The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort. PMID:12485695
Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M
...of Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures With Grouted Tendons AGENCY: Nuclear...of Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures with Grouted Tendons.'' This guide...for prestressed concrete containment structures with grouted tendons. ADDRESSES:...
. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures (tendon\\u000a and aponeurosis) in the medial gastrocnemius muscle between men (n=16) and women (n=13). The elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured directly by ultrasonography,\\u000a while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to
Keitaro Kubo; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga
Summary The structure of a tendon is an important example of complexity of ECM three-dimensional organization. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a macromolecular network with both structural and regulatory functions. ECM components belong to four major types of macromolecules: the collagens, elastin, proteoglycans, and noncollagenous glycoproteins. Tendons are made by a fibrous, compact connective tissue that connect muscle to bone designed to transmit forces and withstand tension during muscle contraction. Here we show the ultrastructural features of tendon’s components.
Tresoldi, Ilaria; Oliva, Francesco; Benvenuto, Monica; Fantini, Massimo; Masuelli, Laura; Bei, Roberto; Modesti, Andrea
The musculoskeletal system (muscle-tendon-bone) demonstrates numerous age-related changes, with modifications in tendons the least well studied, although increased predisposition to tendinopathy and rupture have been reported. In order to gain insights into the basis of age-associated increase in tendon injuries, we compared Achilles and tibialis anterior tendons and myotendinous junctions (MTJs) from 3- to 5- and 22- to 25-month-old rats for underlying structure and composition. Significant decreases were observed by qRT-PCR for collagen I, III, and V mRNA expression in tendons of old rats, but immunostaining detected no apparent differences in collagen I and V expression on the protein level. Tendons of old compared with young rats had decreased mRNA expression levels of proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) and elastin (Eln), but no differences in the mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor, TGF-beta 1, or stromal cell-derived factor 1. For PRG4, immunostaining showed good correlation with qRT-PCR results. This is the first study to show reductions in PRG4 in tendons and MTJs of old rats. Decreased PRG4 expression in tendons could result in increased tendon stiffness and may be associated with decreased activity in the elderly. The diminished collagen mRNA expression in combination with decreased PRG4 and Eln mRNA expression may be associated with increased risk of tendon injury with aging. PMID:23354684
Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Brooks, Susan V
The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures during stretch?–?shortening cycle exercise. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 26 participants was measured by ultrasonography while they performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between
Keitaro Kubo; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga
Background Increased tendon production of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been suggested to be a potential etiologic agent in the development of tendinopathy. Repeated injection of PGE2 into tendon has been proposed as a potential animal model for studying treatments for tendinopathy. In contrast, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) which inhibit PGE2 production and are commonly prescribed in treating tendinopathy have been shown to impair the healing of tendon after acute injury in animal models. The contradictory literature suggests the need to better define the functional effects of PGE2 on tendon. Our objective was to characterize the effects of PGE2 injection on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of tendon and the activity of the animals. Our hypothesis was that weekly PGE2 injection to the rat patellar tendon would lead to inferior biomechanical properties. Methods Forty rats were divided equally into four groups. Three groups were followed for 4 weeks with the following peritendinous injection procedures: No injection (control), 4 weekly injections of saline (saline), 4 weekly injections of 800 ng PGE2 (PGE2-4 wks). The fourth group received 4 weekly injections of 800 ng PGE2 initially and was followed for a total of 8 weeks. All animals were injected bilaterally. The main outcome measurements included: the structural and material properties of the patellar tendon under tensile loading to failure, tendon collagen content, and weekly animal activity scores. Results The ultimate load of PGE2-4 wks tendons at 4 weeks was significantly greater than control or saline group tendons. The stiffness and elastic modulus of the PGE2 injected tendons at 8 weeks was significantly greater than the control or saline tendons. No differences in animal activity, collagen content, or mean fibril diameter were observed between groups. Conclusions Four weekly peritendinous injections of PGE2 to the rat patellar tendon were not found to be an effective model of clinical tendinopathy. In contrast, improved structural and material properties of the patellar tendon were found after PGE2 injection. While PGE2 has been thought to have a contributory role in the development of tendinopathy and anti-inflammatory medications remain a common treatment, our results suggest a positive role of PGE2 in tendon remodeling in some circumstances.
During muscle contraction, the integrity of the myotendinous junction (MTJ) is important for the transmission of force from muscle to tendon. We evaluated the contractile and structural characteristics of 3-dimensional (3-D) skeletal muscle constructs co-cultured with engineered self-organized tendon constructs (n = 4), or segments of adult (n = 4) or fetal (n = 5) rat-tail tendon. We hypothesized that the co-culture of tendon and muscle would produce constructs with viable muscle–tendon interfaces that remain intact during generation of force. Construct diameter (?m) and maximum isometric force (?N) were measured, and specific force (kPa) was determined. After measure of force, constructs were loaded at a constant strain rate until failure and surface strains were recorded optically across the tendon, the muscle and the interface and used to determine the tangent modulus (passive stiffness) of the construct. Frozen samples were used for Trichrome Masson staining and immunofluorescent analysis of the MTJ-specific protein paxillin. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to diameter, maximum force, or specific force. The MTJ was robust and withstood tensile loading beyond the physiological strain range. The majority of the constructs failed in the muscle region. At the MTJ, there is an increase in the expression and localization of paxillin. In conclusion, using 3 sources of tendon tissue, we successfully engineered 3-D muscle–tendon constructs with functionally viable MTJ, characterized by structural features and protein expression patterns resembling neonatal MTJs in vivo.
LARKIN, LISA M.; CALVE, SARAH; KOSTROMINOVA, TATIANA Y.; ARRUDA, ELLEN M.
