6] for age <28 days, 0.29 [0.2-0.42] for age 29 days to 2 months, and 0.53 [0.37-0.74] for age 3-11 months), a visible papule (OR=0.48 [0.36-0.63]), and a low vaccine dose (OR=0.42 [0.31-0.58]). AE to BCG SSI vaccination were frequent but rarely severe. PMID:19800440
Eisenberg, Laurie S; Johnson, Karen C; Martinez, Amy S; Cokely, Carol G; Tobey, Emily A; Quittner, Alexandra L; Fink, Nancy E; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Niparko, John K
The Childhood Development after Cochlear Implantation (CDaCI) study is a longitudinal multicenter investigation designed to identify factors influencing spoken language in young deaf children with cochlear implants. Normal-hearing peers serve as controls. As part of a comprehensive evaluation battery, a speech recognition hierarchy was designed to assess how well these children recognize speech stimuli across developmental stages. Data were analyzed for the earliest measures in 42 pairs of children reaching 1 year of follow-up. A number of children in the cochlear implant group who met criteria for testing approached levels of performance similar to the normal-hearing controls, and some could identify sentences in competition. These results demonstrate the responsiveness of the speech recognition hierarchy in tracking emergent skills from a sample of the CDaCI cohort. PMID:16699259
Granado, Laura Carmilo; Ranvaud, Ronald; Peláez, Javier Ropero
We describe a new arachnophobia therapy that is specially suited for those individuals with severe arachnophobia who are reluctant to undergo direct or even virtual exposure treatments. In this therapy, patients attend a computer presentation of images that, while not being spiders, have a subset of the characteristics of spiders. The Atomium of Brussels is an example of such an image. The treatment group (n = 13) exhibited a significant improvement (time × group interaction: P = .0026) when compared to the placebo group (n = 12) in a repeated measures multivariate ANOVA. A k-means clustering algorithm revealed that, after 4 weeks of treatment, 42% of the patients moved from the arachnophobic to the nonarachnophobic cluster. Six months after concluding the treatment, a follow-up study showed a substantial consolidation of the recovery process where 92% of the arachnophobic patients moved to the nonarachnophobic cluster. PMID:17713595
Shukla, R.; Dietrich, K.N.; Bornschein, R.L.; Berger, O.; Hammond, P.B. (Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, OH (United States))
This report is a follow-up of an earlier study of the effects of low to moderate prenatal and postnatal lead exposure on children's growth in stature. Two hundred thirty-five subjects were assessed every 3 months for lead exposure (blood lead level) and stature (recumbent length) up to 33 months of age. Fetal lead exposure was indexed by maternal blood lead level during pregnancy. The adverse effects of lead on growth during the first year of life were reported previously. This analysis covers essentially the second and third years of life. The results indicate that mean blood lead level during this period was negatively associated with attained height at 33 months of age (P = .002). This association was, however, evidenced only among those children who had mean blood lead levels greater than the cohort median (greater than or equal to 10.77 micrograms/dL) during the 3- to 15-month interval. The results also suggest that the effect of lead exposure (both in utero as well as during the first year of life) are transient provided that subsequent exposure to lead is not excessive. It appears that maintaining an average blood lead level of 25 micrograms/dL or more during the second and third year of life was detrimental to the child's attained stature at 33 months of age. Approximately 15% of this cohort experienced these levels of lead exposure. Continued follow-up of this cohort will reveal whether these lead-related deficits persist and whether they continue to be dependent on the level of exposure in an earlier period.
Niepold, F., III; Sullivan, S. B.; Gold, A. U.; Lynds, S. E.; Kirk, K.
NOAA Climate.gov provides science and information for a climate-smart nation. Americans' health, security, and economic well-being are closely linked to climate and weather. NOAA Climate.gov's goals are to promote public understanding of climate science and climate-related events, to make our data products and services easy to access and use, to support educators in improving the nations climate literacy, and to serve people making climate-related decisions with tools and resources that help them answer specific questions.The Climate.Gov Follow-Up Study of the four NOAA Audiences (climate interested public, educators, scientists, policy-makers) built upon the previous literature review and evaluation study conducted by Mooney and Phillips in 2010 and 2012, http://tinyurl.com/ma8vo83. The CIRES Education and Outreach team at the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences at University of Colorado at Boulder and the NOAA Climate.gov team will present results of the new study that used the Quality of Relationship index (awareness, trust, satisfaction, usability, and control mutuality). This index was developed in the previous study and places a new emphasis on the experience of individual users from the four audiences in their regular work or home setting. This new evaluation project used mixed methods, including an online survey, usability studies, phone interviews, and web statistics, providing multiple lines of evidence from which to draw conclusion and recommendations.In the session, we will explore how the NOAA Climate.gov teams used the literature review and new CIRES research to address underlying challenges to achieving the portal's goals. The research in these studies finds that people seek information in ways that are complex and that they do so by consulting a vast array of technologies. Improved and different modes of access to information have, throughout history, been led by technological innovation, but human behavior tends to be constant. The NOAA Climate.gov portal improved its design informed by the first literature review and evaluation. We will discuss how the follow-up study will inform continual audience-focused design and innovation for maximizing the effectiveness of the multiple audience portal.
Teshome, Wondu; Belayneh, Mehretu; Moges, Mathewos; Mekonnen, Emebet; Endrias, Misganu; Ayele, Sinafiksh; Misganaw, Tebeje; Shiferaw, Mekonnen; Tesema, Tigist
Background Decentralization and task shifting has significantly improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many studies conducted to determine the attrition rate in Ethiopia have not compared attrition rates between hospitals and health centers in a relatively recent cohort of patients. This study compared death and loss to follow-up (LTFU) rates among ART patients in hospitals and health centers in south Ethiopia. Methods Data routinely collected from patients aged older than 15 years who started ART between July 2011 and August 2012 in 20 selected health facilities (12 being hospitals) were analyzed. The outcomes of interest were LTFU and death. The data were entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and Stata version 12.0. Competing-risk regression models were used. Results The service years of the facilities were similar (median 8 and 7.5 for hospitals and health centers, respectively). The mean patient age was 33.7±9.6 years. The median baseline CD4 count was 179 (interquartile range 93–263) cells/mm3. A total of 2,356 person-years of observation were made with a median follow-up duration of 28 (interquartile range 22–31) months; 24.6% were either dead or LTFU, resulting in a retention rate of 75.4%. The death rates were 3.0 and 1.5 and the LTFU rate were 9.0 and 10.9 per 100 person-years of observation in health centers and hospitals, respectively. The competing-risk regression model showed that the gap between testing and initiation of ART, body mass index, World Health Organization clinical stage, isoniazid prophylaxis, age, facility type, and educational status were independently associated with LTFU. Moreover, baseline tuberculous disease, poor functional status, and follow-up at a health center were associated with an elevated probability of death. Conclusion We observed a higher death rate and a lower LTFU rate in health centers than in hospitals. Most of the associated variables were also previously documented. Higher LTFU was noticed for patients with a smaller gap between testing and initiation of treatment. PMID:26064071
Evans, Jennifer L.; Tsui, Judith I.; Hahn, Judith A.; Davidson, Peter J.; Lum, Paula J.; Page, Kimberly
This study examined associations between mortality and demographic and risk characteristics among young injection drug users in San Francisco, California, and compared the mortality rate with that of the population. A total of 644 young (<30 years) injection drug users completed a baseline interview and were enrolled in a prospective cohort study, known as the UFO (“U Find Out”) Study, from November 1997 to December 2007. Using the National Death Index, the authors identified 38 deaths over 4,167 person-years of follow-up, yielding a mortality rate of 9.1 (95% confidence interval: 6.6, 12.5) per 1,000 person-years. This mortality rate was 10 times that of the general population. The leading causes of death were overdose (57.9%), self-inflicted injury (13.2%), trauma/accidents (10.5%), and injection drug user-related medical conditions (13.1%). Mortality incidence was significantly higher among those who reported injecting heroin most days in the past month (adjusted hazard ratio = 5.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 24.3). The leading cause of death in this group was overdose, and primary use of heroin was the only significant risk factor for death observed in the study. These findings highlight the continued need for public health interventions that address the risk of overdose in this population in order to reduce premature deaths. PMID:22227793
Zhang, Lin; Ye, Weiping; Yu, Wen; Cheng, Linan; Shen, Lixiao; Yang, Zujing
Levonorgestrel (LNG), a dedicated emergency contraception (EC) product, has been available over-the-counter in China for more than 14 yr. Although LNG-EC is considered to have no effects on the developing fetus if the contraceptive fails and pregnancy occurs, there have been a few studies specifically examining this issue. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical and mental development of children born after LNG-EC failure with that of a cohort of children born to mothers with no history of exposure to LNG or any teratogenic substances. A group of 195 children who were exposed to LNG-EC during their mothers' conception cycle (study group) were matched to a group of 214 children without exposure to LNG (control group). The physical and mental development of the children were evaluated and compared over a 2-yr period. There were four congenital malformations in the study group and three in the control group (2.1% vs. 1.4%, respectively, P > 0.05). Over the 2-yr follow-up period, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to children's weight, height, head circumference, and intelligence scores, and the values of all parameters of both groups were similar to those of the national standards. In summary, LNG-EC has no effect on the physical growth, mental development, or occurrence of birth defects in children born from pregnancies in which EC failed. PMID:24899575
Liu, Jung-Tung; Li, Cho-Shun; Chang, Cheng-Siu; Liao, Wen-Jui
OBJECT Long-term follow-up study is required for verifying whether the clinical outcomes of kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are altered. The authors' findings showed only subtle differences between these operations within a 5-year period. However, they still suggest the use of vertebroplasty over kyphoplasty in view of the treatment costs. In their previous study, the authors performed a short-term prospective comparison between vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Vertebroplasty was recommended instead of kyphoplasty for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) because of the subtle differences between this procedure and kyphoplasty and the treatment costs. To determine whether these clinical outcomes persist in the long term, they continued to observe the patients from their short-term study over a longer-term period. METHODS One hundred cases of VCF were assigned randomly to either the kyphoplasty or the vertebroplasty group. In cement augmentation, the authors used polymethylmethacrylate as bone filler. Pain was assessed by using a visual analog scale (VAS). For each patient, vertebral body height and wedge angle were measured from reconstructed CT images. RESULTS The duration of the follow-up period was 5 years. Vertebral body height, kyphotic wedge angle, and VAS score were not evidently altered. Eight patients in the kyphoplasty group had an adjacent fracture after the procedure, whereas 7 patients in the vertebroplasty group had an adjacent fracture after the procedure. These adjacent fractures occurred within 1 year of surgery in both treatment groups except in 1 kyphoplasty-treated patient in whom the adjacent fracture was noted 16 months after treatment. Three patients in the vertebroplasty group had a nonadjacent fracture, and 4 patients in the kyphoplasty group had a nonadjacent fracture. The link between angular correction and the occurrence of adjacent fracture was statistically significant in the vertebroplasty group. CONCLUSIONS Excessive angular correction is a critical concern in the risk of adjacent fracture after vertebroplasty. Given the subtle differences between vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty observed over the course of 5 years, vertebroplasty remains the preferred option in view of the costs. PMID:25884343
Rayamajhi, Ajit; Poudel, Prakash; Shrestha, Pramina; Srivastav, Vijay; Kneen, Rachel; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Singh, Rupa R.; Solomon, Tom
Background Over 133,000 children present to hospitals with Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) annually in Asia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) accounts for approximately one-quarter of cases; in most cases no pathogen is identified and management is supportive. Although JE is known to result in neurological impairment, few studies have examined the wider impact of JE and AES on patients and their families. Methodology/Principal Findings Children (aged 1 month–14 years) with AES were assessed 5–12 months after discharge from two Nepali hospitals. Assessment included clinical examination, the Liverpool Outcome Score (LOS) - a validated assessment of function following encephalitis, questionnaires about the child's social participation since discharge, and out-of-pocket costs to the family. Children were classified as JE or ‘other AES’ based on anti-JE virus antibody titres during acute illness. Contact was made with the families of 76% (73/96) of AES children. Six children had died and one declined participation. 48% (32/66) reported functional impairment at follow-up, most frequently affecting behaviour, language or limb use. Impairment was more frequent in JE compared to ‘other AES’ cases (68% [13/19] versus 40% [19/47]; p?=?0.06). 49% (26/53) had improvement in LOS between discharge and follow-up. The median out-of-pocket cost to families, including medical bills, medication and lost earnings was US$ 1151 (10 times their median monthly income) for children with severe/moderate impairment and $524 (4.6 times their income) for those with mild/no impairment (P?=?0.007). Acute admission accounted for 74% of costs. Social participation was limited in 21% of children (n?=?14). Conclusions/Significance Prolonged functional impairment was common following AES. Economic impact to families was substantial. Encouragingly, almost half the children improved after discharge and most reported sustained social participation. This study highlights a need for long-term medical support following AES. Rationalisation of initial expensive hospital treatments may be warranted, especially since only supportive treatment is available. PMID:24069467
Vidarsdottir, Halldora; Fang, Fang; Chang, Milan; Aspelund, Thor; Fall, Katja; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Cotch, Mary Frances; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between loss of a life partner and the development of dementia and decline in cognitive function in later life. We used an Icelandic cohort of 4,370 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study who were living as married in 1978 (born in 1907–1935) and were either still married (unexposed cohort) or widowed (exposed cohort) at follow-up (in 2002–2006). We ascertained history of marital status and spouse's death by record linkage to the Registry of the Total Population, Statistics Iceland. The outcome measures were as follows: 1) dementia and mild cognitive impairment; and 2) memory, speed of processing, and executive function. During the observation period, 3,007 individuals remained married and 1,363 lost a spouse through death. We did not find any significant associations between loss of a spouse and our outcome variables, except that widowed women had poorer executive function (mean = ?0.08) during the first 2 years after their husbands’ deaths compared with still-married women (mean = 0.09). Our findings do not support the notion that the risk of dementia is increased following the loss of a spouse, yet women demonstrate a seemingly temporary decline in executive function following the death of a partner. PMID:24444551
Williams, Paul T.
Background: Body weight increases with aging. Short-term,longitudinal exercise training studies suggest that increasing exerciseproduces acute weight loss, but it is not clear if the maintenance oflong-term, vigorous exercise attenuates age-related weight gain inproportion to the exercise dose. Methods: Prospective study of 6,119 maleand 2,221 female runners whose running distance changed less than 5 km/wkbetween their baseline and follow-up survey 7 years later. Results: Onaverage, men who ran modest (0-24 km/wk), intermediate (24-48 km/wk) orprolonged distances (>_48 km/wk) all gained weight throughage 64,however, those who ran ?48 km/wk had one-half the average annual weightgain of those who ran<24 km/wk. Age-related weight gain, and itsreduction by running, were both greater in younger than older men. Incontrast, men s gain in waist circumference with age, and its reductionby running, were the same in older and younger men. Women increased theirbody weight and waist and hip circumferences over time, regardless ofage, which was also reduced in proportion to running distance. In bothsexes, running did not attenuate weight gain uniformly, but ratherdisproportionately prevented more extreme increases. Conclusion: Men andwomen who remain vigorously active gain less weight as they age and thereduction is in proportion to the exercise dose.
Fimland, M S; Vie, G; Johnsen, R; Nilsen, T I L; Krokstad, S; Bjørngaard, J H
The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between leisure-time physical activity and risk of disability pension, as well as risk of disability pension because of musculoskeletal or mental disorders in a large population-based cohort. Data on participants aged 20-65 years in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995-1997 (HUNT2) were linked to the National Insurance Database. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for disability pension across physical activity categories. During a follow-up of 9.3 years and 235?657 person-years, 1266 of 13?823 men (9%) and 1734 of 14?531 women (12%) received disability pension. Compared with individuals in the inactive group, those in the highly active group had a 50% lower risk of receiving disability pension (HR for men: 0.50, 0.40-0.64; women: 0.50, 0.39-0.63). After comprehensive adjustment for potential confounders, the risk remained 32-35% lower (HR for men: 0.68, 0.53-0.86; women: 0.65, 0.51-0.83). The associations were stronger for disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders than mental disorders. In summary, we observed strong inverse associations between leisure-time physical activity and disability pension. Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that leisure-time physical activity may be important for occupational health in reducing disability pension. PMID:25487654
Dior, Uri P; Hochner, Hagit; Friedlander, Yechiel; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Jaffe, Dena; Burger, Ayala; Avgil, Meytal; Manor, Orly; Elchalal, Uriel
Purpose To examine the association between parity and long term all-cause mortality and mortality due to specific causes in women. Methods This prospective population-based study included 40,454 mothers who gave birth in Western Jerusalem, Israel, to 125,842 children and were followed for an average of 37 years following the birth of their first child. Cox Proportional Hazards Models were used to evaluate long-term total and specific cause mortality of women by their parity. Results We found a U-shaped relationship between the number of offspring and risk of all-cause mortality in mothers. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and maternal health and obstetric conditions, higher mortality rates were observed for mothers of 1 child (HR=1.18; 95% CI 1.04–1.4), mothers of 5–9 children (HR=1.21;95%CI 1.09–1.33), and mothers of ?10 children (HR=1.49;95%CI 1.12–1.99) as compared to mothers of 2–4 children. Mortality risk from specific causes including coronary disease, circulatory disease, and cancer were increased for multiparous women. Conclusions In this long-term follow-up study, there was an association between number of children mortality risk of mothers. These findings suggest that maternal pregnancies and post-natal characteristics as reflected by number of children may have consequences for long-term maternal health. PMID:23176782
Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander
Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis. PMID:21256719
van der Meijden, J C; Güngör, D; Kruijshaar, M E; Muir, A D J; Broekgaarden, H A; van der Ploeg, A T
Pompe disease is a rare, progressive lysosomal storage disorder for which enzyme therapy (ERT) became available in 2006. Four years earlier, the IPA/Erasmus MC survey, an international longitudinal prospective survey, was established to collect information on the natural course of the disease and its burden on patients. The survey is a collaboration between Erasmus MC University Medical Center and the International Pompe Association (IPA) and comprises an annual questionnaire that was specifically designed to assess the symptoms and problems of the disease. Here we review our results of over 10 years of follow-up, and discuss the survey's contribution to the field. Tracking 408 Pompe patients between 2002 and 2013, the cumulative data reveals the broad range of clinical manifestations that interfere with patients' lives. The survey allowed us to quantify the rate of disease progression and the positive effects of ERT on patients' quality of life, fatigue, and participation in daily life. Furthermore, it showed for the first time that survival is reduced in adult Pompe disease and improved by ERT. Our results show that a patient survey can serve as a valuable and reliable tool for obtaining quantifiable information on the natural course of a rare disease and on the effects of therapy in a large cohort over a very long time. Most importantly, by working with patient reported outcomes, the survey provides the data that is truly relevant to the patient and complementary to clinical datasets. PMID:25112389
Claridge, D. E.; Toole, C.