For vertebrates to achieve locomotion and to hurl objects efficiently, they must be able to develop muscular forces, store\\u000a elastic energy in tendon, and then transfer this energy to the attached joints. After joint movement has been achieved, excess\\u000a energy dissipates by reverse transmission from the joint to the muscle-tendon unit, where it is dissipated in the muscle.\\u000a Locomotion and
Frederick H. Silver; Joseph W. Freeman; Gino Bradica
We studied the effect of spasticity-induced overload on tendons from the gracilis and semitendinosus muscles from cerebral palsy (CP) and healthy subjects (CT) stained with haematoxylineosin, Sirius red and Alcian blue. Vascularity was also characterized using an anti-CD34 antibody. Light microscopy analysis of haematoxylin-eosin stained sections revealed that the overall structure of tendons was maintained, characterized by parallel and slightly wavy collagen fibers in both CT and CP tendons. However, hypercellularity, cell rounding, increased vascularity and lipoid degeneration were observed in CP samples. Sirius red stained collagen fibers were more evident in CP tendons, suggesting an increased collagen content induced by spasticity. Alcian blue staining revealed an overall increase of glycosaminoglycans in CP tendons as observed in tendinopathy. Our results suggest that CP-induced spasticity may be considered as a chronic, persisting and repetitive loading of tendons, inducing ECM remodeling as adaptive response to increased functional demand. At the same time, the evidence of some tendinopathic-like markers in CP tendons suggests that the chronic nature of the CP condition could represent a pathologic condition, possibly leading to a transient weakness of the tissue making it more susceptible to damage from cumulative loading until an overt tendinopathy develops. PMID:23885344
Gagliano, Nicoletta; Menon, Alessandra; Martinelli, Carla; Pettinari, Letizia; Panou, Artemisia; Milzani, Aldo; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Portinaro, Nicola Marcello
The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect of TIEG1 on the molecular structure of collagen within tail tendon fibers using 3-mo-old female C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and TIEG1 KO mice. Synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction experiments were carried out on single tendon fibers extracted from the WT and TIEG1 KO dorsal tail tendon. The fibers were scanned in the radial direction, and X-ray patterns were obtained. From these patterns, the meridional direction was analyzed through X-ray intensity profile. In addition, collagen content was investigated using hydroxyproline assays, and qualitative real-time PCR experiments were performed on RNA isolated from fibroblasts to examine specific gene expression changes. The results showed different X-ray diffraction patterns between WT and TIEG1 KO tendon fibers, indicating a disorganization of the collagen structure for the TIEG1 KO compared with WT mice. Furthermore, the analyses of the X-ray intensity profiles exhibited a higher (23 ?) period of collagen for the TIEG1 KO compared with the WT mice. The results of the hydroxyproline assays revealed a significant decrease in the TIEG1 KO compared with WT mice, leading to a decrease in the total amount of collagen present within the TIEG1 KO tendons. Moreover, qualitative real-time PCR results showed differences in the expression profiles of specific genes known to play important roles in tendon fiber development. These data further elucidate the role of TIEG1 on tendon structure and could explain the previous defects in the structure-function relationship found for TIEG1 KO tendon fibers.
Gumez, Laurie; Doucet, Jean; Haddad, Oualid; Hawse, John R.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Pichon, Chantal
BackgroundThe Achilles tendon undergoes prolonged, repetitive, submaximal loading during endurance running. The acute effects of endurance running on the Achilles tendon are unclear.HypothesisStructural abnormalities and Doppler flow are common in highly trained endurance runners. A marathon may lead to acute structural changes in the Achilles, including change in diameter and increased Doppler flow.Study designProspective cohort studyMethods41 Achilles tendons in 21
Investigations into the response of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the Thoroughbred horse to mechanical stimuli have been limited to in vitro cell culture studies focused primarily on gene expression of critical matrix proteins. It is uncertain how well in vitro outcomes translate to the tendon of the horse during exercise. The current study examined changes in tendon structure in response to maximal exercise using ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) to scan the SDFT prior to and after competitive racing. UTC uses contiguous transverse ultrasound images to assess the dynamics of the echopattern, which has a close relationship with changes in the 3-D ultra-structure of the tendon. Using UTC, it was possible to detect subtle changes in the dynamics of the echopattern, with a reduction in pixels that represent aligned and integer collagen tendon bundles on days 1 and 2 post-race when compared to pre-race (P<0.05). The echopattern of these tendons returned to baseline on day 3. This change in echopattern was not seen in control horses. It was concluded that short-term changes in the SDFT following maximal exercise could be detected using UTC. PMID:22658820
Docking, S I; Daffy, J; van Schie, H T M; Cook, J L
Muscle performance is closely related to the architecture and dimensions of the muscle–tendon unit and the effect of maturation on these architectural characteristics in humans is currently unknown. This study determined whether there are differences in musculo-tendinous architecture between adults and children of both sexes. Fascicle length and pennation angle were measured from ultrasound images at three sites along the length of the vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, vastis medialis and rectus femoris muscles. Muscle volume and muscle–tendon length were measured from magnetic resonance images. Muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated as the ratio of muscle volume to optimum fascicle length. Fascicle length was greater in the adult groups than in children (P < 0.05) but pennation angle did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). The ratios between fascicle and muscle length and between fascicle and tendon length were not different (P > 0.05) between adults and children for any quadriceps muscle. Quadriceps volume and PCSA of each muscle were greater in adults than children (P < 0.01) but the relative proportion of each head to the total quadriceps volume was similar in all groups. However, the difference in PCSA between adults and children (men ? 104% greater than boys, women ? 57% greater than girls) was greater (P < 0.05) than the difference in fascicle length (men ? 37% greater than boys, women ? 10% greater than girls). It is concluded that the fascicle, muscle and tendon lengthen proportionally during maturation, thus the muscle–tendon stiffness and excursion range are likely to be similar in children and adults but the relatively greater increase in PCSA than fascicle length indicates that adult muscles are better designed for force production than children’s muscles.
O'Brien, Thomas D; Reeves, Neil D; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Jones, David A; Maganaris, Constantinos N
Summary Both hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome have adverse effect on tendon structure. Atorvastatin is most widely used antihyperlipidemic drug. Statins have adverse effects on the tendon. Many studies have analyzed the relationship between atorvastatin and skeletal muscles. Atorvastatin administered after the surgical repair of a ruptured tendon appears to affect revascularization, collagenization, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen construction. Therefore, further investigations on the effects of atorvastatin on tendon healing are needed.
Esenkaya, Irfan; Unay, Koray
Tendons have complex mechanical properties that depend on their structure and composition. Some studies have assessed the role of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) in the mechanical response of tendon, but the relationships between sophisticated mechanics, assembly of collagen and SLRPs have not been well characterized. In this study, biglycan gene expression was varied in a dose dependent manner using biglycan null, biglycan heterozygote and wild type mice. Measures of mechanical (tension and compression), compositional and structural changes of the mouse patellar tendon were evaluated. Viscoelastic, tensile dynamic modulus was found to be increased in the biglycan heterozygous and biglycan null tendons compared to wild type. Gene expression analyses revealed biglycan gene expression was closely associated in a dose-dependent allelic manner. No differences were seen between genotypes in elastic or compressive properties or quantitative measures of collagen structure. These results suggest that biglycan, a member of the SLRP family, plays a role in tendon viscoelasticity that cannot be completely explained by its role in collagen fibrillogenesis. PMID:23592048
Dourte, Leann M; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Mienaltowski, Michael J; Jawad, Abbas F; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J
Tendons have complex mechanical properties that depend on their structure and composition. Some studies have assessed the role of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) in the mechanical response of tendon, but the relationships between sophisticated mechanics, assembly of collagen and SLRPs have not been well characterized. In this study, biglycan gene expression was varied in a dose dependent manner using biglycan null, biglycan heterozygote and wild type mice. Measures of mechanical (tension and compression), compositional and structural changes of the mouse patellar tendon were evaluated. Viscoelastic, tensile dynamic modulus was found to be increased in the biglycan heterozygous and biglycan null tendons compared to wild type. Gene expression analyses revealed biglycan gene expression was closely associated in a dose-dependent allelic manner. No differences were seen between genotypes in elastic or compressive properties or quantitative measures of collagen structure. These results suggest that biglycan, a member of the SLRP family, plays a role in tendon viscoelasticity that cannot be completely explained by its role in collagen fibrillogenesis.
Dourte, LeAnn M.; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.
Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is becoming increasingly popular for helping to maintain bone mass and strengthening muscle. Vibration regimens optimized for bone maintenance often operate at hypogravity levels (<1G) and regimens for muscle strengthening often employ hypergravity (>1G) vibrations. The effect of vibratory loads on tendon and ligament properties is unclear though excessive vibrations may be injurious. Our objective was to evaluate how tendon gene expression and the mechanical/histological properties of tendon and ligament were affected in response to WBV in the following groups: no vibration, low vibration (0.3G peak-to-peak), and high vibration (2G peak-to-peak). Rats were vibrated for 20 min a day, 5 days a week, for 5 weeks. Upon sacrifice, the medial collateral ligament (MCL), patellar tendon (PT), and the Achilles Tendon (AT) were isolated with insertion sites intact. All tissues were tensile tested to determine structural and material properties or used for histology. Patellar tendon was also subjected to quantitative RT-PCR to evaluate expression of anabolic and catabolic genes. No differences in biomechanical data between the control and the low vibration groups were found. There was evidence of significant weakness in the MCL with high vibration, but no significant effect on the PT or AT. Histology of the MCL and PT showed a hypercellular tissue response and some fiber disorganization with high vibration. High vibration caused an increase in collagen expression and a trend for an increase in IGF-1 expression suggesting a potential anabolic response to prevent tendon overuse injury. PMID:23623311
Keller, Benjamin V; Davis, Matthew L; Thompson, William R; Dahners, Laurence E; Weinhold, Paul S
This study aims to demonstrate how the state of chronic hyperglycemia from experimental Diabetes Mellitus can influence the homeostatic imbalance of tendons and, consequently, lead to the characteristics of tendinopathy. Twenty animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: control group, consisting of healthy rats and diabetic group constituted by rats induced to Diabetes Mellitus I. After twenty-four days of the induction of Diabetes type I, the Achilles tendon were removed for morphological evaluation, cellularity, number and cross-sectional area of blood vessel, immunohistochemistry for Collagen type I, VEGF and NF-?B nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and nitrate and nitrite level. The Achilles tendon thickness (µm/100g) of diabetic animals was significantly increased and, similarly, an increase was observed in the density of fibrocytes and mast cells in the tendons of the diabetic group. The average number of blood vessels per field, in peritendinous tissue, was statistically higher in the diabetic group 3.39 (2.98) vessels/field when compared to the control group 0.89 (1.68) vessels/field p?=?0.001 and in the intratendinous region, it was observed that blood vessels were extremely rare in the control group 0.035 (0.18) vessels/field and were often present in the tendons of the diabetic group 0.89 (0.99) vessels/field. The immunohistochemistry analysis identified higher density of type 1 collagen and increased expression of VEGF as well as increased immunostaining for NF?B p50 NLS in the nucleus in Achilles tendon of the diabetic group when compared to the control group. Higher levels of nitrite/nitrate were observed in the experimental group induced to diabetes. We conclude that experimental DM induces notable structural, inflammatory and vascular changes in the Achilles tendon which are compatible with the process of chronic tendinopathy.
de Oliveira, Rodrigo R.; Martins, Conceicao S.; Rocha, Yuri R.; Braga, Allysson B. R.; Mattos, Romulo M.; Hecht, Fabio; Brito, Gerly A. C.; Nasciutti, Luiz E.
This study aims to demonstrate how the state of chronic hyperglycemia from experimental Diabetes Mellitus can influence the homeostatic imbalance of tendons and, consequently, lead to the characteristics of tendinopathy. Twenty animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups: control group, consisting of healthy rats and diabetic group constituted by rats induced to Diabetes Mellitus I. After twenty-four days of the induction of Diabetes type I, the Achilles tendon were removed for morphological evaluation, cellularity, number and cross-sectional area of blood vessel, immunohistochemistry for Collagen type I, VEGF and NF-?B nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and nitrate and nitrite level. The Achilles tendon thickness (µm/100g) of diabetic animals was significantly increased and, similarly, an increase was observed in the density of fibrocytes and mast cells in the tendons of the diabetic group. The average number of blood vessels per field, in peritendinous tissue, was statistically higher in the diabetic group 3.39 (2.98) vessels/field when compared to the control group 0.89 (1.68) vessels/field p?=?0.001 and in the intratendinous region, it was observed that blood vessels were extremely rare in the control group 0.035 (0.18) vessels/field and were often present in the tendons of the diabetic group 0.89 (0.99) vessels/field. The immunohistochemistry analysis identified higher density of type 1 collagen and increased expression of VEGF as well as increased immunostaining for NF?B p50 NLS in the nucleus in Achilles tendon of the diabetic group when compared to the control group. Higher levels of nitrite/nitrate were observed in the experimental group induced to diabetes. We conclude that experimental DM induces notable structural, inflammatory and vascular changes in the Achilles tendon which are compatible with the process of chronic tendinopathy. PMID:24130676
de Oliveira, Rodrigo R; Martins, Conceição S; Rocha, Yuri R; Braga, Allysson B R; Mattos, Rômulo M; Hecht, Fábio; Brito, Gerly A C; Nasciutti, Luiz E
Introduction Tendons establish specific connections between muscles and the skeleton by transferring contraction forces from skeletal muscle to bone thereby allowing body movement. Tendon physiology and pathology are heavily dependent on mechanical stimuli. Tendon injuries clinically represent a serious and still unresolved problem since damaged tendon tissues heal very slowly and no surgical treatment can restore a damaged tendon to its normal structural integrity and mechanical strength. Understanding how mechanical stimuli regulate tendon tissue homeostasis and regeneration will improve the treatment of adult tendon injuries that still pose a great challenge in today's medicine. Source of data This review summarizes the current status of tendon treatment and discusses new directions from the point of view of cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine approach. We searched the available literature using PubMed for relevant original articles and reviews. Growing points Identification of tendon cell markers has enabled us to study precisely tendon healing and homeostasis. Clinically, tissue engineering for tendon injuries is an emerging technology comprising elements from the fields of cellular source, scaffold materials, growth factors/cytokines and gene delivering systems. Areas timely for developing research The clinical settings to establish appropriate microenvironment for injured tendons with the combination of these novel cellular- and molecular-based scaffolds will be critical for the treatment.