A study has been initiated to provide follow-up analysis on the persistence of savings achieved from the retrocommissioning of ten buildings on a university campus. The buildings were originally commissioned in 1996, and the energy savings achieved...
Hua-Huy, T; Rivière, S; Tiev, K P; Dinh-Xuan, A T
Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is becoming one of the main causes of death of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The prevalence of ILD associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) varies from 33% to 100% according to diagnostic methods. Clinical features such as dyspnea on exertion, dry cough, and chest pains are not specific and usually late-appearing, implying more specific tests in the diagnostic, prognosis, and follow-up of ILD in patients with SSc. High resolution thoracic CT scanner (HRCT) is more sensitive than chest X-ray in the detection of SSc-ILD. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) are non-invasive and periodically used to assess the impacts of SSc on respiratory function. Diagnostic values of bronchoalveolar lavage and histological examination on lung biopsy are controversial. However, these techniques are essential for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of SSc-ILD. Several biomarkers such as surfactant-A (SP-A), -D (SP-D), mucin-like high molecular weight glycoprotein (KL-6), and chemokine CCL-18 have been implicated in SSc-PID. Serum levels of these proteins are correlated with the severity of SSc-ILD, as assessed by HRCT and/or PFT. Finally, alveolar concentration of exhaled nitric oxide can be used to screen SSc patients with high risk of deterioration of respiratory function, in whom immunosuppressant treatment could be useful in preventing the evolution to irreversible lung fibrosis. PMID:25457218
Appelberg, K; Romanov, K; Heikkilá, K; Honkasalo, M L; Koskenvuo, M
This 6-year follow-up study investigates the impact of interpersonal conflict at work on work disability among 8,021 male and 7,327 female employees aged 24 to 65 years at baseline. Marital status, marital conflict, monotonous work, hectic work pace, hostility, neuroticism, life dissatisfaction, and experienced stress of daily activities were included in survival analyses, which were adjusted for age, social status, and general health status. Interpersonal conflict at work predicted work disability only among women (RR 1.56, CL 1.01-2.39). This risk was confined to women who reported simultaneous marital conflicts (RR 2.54, CL 1.03-6.22). When included in further analyses, life dissatisfaction was a significant risk factor among both genders, but monotonous work, neuroticism, and experienced stress of daily activities were risk factors only among men. These data suggest that interpersonal conflict could be a determinant of work disability, and this indicates the importance of gender and marital factors. PMID:8778398
Lei, Jun H; Liu, Liang R; Wei, Qiang; Song, Tu R; Yang, Lu; Yuan, Hai C; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Huan; Xiong, Sheng H; Han, Ping
In this study, we systematically explored the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) retrospectively by analyzing data of 52 patients diagnosed with EAML at four centers. Our results showed that the onset of EAML was usually inconspicuous, and so no obvious symptoms or signs had occurred in most patients at diagnosis. Its diagnoses always depended on postoperative pathological examination. The immunohistochemical (IHC) results [HMB45 (?+?), cytokeratin (-), and S100 (-)] could be used to differentiate EAML from other malignancies such as renal cell cancer (RCC) and sarcomas. For treatment, surgery resulted in satisfactory short-term prognosis. The long-term prognosis of patients with EAML was poor, particularly when a large size, a high percentage of epithelioid component, tumor thrombus formation, and necrosis were present. In conclusion, EAML is a tumor with malignant potential. Once diagnosed, integrated approaches, including surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, should be considered; a close follow-up regimen is necessary for cases that met: 1) tumor size >9?cm, 2) tumor thrombus formation in the vein, 3) epithelioid cells >70% or atypia cells >60%, and 4) necrosis. PMID:25939249
Klein, H H; Knake, W
Thirty patients with VVI pacemakers (Quantum 253-09, 253-19, Intermedics Inc., Freeport, TX) were observed for a mean of 65 months. Within 12 months after implantation, optimized output programming was performed in 29 patients. This included a decrease in pulse amplitude (22 patients), pulse width (4 patients), and/or pacing rate (11 patients). After 65 months postimplantation, telemetered battery voltage and battery impedance were compared with the predicted values expected when the pulse generator constantly stimulates at nominal program conditions (heart rate 72.3 beats/min, pulse amplitude 5.4 V, pulse width 0.61 ms). Instead of an expected cell voltage of 2.6 V and a cell impedance of 10 k omega mean telemetered values amounted to 2.78 V and 1.4 k omega, respectively. These data correspond to a battery age of 12-15 months at nominal program conditions. This long-term follow-up study suggests that adequate programming will extend battery longevity and thus pulse generator survival in many patients. PMID:2344702
Bassi, A P F; Pioto, R; Faverani, L P; Canestraro, D; Fontão, F G K
A prospective clinical study of maxillary sinus lift procedures in the posterior region of the maxilla, using only blood clot as filling material, was conducted. Seventeen patients underwent a maxillary sinus lift procedure; 20 maxillary sinus regions were operated on and a total of 25 implants were placed. The sinus mucosa was lifted together with the anterior wall of the osteotomized maxilla and supported by the implants placed. Computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained immediately postoperative (Tinitial) and at 3 (T1) and 51 (T2) months postoperative for the measurement of linear bone height and bone density (by grey tones). Only one implant was lost in the first stage (96% success). After dental prosthesis placement and during up to 51 months of follow-up, no implant was lost (100% success, second stage). The difference in mean bone height between Tinitial (5.94mm) and T1 (13.14mm), and between Tinitial and T2 (11.57mm), was statistically significant (both P<0.001); comparison between T1 and T2 also presented a statistical difference (P<0.001). Bone density had increased at the end of the period analyzed, but this was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Thus, the maxillary sinus lift technique with immediate implant placement, filling with blood clot only, may be performed with a high success rate. PMID:25896082
Blomqvist, M; Ahadi, S; Fernell, E; Ek, U; Dahllöf, G
This study tested the hypothesis that adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a higher prevalence of caries than adolescents in a control group. Thirty-two adolescents with ADHD and a control group of 55 adolescents from a population-based sample, all 17 yr of age, underwent a clinical and radiographic dental examination. The mean ± SD number of decayed surfaces (DS) was 2.0 ± 2.2 in adolescents with ADHD and 0.9 ± 1.4 in adolescents of the control group. Thirty-one per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group had no new caries lesions (DS = 0) compared with 62% in the control group. Six per cent of the adolescents in the ADHD group were caries free [decayed, missing or filled surfaces (DMFS) = 0] compared with 29% in the control group. Adolescents with ADHD also had a higher percentage of gingival sites that exhibited bleeding on probing compared with the control group: 35 ± 39% vs. 16 ± 24% (mean ± SD), respectively. At 17 yr of age, adolescents with ADHD exhibited a statistically significantly higher prevalence of caries compared with an age-matched control group. Adolescents with ADHD need more support regarding oral hygiene and dietary habits. They should be followed up with shorter intervals between dental examinations to prevent caries progression during adulthood. PMID:21896055
Kannus, P; Niittymäki, S; Järvinen, M
A one-year prospective follow-up study of all patients visiting Tampere Research Station of Sports Medicine (TRSSM) was carried out in order to determine the specific features of women's sports injuries compared to those of men. During this period 334 women (31%) and 745 men (69%) visited the station. Women were significantly younger than men and the ten most usual sports events causing the injury differed from those of men. In women acute dislocations, contusions, and fractures were significantly less common in men, while women had more frequent stress-related sports injuries. In both sexes the most common sites of trouble were knee, ankle, and lower back, but in women as opposed to men, the metatarsal area, the toes, and the sole were among the ten most usual sites of the injury. Fourteen women (4%) and 49 men (6%) required operative treatment of the injury. The knee was the most common site of operation in both sexes, in women significantly more frequently than in men. PMID:3580728
Chou, Shing-Hsien; Tung, Ying-Chang; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Lung-Sheng; Lin, Chia-Pin; Liou, Eric Jein-Wein; Chang, Chee-Jen; Kung, Suefang; Chu, Pao-Hsien
Background The aim of the present study was to identify the long-term major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in treated periodontitis patients in Taiwan. Methods From the National Health Insurance Research Database (2001-2010), adult patients (? 18 years) with treated periodontitis were identified. Comparison was made between patients with mild form and severe form of treated periodontitis after propensity score matching. The primary end point was the incidence of MACE. Results A total of 32,504 adult patients with treated periodontitis were identified between 2001 and 2010. After propensity score matching, 27,146 patients were preserved for comparison, including 13,573 patients with mild form and 13,573 patients with severe form of treated periodontitis. During follow-up, 728 individuals in mild treated periodontitis group and 1,206 individuals in severe treated periodontitis group had at least 1 MACE event. After adjustment for gender, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus, severe treated periodontitis was associated with a mildly but significantly increased risk of MACE among older patients > 60 years of age (incidence rate ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.46). No association was found among younger patients ? 60 years of age. Conclusions Severe form of treated periodontitis was associated with an increased risk of MACE among older Taiwanese patients, but not among younger Taiwanese patients. We should put more efforts on the improvement of periodontal health to prevent further MACE. PMID:26114433
O'Leary, Emily Marie McHugh; Barrett, Paula; Fjermestad, Krister W
This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13-24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment, 79% of participants from individual therapy and 95% from group therapy had no diagnosis of OCD. These results are near identical to results found at 12 and 18 months follow-ups of the same sample. No significant differences were found between treatment conditions, self-reports of symptom severity, except that depressive symptoms were significantly more pronounced for individual treatment condition, and those in the older age group (19-24 years of age). Results suggest that CBFT for obsessive-compulsive disorder is effective 7 years post-treatment. PMID:19640677
Körver, R J P; Senden, R; Heyligers, I C; Grimm, B
Shoulder-related dysfunction is the second most common musculoskeletal disorder and is an increasing burden on health-care systems. Commonly used clinical questionnaires suffer from subjectivity, pain dominance and a ceiling effect. Objective functional measurement has been identified as a relevant issue in clinical rehabilitation. Inertia based motion analysis (IMA) is a new generation of objective outcome assessment tool; it can produce objective movement parameters while being fast, cheap and easy to operate. In this prospective study, an inertial sensor comprising a three-dimensional accelerometer and gyroscope is attached at the humerus to measure shoulder movements during two motion tasks in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome at baseline and at five-year after treatment. One hundred healthy subjects served as healthy reference database and 15 patients were measured pre- and post-treatment. IMA was better able to detect improvement in shoulder movements compared to the clinical questionnaires (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST); p < 0.05) and was hardly correlated with the clinical questionnaires (Pearson R = 0.39). It may therefore add an objective functional dimension to outcome assessment. The fast assessment (t < 5 min) of a simple motion test makes it suitable for routine clinical follow-up. PMID:24622109
Lei, Jun H.; Liu, Liang R.; Wei, Qiang; Song, Tu R.; Yang, Lu; Yuan, Hai C.; Jiang, Yong; Xu, Huan; Xiong, Sheng H.; Han, Ping
In this study, we systematically explored the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) retrospectively by analyzing data of 52 patients diagnosed with EAML at four centers. Our results showed that the onset of EAML was usually inconspicuous, and so no obvious symptoms or signs had occurred in most patients at diagnosis. Its diagnoses always depended on postoperative pathological examination. The immunohistochemical (IHC) results [HMB45 (?+?), cytokeratin (-), and S100 (-)] could be used to differentiate EAML from other malignancies such as renal cell cancer (RCC) and sarcomas. For treatment, surgery resulted in satisfactory short-term prognosis. The long-term prognosis of patients with EAML was poor, particularly when a large size, a high percentage of epithelioid component, tumor thrombus formation, and necrosis were present. In conclusion, EAML is a tumor with malignant potential. Once diagnosed, integrated approaches, including surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy, should be considered; a close follow-up regimen is necessary for cases that met: 1) tumor size >9?cm, 2) tumor thrombus formation in the vein, 3) epithelioid cells >70% or atypia cells >60%, and 4) necrosis. PMID:25939249
Helene Feveile; Chris Jensen; Hermann Burr
Objectives: A prospective follow-up study of employees in Denmark was analyzed in order to investigate the association between physical and psychosocial exposures and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck-shoulder and wrist-hand regions. Methods: Data were derived from a 5-year follow-up questionnaire study of a sample of employees in Denmark, aged between 18 and 59 years. Occupational and individual background factors were
L. K. Carr; D. Steele; S. Steele; D. Wagner; R. Pruchnic; R. Jankowski; J. Erickson; J. Huard; M. B. Chancellor
We hereby report a 1-year follow-up on eight women in the first North America trial in which stress urinary incontinence (SUI)\\u000a was treated with muscle-derived stem cell injections. Mean and median follow-up in this group was 16.5 and 17 months (range\\u000a 3–24 months). Improvement in SUI was seen in five of eight women, with one achieving total continence. Onset of improvement\\u000a was
Zanarini, Mary C.; Frankenburg, Frances R.; Wedig, Michelle M.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.