Sakabe, Tomoya; Sakai, Takao
. The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo whether passive stiffness in human muscles was related to the elasticity\\u000a of tendon structures and to performance during stretch-shortening cycle exercise. Passive torque of plantar flexor muscles\\u000a was measured during passive stretch from 90° (anatomical position) to 65° of dorsiflexion at a constant velocity of 5°·s–1. The slope of
Keitaro Kubo; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga
ObjectiveTo assess whether a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection leads to an enhanced tendon structure and neovascularisation, measured with ultrasonographic techniques, in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy.DesignDouble-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial.SettingSports medical department of The Hague medical centre.Patients54 patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy were included.InterventionsPatients were randomised to eccentric exercise therapy with either a PRP injection (PRP group) or a saline
R J de Vos; A Weir; J L Tol; J A N Verhaar; H Weinans; H T M van Schie
A reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was controlled with active tendons under the excitation of near-fault ground motions. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) type controllers were used and the controller was tuned by using a numerical algorithm. In order to prevent brittle fracture of the structure, the aim of the control is to reduce maximum base shear force. The RC structure was investigated for different characteristic strengths of concrete and the approach is applicable for the structure with 14 MPa concrete strength or higher.
Nigdeli, Sinan Melih; Boduro?lu, M. Hasan
Proximal patellar tendinopathy occurs as an overuse injury in sport and is also characteristic of ankylosing spondylitis patients. It particularly affects the posteromedial part of the patellar tendon enthesis, although the reason for this is unclear. We investigated whether there are regional differences in the trabecular architecture of the patella or in the histology of the patellar tendon enthesis that could suggest unequal force transmission from bone to tendon. Trabecular architecture was analysed from X-rays taken with a Faxitron radiography system of the patellae of dissecting room cadavers and in magnetic resonance images of the knees of living volunteers. Structural and fractal analyses were performed on the Faxitron digital images using MatLab software. Regional differences at the enthesis in the thickness of the uncalcified fibrocartilage and the subchondral plate were evaluated histologically in cadaveric material. The radiological studies showed that the quantity of bone and the apparent trabecular thickness in the patella were greatest medially, and that in the lateral part of the patella there were fewer trabeculae which were orientated either antero-posteriorly or superiorly inferiorly. The histological study showed that the uncalcified fibrocartilage was most prominent medially and that the subchondral plate was thinner laterally. Overall, the results indicate that mechanical stress at the proximal patellar tendon enthesis is asymmetrically distributed and greater on the medial than on the lateral side. Thus, we suggest that the functional anatomy of the knee is closely related to regional variations in force transmission, which in turn relates to the posteromedial site of pathology in proximal patellar tendinopathy.
Toumi, H; Higashiyama, I; Suzuki, D; Kumai, T; Bydder, G; McGonagle, D; Emery, P; Fairclough, J; Benjamin, M
MRI and ultrasound are now widely used for the assessment of tendon and ligament abnormalities. Healthy tendons and ligaments contain high levels of collagen with a structured orientation, which gives rise to their characteristic normal imaging appearances as well as causing particular imaging artefacts. Changes to ligaments and tendons as a result of disease and injury can be demonstrated using both ultrasound and MRI. These have been validated against surgical and histological findings. Novel imaging techniques are being developed that may improve the ability of MRI and ultrasound to assess tendon and ligament disease.
Hodgson, R J; O'Connor, P J; Grainger, A J
Distal biceps tendon ruptures continue to be an important injury seen and treated by upper extremity surgeons. Since the mid-1980s, the emphasis has been placed on techniques that limit complications or improve initial tendon-to-bone fixation strength. Recently, basic science research has expanded the knowledge base regarding the biceps tendon structure, footprint anatomy, and biomechanics. Clinical data have further delineated the results of conservative and surgical management of both partial and complete tears in acute or chronic states. The current literature on the distal biceps tendon is described in detail. PMID:23474326
Schmidt, Christopher C; Jarrett, Claudius D; Brown, Brandon T
The study is concerned with the possibility of utilizing fiber reinforced plastic rods as prestressing tendons, in place of traditional steel tendons, in elements of prestressed concrete bridges exposed to corrosive environments. A survey was made of avai...
A. H. Mattock K. Babaei
Hurricane damage inflicted upon coastal structures, particularly residential structures, results in millions of dollars in financial damage and loss of life each year. A major cause of this damage usually begins with roof uplifts of coastal structures; prevention of roof uplift helps mitigate damage to coastal structures by hurricanes. Development of more effective fastening mechanisms for the connections between the walls and the roofs of these structures will aid in damage reduction to coastal structures. Recent developments in the new field of auto-adaptive materials offer promising opportunities for developing radically new fastening mechanisms. One of the classes of materials in this category is shape memory alloys (SMAs). SMAs are very attractive for structural application because of their major constitutive behaviors such as pseudoelastic characteristics. The pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi SMAs is a unique hysteretic energy dissipation behavior which, combined with a very long fatigue life, makes NiTi a viable candidate for developing new fasteners. However, as a first step it is important to develop an in-depth understanding of NiTi behavior under dynamic loads. Research carried out in this area has been very limited in scope. Therefore, in this paper, eight different configurations of bracing systems, divided into two categories, are explored on a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure to investigate the feasibility of developing devices for the mitigation of hurricane damage. These bracing devices basically utilize the hysteretic energy dissipation of NiTi resulting from its pseudoelastic characteristic. Since the main goal of this ongoing research is to develop a thorough understanding of the pseudoelastic and hysteretic behavior of SMAs under severe dynamic loading/excitation, a series of earthquake data has been considered as the source of excitation. Through this analysis both the damping and stiffening characteristics of NiTi wires and the effect of these dynamic characteristics on changing the dynamic response of the structure are studied. In the first category the NiTi wires are not pre-strained, while in the second category they are pre-strained. In each category, four different combinations of wire length and modeling of pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi wire are considered. A bilinear stress-strain model is used for representing the pseudoelastic behavior of NiTi tendons, capable of representing internal yield, internal recovery and trigger line concepts. This study establishes that hybrid tendons have the highest damping and stiffening effects on the structure. It is also concluded that, when the amplitude of excitation is small, tendons act as stiffening devices. Once the amplitude of the excitation is large enough to initiate stress-induced phase transformations, tendons act as energy absorption devices. These findings provide very useful information for the development of more effective fastening devices that can withstand severe dynamic loads, such as hurricane loadings.