Objective This study assesses three main types of cognition: nonpsychotic thought (odd thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, and non-delusional paranoia), quasi-psychotic thought, and true-psychotic thought in borderline patients followed prospectively for 16 years. It also compares the rates of these disturbed cognitions to those reported by axis II comparison subjects. Method The cognitive experiences of 362 inpatients—290 borderline patients and 72 axis II comparison subjects—were assessed at study entry using the cognitive section of the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Their cognitive experiences were reassessed every two years using the same interview. Results Each of the five main types of thought studied was reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients than axis II comparison subjects over time. Each of these types of thought, except true-psychotic thought, declined significantly over time for those in both groups. Eleven of the 17 more specific forms of thought studied were also reported by a significantly higher percentage of borderline patients over the years of follow-up: magical thinking, overvalued ideas, recurrent illusions, depersonalization, derealization, undue suspiciousness, ideas of reference, other paranoid ideation, quasi-psychotic delusions, quasi-psychotic hallucinations, and true-psychotic hallucinations. Fourteen specific forms of thought were found to decline significantly over time for those in both groups: all forms of thought mentioned above except true-psychotic hallucinations plus marked superstitiousness, sixth sense, telepathy, and clairvoyance. Conclusions Disturbed cognitions are common among borderline patients and distinguishing for the disorder. They also decline substantially over time but remain a problem, particularly those of a nonpsychotic nature. PMID:23558452
Introduction A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) comprising a French cohort of systemic sclerosis (SSc) reported several non-HLA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showing a nominal association in the discovery phase. We aimed to identify previously overlooked susceptibility variants by using a follow-up strategy. Methods Sixty-six non-HLA SNPs showing a P value <10-4 in the discovery phase of the French SSc GWAS were analyzed in the first step of this study, performing a meta-analysis that combined data from the two published SSc GWASs. A total of 2,921 SSc patients and 6,963 healthy controls were included in this first phase. Two SNPs, PPARG rs310746 and CHRNA9 rs6832151, were selected for genotyping in the replication cohort (1,068 SSc patients and 6,762 healthy controls) based on the results of the first step. Genotyping was performed by using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results We observed nominal associations for both PPARG rs310746 (PMH?=?1.90?×?10-6, OR, 1.28) and CHRNA9 rs6832151 (PMH?=?4.30?×?10-6, OR, 1.17) genetic variants with SSc in the first step of our study. In the replication phase, we observed a trend of association for PPARG rs310746 (P value?=?0.066; OR, 1.17). The combined overall Mantel-Haenszel meta-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study revealed that PPARG rs310746 remained associated with SSc with a nominal non-genome-wide significant P value (PMH?=?5.00?×?10-7; OR, 1.25). No evidence of association was observed for CHRNA9 rs6832151 either in the replication phase or in the overall pooled analysis. Conclusion Our results suggest a role of PPARG gene in the development of SSc. PMID:24401602
Stelter, Klaus; Ihrler, Stephan; Siedek, Vanessa; Patscheider, Martin; Braun, Thomas; Ledderose, Georg
In the last decade, tonsillotomy has come into vogue again, whereas the number of tonsillectomies is decreasing rapidly. In a previous study, the tonsillotomy with laser or radiofrequency therapy proved as a safe and effective procedure with minimal pain and hemorrhage. This follow-up study determines which method is more effective with respect to long-term outcome, recurrence of tonsillar hyperplasia and recurrence of tonsillitis. A prospective, randomised, double-blinded controlled clinical study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. Twenty-six children with tonsillar hypertrophy were included. Tonsillotomy was performed on one side with monopolar radiofrequency and on the other side with a carbon dioxide laser. Exactly 1 year after the procedure, all 26 patients were documented by digital photography to define a possible recurrence of tonsillar hyperplasia. All parents were asked for occurring tonsillitis and fulfilled the Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory (GCBI) for health-related quality of life after surgical procedures. In seven children, a slightly visible recurrence of the tonsillar hyperplasia occurred, without any symptoms or correlation to the different methods and sides. One child with recurrent tonsillitis and hyperplasia had to be tonsillectomized 8 months after the initial tonsillotomy procedure. The specimen showed open crypts with bacterial infection in the deep. The GCBI resulted in highly significant benefits of the surgery in all categories and subcategories. In conclusion, both methods, the laser tonsillotomy and the radiofrequency method, were equal concerning the effectiveness and safety after 1 year. Further investigations have to aim at the long-term outcome after tonsillotomy in patients with recurrent infections. PMID:21792687
Tommiska, V; Heinonen, K; Kero, P; Pokela, M; Tammela, O; Jarvenpaa, A; Salokorpi, T; Virtanen, M; Fellman, V; Marlow, N
Objective: To study neurodevelopmental outcome in a two year cohort of extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infants at 18 months corrected age, to compare the development of the ELBW infant subcohort with that of control children, and to find risk factors associated with unfavourable outcome. Study design: All 211 surviving ELBW infants (birth weight < 1000 g) born in Finland in 1996–1997 were included in a national survey. The ELBW infants (n = 78) who were born and followed in Helsinki University Hospital belonged to a regional subcohort and were compared with a control group of 75 full term infants. A national follow up programme included neurological, speech, vision, and hearing assessments at 18 months of corrected age. Bayley infant scale assessment was performed on the subcohort and their controls at 24 months of age. Risk factors for unfavourable outcome were estimated using logistic and linear regression models. Results: The prevalence of cerebral palsy was 11%, of all motor impairments 24%, of ophthalmic abnormalities 23%, and of speech delay 42%. No impairment was found in 42% of children, and 18% were classified as severely impaired. The prevalence of ophthalmic abnormalities decreased with increasing birth weight and gestational age, but the prevalence of other impairments did not. In the subcohort, a positive correlation was found between the date of birth and Bayley scores. Conclusion: Ophthalmic abnormalities decreased with increasing birth weight and gestational age, but no other outcome differences were found between birthweight groups or in surviving ELBW infants born at 22–26 weeks gestation. The prognosis in the regional subcohort seemed to improve during the short study period, but this needs to be confirmed. PMID:12496223
Accurate geocentric positions are tabulated at five day intervals for the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune during the ten year period 1986 through 1995. The apparent angular diameters, radial velocities, declinations and mean times of meridian transit of the seven planets and the Sun are graphically depicted for each year in the interval. Appendices are included which discuss the theory of planetary orbits and a FORTRAN program for calculating planetary ephemerides.
Eva Billstedt; Carina Gillberg; Christopher Gillberg
Background: Prospective population-based follow-up study of 120 individuals with autism followed from childhood to adulthood. Methods: Individuals with autism, diagnosed in childhood, were followed prospectively for a period of 13–22 years and re-evaluated at ages 17–40 years. The instruments used at follow-up were the DISCO, WAIS-R, WISC-III, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, psychiatric-medical examination and GAF-scale. A set of criteria was used for
In this article, I analyse the initiation/response/follow-up (IRF) exchanges between teachers and students in teacher-fronted instruction by using transcribed classroom data. Adopting a social constructivist position, I examine ways in which teachers construct or reduce students' learning opportunities in these communications. Furthermore, I…
Kong, Moonkyoo; Hong, Seong Eon
The time to complete or partial (objective) response to radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is variable; thus, the reported frequency of these responses depends on the length of follow-up. However, the optimum follow-up duration is unknown. We sought to determine the optimal follow-up duration by analyzing the medical records of 25 patients with 39 HCC lesions who received definitive helical tomotherapy at a daily dose of 2 to 4 Gy at 5 fractions per week, for a total dose of 40 to 60 Gy, between January 2008 and January 2013. We determined the time to objective treatment response and local recurrence after radiotherapy and assessed several predictors of delayed treatment response. The median follow-up duration was 15.2 months (range, 7.8 to 52.1 months). Among all 39 lesions, objective responses were observed for 36 (92.3%). The median time to objective response was 3.9 months (range, 1.5 to 9.8 months). The objective response rates increased over time from 15.4% at 3 months to 71.8% at 6 months and 87.2% at 9 months. Age 60 years old or older and post-radiotherapy ?-fetoprotein concentrations higher than pre-radiotherapy concentrations predicted delayed treatment response. The objective response rate continued to increase over 9 months. Therefore, to fully evaluate the treatment response of HCC, we recommend continuous observation for at least 9 months after radiotherapy. PMID:25418189
Kong, Moonkyoo; Hong, Seong Eon
The time to complete or partial (objective) response to radiotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is variable; thus, the reported frequency of these responses depends on the length of follow-up. However, the optimum follow-up duration is unknown. We sought to determine the optimal follow-up duration by analyzing the medical records of 25 patients with 39 HCC lesions who received definitive helical tomotherapy at a daily dose of 2 to 4 Gy at 5 fractions per week, for a total dose of 40 to 60 Gy, between January 2008 and January 2013. We determined the time to objective treatment response and local recurrence after radiotherapy and assessed several predictors of delayed treatment response. The median follow-up duration was 15.2 months (range, 7.8 to 52.1 months). Among all 39 lesions, objective responses were observed for 36 (92.3%). The median time to objective response was 3.9 months (range, 1.5 to 9.8 months). The objective response rates increased over time from 15.4% at 3 months to 71.8% at 6 months and 87.2% at 9 months. Age 60 years old or older and post-radiotherapy ?-fetoprotein concentrations higher than pre-radiotherapy concentrations predicted delayed treatment response. The objective response rate continued to increase over 9 months. Therefore, to fully evaluate the treatment response of HCC, we recommend continuous observation for at least 9 months after radiotherapy. PMID:25418189
Reeder, Anthony I.; Jopson, Janet A.; Gray, Andrew
Before the 2005 launch of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP), 242 randomly sampled primary schools completed a mail survey about sun protection policies, practices, curriculum and environment. A 2009 follow-up included 189 (78%) and their mean Total Accreditation Score (TAS = total SSAP requirements met, range 0-12),…
GILLIAN BAIRD; TONY CHARMAN; SIMON BARON-COHEN; ANTONY COX; JOHN SWETTENHAM; SALLY WHEELWRIGHT; AURIOL DREW
ObjectivesA population of 16,235 children aged 18 months was screened using the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT) to identify childhood autism (CA). Two further screening procedures were conducted at age 3 and 5 years. The population was followed up at age 7 years in order to establish the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the instrument.
Olszynski, Wojciech P; Brown, Jacques P; Adachi, Jonathan D; Hanley, David A; Ioannidis, George; Davison, Kenneth S
This study assessed the ability of multisite quantitative ultrasound (mQUS) to predict fracture over a 5-year follow-up. Participants were a subset of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. mQUS-assessed speed of sound (SOS in m/s) at three sites (distal radius, tibia, and phalanx) and extensive questionnaires were completed, after which participants were followed for 5 years and incident fractures recorded. Two survival analyses were completed for each site--a univariate analysis and an adjusted multivariate analysis controlling for age, antiresorptive use, femoral neck bone mineral density, number of diseases, previous fractures, body mass index (BMI), parental history of hip fracture, current smoking, current alcoholic drinks >3 per day, current use of glucocorticoids, and rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis (variables from the FRAX 10-year fracture risk assessment tool). The unit of change for regression analyses was one standard deviation for all measurement sites, specific to site and sex. Separate analyses were completed for all clinical fractures, nonvertebral fractures, and hip fractures by sex. There were 2633 women and 1108 men included, and they experienced 204 incident fractures over 5 years (5.5% fractured). Univariate models revealed statistically significant (p?0.05) predictive ability of mQUS for all three measurement sites for women alone for all three fracture types (one standard deviation decrease in SOS was associated with a 52% to 130% increase in the risk of fracture), but not for the men's group. The adjusted model found that measures at the distal radius and tibia in the women's group could significantly (p?0.05) predict all clinical fractures and nonvertebral fractures within the next 5 years (one standard deviation decrease in SOS was associated with a 25% to 31% increase in the risk of fracture). mQUS provided significant 5-year clinical fracture prediction in women, independent of bone mineral density and other significant risk factors for fracture, when measured at the distal radius and tibia sites. PMID:23519952
Schelling, Xavi; Calleja-González, Julio; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Terrados, Nicolás
The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time (PT), and phase of the season. We performed a follow-up study during 4 consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of PT, positional role, and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on 20 professional male basketball players (27.0 ± 4.2 years; 24.4 ± 1.2 kg·m). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4-6 weeks, always after a 24- to 36-hour break after the last game played. Statistical procedures were nonparametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forward (PF) showed the lowest TT values (median ± interquartile range [IQR]; PF: 18.1 ± 4.9; nmol·L), and small forwards showed the highest ones of cortisol (0.55 ± 0.118 ?mol·L). Players who played between 13 and 25 minutes per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L) and TT/C (47.1 ± 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of cortisol) and that is necessary to take into account according to PT (>25-minute per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and cortisol is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements. PMID:25144130
Heikinheimo, Terttu; Chimbayo, Daniel; Kumwenda, Johnstone J.; Kampondeni, Sam; Allain, Theresa J.
Background Stroke contributes significantly to disability and mortality in developing countries yet little is known about the determinants of stroke outcomes in such countries. 12% of Malawian adults have HIV/AIDS. It is not known whether having HIV-infection alters the outcome of stroke. The aim of this study was to document the functional outcome and mortality at 1 year of first-ever acute stroke in Malawi. Also to find out if the baseline variables, including HIV-infection, affect the outcome of stroke. Methods and Findings 147 adult patients with first-ever acute stroke were prospectively followed up for 12 months. Conventional risk factors and HIV-infection were assessed at baseline. Stroke severity was evaluated with modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (mNIHSS) and functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS). Fifty (34%) of patients were HIV-seropositive. 53.4% of patients had a poor outcome (severe disability or death, mRS 4–6) at 1 year. Poor outcome was related to stroke severity and female gender but not to presence of HIV-infection. HIV-seropositive patients were younger and had less often common risk factors for stroke. They suffer more often ischemic stroke than HIV-seronegative patients. Conclusions Mild stroke and male gender were associated with favourable outcome. HIV-infection is common in stroke patients in Malawi but does not worsen the outcome of stroke. However, it may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke for young people, who do not have the common stroke risk factors. Our results are significant, because stroke outcome in HIV-seropositive patients has not been studied before in a setting such as ours, with very limited resources and a high prevalence of HIV. PMID:22479439
Vikat, A; Rimpela, A; Kosunen, E; Rimpela, M
Study objective: To analyse sociodemographic differences in the occurrence of pregnancies to 14 to 19 year olds and changes in these differences from 1987 to 1998. Design: Follow up of adolescent survey respondents using registers. Setting and subjects: The dataset includes information on all registered pregnancies (abortions, births, and miscarriages, n=2743) of the female respondents (n=28 914) to the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey (AHLS) from 1987 to 1998. In the AHLS, self administered questionnaires were mailed every second year to independent samples of 12, 14, 16, and 18 year olds representative for Finland. Main outcome measure: Relative risk (hazard) of becoming pregnant at teenage. Main results: Girls from lower socioeconomic background had a higher pregnancy risk. Girls who did not live with both parents at the baseline survey had higher pregnancy risk than those who did, and girls who lived in a stepfamily had a higher risk than those who lived in a one parent family. Swedish speaking girls had a lower pregnancy risk than the Finnish speaking girls. There was no systematic change from 1987 to 1998 in most sociodemographic differentials in the teenage pregnancy risk, however, there was some increase in the differences by family structure. Changes in the sociodemographic structure did not explain the levelling off of the downward trend in teenage pregnancy risk, nor did the regional socioeconomic differences explain regional differentials in teenage pregnancy risk. Conclusion: Although the reduction of socioeconomic and regional differences has been a general objective in Finnish social and health policies, the relative differences in teenage pregnancies have not decreased. PMID:12177081
Lanckriet, C; Lévy-Bruhl, D; Bingono, E; Siopathis, R M; Guérin, N
The efficacy of Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) vaccination given at birth is still controversial, therefore a study was conducted in Bangui, Central African Republic, to estimate the protection afforded over the first 7 years of life by BCG administered at birth. 1000 children who had lived in contact with a recently diagnosed case of contagious tuberculosis (TB) were followed up from May 1989 to February 1991 in order to detect the occurrence of TB. 896 of them were considered as vaccinated. Diagnosis of TB was made through a scoring system endorsed by the World Health Organization. Contact children with a score of or= 6 were considered to have TB. Four groups of children were formed in order to calculate the risk of TB in relation to vaccination status: children with TB who had been vaccinated, children with TB who had not been vaccinated, healthy children who had been vaccinated, and healthy children who had not been vaccinated. Vaccine efficacy (VE) was calculated on the basis of the relative risk of contracting TB according to vaccination status. Of the 1000 contact children, 91 had a score of or= 6. The TB incidence rate was 7.3% in vaccinated children and 25% in nonvaccinated children, which corresponded to a 0.29 relative risk of contracting TB or efficacy of BCG of 71% (95%, confidence interval: 56-81%). This result remained practically the same after changing the definition used for TB cases (VE = 75% for a threshold with a score of 15 instead of 6, VE = 74% when only confirmed cases were considered). There was no difference between the 2 groups in the variables measuring intensity of contact with the source of contamination, but there was a difference in age distribution. BCG vaccination at birth must remain a public health priority, especially in countries with high incidence of the disease in view of the protective capacity of neonatal BCG against childhood TB. PMID:8557438
Boschman, Julitta S.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H.W.; van der Molen, Henk F.
Background The physical work demands of construction work can be reduced using ergonomic measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of ergonomic measures related to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among construction workers. Methods A questionnaire was sent at baseline and 2 years later to 1,130 construction workers. We established (1) the proportion of workers reporting an increase in their use of ergonomic measures, (2) the proportion of workers reporting a decrease in MSDs, (3) the relative risk for an increase in the use of ergonomic measures and a decrease in MSDs, and (4) workers' knowledge and opinions about the use of ergonomic measures. Results At follow-up, response rate was 63% (713/1,130). The proportion of workers using ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased (34%, 144/419, p < 0.01); for measures regarding horizontal transport and the positioning of materials, no change was reported. The proportion of workers reporting shoulder complaints decreased (28%, 176/638, p = 0.02). A relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was not found; 83% (581/704) of the workers indicated having sufficient knowledge about ergonomic measures. Lightening the physical load was reported to be the main reason for using them. Conclusion Only the use of ergonomic measures for vertical transport increased over a 2-year period. No relationship between the use of ergonomic measures and MSDs was found. Strategies aimed at improving the availability of ergonomic equipment complemented with individualized advice and training in using them might be the required next steps to increase the use of ergonomic measures.
The purpose of this cohort study is to shed further light on the potential carcinogenic effect indicated by a Swedish case control study of the 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro-ortho-cresol based phenoxy herbicides, unlikely to be contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD). In the present study it was the intention to include all persons employed in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides in Denmark before 1982. The predominant product was MCPA and only a very limited amount of 2,4,5-T was processed in one of the two factories included in the study. Registration of the cohort was based on company records, supplemented with data from a public pension scheme from 1964 onwards. Ninety-nine percent of registered employees could be followed up. Cancer cases were identified by linkage with the National Cancer Register. Totals of 3,390 males and 1,069 females were included in the study. In the analysis special attention was given to soft tissue sarcomas (STS) and malignant lymphomas (ML) which are the diagnostic groups indicated to be associated with exposure to phenoxy herbicides in the Swedish studies. Five cases of STS were observed among male employees in contrast to 1.84 expected cases. This result supports the Swedish observation of an increased risk of STS following exposure to phenoxy herbicides unlikely to be contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. However, several potential biases have to be taken into account in interpretation of this observation and these are discussed. Seven cases of ML were observed among male employees in contrast to 5.37 expected which does not support the Swedish observation of an excess risk. The total cancer risk among persons employed in manufacture and packaging of phenoxy herbicides was equivalent to the cancer risk in the Danish population. Among males thus employed 11 lung cancer cases were observed in contrast to 5.33 expected. Attention should be given to exposure to spray dried MCPA-sodium salt in the plants, but other work place exposures and tobacco consumption may have contributed to the increased risk. The tabulation of data by many diagnostic groups may explain the excesses observed for rectum cancer among males and cervical cancer among females. The study has revealed that several potential biases have to be taken into account when the Swedish observations are tested in other settings. PMID:4027168
Pou Ucha, J L; Nogueiras Alonso, J M; Alvarez Paez, A M; Suarez Arfenoni, B A; Puig, A Serena; Lopez Lopez, A M; Barandela Salgado, J; Campos Villarino, L M; Casal Rivas, M; Guitian Iglesias, R
Although they have proven effectiveness, radiofrequency and microwave ablation techniques have a high rate of partial responses. Diagnostic studies that anticipate the changes in morphology are essential for earlier detection of residual viable tumor tissue or local recurrences to identify patients who will benefit from a new treatment. Our study has determined the diagnostic yield of PET/CT studies at baseline and follow-up and adequate time between them and the ablation intervention. Seven patients with single tumor lesion with a total of 8 ablations were included. CT and PET/CT studies were performed at baseline and follow-up after ablation. Average times between PET studies at baseline and follow-up and the ablative therapy were 1.8 and 3.4 months, respectively. Mean scores in metabolic activities of the PET at baseline and follow-up were 7.6 and 4.3g/ml of SUVmax, respectively. The Dual Time Point technique helped to identify viable tissue after ablation in 3 cases. Follow-up PET/CT studies have conditioned the various treatment strategies adopted by clinical oncologists. The high yield of the PET/CT study including the Dual Time Point technique may be considered as a study replacement of initial and follow-up Contrast-Enhanced CT before and after treatment with RFA and AMO, this achieving considerable reduction in the exposure to high radiation levels. We propose conducting the first PET/CT follow-up study at 3 months of the RFA and AMO. PMID:23084012
Zimmerman, Woodford W.