Saadat, S.; Noori, M.; Davoodi, H.; Hou, Z.; Suzuki, Y.; Masuda, A.
Multi-scale characterization of structures and mechanical behavior of biological tissues are of huge importance in order to evaluate the quality of a biological tissue and/or to provide bio-inspired scaffold for functional tissue engineering. Indeed, the more information on main biological tissue structures we get, the more relevant we will be to design new functional prostheses for regenerative medicine or to accurately evaluate tissues. From this perspective, we have investigated the structures and their mechanical properties from nanoscopic to macroscopic scale of fresh ex-vivo white New-Zealand rabbit Achilles tendon using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and tensile tests to provide a "simple" model whose parameters are relevant of its micro or nano structure. Thus, collagen fiber's crimping was identified then measured from SHG images as a plane sine wave with 28.4 ± 5.8 ?m of amplitude and 141 ± 41 ?m of wavelength. Young's moduli of fibrils (3.0 GPa) and amorphous phases (223 MPa) were obtained using TH-AFM. From these investigations, a non-linear Zener model linking a statistical Weibull's distribution of taut fibers under traction to crimp fibers were developed. This model showed that for small strain (<0.1), the amorphous inter-fibrils phase in collagen fibers is more solicited than collagen fibrils themselves. The results open the way to modeled macroscopic mechanical behavior of aligned-crimped collagen soft tissues using multi-scale tendon observations under static or dynamic solicitations. PMID:23811279
Kahn, Cyril J F; Dumas, Dominique; Arab-Tehrany, Elmira; Marie, Vanessa; Tran, Nguyen; Wang, Xiong; Cleymand, Franck
The regulation of tendon homoeostasis, including adaptation to loading, is still not fully understood. Accumulating data, however, demonstrates that in addition to afferent (sensory) functions, the nervous system, via efferent pathways which are associated with through specific neuronal mediators plays an active role in regulating pain, inflammation and tendon homeostasis. This neuronal regulation of intact-, healing- and tendinopathic tendons has been shown to be mediated by three major groups of molecules including opioid, autonomic and excitatory glutamatergic neuroregulators. In intact healthy tendons the neuromediators are found in the surrounding structures: paratenon, endotenon and epitenon, whereas the proper tendon itself is practically devoid of neurovascular supply. This neuroanatomy reflects that normal tendon homoeostasis is regulated from the tendon surroundings. After injury and during tendon repair, however, there is extensive nerve ingrowth into the tendon proper, followed by a time-dependent emergence of sensory, autonomic and glutamatergic mediators, which amplify and fine-tune inflammation and regulate tendon regeneration. In tendinopathic condition, excessive and protracted presence of sensory and glutamatergic neuromediators has been identified, suggesting involvement in inflammatory, nociceptive and hypertrophic (degenerative) tissue responses. Under experimental and clinical conditions of impaired (e.g. diabetes) as well as excessive (e.g. tendinopathy) neuromediator release, dysfunctional tendon homoeostasis develops resulting in chronic pain and gradual degeneration. Thus there is a prospect that in the future pharmacotherapy and tissue engineering approaches targeting neuronal mediators and their receptors may prove to be effective therapies for painful, degenerative and traumatic tendon disorders. PMID:23718724
Ackermann, Paul W
Tendons and ligaments are unique forms of connective tissue that are considered an integral part of the musculoskeletal system. The ultimate function of tendon is to connect muscles to bones and to conduct the forces generated by muscle contraction into movements of the joints, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone and provide joint stabilization. Unfortunately, the almost acellular and collagen I–rich structure of tendons and ligaments makes them very poorly regenerating tissues. Injured tendons and ligaments are considered a major clinical challenge in orthopedic and sports medicine. This Review discusses the several factors that might serve as molecular targets that upon activation can enhance or lead to tendon neoformation.
Aslan, Hadi; Kimelman-Bleich, Nadav; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan
BackgroundTendon is frequently injured structure in sports activities. Stretching before activities has been recommended to prevent athletes from injuries. Clinical studies reported that stretching had effects to reduce passive muscle stiffness and leads to an increased range of motion. Recent biomechanical studies suggested that stretching might also temporary affect tensile property of tendon. However, the detailed information regarding optimizing this
Atsushi Teramoto; Zong-Ping Luo
We describe a case, which gives an answer to the question of 'Does the surgical repair of the acute Achilles tendon ruptures cause the structural changes in the 15-year follow-up?' The only complaint of the patient was the feeling of that the size of the left foot is smaller than the right side. Dynamic pedobarography (EMED-SF, Novel, Munich) demonstrated that left foot has less total contact area, higher pressure values, lower arch index, more laterally located center of pressure, and higher medial arch than that of the right one. PMID:21417988
Atik, O Sahap; Bölükba??, Selçuk; Kanatl?, Ulunay
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 20 days' bed rest on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles in vivo. Methods: Eight healthy men (age: 24±4 years, height: 172±9 m, body mass: 69±13 kg) carried out a 6° head-down bed rest for 20 days. Before and after bed rest, elongation (L) of the tendon and aponeurosis of vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius muscles (MG) during isometric knee extension and plantar flexion, respectively, were determined using real-time ultrasonic apparatus, while the subjects performed ramp isometric contraction up to the voluntary maximum, followed by ramp relaxation. The relationship between estimated muscle force (Fm) and tendon elongation (L) was fitted to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. The hysteresis was calculated as the ratio of the area within the Fm-L loop to the area beneath the load portion of the curve. Results: L values above 100 N were significantly greater after bed rest for VL, while there were no significant differences in L values between before and after for MG. The stiffness decreased after bed rest for VL (70.3±27.4 v 50.1±24.8 N/mm, before and after bed rest, respectively; p = 0.003) and MG (29.4±7.5 v 25.6±7.8 N/mm, before and after bed rest, respectively; p = 0.054). In addition, hysteresis increased after bed rest for VL (16.5±7.1% v 28.2±12.9%, before and after bed rest, respectively; p = 0.017), but not for MG (17.4±4.4% v 17.7±6.1%, before and after bed rest, respectively; p = 0.925). Conclusions: These results suggested that bed rest decreased the stiffness of human tendon structures and increased their hysteresis, and that these changes were found in knee extensors, but not the plantar flexors.