In fall 1981, a follow-up study was conducted at the Ohio State University (OSU) at Lima to obtain information from former students regarding their personal characteristics, formal education activities since leaving OSU, and their evaluations of OSU. Survey instruments were sent to a random sample of 4,000 of the 16,000 students who had attended…
Introduction Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disorder affecting exocrine glands; however, a subgroup of pSS patients experience systemic extra-glandular involvement leading to a worsening of disease prognosis. Current therapeutic options are mainly empiric and often translated by other autoimmune diseases. In the last few years growing evidence suggests that B-cell depletion by rituximab (RTX) is effective also in pSS. Patients with early active disease appear to be those who could benefit the most from RTX. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of RTX in comparison to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in early active pSS patients. Methods Forty-one patients with early pSS and active disease (EULAR Sjogren’s syndrome disease activity index, ESSDAI???6) were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated with either RTX or DMARDs in two different Rheumatology centers and followed up for 120 weeks. Clinical assessment was performed by ESSDAI every 12 weeks up to week 120 and by self-reported global disease activity pain, sicca symptoms and fatigue on visual analogic scales, unstimulated saliva flow and Schirmer’s I test at week 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120. Laboratory assessment was performed every 12 weeks to week 120. Two labial minor salivary gland (MSG) biopsies were obtained from all patients at the time of inclusion in the study and at week 120. Results Our study demonstrated that RTX treatment results in a faster and more pronounced decrease of ESSDAI and other clinical parameters compared to DMARDs treatment. No adverse events were reported in the two groups. We also observed that RTX is able to reduce glandular infiltrate, interfere with B/T compartmentalization and consequently with the formation of ectopic lymphoid structures and germinal center-like structures in pSS-MSGs. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study performed in a large cohort of early active pSS patients for a period of 120 weeks. We showed that RTX is a safe and effective agent to be employed in pSS patients with systemic, extra-glandular involvement. Furthermore, our data on pSS-MSGs provide additional biological basis to employ RTX in this disease. PMID:24286296
Robins, Diana L.; Ventola, Pamela E.; Pandey, Juhi; Boorstein, Hilary C.; Esser, Emma L.; Wilson, Leandra B.; Rosenthal, Michael A.; Sutera, Saasha; Verbalis, Alyssa D.; Barton, Marianne; Hodgson, Sarah; Green, James; Dumont-Mathieu, Thyde; Volkmar, Fred; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Klin, Ami; Fein, Deborah
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often go undetected in toddlers. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) was used to screen 3,793 children aged 16–30 months from low- and high-risk sources; screen positive cases were diagnostically evaluated. Re-screening was performed on 1,416 children aged 42–54 months. Time 1 Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was .36 for the initial screening and .74 for the screening plus follow-up telephone interview; values were similar for Time 2 PPV. When separating referral sources, PPV was low for the low-risk sample but acceptable with the follow-up telephone interview. Children with ASD from the low-risk and high-risk samples were highly similar. Results indicate that the M-CHAT continues to be a promising instrument for the early detection of ASD. PMID:17882539
Allik, Hiie; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Smedje, Hans
The course of sleep patterns over 2-3 years was compared between 16 school-age children with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children, using 1-week actigraphy at baseline and follow-up. At baseline (mean age 11.1 years), children with AS/HFA had longer sleep latency and…
M J Shipley; S J Pocock; M G Marmot
OBJECTIVE--To explore the extent to which the relation between plasma cholesterol concentration and risk of death from coronary heart disease in men persists into old age. DESIGN--18 year follow up of male Whitehall civil servants. Plasma cholesterol concentrations and other risk factors were determined at first examination in 1967-9 when they were aged 40-69. Death of men up to 31
Kim, Soo-Hyun; Cho, Yun-Woo; Lee, Dong-Gyu
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of intradiscal methylene blue (MB) injection in patients with chronic discogenic low back pain. Method Twenty patients with discogenic low back pain (4 males, 16 females; mean age 45.6 years) refractory to conservative management were recruited. All subjects underwent MB injection in target lumbar intervertebral discs confirmed by provocative discography. The clinical outcome was assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) at baseline and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Successful outcome was described as minimum of 2 points reduction in pain intensity compared with the baseline. Results VAS and ODI significantly decreased after one injection. The average VAS and ODI were reduced significantly from 5.1 and 38.0 at baseline to 3.2 and 27.4 at 3 months after injection (p<0.05). However, the mean score of VAS at 12 month follow-up was 4.5 and we could not observe any difference between 12 months after injection and pretreatment. Eleven of twenty patients (55%) reported successful outcomes after intradiscal MB injection at 3 month follow up and the average VAS was reduced by 3.3±1.1 (p<0.05). At the time of 12 month follow up, pain had relapsed in 6 patients who have had satisfactory effect at 3 month follow up. Successful outcome was maintained in only 5 patients (20%) for 1 year. Conclusion The intradiscal MB injection is a short-term effective minimally invasive treatment indicated for discogenic back pain but it may lose its effectiveness long-term. PMID:23185730
Sillanpää, Matti; Saarinen, Maiju; Schmidt, Dieter
Clinical conditions of long-term cure in childhood-onset epilepsy, defined as sustained remission off antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment, are not well known. To address that clinically important question, we determined clinical factors predictive of long-term seizure cure in a population-based cohort of 133 patients followed up since their first seizure before the age of 16 years. At the end of the 45-year follow-up (mean=39.8, median=44, range=11-47), 81 (61%) of the 133 patients had entered at least 5-year remission off AEDs, meeting our definition of cure. The 81 patients were seizure-free off AEDs for a mean of 34.4 (median=38, range=6-46) years and 59 (73%) of the 81 patients following the first standard medication until the end of follow-up (mean=36.5, median=39, range=14-46 years). Four independent factors were found to be associated with cure compared with having seizures while on AEDs: seizure frequency less than weekly during the first 12 months of AED treatment (p=0.002), pretreatment seizure frequency less than weekly (p=0.002), higher IQ (>70; p=0.021), and idiopathic or cryptogenic vs. symptomatic etiology (p=0.042). Patients with seizure frequency of less than once a week during early treatment and idiopathic etiology had a ninefold chance to of being cured since the onset of the first adequate antiepileptic therapy until the end of follow-up compared with patients who a symptomatic etiology had at least weekly seizures while on AEDs (RR=8.7, 95% CI=2.0-37.0; p<0.001). In conclusion, IQ, etiology, and seizure frequencies both in the first year of AED treatment and prior to medication appear to be clinical predictors of cure in childhood-onset epilepsy. PMID:24975821
Eke, Angela W; Seto, Michael C; Williams, Jennette
We examined police occurrence and criminal records data for a sample of 201 registered male child pornography offenders originally reported by Seto and Eke (Sex Abus J Res Treat 17:201-210, 2005), extending the average follow-up time for this sample to 5.9 years. In addition, we obtained the same data for another 340 offenders, increasing our full sample to 541 men, with a total average follow-up of 4.1 years. In the extended follow-up of the original sample, 34% of offenders had new charges for any type of reoffense, with 6% charged with a contact sexual offense against a child and an additional 3% charged with historical contact sex offenses (i.e., previously undetected offenses). For the full sample, there was a 32% any recidivism rate; 4% of offenders were charged with new contact sex offences, an additional 2% of offenders were charged with historical contact sex offenses and 7% of offenders were charged with a new child pornography offense. Predictors of new violent (including sexual contact) offending were prior offense history, including violent history, and younger offender age. Approximately a quarter of the sample was sanctioned for a failure on conditional release; in half of these failures, the offenders were in contact with children or used the internet, often to access pornography again. PMID:21088873
Background Sickness absence increases with lower socioeconomic status. However, it is not well known how this relation depends on specific aspects of sickness absence or the degree to which socioeconomic differences in sickness absence may be explained by other factors. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in sickness absence among occupational groups in a large general hospital; how they depend on combinations of frequency and duration of sickness absence spells; and if they could be explained by self-reported general health, personal factors and work factors. Methods The design is a 1-year prospective cohort study of 2331 hospital employees. Baseline information include job title, work unit, perceived general health, work factors and personal factors recorded from hospital administrative files or by questionnaire (response rate 84%). Sickness absence during follow-up was divided into short (1-3 days), medium (4-14 days) and long (>14 days) spells, and into no absence, "normal" absence (1-3 absences of certain durations) and "abnormal" absence (any other absence than "normal"). Socioeconomic status was assessed by job titles grouped in six occupational groups by level of education (from doctors to cleaners/porters). Effects of occupational group on sickness absence were adjusted for significant effects of age, gender, general health, personal factors and work factors. We used Poisson or logistic regression analysis to estimate the effects of model covariates (rate ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR)) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results With a few exceptions sickness absence increased with decreasing socioeconomic status. However, the social gradient was quite different for different types of sickness absence. The gradient was strong for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, and weak for all spells, short spells, long spells and "normal" absence. For cleaners compared to doctors the adjusted risk estimates increased 4.2 (95% CI 2.8-6.2) and 7.4 (95% CI 3.3-16) times for medium spells and "abnormal" absence, respectively, while the similar changes varied from 0.79 to 2.8 for the other absence outcomes. General health explained some of the social gradient. Work factors and personal factors did not. Conclusions The social gradient in sickness absence was different for absences of different duration and patterns. It was strongest for absences of medium length and "abnormal" absence. The social gradient was not explained by other factors. PMID:20973979
Krewski, Daniel; Jerrett, Michael; Burnett, Richard T; Ma, Renjun; Hughes, Edward; Shi, Yuanli; Turner, Michelle C; Pope, C Arden; Thurston, George; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Beckerman, Bernie; DeLuca, Pat; Finkelstein, Norm; Ito, Kaz; Moore, D K; Newbold, K Bruce; Ramsay, Tim; Ross, Zev; Shin, Hwashin; Tempalski, Barbara
We conducted an extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society (ACS) Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) cohort in order to further examine associations between long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality in large U.S. cities. The current study sought to clarify outstanding scientific issues that arose from our earlier HEI-sponsored Reanalysis of the original ACS study data (the Particle Epidemiology Reanalysis Project). Specifically, we examined (1) how ecologic covariates at the community and neighborhood levels might confound and modify the air pollution-mortality association; (2) how spatial autocorrelation and multiple levels of data (e.g., individual and neighborhood) can be taken into account within the random effects Cox model; (3) how using land-use regression to refine measurements of air pollution exposure to the within-city (or intra-urban) scale might affect the size and significance of health effects in the Los Angeles and New York City regions; and (4) what exposure time windows may be most critical to the air pollution-mortality association. The 18 years of follow-up (extended from 7 years in the original study [Pope et al. 1995]) included vital status data for the CPS-II cohort (approximately 1.2 million participants) with multiple cause-of-death codes through December 31, 2000 and more recent exposure data from air pollution monitoring sites for the metropolitan areas. In the Nationwide Analysis, the influence of ecologic covariate data (such as education attainment, housing characteristics, and level of income; data obtained from the 1980 U.S. Census; see Ecologic Covariates sidebar on page 14) on the air pollution-mortality association were examined at the Zip Code area (ZCA) scale, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) scale, and by the difference between each ZCA value and the MSA value (DIFF). In contrast to previous analyses that did not directly include ecologic covariates at the ZCA scale, risk estimates increased when ecologic covariates were included at all scales. The ecologic covariates exerted their greatest effect on mortality from ischemic heart disease (IHD), which was also the health outcome most strongly related with exposure to PM2.5 (particles 2.5 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and the only outcome significantly associated with exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2). When ecologic covariates were simultaneously included at both the MSA and DIFF levels, the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality from IHD associated with PM2.5 exposure (average concentration for 1999-2000) increased by 7.5% and that associated with SO4(2-) exposure (average concentration for 1990) increased by 12.8%. The two covariates found to exert the greatest confounding influence on the PM2.5-mortality association were the percentage of the population with a grade 12 education and the median household income. Also in the Nationwide Analysis, complex spatial patterns in the CPS-II data were explored with an extended random effects Cox model (see Glossary of Statistical Terms at end of report) that is capable of clustering up to two geographic levels of data. Using this model tended to increase the HR estimate for exposure to air pollution and also to inflate the uncertainty in the estimates. Including ecologic covariates decreased the variance of the results at both the MSA and ZCA scales; the largest decrease was in residual variation based on models in which the MSA and DIFF levels of data were included together, which suggests that partitioning the ecologic covariates into between-MSA and within-MSA values more completely captures the sources of variation in the relationship between air pollution, ecologic covariates, and mortality. Intra-Urban Analyses were conducted for the New York City and Los Angeles regions. The results of the Los Angeles spatial analysis, where we found high exposure contrasts within the Los Angeles region, showed that air pollution-mortality risks were nearly 3 times greater than those reported fro
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bucharest (Romania). European Centre for Higher Education.
This volume consists of representative case studies from institutions in Central and Eastern European countries engaged in the reform of higher education. The case studies are structured with the aid of a questionnaire completed by the contributors. The studies are: (1) "Bulgaria: The University of Ruse--Institutional Change in the Bulgarian…
Elliott, Martin J; De Coppi, Paolo; Speggiorin, Simone; Roebuck, Derek; Butler, Colin R; Samuel, Edward; Crowley, Claire; McLaren, Clare; Fierens, Anja; Vondrys, David; Cochrane, Lesley; Jephson, Christopher; Janes, Samuel; Beaumont, Nicholas J; Cogan, Tristan; Bader, Augustinus; Seifalian, Alexander M; Hsuan, J Justin; Lowdell, Mark W; Birchall, Martin A
Summary Background Stem-cell-based, tissue engineered transplants might offer new therapeutic options for patients, including children, with failing organs. The reported replacement of an adult airway using stem cells on a biological scaffold with good results at 6 months supports this view. We describe the case of a child who received a stem-cell-based tracheal replacement and report findings after 2 years of follow-up. Methods A 12-year-old boy was born with long-segment congenital tracheal stenosis and pulmonary sling. His airway had been maintained by metal stents, but, after failure, a cadaveric donor tracheal scaffold was decellularised. After a short course of granulocyte colony stimulating factor, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were retrieved preoperatively and seeded onto the scaffold, with patches of autologous epithelium. Topical human recombinant erythropoietin was applied to encourage angiogenesis, and transforming growth factor ? to support chondrogenesis. Intravenous human recombinant erythropoietin was continued postoperatively. Outcomes were survival, morbidity, endoscopic appearance, cytology and proteomics of brushings, and peripheral blood counts. Findings The graft revascularised within 1 week after surgery. A strong neutrophil response was noted locally for the first 8 weeks after surgery, which generated luminal DNA neutrophil extracellular traps. Cytological evidence of restoration of the epithelium was not evident until 1 year. The graft did not have biomechanical strength focally until 18 months, but the patient has not needed any medical intervention since then. 18 months after surgery, he had a normal chest CT scan and ventilation-perfusion scan and had grown 11 cm in height since the operation. At 2 years follow-up, he had a functional airway and had returned to school. Interpretation Follow-up of the first paediatric, stem-cell-based, tissue-engineered transplant shows potential for this technology but also highlights the need for further research. Funding Great Ormond Street Hospital NHS Trust, The Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust, University College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and Region of Tuscany. PMID:22841419
Weizman, Lior, E-mail: email@example.com [School of Engineering and Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [School of Engineering and Computer Science, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Sira, Liat Ben [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)] [Department of Radiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel); Joskowicz, Leo [School of Engineering and Computer Science and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)] [School of Engineering and Computer Science and The Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences (ELSC), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)] [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel); Bashat, Dafna Ben [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)] [Tel Aviv Medical Center, Functional Brain Center, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel)
Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.
Lahelma, Eero; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kivimäki, Mika; Martikainen, Pekka; Ferrie, Jane; Marmot, Michael; Shipley, Martin; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Lallukka, Tea
We examined whether relative occupational social class inequalities in physical health functioning widen, narrow or remain stable among white collar employees from three affluent countries. Health functioning was assessed twice in occupational cohorts from Britain (1997-1999 and 2003-2004), Finland (2000-2002 and 2007) and Japan (1998-1999 and 2003). Widening inequalities were seen for British and Finnish men, whereas inequalities among British and Finnish women remained relatively stable. Japanese women showed reverse inequalities at follow up, but no health inequalities were seen among Japanese men. Health behaviours and social relations explained 4-37% of the magnitude in health inequalities, but not their widening. PMID:25545770
John Carpenter; Anna Luce; David Wooff
Introduction Assertive outreach (AO) is a required component of services for people with severe mental illness in England. However, the\\u000a claims to its effectiveness have been contested and the relationships between team organisation, including model fidelity,\\u000a the use of mental health interventions and outcomes for service users remain unclear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Three-year follow up of 33 AO teams was conducted using standardised measures
Miltenberger, R G; Wagaman, J R; Arndorfer, R E
A simplified treatment for stuttering, involving awareness and competing response training, was implemented with two adult stutterers. The procedures resulted in a decrease in stuttering during reading and conversation for both subjects, although only one subject achieved the criterion of less than 3% stuttered words. Long-term follow up (1.5 years and 2 years 3 months) indicated that gains were maintained by one subject while stuttering increased somewhat for the other subject. Both subjects rated the treatment as acceptable and credible and indicated satisfaction with the results. Social validity ratings indicated greatly improved fluency from baseline to post-treatment. PMID:8894917
Jesús Alberdi-Sudupe; Salvador Pita-Fernández; Sonia M Gómez-Pardiñas; Fernando Iglesias-Gil-de-Bernabé; Jorge García-Fernández; Gonzalo Martínez-Sande; Sara Lantes-Louzao; Sonia Pértega-Díaz
Background Suicide and suicide attempts represent a severe problem for public health services. The aim of this study is to determine\\u000a the socio-demographic and psychopathological variables associated with suicide attempts in the population admitted to a General\\u000a Hospital.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods An observational-descriptive study of patients admitted to the A Coruña University Hospital (Spain) during the period 1997-2007,\\u000a assessed by the Consultation and Liaison
OBJECTIVES: Endometriosis has been believed to increase the risk of developing ovarian cancer, but recent data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. The aim of this study was to verify whether the incidence of endometriosis, ovarian cancer and the both increased during the last 10 years among women living in the Estrie region of Quebec. METHODS: We collected data of women
Sauerbruch, T; Holl, J; Sackmann, M; Paumgartner, G
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of pancreatic duct stones (largest stone 12 (SD) 6 mm) was performed in 24 patients with abdominal pain and a dilated duct system (main pancreatic duct 10 (3) mm). The procedure was well tolerated in all but two patients, who had a mild pancreatitic attack immediately after lithotripsy. Disintegration of the stones was achieved in 21 patients. This allowed complete clearance of the duct system by an endoscopic approach in 10 (42%) patients and partial clearance in 7 (29%) patients. Within a mean follow up period of 24 (14) months half of the patients showed complete or considerable relief of pain and alleviation of symptoms was achieved in seven patients. Relief of pain occurred more often after complete ductal clearance. There were no fatalities within the follow up period. These findings underline the value of a combined non-surgical approach, using endoscopy and adjuvant shock wave lithotripsy to patients with large pancreatic calculi and pain attacks. Images p970-a PMID:1644340
A run-in period is a time of observation prior to randomization during which potential subjects can be screened for compliance with a treatment regimen. In this study, the run-in period increased the number of compliant participants, decreased losses to follow-up, improved the statistical power of the study, and did not limit the generalizability of the study results.
Jewell, Jeremy D; Malone, Michael D; Rose, Paul; Sturgeon, Dennis; Owens, Sarah
The present study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral group therapy program titled Community Opportunity Growth. This study monitored juvenile delinquents' recidivism across a 7-year time period, with the average length to follow-up being 39 months. It was hypothesized that program graduates (N = 178) would have a significantly lower recidivism rate than a control group (program nonstarters; N = 66) and program dropouts (whose predisposing factors may have influenced their program participation; N = 150). Analyses controlled for sex, ethnicity, age, prior petitions, highest class of prior petition, and months to follow-up. Results show a general trend indicating the long-term effectiveness of the program as graduates had a lower incidence of petitions at follow-up compared with dropouts and fewer petitions compared with the other two groups. PMID:24170185
Background Suicide and suicide attempts represent a severe problem for public health services. The aim of this study is to determine the socio-demographic and psychopathological variables associated with suicide attempts in the population admitted to a General Hospital. Methods An observational-descriptive study of patients admitted to the A Coruña University Hospital (Spain) during the period 1997-2007, assessed by the Consultation and Liaison Psychiatric Unit. We include n = 5,234 admissions from 4,509 patients. Among these admissions, n = 361 (6.9%) were subsequent to a suicide attempt. Admissions arising from a suicide attempt were compared with admissions occurring due to other reasons. Multivariate generalised estimating equation logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with suicide attempts. Results Adjusting by age, gender, educational level, cohabitation status, being employed or unemployed, the psychiatric diagnosis at the time of the interview and the information on previous suicide attempts, we found that the variables associated with the risk of a suicide attempt were: age, psychiatric diagnosis and previous suicide attempts. The risk of suicide attempts decreases with age (OR = 0.969). Psychiatric diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of suicide attempts, with the highest risk being found for Mood or Affective Disorders (OR = 7.49), followed by Personality Disorders (OR = 7.31), and Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders (OR = 5.03). The strongest single predictive factor for suicide attempts was a prior history of attempts (OR = 23.63). Conclusions Age, psychopathological diagnosis and previous suicide attempts are determinants of suicide attempts. PMID:21453478
Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M; Marañón, Teodoro
Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be also involved in this process. PMID:25532130
Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V.; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M.; Marañón, Teodoro
Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species – the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be also involved in this process. PMID:25532130
Dramé, B S I; Diarra, A; Diani, N; Dabo, A
A retrospective study has been performed on snakebites from January 1993 to December 2002 in the national hospitals Gabriel-Touré, in Bamako, and Kati. It aimed to establish a synthesis of epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects from snakebites. Eight hundred thirty-two snakebites were recorded during this period. Men were mostly represented: 72 versus 28% of women. The average age was 28 ± 18 years. Farmers were most affected (28%). Most bites occurred between 16 and 20 hours, during the fieldwork and pasture in 44% cases. Lower limbs (73.8%) were more involved than hands (25.8%). Although the type of snake has not been determined, the clinical picture was that of viper syndrome, the severity of which was assessed by the grade of bleeding, edema, renal involvement (15.8%), and neurological disorders (13.3%). Antivenom was administered to 40.6% of patients whose case fatality rate was 2.8%, whereas it was 8.1% in its absence. The case fatality rate associated with serum therapy varied according to the antivenin, 1.5% with the antivenoms manufactured in Europe and 4% with those manufactured in Asia. Five parturients had a favorable outcome with antivenom. The initial management was carried out by traditional healers in 49.7% of cases. The annual case fatality rate decreased gradually from 12% in 1995 to 3% in 2002. The incidence of snakebite is greatly underestimated in hospitals because of inadequate records. PMID:22707257
Marulappa, Vamadeva Giriyapura; Manjunath, Renuka; Mahesh Babu, Nakul; Maligegowda, Laxman
Background Tetanus still remains a major public health problem in India like in most other developing countries, with a high morbidity and mortality. Objectives To study the socio-demographic profile and the clinical profile that they presented with, as well as the outcome of the tetanus patients who were admitted to the E.D Hospital, Mysore in India. Methodology The data of all the patients of tetanus who were above the age of 15 years, who were admitted from January 2001 to December 2010, were collected, compiled and analyzed from the Medical Records Department of the Hospital. Results Out of the 512 cases of tetanus, 379 (74%) were males and 133 (26%) were females. Their ages varied from 15 to 81 years, with a mean and a standard deviation respectively of 47.7 and 15.0 years. The overall mortality rate was 42.2%. The most common presenting symptoms were trismus (95.7%), neck stiffness (89.3%), body spasms/stiffness (73%) and dysphagia (38.9%). The ages of the patients and the presence of complications had a statistically significant relationship with respect to the outcome (survival versus death). PMID:23205351
Booker, Alexandria; Malcarne, Vanessa; Sadler, Georgia Robins
The public is encouraged to participate in cancer education programs because it is believed that acquiring health-promoting knowledge will motivate participants to make the recommended, evidence-based behavioral modifications that should lead to reductions in cancer morbidity and mortality. Because of the extended time that elapses between conducting a health education program and the amassing of the scientific evidence needed to establish that an education program has ultimately resulted in a reduction in morbidity and mortality, researchers have sought more proximal and intermediate outcome measures as substitutes for the more distal desired outcomes. This paper presents an analysis of research published in the Journal of Cancer Education from 2000 through 2010, in which the impact of cancer education interventions was evaluated. The focus was to identify the proximal, intermediate, and distal outcome measures used to evaluate the impact of cancer education interventions. The results show that researchers primarily focus on measuring the varied proximal outcomes (e.g., knowledge and attitude changes) of cancer education interventions. Intermediate outcome measures (the desired behavior change itself) received less attention, while distal outcomes (changes in morbidity and mortality) were never measured. This review gives cancer education researchers a review of the proximal and intermediate outcome measures and strategies that behavioral scientists recently used to overcome the challenges of measuring distal outcomes. Future reviews could expand this analysis to studies published in other journals and health disciplines. PMID:24189833
Background Smoking is considered to be the single most important preventable risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Estimating prevalence of respiratory symptoms is important since they most often precede a diagnosis of an obstructive airway disease, which places a major burden on the society. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence trends of respiratory symptoms and asthma among Swedish adults, in relation to smoking habits. A further aim was to estimate the proportion of respiratory symptom and asthma prevalence attributable to smoking. Methods Data from two large-scale cross-sectional surveys among adults performed in northern Sweden in 1996 and 2006 were analysed. Identical methods and the same questionnaire were used in both surveys. The association between smoking, respiratory symptoms and asthma was analysed with multiple logistic regression analyses. Changes in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma from 1996 to 2006 were expressed as odds ratios. Additionally, the population attributable risks of smoking were estimated. Results The prevalence of most respiratory symptoms decreased significantly from 1996 to 2006. Longstanding cough decreased from 12.4 to 10.1%, sputum production from 19.0 to 15.0%, chronic productive cough from 7.3 to 6.2%, and recurrent wheeze from 13.4 to 12.0%. Any wheeze and asthmatic wheeze remained unchanged. This parallels to a decrease in smoking from 27.4 to 19.1%. In contrast, physician-diagnosed asthma increased from 9.4 to 11.6%. The patterns were similar after correction for confounders. All respiratory symptoms were highly associated with smoking, and the proportion of respiratory symptoms in the population attributed to smoking (PAR) ranged from 9.8 to 25.5%. In 2006, PAR of smoking was highest for recurrent wheeze (20.6%). Conclusions In conclusion, we found that respiratory symptoms, in particular symptoms common in bronchitis, decreased among adults in northern Sweden, parallel to a decrease in smoking from 1996 to 2006. In contrast, the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma increased during the same time-period. Up to one fourth of the respiratory symptom prevalence in the population was attributable to smoking. PMID:24383710
Klein, L.C.; Woodman, R.H. [Rutgers-the State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)
After more than ten years of making silica gels from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), it would seem that the sol-gel process should be more scientific than empirical. The relationships between processing and microstructure, at least, should be possible to predict, or better yet, explain. Ideally, the success rate for a given composition -- preparation, forming and drying without defects -- should approach 100%. Why is it that only a handful of compositions have emerged that work all the time, and a few others seem to work some of the time? An attempt is made to draw a map on the gel time vs pH scale (pH = 0-8) that delineates compositions according to their behavior.
The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.
Lockwood, Susan; Nally, John M.; Ho, Taiping; Knutson, Katie
Research has consistently revealed that released offenders, if unemployed and uneducated, would likely become recidivist offenders. This study was a 5-year follow-up study (2005-2009) of 6,561 offenders who were released from the Indiana Department of Correction (IDOC) to five metropolitan counties during the calendar year 2005. It examined the…
Ritakallio, Minna; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu
The study investigated continuity, comorbidity and longitudinal associations between depression Beck depression inventory (RBDI) and antisocial behaviour Youth self-report (YSR) in middle adolescence. Data were used from a community sample of 2070 adolescents who participated in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. The results indicate that both…
Eirini Manti; Evert M. Scholte; Ina A. Van Berckelaer-Onnes
The purpose of the study was to investigate the development of symptomatology and academic growth of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) attending a special needs education school in the Netherlands as well as to explore the relationship between academic achievement and symptom reduction of those children. To this end a three-year follow up study was conducted by using multiple
Peng-Wei Wang; Hung-Chi Wu; Chia-Nan Yen; Yi-Chun Yeh; Kuan-Sheng Chung; Hsun-Cheng Chang; Cheng-Fang Yen
This 18-month follow-up study examined the predictors of the severity of depressive symptoms among intravenous heroin users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Taiwan. The severity of depressive symptoms in 368 intravenous heroin users receiving MMT in southern Taiwan was assessed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18
LOUIS BONT; COBI J. HEIJNEN; ANNEMIEKE KAVELAARS; Aalderen van W. M. C; FRANK BRUS; J. Th. M. Draaisma; S. M. Geelen; J. L. L. Kimpen
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is associated with subsequent recurrent wheezing episodes. To determine whether cytokine responses during infection can be of predictive value for the development of recurrent wheezing, we performed a follow- up study in 50 hospitalized children with RSV bronchiolitis. Mono- cyte and lymphocyte cytokine responses in vitro were studied dur- ing the acute phase of disease,
The study presented here is a follow-up study to Rowland and Torres (2004),who used a panel data framework together with data from 16 emerging market issuers to identify the determinants of the spread and the creditworthiness. Since many new issuers of emerging market sovereign debt have emerged recently, we can by using data from one single point in time, end
Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen
This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…
Ingels, Steven J.; Dalton, Ben
This report provides a first look at selected findings from the first follow-up of the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). HSLS:09 focuses on understanding students' trajectories from the beginning of high school into higher education and the workforce. The core research questions for the study explore secondary to postsecondary…
Bilder, Deborah; Botts, Elizabeth L.; Smith, Ken R.; Pimentel, Richard; Farley, Megan; Viskochil, Joseph; McMahon, William M.; Block, Heidi; Ritvo, Edward; Ritvo, Riva-Ariella; Coon, Hilary
This study's purpose was to investigate mortality among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) ascertained during a 1980s statewide autism prevalence study (n = 305) in relation to controls. Twenty-nine of these individuals (9.5 %) died by the time of follow up, representing a hazard rate ratio of 9.9 (95 % CI 5.7-17.2) in relation to…
Vanderlinden, Johan; Adriaensen, An; Vancampfort, Davy; Pieters, Guido; Probst, Michel; Vansteelandt, Kristof
The goal of this study is to investigate the efficacy of a manualized cognitive-behavioral therapeutic (CBT) approach for patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) on the short and longer term. A prospective study without a control group consisting of three measurements (a baseline measurement and two follow-up assessments up to 5…
Scorgie, Kate; Wilgosh, Lorraine
This qualitative follow-up study examined life management strategies of parents of children with disabilities, who were originally interviewed in the mid-1990s. The purpose was to determine whether the life management strategies reported in the original study were consistent across almost a decade of time, and whether thematic content of life…
Lipp, R W; Hammer, H F; Passath, A; Dobnig, H; Ramschak-Schwarzer, S; Stiegler, C; Leb, G; Krejs, G J
Carcinoids may express Somatostatin receptors. Therefore, a Somatostatin-analogue, In-111 Octreotide (OctreoScan), was used for their demonstration. A total of 6 patients who presented with radiologically verified carcinoid-metastases was examined. In order to control tumor progress, 4 of these patients were reexamined within a period of 3 to 11 months. All of the radiological findings were confirmed scintigraphically, except some small retroperitoneally located lymph nodes. The follow-up examinations of 2 patients revealed additional metastases by scintigraphy only. There were no false positive results. The results of OctreoScan scintigraphy may be used for predicting the success of receptor-specific therapies and therefore, permit the rational and efficient application of Sandostatin. PMID:8475679
Tuulonen, A.; Niva, A.K.; Alanko, H.I.
We followed up 32 eyes of 32 patients with early glaucoma (22 with capsular glaucoma and ten with simple glaucoma) who received laser trabeculoplasty as a primary therapy. These eyes were compared with a matched control group of 32 eyes treated with medication initially. The success rate (intraocular pressure below 22 mm Hg with laser alone or medication alone) at five years was 50% (16 of 32 eyes) in the laser-treated group and 22% (seven of 32 eyes) in the control group (P less than .02). The control group required more modifications of their therapy to control intraocular pressure. The neuroretinal rim area in the control eyes decreased 2.5 times as much as in the laser group (P = .017). Changes in the Friedmann visual fields did not differ significantly between the two groups.