Kubo, K; Akima, H; Ushiyama, J; Tabata, I; Fukuoka, H; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T
A distinctive feature of embryonic tendon development is the steady increase in collagen fibril diameter and associated improvement of tissue mechanical properties. A potential mechanical stimulus for these changes is slow stretching of the tendon during limb growth. Testing this hypothesis in vivo is complicated by the presence of other developmental processes including muscle development and innervation. Here we used a cell culture tendon-like construct to determine if slow stretch can explain the increases in fibril diameter and mechanical properties that are observed in vivo. Non-stretched constructs had an ultrastructural appearance and mechanical properties similar to those of early embryonic tendon. However, slowly stretching during 4 days in culture increased collagen fibril diameter, fibril packing volume, and mechanical stiffness, and thereby mimicked embryonic development. 3D EM showed cells with improved longitudinal alignment and elongated nuclei, which raises the hypothesis that nuclear deformation could be a novel mechanism during tendon development. PMID:22012594
Kalson, Nicholas S; Holmes, David F; Herchenhan, Andreas; Lu, Yinhui; Starborg, Toby; Kadler, Karl E
Tendon properties contribute to the complex interaction of the central nervous system, muscle–tendon unit and bony structures to produce joint movement. Until recently limited information on human tendon behaviour in vivo was available; however, novel methodological advancements have enabled new insights to be gained in this area. The present review summarizes the progress made with respect to human tendon and aponeurosis function in vivo, and how tendons adapt to ageing, loading and unloading conditions. During low tensile loading or with passive lengthening not only the muscle is elongated, but also the tendon undergoes significant length changes, which may have implications for reflex responses. During active loading, the length change of the tendon far exceeds that of the aponeurosis, indicating that the aponeurosis may more effectively transfer force onto the tendon, which lengthens and stores elastic energy subsequently released during unloading, in a spring-like manner. In fact, data recently obtained in vivo confirm that, during walking, the human Achilles tendon provides elastic strain energy that can decrease the energy cost of locomotion. Also, new experimental evidence shows that, contrary to earlier beliefs, the metabolic activity in human tendon is remarkably high and this affords the tendon the ability to adapt to changing demands. With ageing and disuse there is a reduction in tendon stiffness, which can be mitigated with resistance exercises. Such adaptations seem advantageous for maintaining movement rapidity, reducing tendon stress and risk of injury, and possibly, for enabling muscles to operate closer to the optimum region of the length–tension relationship.
Magnusson, S Peter; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Kjaer, Michael
Pathologic processes intrinsic and extrinsic to the tendons have been proposed as the underlying cause of rotator cuff disease, but the precise etiology is not known. Tear formation is, in part, attributable to the accumulation of subrupture tendon fatigue damage. We review the molecular, mechanical, and structural changes induced in tendons subjected to controlled amounts of fatigue loading in an animal model of early tendinopathy. The distinct tendon responses to low and moderate levels of loading, as opposed to high levels, provide insight into the potential mechanisms for the therapeutic benefits of exercise in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinopathy. The progression of damage accumulation leading to fiber rupture and eventual tendon tearing seen with higher loading illustrates the progression from tendinopathy to full-thickness tearing. We hope that this more realistic animal model of tendon fatigue damage will allow better assessment of biologic, mechanical, tissue-engineering, and rehabilitation strategies to improve repair success. PMID:22244058
Neviaser, Andrew; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan
Summary Tendons are often subject to age related degenerative changes that coincide with a diminished regenerative capacity. Torn tendons often heal by forming scar tissue that is structurally weaker than healthy native tendon tissue, predisposing to mechanical failure. There is increasing interest in providing biological stimuli to increase the tendon reparative response. Stem cells in particular are an exciting and promising prospect as they have the potential to provide appropriate cellular signals to encourage neotendon formation during repair rather than scar tissue. Currently, a number of issues need to be investigated further before it can be determined whether stem cells are an effective and safe therapeutic option for encouraging tendon repair. This review explores the in-vitro and invivo evidence assessing the effect of stem cells on tendon healing, as well as the potential clinical applications.
Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed ‘fibrillar crimps’ and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P < 0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165° in stretched tendons vs. 148° in relaxed tendons, P < 0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the ‘fibrillar crimps’ are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the ‘fibrillar crimp’ may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon.
Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro
Internal snapping hip syndrome, or psoas tendonitis, is a recognised cause of nonarthritic hip pain. The majority of patients are treated conservatively; however, occasionally patients require surgical intervention. The two surgical options for iliopsoas tendinopathy are step lengthening of the iliopsoas tendon or releasing the tendon at the lesser trochanter. Although unusual, refractory snapping usually occurs soon after tenotomy. We report a case of a 47-year-old active female with internal snapping and pain following an open psoas tenotomy. Postoperatively she was symptom free for 13 years. An MRI arthrogram revealed reformation of a pseudo iliopsoas tendon reinserting into the lesser trochanter. The pain and snapping resolved after repeat iliopsoas tendon release. Reformation of tendons is an uncommon sequela of tenotomies. However the lack of long-term studies makes it difficult to calculate prevalence rates. Tendon reformation should be included in the differential diagnosis of failed tenotomy procedures after a period of symptom relief.
Garala, K.; Power, R. A.
Tendon adhesion is one of the most common causes of disability following tendon surgery. A case of extensive peritendinous adhesions of the Achilles tendon and tibialis posterior tendon after compound rupture of the tendons was reported. This was managed by endoscopic adhesiolysis of both tendons. The endoscopic approach allows early postoperative mobilisation which can relieve the tendon adhesion. PMID:24045762
Lui, Tun Hing
This paper aims to highlight the need for a refined tendon model to reproduce the main mechanical features of the integrated\\u000a muscle–tendon unit (MTU). Elastic nonlinearities of the tendon, both at the nano and microscale, are modeled by a multiscale\\u000a approach, accounting for the hierarchical arrangement (from molecules up to the fibers) of the collagen structures within\\u000a the tissue. This
Franco Maceri; Michele Marino; Giuseppe Vairo
Injuries to the tendon (e.g., wrist tendonitis, epicondyltis) due to overuse are common in sports activities and the workplace. Most are associated with repetitive, high force hand activities. The mechanisms of cellular and structural damage due to cyclical loading are not well known. The purpose of this video is to present a new system that can simultaneously load four tendons in tissue culture. The video describes the methods of sterile tissue harvest and how the tendons are loaded onto a clamping system that is subsequently immersed into media and maintained at 37°C. One clamp is fixed while the other one is moved with a linear actuator. Tendon tensile force is monitored with a load cell in series with the mobile clamp. The actuators are controlled with a LabView program. The four tendons can be repetitively loaded with different patterns of loading, repetition rate, rate of loading, and duration. Loading can continue for a few minutes to 48 hours. At the end of loading, the tendons are removed and the mid-substance extracted for biochemical analyses. This system allows for the investigation of the effects of loading patterns on gene expression and structural changes in tendon. Ultimately, mechanisms of injury due to overuse can be studies with the findings applied to treatment and prevention.