Terje R. Pedersen; Lars Wilhelmsen; Ole Færgeman; Timo E. Strandberg; Gudmundur Thorgeirsson; Linda Troedsson; Johan Kristianson; Kåre Berg; Thomas J. Cook; Torben Haghfelt; John Kjekshus; Tatu Miettinen; Anders G. Olsson; Kalevi Pyörälä; Hans Wedel
The Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) and other randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that cholesterol-lowering treatment with statins improves prognosis in patients with coronary atherosclerosis compared with placebo. The effect of therapy with statins beyond the typical 5 to 6 years’ duration of the trials, in particular regarding the risk of cancer, has not been investigated. This study examines the
Diego De Leo; Stefano Caracciolo; Fiorenza Berto; Pia Mauro; Guido Magni; Giuseppe Miraglia
The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between the type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) and recurrent myocardial infarction (RMI). Rosenman’s Structured Interview was administered to a consecutive series of patients admitted to the hospital for myocardial infarction (n = 88). Incidence and mortality from RMI in relation to TABP categories were evaluated after a follow-up period
Wydell, Taeko N.; Kondo, Tadahisa
Discusses the case of "AS," an English-Japanese bilingual man with monolingual phonological dyslexia in English. Presents a follow-up study that demonstrates that AS is truly a phonological dyslexic in English, and that a phonological deficit is still a good diagnostic indicator for identifying developmental phonological dyslexia in English.…
Thomas M Painter; Kassamba L Diaby; Danielle M Matia; Lillian S Lin; Toussaint S Sibailly; Moise K Kouassi; Ehounou R Ekpini; Thierry H Roels; Stefan Z Wiktor
Objective To find out why pregnant women who receive HIV-1 positive test results and are offered short course antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent transmission of HIV from mother to child do not participate in necessary follow up visits before starting prophylaxis. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting A programme aiming to prevent transmission of HIV from mother to child at a public
Dietary antioxidants such as vitamin C may play a role in bone health. We evaluated associations of vitamin C intake (total, dietary and supplemental) with incident hip fracture and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture, over a 15 to 17-y follow-up, in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. 366 men and 59...
R. W. Armstrong
In 1988 a follow-up investigation was made of a case-control study conducted in 1962 in Iceland which tested hypotheses that trace elements in pasture grass, drinking water and cow's milk were associated through diet with cancer of the stomach. Samples were collected in 1962 from 26 farms in the northern county of Skagafjardarsysla and 30 farms in the southern county
A Cruz-Mart??nez; F Palau
A follow-up clinical study, peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities and central motor conduction by magnetic stimulation of the cortex were performed in 13 patients with classical Friedreich's ataxia (FA) phenotype, for a period of 9–12 years. Clinical worsening was unrelated to peripheral nerve abnormalities. The amplitude of the nerve action potentials and delayed conduction velocity remained unchanged for
Peng, Samuel S.; And Others
The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 has completed two phases of data collection: the Base-Year and the First Follow-Up Surveys. This paper summarizes some of the findings from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of that data. A cross-sectional analysis of the base-year results yielded information on grades, work,…
Coonley, Pat; And Others
Data were collected at a 15 year class reunion of 100 graduates of a work study program for educable mentally retarded students in the North Kansas City Public Schools. Ss were interviewed personally by one of their former teachers or the vocational adjustment coordinator. Among findings were the following: 64% had their own automobile; 56% lived…
Lehtinen, J; Kaarela, K; Kauppi, M; Belt, E; Maenpaa, H; Kuusela, P; Lehto, M
OBJECTIVE—To evaluate the nature of positional changes of humeroulnar (HU) and humeroradial (HR) joints in a cohort of 74 patients with seropositive and erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) followed up prospectively.?METHODS—At the 15 year follow up standard anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of 148 elbow joints were evaluated. The mediolateral HU angle of the elbow was measured from anteroposterior radiographs. The proximal subluxation of the HU joint was measured from lateral radiographs as the distance between the posterior aspect of the olecranon process and the posterior surface of the humerus. The anteroposterior subluxation of the HR joint was measured from lateral radiographs as the relation of the midpoint of head of the radius to the midpoint of the capitellum of the humerus. Destruction of the elbow joints was assessed with the Larsen method on a scale of 0 to 5 and compared with the measurements.?RESULTS—Mean HU angle in 148 elbows of patients with RA was 11.5° (SD 6.1), range ?21° (varus) to 34° (valgus); 9.9° (SD 4.3) in men and 12.0° (SD 6.4) in women. The mean HU angle, 14.4° (SD 6.0) of the affected joints (Larsen grades 2-4), showed more valgus than the mean 9.8° (SD 2.5) of the non-affected (Larsen grades 0 to 1) joints; totally destroyed and unstable Larsen 5 joints were excluded. Mean HU and HR subluxations, 2.0 mm (SD 3.8) and 0.8 mm, of the affected joints (Larsen 2-5) were greater than the means, ?1.1 mm (SD 1.5) and ?0.4 mm (SD 0.9), of the non-affected joints. Both the HU proximal subluxation and the HR anterior subluxation correlated, rs=0.64 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.73 ) and rs=0.48 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.60), with the destruction of the elbow joint.?CONCLUSIONS—The elbow seems to turn into valgus during rheumatoid destruction and excision of the radial head may speed up this process. However, totally unstable Larsen grade 5 joints may also have varus deformity owing to mutilating bone destruction. The ulna subluxates proximally in relation to the humerus, whereas the radius moves slightly anteriorly as a consequence of elbow involvement.?? PMID:11454640
Mundal, Ingunn; Gråwe, Rolf W; Bjørngaard, Johan H; Linaker, Olav M; Fors, Egil A
Few studies have used prospective designs in large population surveys to assess the risk of developing chronic widespread pain (CWP). We wanted to examine 1) how many people without CWP developed it after 11years, and 2) how anxiety, depression, alcohol use, smoking, sleeping problems, and body mass index (BMI) were associated with this development. This study was based on a representative population-based Norwegian cohort attending both the second (1995 to 1997) and the third (2006 to 2008) wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 and HUNT3, respectively). Only those adults attending both surveys (N=28,367) were included. Approximately 19,000 individuals without CWP in HUNT2 were assessed for later CWP development in HUNT3, where we looked for symptoms of anxiety, depression, monthly frequency of alcohol use, smoking, sleeping problems, and BMI. Data were analyzed with logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, marital status, physical exercise, and pain symptoms not meeting the CWP criteria at baseline. After 11 years, 12% of those without CWP developed CWP. Anxiety and depression, former and current smoking status, BMI<18.5 kg/m(2), BMI?25 kg/m(2), and sleeping problems were all associated with an increased risk of CWP. High and moderate levels of alcohol use were associated with a reduced risk of CWP. In summary, this study indicates that CWP develops over a long-term period for a substantial group of healthy people, and that both psychosocial and lifestyle factors influence the risk of CWP onset. PMID:24813831
Brandt, Pontus; Mitchell, Donald; Westlake, Joseph; Carbary, James; Paranicas, Christopher; Mauk, Barry; Krimigis, Stamatios
In this presentation we will provide a detailed review of the science highlights of the ENA observations obtained by The Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board Cassini. Since the launch of Cassini, INCA has unveiled an invisible world of hot plasma and neutral gas of the two biggest objects of our solar system: the giant magnetosphere of Jupiter and Saturn. Although more than ten years ago, INCA captured the first ENA images of the Jovian system revealing magnetospheric dynamics and an asymmetric Europa neutral gas torus. Approaching Saturn, INCA observed variability of Saturn's magnetospheric activity in response to changes in solar wind dynamic pressure, which was contrary to expectations and current theories. In orbit around Saturn, INCA continued the surprises including the first imaging and global characterization of Titan's exosphere extended out to its gravitational Hill sphere; recurring injections correlating with periodic Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) bursts and magnetic field perturbations; and the discovery of energetic ionospheric outflow. Perhaps most significant, and the focal point of this presentation, is INCA's contribution to the understanding of global magnetospheric particle acceleration and transport, where the combination between ENA imaging and in-situ measurements have demonstrated that transport and acceleration of plasma is likely to occur in a two-step process. First, large-scale injections in the post-midnight sector accelerate and transport plasma in to about 12 RS up to energies of several hundreds of keV. Second, centrifugal interchange acts on the plasma inside of this region and provides further heating and transport in to about 6RS. We discuss this finding in the context of the two fundamental types of injections (or ENA intensifications) that INCA has revealed during its ten years of imaging. The first type is large-scale injections appearing beyond 12 RS in the post-midnight sector that have in many cases had an inward component of propagation. The second type is apparently local injections inside of about 12 RS and as far in as 6RS in the pre-midnight sector with a recurrence period around 11h that, interestingly, appear to precede the larges-scale injections.
Green, E. M.; Dufour, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, E-mail: email@example.com
We present a follow-up analysis of the unique magnetic luminosity-variable carbon-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J142625.71+575218.3. This includes the results of some 106.4 hr of integrated light photometry which have revealed, among other things, the presence of a new periodicity at 319.720 s which is not harmonically related to the dominant oscillation (417.707 s) previously known in that star. Using our photometry and available spectroscopy, we consider the suggestion made by Montgomery et al. that the luminosity variations in SDSS J142625.71+575218.3 may not be caused by pulsational instabilities, but rather by photometric activity in a carbon-transferring analog of AM CVn. This includes a detailed search for possible radial velocity variations due to rapid orbital motion on the basis of Multiple Mirror Telescope spectroscopy. At the end of the exercise, we unequivocally rule out the interacting binary hypothesis and conclude instead that, indeed, the luminosity variations are caused by g-mode pulsations as in other pulsating white dwarfs. This is in line with the preferred possibility put forward by Montgomery et al.
López-Goñi, José Javier; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Menéndez, Juan Carlos; Yudego, Fausto; García, Angel Rico; Esarte, Sonia
The pre-post treatment change of 112 patients in two therapeutics Spanish communities is described. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was used at intake and at the end of the treatment program. Results of the treatment program were evaluated by applying composite scores (CS) of the ASI, and the evolution of each patient was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index (RCI). 69.7% of the sample completed treatment, and 30.3% dropped out prematurely. At intake, the percentage of people who could improve in the different areas of the ASI ranged between 35.1% for alcohol consumption and 95.3% for family relationships. At the follow-up, the percentage of subjects who showed significant statistical improvements in the different areas varied between 7.9% in family relations and 66.7% in alcohol consumption. The percentage of patients who deteriorated was less than 10% for all variables. Implications for further research and clinical practice are commented upon. PMID:20977038
Sabayan, Behnam; van der Grond, Jeroen; Westendorp, Rudi G; van Buchem, Mark A; de Craen, Anton J M
We examined the association of accelerated progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) with mortality outcomes in 534 older subjects at risk for cardiovascular disease. Using brain magnetic resonance imaging, volume of WMH was measured 2 times in an average of 33 months apart. After the second magnetic resonance imaging, occurrence of death was recorded during 12 years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses, each mL/y increase in global WMH was associated with 1.22-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.37) higher risk of all-cause mortality, 1.29-fold (95% CI, 1.06-1.56) higher risk of cardiovascular mortality, and 1.20-fold (95% CI, 1.02-1.40) higher risk of noncardiovascular mortality. Each mL/y increase in periventricular WMH was associated with 1.22-fold (95% CI, 1.08-37) higher risk of all-cause mortality and 1.24-fold (95% CI, 1.06-1.44) higher risk of noncardiovascular mortality. Conversely, deep cortical WMH was only associated with cardiovascular mortality (1.92-fold, 95% CI, 1.12-3.30). Accelerated progression of WMH is linked with mortality risk in old age. Progression of periventricular WMH associates with noncardiovascular mortality, whereas progression of deep cortical WMH associates with cardiovascular mortality. PMID:25842006
Background Suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital are considered to be at risk of suicidal behavior (SB) and suicide. The present study aimed to seek predictors of SB recurrence of the high-risk patients by examining their post-hospitalization course. Method The design was 2-year prospective follow-up study of patients consecutively admitted with SB to a psychiatric center in Tokyo. The DSM-IV diagnoses and SB-related features of subjects were determined in structured interviews. Subsequently, the subjects underwent a series of follow-up assessments at 6-month intervals. The assessment included inquiries into SB recurrence, its accompanying suicidal intent (SI) and SF-8 health survey. Analyses of serial change over time in the follow-up data and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses of SB recurrence were performed. Results 106 patients participated in this study. The dropout rate during the follow-up was 9%. Within 2 years, incidences of SB as a whole, SB with certain SI (suicide attempt) and suicide were 67% (95% CI 58 - 75%), 38% (95% CI 29 - 47%) and 6% (95% CI 3 - 12%), respectively. Younger age, number of lifetime SBs and maltreatment in the developmental period were predictive of SB as a whole, and younger age and hopelessness prior to index admission were predictive of suicide attempt. Regarding diagnostic variables, anxiety disorders and personality disorders appeared to have predictive value for SB. Additionally, poor physical health assessed during the follow-up was indicated as a possible short-term predictor of SB recurrence. Conclusions This study demonstrated a high incidence of SB and suicide and possible predictors of SB recurrence in the post-hospitalization period of psychiatric suicidal patients. Specialized interventions should be developed to reduce the suicide risk of this patient population. PMID:23114285
Dinneen, Seán F; O' Hara, Mary Clare; Byrne, Molly; Newell, John; Daly, Lisa; O' Shea, Donal; Smith, Diarmuid
Background Structured education programmes for individuals with Type 1 diabetes have become a recognised means of delivering the knowledge and skills necessary for optimal self-management of the condition. The Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating (DAFNE) programme has been shown to improve biomedical (HbA1c and rates of severe hypoglycaemia) and psychosocial outcomes for up to 12 months following course delivery. The optimal way to support DAFNE graduates and maintain the benefits of the programme has not been established. We aimed to compare 2 different methods of follow-up of DAFNE graduates in a pragmatic clinical trial delivered in busy diabetes clinics on the island of Ireland. Methods Six participating centres were cluster randomised to deliver either group follow-up or a return to traditional one-to-one clinic visits. In the intervention arm group follow-up was delivered at 6 and 12 months post DAFNE training according to a curriculum developed for the study. In the control arm patients were seen individually in diabetes clinics as part of routine care. Study outcomes included HbA1c levels, self-reported rates of severe hypoglycaemia, body weight and measures of diabetes wellbeing and quality of life. These were measured at 6, 12 and 18 months after recruitment. Generalisability (external validity) was maximised by recruiting study participants from existing DAFNE waiting lists in each centre, by using broad inclusion criteria (including HbA1c values less than 13 percent with no lower limit) and by using existing clinic staff to deliver the training and follow-up. Internal validity and treatment fidelity were maximised by quality assuring the training of all DAFNE educators, by external peer review of the group follow-up sessions and by striving for full attendance at follow-up visits. Assays of HbA1c were undertaken in a central laboratory. Discussion This pragmatic clinical trial evaluating group follow-up after a structured education programme has been designed to have broad generalisability. The results should inform how best to manage the well educated patient with Type 1 diabetes in the real world of clinical practice Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN79759174 PMID:19775465
Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco J.; Heredero-Jung, Susana; García-García, Blas; Ruiz-Masera, Juan J.; Arévalo-Arévalo, Rafael; Zafra-Camacho, Francisco; Valenzuela-Salas, Borja
Introduction: Oral Verrucous Carcinoma (OVC) is described apart of the Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) due to its specific properties. The objective of our study is to show our series of cases of OVC and to compare with the SCC in terms of clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology, treatment and follow-up. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study of all the OVC treated in our department between January-2007 and December-2011. The analyzed variables were sex, age, localization in the oral cavity, histopathology, number of biopsies needed to diagnose OVC, TNM classification, treatment and recurrences during follow-up. Results: Our sample was composed by n=14 patients, 57% female, with a mean age of 69.14 years. The most common localization was buccal mucosa (n=5). Seven patients were diagnosed of OVC with the first biopsy. TNM classification was: pT1: 7 patients, pT2: 3 patients, pT3: 3 patients, pT4: 1 patient. No cervical metastases were observed either in cervical neck dissection or during the follow-up of the patients. The treatment was surgery with clinical resection margins up to 1 cm in all cases, followed by radiotherapy in selected cases. Only n=1 patient (7.69%) presented a recurrence after 34 months of follow-up. The overall survival rate was 92.85%. Conclusions: In our population, OVC represents the 6.16% of all oral cavity and oropharynx cancer, and is more frequent in female patients above 70 years old. It uses to rise over a previous lesion, and usually affects the buccal mucosa. In patients with high suspicious lesions, more than one biopsy may be needed to diagnose OVC. No patient showed cervical dissemination. In our experience, treatment based on local resection, without cervical neck dissection, could be a good option for these patients. Key words:Verrucous carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, oral cancer, oral cavity, epidemiology, follow-up. PMID:24880446
Mitra, Monjori; Shah, Nitin; Faridi, Mma; Ghosh, Apurba; Sankaranarayanan, V S; Aggarwal, Anju; Chatterjee, Suparna; Bhattacharyya, Nisha; Kadhe, Ganesh; Vishnoi, Gaurav; Mane, Amey
Worldwide, viral hepatitis continues to be a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Mass immunization with a single dose of live attenuated HAV has been shown to significantly reduce disease burden in the community. This was a phase IV, 5-year follow up study carried out at 4 centers (Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai) across India. The subjects with antibody titer <20 mIU/mL at baseline were evaluated for long term immunogenicity. Of the 503 subjects enrolled, 349 subjects were baseline seronegative with an anti-HAV antibody titer <20 mIU/mL. Overall, 343 subjects could be followed up at some point of time during this 5 y post vaccination period. In the last year (60 months) of follow-up, 108 subjects (97.3%) of 111 subjects (who came for follow-up at the end of 5 y) had a protective antibody titer (anti-HAV antibody titer >20 mIU/mL). The seroconversion rates considering seroprotection levels of anti-HAV antibody titer >20 mIU/mL, following vaccination starting from 6 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, 36 months, 48 months and 60 months were 95.1%, 97.9%, 98.3%, 96.2%, 97.8%, 92.6% and 97.3%, respectively. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) over the years increased from 64.9 mIU/mL at 6 weeks to 38.1 mIU/mL and 135.2 mIU/mL at 6 months and 12 months, respectively and was maintained at 127.1 mIU/mL at 60 months. In conclusion, the result of this 5-year follow up study showed that the single dose of live attenuated vaccine is well tolerated and provides long-term immunogenicity in healthy Indian children. PMID:26018443
Chan-Yeung, M; MacLean, L; Paggiaro, P L
A total of 232 patients with red cedar asthma diagnosed by inhalation provocation tests were observed an average of 4 years after the initial diagnosis. The status during the follow-up examination was as follows: 96 patients continued to work with red cedar, and 136 left the industry and had no further exposure to red cedar in their jobs or hobbies. Of the 136 patients who left the industry, only 55 (40.4%) recovered completely, whereas the remaining 81 (59.6%) continued to experience attacks of asthma of varying severity. The initial pulmonary function tests were significantly higher among the asymptomatic group compared to the symptomatic group (FEV1 99.3 +/- 2.7% versus 90.5 +/- 2.2% predicted, respectively). Methacholine PC20 during the initial examination was higher among the asymptomatic group than in the symptomatic group (1.46 +/- 3.96 mg/ml versus 0.77 +/- 4.52 mg/ml, respectively). These findings indicate that the patients in the asymptomatic group were diagnosed at an earlier stage of the disease. This observation was confirmed by the significantly shorter duration of symptoms before diagnosis among the asymptomatic patients compared to the symptomatic patients (1.6 +/- 1.9 versus 2.6 +/- 4.3 years). Race, smoking status, immediate skin reactivity, and presence of plicatic acid-specific IgE antibodies did not influence the outcome of these patients. Of the 96 patients who continued to work with red cedar, 47 were exposed daily, whereas 41 were exposed intermittently.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3571771
Andreas Seeber; Michael Schäper; Michaela Zupanic; Meinolf Blaszkewicz; Peter Demes; Ernst Kiesswetter; Christoph van Thriel
Objective There are findings of cross-sectional studies on slight cognitive effects due to toluene exposure below 50 ppm. The critical points of the earlier studies will be scrutinised by a follow-up study with four examinations in 5 years. Methods Employees from 14 magazine rotary printing plants were classified into groups of “high” (printing area) vs “low” (end-processing) and “short” vs “long”
Cloned Cows' Milk, Beef Up to Standardhttp://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A45025-2005Apr11.htmlDolly for dinner? Assessing commercial and regulatory trends in cloned livestockhttp://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v25/n1/full/nbt0107-47.html;jsessionid=8257A00C1E76BAF39148F917A35D1712FDA and Pew Initiative on Food and Bio-technology workshophttp://pewagbiotech.org/events/0924/Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology Surveyhttp://pewagbiotech.org/research/2004update/overview.pdfA decade on from Dollyhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6359011.stmIt has been over ten years since the birth of Dolly the sheep was announced. The event received enormous media attention at the time, but since then the cloning of livestock animals has continued without the media scrutiny. Those who clone livestock hope to improve breeding efficiency, enhance and enrich food, preserve endangered species and even clone pets. In the past two years, researchers with the FDA have determined that milk and meat from cloned cattle are almost identical to those from conventionally bred cattle. Numerous countries and independent research groups continue to compare the products from cloned versus conventionally produced animals. The FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) published a draft executive summary entitled 'Animal Cloning: A Risk Assessment', in which it concluded "edible products from normal, healthy clones or their progeny do not appear to pose increased food consumption risks relative to comparable products from conventional animals." Most in the industry believe that products derived from the offspring of cloned cattle and pigs will enter the food chain more widely by 2010. Several thousand clones of livestock species now exist globally at both research organizations and commercial enterprises. As the cloning of livestock animals becomes more economically feasible, regulatory agencies will likely need to closely monitor the products. Just recently, a US biotechnology firm launched a program to track cloned cattle and pigs in anticipation of the possible end of a moratorium on meat and milk from cloned livestock. Although this issue seems to have been on the backburner over the past few years, it is certain that the cloning of animals to produce human food will again become a focus of public and media attention. In the first link users can find out more about the new tracking system designed for cloned livestock and how feasible this system may be if begun in the early stages of producing cloned animals for food. In the second link, visitors can read about the research done on cloned meat and milk and discover why it is believed they are up to standard. The next piece comes from Nature.com as they assess commercial and regulatory trends in cloned livestock in a detailed and in-depth article. The fourth link leads to a FDA and Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology workshop, visitors who want to know more about cloned or transgenic animals should definitely pay a visit. By clicking on either of the Proceedings on Transgenic Animals or the Proceedings on Cloned Animals, visitors will be taken to a PDF of these very clear and succinct presentations. The fifth link is a PDF, again from the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, but this time visitors will find a comprehensive survey of U.S. consumer sentiment about the application of genetic engineering to agriculture and livestock. Finally, the last link is a nice piece from the BBC discussing Dolly and the cloning industry over the past ten years.
Brown, Donald C.
Twenty-nine cases of carcinoma in situ of the cervix were detected during less than ten years of private family practice, using routine Pap smears as a case finding technique. In 20 years' follow up of those patients, one patient developed recurrent invasive cancer and died. These results are in keeping with others from the recent literature. These patients should be followed closely because there is significant mortality from recurrence of carcinoma. The family physician is in an excellent position for case finding and early diagnosis because of the long natural history of cancer of the cervix. This approach, coupled with appropriate follow up, can prevent much human suffering. PMID:21297752
Andreoni, Bruno; Camellini, Lorenzo; Sonzogni, Angelica; Crosta, Cristiano; Pirola, Maria Elena; Corbellini, Carlo
Colorectal cancer screening programs result in an early diagnosis of the disease. In 2007, 250 malignant polyps were identified in Lombardy, out of 1,329 screen-detected colorectal carcinomas. The Italian Group for Colorectal Cancer (GISCoR) promoted the multicentric study "Endoscopic Follow-up versus Surgical Radicalization of Malignant Polyps after Complete Endoscopic Polypectomy" (SEC-GISCoR). The protocol was a multicentric, prospective, observational, non-randomized study. It included patients diagnosed a colorectal malignant adenoma, after complete endoscopic removal. From November 2005 to September 2009, three participating centers enrolled 120 patients with malignant polyps after "complete" endoscopic polypectomy; malignant polyps were classified as "low risk" or "high risk". The study had two arms: "Intensive follow-up" (42 patients: 32 with low-risk and 10 with high-risk polyps) and "Surgical radicalization" (78 patients: 5 with low-risk and 73 with high-risk polyps). Data were collected using an online CRF. Overall, 37/120 polyps (30.8%) were low risk and 83/120 (69.2%) were high risk. 42 out of 120 patients (35%) were enrolled in the "clinical follow-up" arm, while 78/120 (65%) entered the surgery arm. In 15 cases, patients were not enrolled in the correct arm, according to the criteria agreed upon before starting the study. There still is a high incidence (11.5%) of pathological mismatches. No clinical event was reported in 2.9 years of follow-up. In conclusion, some differences emerged in the management of patients with malignant polyps among participating centers (p < 0.001), mismatches can be explained by high surgical risk or patient's choice. Only in 5 cases (4.2%), did data analysis not allow to exactly determine the reason for a choice different from protocol criteria. The availability of new risk factors and the evidence of pathological mismatches confirmed the need for future studies on this issue. PMID:21647795
Michael Berk; Lisa P. Henry; Kathryn S. Elkins; Susy M. Harrigan; Meredith G. Harris; Helen Herrman; Henry J. Jackson; Patrick D. McGorry
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the impact of tobacco smoking on longer-term outcomes following a first episode of psychosis. METHODS: Data on 193 individuals were collected as part of a prospective follow-up visit of a cohort of patients after a mean of 7.5 years (SD = 0.8) after first treatment presentation. Primary outcome measures were positive and negative psychotic
Rose Ann DiMaria-Ghalili
The purpose of this study was to describe the extent to which late postoperative health outcomes vary as a function of change in body mass index (BMI) in persons 65 years of age undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The mean age of the 90 persons in the original sample was 72.27 (±4.85) years. At follow-up (x = 18.73,s
Baldassarre Martire; Roberto Rondelli; Annarosa Soresina; Claudio Pignata; Teresa Broccoletti; Andrea Finocchi; Paolo Rossi; Marco Gattorno; Marco Rabusin; Chiara Azzari; Rosa M. Dellepiane; Maria C. Pietrogrande; Antonino Trizzino; Paolo Di Bartolomeo; Silvana Martino; Luigi Carpino; Fausto Cossu; Franco Locatelli; Rita Maccario; Paolo Pierani; Maria C. Putti; Achille Stabile; Luigi D. Notarangelo; Alberto G. Ugazio; Alessandro Plebani; Domenico De Mattia
A retrospective clinical and immunological survey was conducted in 60 patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. A prospective controlled non-randomized study of the efficacy of long-term IFN? treatment was carried out.The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4.4 years; mean duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. Lung and skin infections were the most frequent manifestations both prior to diagnosis and during
ANA MARIA SOLER; TROND WARLOE; JOHAN TAUSJ; AASMUND BERNER
Fifty-eight patients with 119 nodular (2 mm or more in thick- ness) basal cell carcinomas successfully treated with photo- dynamic therapy were included in this 1-year follow-up study. The initial cure rate at 3 ^6 months was 92% after photodynamic therapy, which included an initial debulking procedure and topical application of dimethylsulphoxide in order to enhance penetration of 5-aminolevulinic acid
M Nordentoft; L Breum; L K Munck; A G Nordestgaard; A Hunding; P A Laursen Bjaeldager
OBJECTIVE--To describe mortality by suicide and other causes of death in a group of patients who attempted suicide, and to identify predictive factors. DESIGN--10 year follow up study based on records of suicide attempters in 1980. SETTING--Poisoning treatment centre at a general hospital. SUBJECTS--974 patients aged 15 and over referred to the poisoning treatment centre after deliberate self poisoning. MAIN
Dolliver, Robert H.; Will, Julie A.
The Tyler Vocational Card Sort (TVCS) and the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for men (SVIB-M) were completed by 67 university students in 1965. The 1975 occupations held by 47 subjects were identified. The TVCS was more accurate than the SVIB, by a very small amount, in predicting occupation held 10 years after original testing; both methods…
Jouhadi, Zineb; Khadir, Khadija; Ailal, Fatima; Bouayad, Kenza; Nadifi, Sellama; Engelhardt, Karin R; Grimbacher, Bodo
Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) deficiency is an innate error of adaptive immunity characterized by recurrent infections with viruses, bacteria, and fungi, typically high serum levels of immunoglobulin E, eosinophilia, and a progressive deterioration of T- and B-cell-mediated immunity. DOCK8 mutations are the second most common cause of hyper-immunoglobulin E syndromes (HIES). We report a case of DOCK8 deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Association of SLE with HIES is very rare; to our knowledge, this is the sixth such case reported in the literature. A 10-year-old girl of consanguineous parents was followed in our clinic because of HIES since early childhood. She developed SLE with purpuric and necrotic skin lesions, diffuse arthritis, and glomerulonephritis. These autoimmune features were corroborated by the presence of antinuclear, anti-DNA, and antiphospholipid antibodies. The combination of HIES and autoimmunity makes treatment difficult, because the use of immunosuppressive drugs needed for SLE may worsen existing symptoms caused by the immunodeficiency. Our observation is the first case of association of SLE with HIES in the literature where the primary immune disease is genetically documented and labeled as DOCK8 deficiency. PMID:25332498
Pakarinen, Maarit; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Sinikallio, Sanna; Lehto, Soili M; Aalto, Timo; Airaksinen, Olavi; Viinamäki, Heimo
Dissatisfaction with life has been found to be associated with somatic health and the short-term surgery outcome in lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) patients. This study investigated the effects of the long-term life dissatisfaction burden on the surgery outcome in LSS patients with a 5-year follow-up. This was a prospective clinical study. Altogether, 102 patients who underwent decompressive surgery completed a set of questionnaires preoperatively, 3 and 6 months, and 1, 2 and 5 years after the surgery. The final study population at the 5-year follow-up included 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 67 years and 35% of the patients were men. Life satisfaction was evaluated using a four-item Life Satisfaction Scale. The life dissatisfaction burden was the sum of all six life satisfaction scores recorded during the follow-up. The outcome of surgery was evaluated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), pain evaluation (Visual Analogue Scale; VAS), overall satisfaction with the surgery and self-reported walking capacity. In linear regression, the long-term life dissatisfaction burden was associated with the 5-year ODI, even after adjusting for age, sex, marital status, preoperative ODI and the 5-year VAS. It was not associated with the 5-year VAS score. Monitoring the life satisfaction of surgically treated LSS patients may enable detection of those at risk of a poorer surgery outcome. PMID:24135635
Background Increasing evidence suggests that mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression may be different from those for early progression and require further investigation. Serial MRI data and 3D fluid–structure interaction (FSI) models were employed to identify possible correlations between mechanical stresses and advanced plaque progression measured by vessel wall thickness increase (WTI). Long-term patient follow up was used to gather data and investigate if the correlations identified above were reproducible. Methods In vivo MRI data were acquired from 16 patients in a follow-up study with 2 to 4 scans for each patient (scan interval: average 18 months and standard deviation 6.8 months). A total of 38 scan pairs (baseline and follow-up) were formed for analysis using the carotid bifurcation as the registration point. 3D FSI models were constructed to obtain plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS) to quantify their correlations with plaque progression. The Linear Mixed-Effects models were used to study possible correlations between WTI and baseline PWS and FSS with nodal dependence taken into consideration. Results Of the 38 scan pairs, 22 pairs showed positive correlation between baseline PWS and WTI, 1 pair showed negative correlation, and 15 pairs showed no correlation. Thirteen patients changed their correlation sign (81.25%). Between baseline FSS and WTI, 16 pairs showed negative correlation, 1 pair showed positive correlation. Twelve patients changed correlation sign (75%). Conclusion Our results showed that advanced plaque progression had an overall positive correlation with plaque wall stress and a negative correlation with flow shear stress at baseline. However, long-term follow up showed that correlations between plaque progress and mechanical stresses (FSS and PWS) identified for one time period were not re-producible for most cases (>80%). Further investigations are needed to identify the reasons causing the correlation sign changes. PMID:24125580
Ståhl, Minna; Kautiainen, Hannu; El-Metwally, Ashraf; Häkkinen, Arja; Ylinen, Jari; Salminen, Jouko J; Mikkelsson, Marja
This study investigated the natural course of neck pain (NP) in 9-12-year-olds during a 4-year follow-up. Risk factors for the occurrence and persistence of weekly NP were explored separately for boys and girls. At baseline, 1756 schoolchildren completed a questionnaire eliciting musculoskeletal pain symptoms, other physical, and psychological symptoms and frequency of physical activity, and were tested for joint hypermobility. Symptoms during the preceding three months were asked using a five-level frequency classification. Re-evaluation was performed after one and four years using identical questionnaires. During follow-up, 24% reported none, 71% fluctuating, and 5% persistent weekly NP. The frequency of NP at baseline was linearly related to weekly NP during follow-up in both genders (P<0.001). Furthermore, a significant increasing linear trend towards a more persistent course of NP was seen in children with weekly other musculoskeletal and/or other physical and psychological symptoms at baseline. Among originally neck pain-free pre-/early adolescents, weekly other musculoskeletal pain symptoms (only in girls) and other physical and psychological symptoms (in both genders) predicted the occurrence of weekly NP during follow-up. In conclusion, neck pain in schoolchildren tends to fluctuate, but there also seems to exist a subgroup (5%) with persistent NP already in pre-/early adolescents, or even earlier. Co-occurrence of frequent other musculoskeletal symptoms and/or markers of psychological stress with frequent NP are risk indicators for a more persistent course, at least within next few years. Since adult chronic NP problems might originate in childhood, further studies are needed, including preventive interventions. PMID:17964722
Fauroux, B; Gouyon, J-B; Roze, J-C; Guillermet-Fromentin, C; Glorieux, I; Adamon, L; Di Maio, M; Anghelescu, D; Miloradovich, T; Escande, B; Elleau, C; Pinquier, D
The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and risk factors for respiratory morbidity during the 12-month period following the first respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) season in 242 preterm infants [<33 weeks gestational age (GA)] without bronchopulmonary dysplasia and 201 full-term infants (39-41 weeks GA) from the French CASTOR study cohort. Preterm infants had increased respiratory morbidity during the follow-up period compared to full-terms; they were more likely to have wheezing (21% vs. 11%, P = 0·007) and recurrent wheezing episodes (4% vs. 1%, P = 0·049). The 17 infants (14 preterms, three full-terms) who had been hospitalized for RSV-confirmed bronchiolitis during their first RSV season had significantly more wheezing episodes during the follow-up period than subjects who had not been hospitalized for RSV-confirmed bronchiolitis (odds ratio 4·72, 95% confidence interval 1·71-13·08, P = 0·003). Male gender, birth weight <3330 g and hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis during the infant's first RSV season were independent risk factors for the development of wheezing episodes during the subsequent 12-month follow-up period. PMID:24029023