Asundi, Krishna; Rempel, David
A distinctive feature of embryonic tendon development is the steady increase in collagen fibril diameter and associated improvement of tissue mechanical properties. A potential mechanical stimulus for these changes is slow stretching of the tendon during limb growth. Testing this hypothesis in vivo is complicated by the presence of other developmental processes including muscle development and innervation. Here we used a cell culture tendon-like construct to determine if slow stretch can explain the increases in fibril diameter and mechanical properties that are observed in vivo. Non-stretched constructs had an ultrastructural appearance and mechanical properties similar to those of early embryonic tendon. However, slowly stretching during 4 days in culture increased collagen fibril diameter, fibril packing volume, and mechanical stiffness, and thereby mimicked embryonic development. 3D EM showed cells with improved longitudinal alignment and elongated nuclei, which raises the hypothesis that nuclear deformation could be a novel mechanism during tendon development. Developmental Dynamics 240:2520–2528, 2011. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kalson, Nicholas S; Holmes, David F; Herchenhan, Andreas; Lu, Yinhui; Starborg, Toby; Kadler, Karl E
Gross and histologic examinations of 15 normal cadaver and 15 surgical posterior tibial tendons from patients with posterior tibial tendon insufficiency were performed. All surgical specimens were abnormal with enlargement distal to the medial malleolus and a dull white appearance. At histologic examination, 12 of 15 cadaver tendons displayed normal tendon structure characterized by linear orientation of collagen bundles, normal fibroblast cellularity, low vascular density, and insertional chondroid metaplasia. The surgical specimens displayed a degenerative tendinosis characterized by increased mucin content, fibroblast hypercellularity, chondroid metaplasia, and neovascularization. This resulted in marked disruption of the linear orientation of the collagen bundles. PMID:9728698
Mosier, S M; Lucas, D R; Pomeroy, G; Manoli, A
Summary Tendon and tendon-bone junction injuries, while heal, have high re-tear rates. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great appeal for the promotion of tendon and tendon-bone junction healing because of their high proliferation rate, multi-potency and relative ease of isolation from various tissues. Tendon stem cells have been identified recently and could be an alternative new cell source for tendon and tendon-bone junction repair. In this review, we summarized the in vitro characteristics of tendon stem cells. The evidence supporting the potential use of these cells for tendon and tendon-bone junction repair was presented. In order to therapeutically apply tendon stem cells in the clinical settings, standardization of tendon stem cell culture is essential. Issues relating to the sources, purity, efficacy, safety and delivery of tendon stem cells for tendon and tendon-bone junction repair were summarized and discussed. The direction for future research was suggested.
Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Wong, On Tik
Tendon and tendon-bone junction injuries, while heal, have high re-tear rates. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have great appeal for the promotion of tendon and tendon-bone junction healing because of their high proliferation rate, multi-potency and relative ease of isolation from various tissues. Tendon stem cells have been identified recently and could be an alternative new cell source for tendon and tendon-bone junction repair. In this review, we summarized the in vitro characteristics of tendon stem cells. The evidence supporting the potential use of these cells for tendon and tendon-bone junction repair was presented. In order to therapeutically apply tendon stem cells in the clinical settings, standardization of tendon stem cell culture is essential. Issues relating to the sources, purity, efficacy, safety and delivery of tendon stem cells for tendon and tendon-bone junction repair were summarized and discussed. The direction for future research was suggested. PMID:23738293
Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Wong, On Tik
Strength and function of autogenic and xenogenic reconstruction of digital extensor tendons was examined in an ovine model. In this study, tendon-graft junctions were formed by either suture augmented with a woven polyester tube (A), or augmented and shielded from surrounding tissues by chemically-treated bovine pericardium (S). By 12 wk, both A and S sheep had returned to full range
G. J. Rogers; B. K. Milthorpe; K. Schindhelm; C. R. Howlett; S. Roe
Due to ready availability, decreased cost, and freedom from transmissible diseases in humans such as hepatitis and AIDS, it would be advantageous to use tendon grafts from farm animals as a substitute for human tendon grafts in in vitro experiments aimed at improving the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructive surgery. Thus the objective of this study was to determine whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft composed of two loops of bovine common digital extensor tendon has the same viscoelastic, structural, and material properties as a graft composed of a double loop of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons from humans. To satisfy this objective, grafts were constructed from each tissue source. The cross-sectional area was measured using an area micrometer, and each graft was then pulled using a materials testing system while submerged in a saline bath. Using two groups of tendon grafts (n = 10), viscoelastic tests were conducted over a three-day period during which a constant displacement load relaxation test was followed by a constant amplitude, cyclic load creep test (first day), a constant load creep test (second day), and an incremental cyclic load creep test (third day). Load-to-failure tests were performed on two different groups of grafts (n = 8). When the viscoelastic behavior was compared, there were no significant differences in the rate of load decay or the final load (relaxation test) and rates of displacement increase or final displacements (creep tests) (p > 0.115). To compare both the structural and material properties in the toe region (i.e., < 250 N) of the load-elongation curve, the tangent stiffness and modulus functions were computed from parameters used in an exponential model fit to the load (stress)-elongation (strain) data. Although one of the two parameters in the functions was different statistically, this difference translated into a difference of only 0.03 mm in displacement at 250 N of load. In the linear region (i.e., 50-75 percent of ultimate load) of the load-elongation curve, the linear stiffness of the two graft types compared closely (444 N/mm for bovine and 418 N/mm for human) (p = 0.341). At failure, the ultimate loads (2901 N and 2914 N for bovine and human, respectively) and the ultimate stresses (71.8 MPa and 65.6 MPa for bovine and human, respectively) were not significantly different (p > 0.261). The theoretical effect of any differences in properties between these two grafts on the results of two types of in vitro experiments (i.e., effect of surgical variables on knee laxity and structural properties of fixation devices) are discussed. Despite some statistical differences in the properties evaluated, these differences do not translate into important effects on the dependent variables of interest in the experiments. Thus the bovine tendon graft can be substituted for the human tendon graft in both types of experiments. PMID:11340877
Donahue, T L; Gregersen, C; Hull, M L; Howell, S M
Tendon connects muscle to bone and functions to transmit muscular forces across joints to stabilize or move those joints. Tendons in the foot and ankle are subject to enormous loads and consequently make up a substantial portion of the body's tendon injuries. Understanding the mechanisms of these injuries requires an understanding of the relative rates of muscle, tendon, osteotendinous junction, and myotendinous junction adaptation. This article provides the practitioner with an overview of tendon anatomy, physiology, healing, and repair and correlates didactic and clinical aspects so that practitioners can better treat patients and get them back to normal functioning as quickly and as close to anatomic and physiologic capabilities as possible. PMID:16213379
Platt, Marc A
Tendons are dense regular connective tissue structures that are defined based on their anatomical position of connecting muscle to bone. Despite these obvious commons features tendons from different locations within the body show remarkable variation in terms of their morphological, molecular and mechanical properties which relates to their specialized function. An appreciation of these differences is necessary to understand all aspects of tendon biology in health and disease. In our work, we have used a combination of mechanical assessment, histological measurements and molecular analysis of matrix in functionally distinct tendons to determine relationships between function and structure. We have found significant differences in material and molecular properties between spring-like tendons that are subjected to high strains during locomotion and positional tendons which are subjected to much lower strains. Furthermore, we have data to suggest that not only is the matrix composition different but also the ability of cells to synthesize and degrade the matrix (matrix turnover) varies between tendon types. We propose that these differences relate to the magnitude of strain that the tendon experiences during normal activities in life. Tendon cells may be preprogrammed during embryological development for the strain they will encounter in life or may simply respond to the particular strain environment they are subjected to. The elucidation of controlling mechanisms resulting in tendon cell specialization will have important consequences for cell based therapies and engineering strategies to repair damaged tendons.