Fernández, M. Inmaculada; Presentación, M. Jesús; Roselló, Belén
Objectives To study the course of ADHD during childhood and analyze possible personal and family predictor variables of the results. Method Sixty-one children with ADHD who were between 6 and 12 years old at the baseline assessment were evaluated 30 months later (mean age at baseline: 8.70 ± 1.97; mean age at follow-up: 10.98 ± 2.19). Status of ADHD in follow-up was identified as persistent (met DSM-IV-TR criteria according to parents’ and teachers’ ratings), contextually persistent (met ADHD criteria according to one informant, and there was functional impairment) and remitted ADHD (with subthreshold clinical symptomatology). Associated psychological disorders of the three groups were analyzed in the follow-up with the Conners' Rating Scales. The groups were compared on ADHD characteristics (symptoms of ADHD and impairment), child psychopathology, executive functioning (EF; inhibition, working memory) and parenting characteristics (parental stress and discipline styles) at baseline. Results At the follow-up, 55.7% of the children continued to meet the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, 29.5% showed contextual persistence, and 14.8% presented remission of the disorder. The persistent and contextually persistent ADHD groups showed more associated psychological disorders. Inattention, oppositional problems, cognitive problems and impairment at baseline distinguished the remitted ADHD children from the persistent and contextually persistent ADHD children. Moreover, the persistent groups had significantly more emotional liability and higher parental stress than the group in remission, while no differences in EF where found among the groups. Conclusions ADHD children continue to present symptoms, as well as comorbid psychological problems, during adolescence and early adulthood. These findings confirm that persistence of ADHD is associated with child psychopathology, parental stress and impairment in childhood. PMID:26024216
Background There are indications that older adults who suffer from poor balance have an increased risk for adverse health outcomes, such as falls and disability. Monitoring the development of balance over time enables early detection of balance decline, which can identify older adults who could benefit from interventions aimed at prevention of these adverse outcomes. An innovative and easy-to-use device that can be used by older adults for home-based monitoring of balance is a modified bathroom scale. Objective The objective of this paper is to study the relationship between balance scores obtained with a modified bathroom scale and falls and disability in a sample of older adults. Methods For this 6-month follow-up study, participants were recruited via physiotherapists working in a nursing home, geriatricians, exercise classes, and at an event about health for older adults. Inclusion criteria were being aged 65 years or older, being able to stand on a bathroom scale independently, and able to provide informed consent. A total of 41 nursing home patients and 139 community-dwelling older adults stepped onto the modified bathroom scale three consecutive times at baseline to measure their balance. Their mean balance scores on a scale from 0 to 16 were calculated—higher scores indicated better balance. Questionnaires were used to study falls and disability at baseline and after 6 months of follow-up. The cross-sectional relationship between balance and falls and disability at baseline was studied using t tests and Spearman rank correlations. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to study the relationship between balance measured at baseline and falls and disability development after 6 months of follow-up. Results A total of 128 participants with complete datasets—25.8% (33/128) male—and a mean age of 75.33 years (SD 6.26) were included in the analyses of this study. Balance scores of participants who reported at baseline that they had fallen at least once in the past 6 months were lower compared to nonfallers—8.9 and 11.2, respectively (P<.001). The correlation between mean balance score and disability sum-score at baseline was -.51 (P<.001). No significant associations were found between balance at baseline and falls after 6 months of follow-up. Baseline balance scores were significantly associated with the development of disability after 6 months of follow-up in the univariate analysis—odds ratio (OR) 0.86 (95% CI 0.76-0.98)—but not in the multivariate analysis when correcting for age, gender, baseline disability, and falls at follow-up—OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.79-1.11). Conclusions There is a cross-sectional relationship between balance measured by a modified bathroom scale and falls and disability in older adults. Despite this cross-sectional relationship, longitudinal data showed that balance scores have no predictive value for falls and might only have limited predictive value for disability development after 6 months of follow-up. PMID:26018423
Eitzen, Ingrid; Fernandes, Linda; Kallerud, Heidi; Nordsletten, Lars; Knarr, Brian; Risberg, May Arna
Study Design Longitudinal laboratory study. Objectives (1) To compare gait characteristics between individuals with early-stage hip osteoarthritis who underwent total hip replacement (THR) and those who did not undergo THR, and (2) to evaluate whether gait characteristics, function, and symptoms declined among individuals who did not undergo THR during a 6- to 7-year follow-up. Background The natural history of symptoms, function, and gait changes secondary to hip osteoarthritis, including potential differences at an early stage of disease, is unknown. Methods Forty-three individuals (mean age, 58.9 years) with radiographic and symptomatic hip osteoarthritis participated. Outcome measures included 3-D gait analysis; self-reported pain, stiffness, and function; hip range of motion; and the six-minute walk test. Baseline comparisons between individuals who later underwent THR and those who did not undergo THR were made using independent t tests or Mann-Whitney U tests. Comparisons of baseline measures and 6- to 7-year follow-up for the nonoperated individuals were conducted with paired-samples t tests or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (P<.05). Results Twelve (27.9%) of the 43 individuals initially evaluated had not undergone THR at the 6- to 7-year follow-up. At baseline, these individuals had larger sagittal plane hip and knee joint excursions, larger joint space width, lower body mass index, and superior self-reported function compared with the individuals who later underwent THR. At the 6- to 7-year follow-up, the individuals who did not undergo THR exhibited no decline in gait characteristics, minimum joint space, or overall function. Furthermore, their self-reported pain had significantly decreased (P = .024). Conclusion Individuals who did not undergo THR during a 6- to 7-year follow-up period did not exhibit a decline in gait, function, or symptoms compared to those who underwent THR. These findings are suggestive of a phenotype of hip osteoarthritis with a very slow disease progression, particularly in regard to pain. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 1b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(7):539-549. Epub 21 May 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5441. PMID:25996360
Jørgen Jeppesen; Hans Ole Hein; Poul Suadicani; Finn Gyntelberg
Background—The role of triglycerides as a risk factor of ischemic heart disease (IHD) remains controversial. For the present study, we examined the relation between fasting triglycerides and risk of IHD in the Copenhagen Male Study. Methods and Results—Baseline measurements of fasting lipids and other IHD risk factors were obtained for 2906 white men (age range, 53 to 74 years) who
Z. Balogh; T. Bender
Objective: Balneotherapy, a domain of medical science, focuses on utilizing the beneficial effects of medicinal waters. Low back pain is among the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders affecting a large proportion of the population during their lifetime. Although small in number, all controlled studies published on this subject have demonstrated the benefits of balneotherapy. This present study was undertaken to compare
Zoltán Balogh; József Ördögh; Attila Gász; László Német; Tamás Bender
SummaryObjective: Balneotherapy, a domain of medical science, focuses on utilizing the beneficial effects of medicinal waters. Low back pain is among the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders affecting a large proportion of the population during their lifetime. Although small in number, all controlled studies published on this subject have demonstrated the benefits of balneotherapy. This present study was undertaken to compare
J. A. Abbott; J. Hawe; R. D. Clayton; R. Garry
BACKGROUND: This study investigates the outcomes for women up to 5 years after laparoscopic excision of endo- metriosis. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study, 254 women with chronic pelvic pain were referred to two units specializing in minimal access surgical management of endometriosis. Of these, 216 women underwent surgical assessment and 176 were confirmed to have endometriosis. Questionnaires and
Sourander, Andre; Haavisto, Antti; Ronning, John A.; Multimaki, Petteri; Parkkola, Kai; Santalahti, Paivi; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Helenius, Hans; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik
Objective: To study the rate of, and factors associated with, recognition of psychiatric disorders and self-perceived problems among 18-year-old adolescent boys. Method: The study population consisted of 2347 Finnish boys born during 1981 attending military call-up (79.7% of the original sample). At age 8, the boys were evaluated by parental and…
Selles, Robert R.; Arnold, Elysse B.; Phares, Vicky; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in youth with an autism spectrum disorder appears efficacious; however, maintenance of treatment gains has not yet been studied. Using a sample of 32 youth who had benefited at least minimally from a past trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in autism spectrum disorder, this study assessed…
Colorado Univ., Denver. Medical Center.
This report is comprised of three separate studies conducted at the University of Colorado Medical Center. In the first study, answers to the following questions were sought: (1) What kinds of late morbidity occur at different birth weights and gestational ages? and (2) Has a vigorous approach to metabolic support in the newborn period changed the…
Leena Maria Johansson; Jan Sundquist; Sven-Erik Johansson; B. O. Bergman; Jan Qvist; Lil Träskman-Bendz
The increasing number of immigrants in Sweden during the past four decades has brought the health of ethnic groups into focus. The purpose of this study was to analyse the influence of ethnicity, age, sex, marital status and date of immigration on suicide rates. The study population consisted of all individuals over 15 years of age, N = 6,725,274, from
Sparks, Richard L.; Ganschow, Leonore; Artzer, Marjorie E.; Siebenhar, David; Plageman, Mark
Two studies explore the relationship between foreign language teachers' perceptions of their students' academic skills and affective characteristics and their native language skills, foreign language aptitude, and oral and written foreign language proficiency. In Study I (replication), students who scored significantly lower on native language and…
Nelson, Lisa; Moss, Jo; Oliver, Chris
Studies of individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) have described changes in mood and behavior with age, although no empirical or longitudinal studies have been conducted. Caregivers of individuals with CdLS (N = 67), cri du chat syndrome (CdCS; N = 42), and Fragile X syndrome (FXS; N = 142) completed the Mood, Interest and Pleasure…
Sharon D. Johnson; Carol S. North; Elizabeth M. Smith
This study examined the longitudinal course of psychiatric sequelae of a mass shooting incident at a courthouse. A sample of 80 individuals was examined 6–8 weeks after the incident and 77 of these were reassessed one and three years later using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule\\/Disaster Supplement. Only 5% of the study sample met criteria for PTSD after this incident. Universal
Taylor, Lynn; Simpson, Wayne; McClure, Karen; Graham, Barbara; Levin, Benjamin
A Canadian study of the school-to-work transition followed students enrolled in grade 11 in 1990 (n=177), 1992 (n=172), and 1994 (n=347) in Seven Oaks School Division's three high schools. Based largely on questions from the Statistics Canada (SC) School Leavers Survey and SC Graduates Study (1997), the telephone survey focused on these elements:…
H. K. Åkerblom; K Koski; M Koski; M Knip
Aims\\/hypothesis The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) study was designed to establish whether weaning to a highly hydrolysed\\u000a formula in infancy subsequently reduces the risk of type 1 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The study population comprises newborn infants who have first-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes and meet the increased\\u000a risk HLA inclusion, but not exclusion criteria. The study
A Jääskeläinen; J Pussinen; O Nuutinen; U Schwab; J Pirkola; M Kolehmainen; M-R Järvelin; J Laitinen
Objective:Previous studies have shown strong parental influences on adolescent overweight. However, longitudinal data is scarce on gender-specific effects of parental body mass index (BMI) on offspring overweight. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of parental pre-pregnancy BMI, weight change, BMI and BMI class transition 16 years after pregnancy with the BMI of their 16-year-old children.Subjects and
Marcio F. Vendramini; Sandra R. G. Ferreira; Suely G. A. Gimeno; Teresa S. Kasamatsu; Walkiria L. Miranda; Regina S. Moisés
The objective of this study was to investigate whether decreased baseline adiponectin levels are an independent risk factor for development of glucose intolerance in a population-based study of Japanese–Brazilians, a group with one of the highest prevalence rates of diabetes worldwide. We examined 210 Japanese–Brazilians (97 male and 113 female, aged 56.7±10.1 years) with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Plasma adiponectin,
Krijthe, Bouwe P; Heeringa, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Stricker, Bruno H
Objective To investigate the association of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of atrial fibrillation in a prospective community-based follow-up study of elderly individuals with uniform case assessment and data on potential confounders. Design Data came from the population-based follow-up study, the Rotterdam Study. Participants The study comprised 8423 participants without atrial fibrillation at baseline. Main outcome measures Atrial fibrillation was ascertained from ECG assessments as well as medical records. Use of NSAIDs was obtained from automated prescription records by linkage with participating pharmacies. We used Cox proportional hazards models to study the association between NSAID drug use and atrial fibrillation. Use of NSAIDs was included in the model as a time-varying variable. Results At baseline, the mean age of the study population was 68.5?years (SD: 8.7) and 58% were women. During a mean follow-up of 12.9?years, 857 participants developed atrial fibrillation. Current use of NSAIDs was associated with increased risk compared with never-use (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.88). Also, recent use (within 30?days after discontinuation of NSAIDs) was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with never-use (HR 1.84, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.51) adjusted for age, sex and several potential confounders. Conclusions In this study, use of NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms behind this association. PMID:24713211
R. Pezzilli; A. M. Morselli-Labate; D. Campana; R. Casadei; E. Brocchi; R. Corinaldesi
Aims: To explore the quality of life in patients treated medically during the acute phase of pancreatitis as well as at 2 and 12 months after discharge from the hospital. Patients: 40 patients were studied. The etiology of the pancreatitis was biliary causes in 31 patients and non-biliary causes in 9; mild disease was present in 29 patients and severe
Gunnel Sandqvist; Pia Malcus Johnsson; Anna-Lena Sturesson; Magnus Tägil; Pierre Geborek
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic
Brickner, Ann; Senter, Donald R.
For those school districts who wished an evaluation of the Listen Look Learn (LLL) system at grade 1 before expanding it into higher grades, a small study was conducted to determine what effect the transition to a basal reader would have on the child taught beginning reading in the LLL program. Two school districts submitted end-of-first-grade…
Mazer, Joseph P.; Simonds, Cheri J.; Hunt, Stephen K.
The assessment of student learning in general education courses is of critical importance in higher education. This study examines the utility of a writing assignment (application essays) in a basic communication course as an effective assessment tool. The authors conducted a content analysis of student portfolios to determine the extent to which…
Hideki Fujii; Jong-Il Kim; Kunihiko Yoshiya; Shinichi Nishi; Masafumi Fukagawa
Background\\/Aims: Among the cardiovascular complications in dialysis patients, atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics and mortality of hemodialysis patients with AF, which are not completely elucidated. Methods: The prevalence of AF in patients undergoing hemodialysis in our institutions was assessed. Patients with AF (AF group) and without AF
Marsha D. Hearn; David M. Murray; Russell V. Luepker
Hostility as measured by the Cook-Medley Hostility (HO) Scale on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory has been suggested as a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and total mortality. This study tested the HO-CHD hypothesis in a sample of 1399 men who entered the University of Minnesota in 1953 and, as part of freshman orientation, completed the MMPI. Current
Sigel, Irving E.; Olmsted, Patricia
The four purposes of this study were (1) to test the long-range effects of classification training (CT) on disadvantaged black children, (2) to evaluate the effects of reintroducing CT to those previously trained, (3) to compare CT at two age periods (5 and 6 years old), and (4) to compare CT with attention training (AT). Of the 69 children used…
Ahopelto, Ilona; Mikkila-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Olkinuora, Erkki; Kaapa, Pekka
Novice medical students usually hold initial conceptions concerning medical domains, such as the cardiovascular system, which may contradict scientific explanations and thus hinder learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate which kinds of biomedical representations medical students constructed of the central cardiovascular system in…
Meyer-Probst, Bernhard; And Others
The Rostock Longitudinal Study, which has followed 247 at-risk children from birth to age 14, seeks to identify factors contributing to interindividual developmental differences. Results reported underscore the limited prognostic value of single risk factors, the diminishing impact of organic perinatal risk factors over time, and the increasing…
Roberto J Rona; Richard Hooper; Margaret Jones; Lisa Hull; Tess Browne; Oded Horn; Dominic Murphy; Matthew Hotopf; Simon Wessely
Objective To assess whether screening for mental disorder before the start of the 2003 Iraq war would have predicted subsequent mental disorders. Design Longitudinal cohort study of the United Kingdom armed forces. Participants 2820 of 2873 personnel of the three services who completed an initial questionnaire in 2002 were asked to complete a second questionnaire between June 2004 and 2
Luciano Rinaldi; Francesca Rinaldi; Paola Perini; Massimiliano Calabrese; Dario Seppi; Paola Grossi; Irene Mattisi; Luisa Barzon; Carlo Mengoli; Mariella Sanzari; Giorgio Palú; Paolo Gallo
Background and aimNatalizumab, used as therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS), has been associated with progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), a potentially fatal disease caused by JC virus (JCV), which is not predictable by specific markers. This study evaluated whether JCV reactivation occurred in the urine and\\/or plasma in 42 MS patients treated with natalizumab over 18 months, and followed by a
Flanagan, John C.; And Others
The Student Booklet is a companion document to "The Career Data Book: Results from Project TALENT'S Five-year Followup Study" (CE 000 755). The booklet's purpose is to enable the high school student to compare his abilities, achievements, interests, and background with those of other young people who went into various occupations so he may be…