Birch, Helen L
Objective The presented technique aims at reconstruction of the anterior capsulolabral structures of the glenohumeral joint in the case\\u000a of recurrent severe instability after multiple surgical attempts to achieve stabilization.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Indications The procedure is indicated for patients experiencing significant lifestyle-limiting recurrent shoulder instability with etiologic\\u000a soft tissue deficiency.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Contraindications Bony defects or abnormalities can not be addressed with the index technique.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Surgical technique A
S. Braun; M. P. Horan; P. J. Millett
Conflicts, snapping and instability of the tendons are common, and ultrasound (US) is the method of choice for evidencing these conditions thanks to the possibility to perform dynamic maneuvers during imaging studies. A conflict can occur between a tendon and a bone structure, other tendons, the retinacula or pulleys. Snapping can occur due to instability caused by rupture of the retinaculum, conflict between a thickened retinaculum and a bone prominence or due to an abnormal position of the tendon. Instability can occur due to insufficient ability of the retinaculum to keep the tendons in the bone groove or its failure to hold the tendons applied to the bone. The technique for evidencing conflicts, snapping and instability of the tendons is very demanding because it requires a thorough knowledge of the US appearance and dynamic maneuvers. However, at the present time US examination completed with dynamic maneuvers is the investigation of choice for evidencing these disorders and providing the clinicians with the necessary information.
Fantino, Olivier; Borne, J.; Bordet, Bertrand
Nuclear magnetic relaxation times were measured in collagen tissue when varying the orientation of the fiber with respect to the static field. T1 was found to be only slightly dependent on theta, the fiber-to-field angle, but T2 was very sensitive to the orientation, with a maximum value at the magic angle. The transverse decay curves were multiexponential. Their deconvolution displayed four components; the ones that decayed most slowly were almost independent of theta, but the two fastest ones showed a strong angular dependence that was interpreted with a cross-relaxation model. Quadrupolar dips were visible in the 1/T1 dispersion curves. These dips were independent of theta, so that the magnetization transfer could also be assumed to be independent of the fiber orientation. Finally, each component was assigned to a fraction of protons localized in the macromolecular structure and characterized by particular dynamics. The model of Woessner was applied to the water molecules tightly bound into the macromolecules, which resulted in a dynamical description of this water fraction. This description is compatible with the two-sites model of Ramachandran based on x-ray diffraction and with the extensive studies of Berendsen. However, the important indications obtained from the deconvolution lead to a less static representation of the tissue.
Peto, S; Gillis, P; Henri, V P
Tendons are strong hierarchical structures, but how tensile forces are transmitted between different levels remains incompletely understood. Collagen fibrils are thought to be primary determinants of whole tendon properties, and therefore we hypothesized that the whole human patellar tendon and its distinct collagen fibrils would display similar mechanical properties. Human patellar tendons (n = 5) were mechanically tested in vivo by ultrasonography. Biopsies were obtained from each tendon, and individual collagen fibrils were dissected and tested mechanically by atomic force microscopy. The Young's modulus was 2.0 ± 0.5 GPa, and the toe region reached 3.3 ± 1.9% strain in whole patellar tendons. Based on dry cross-sectional area, the Young's modulus of isolated collagen fibrils was 2.8 ± 0.3 GPa, and the toe region reached 0.86 ± 0.08% strain. The measured fibril modulus was insufficient to account for the modulus of the tendon in vivo when fibril content in the tendon was accounted for. Thus, our original hypothesis was not supported, although the in vitro fibril modulus corresponded well with reported in vitro tendon values. This correspondence together with the fibril modulus not being greater than that of tendon supports that fibrillar rather than interfibrillar properties govern the subfailure tendon response, making the fibrillar level a meaningful target of intervention. The lower modulus found in vitro suggests a possible adverse effect of removing the tissue from its natural environment. In addition to the primary work comparing the two hierarchical levels, we also verified the existence of viscoelastic behavior in isolated human collagen fibrils. PMID:22114175
Svensson, René B; Hansen, Philip; Hassenkam, Tue; Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Kovanen, Vuokko; Krogsgaard, Michael; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter
This patent describes a riser and tendon management system. It comprises means to set nominal conditions for the risers and tendons; means to measure actual riser and tendon conditions; means to compare the actual and nominal conditions of the risers and tendons; and means responsive to a differential between the actual and nominal riser and tendon conditions, which difference exceeds specified limits, and recommending corrective action to bring the risers and tendons back to within nominal conditions.
There is still no agreement on the nature of tissues' viscoelasticity and on its reliable modeling. We speculate that disagreements between previous observations stem from difficulties of separating between viscoelastic and preconditioning effects, since both are manifested by similar response features. Here, this and related issues were studied in the tendon as a prototype for other soft tissues. Sheep digital tendons were preconditioned under strain that was higher by 1% than the one used in subsequent testing. Each specimen was then subjected to stress relaxation, and quick release or creep. A stochastic microstructural viscoelastic theory was developed based on the collagen fibers' properties and on their gradual recruitment with stretch. Model parameters were estimated from stress relaxation data and predictions were compared with the creep data. Following its validation, the new recruitment viscoelasticity (RVE) model was compared, both theoretically and experimentally, with the quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) theory. The applied preconditioning protocol produced subsequent pure viscoelastic response. The proposed RVE model provided excellent fit to both stress relaxation and creep data. Both analytical and numerical comparisons showed that the new RVE theory and the popular QLV one are equivalent under deformation schemes at which no fibers buckle. Otherwise, the equivalence breaks down; QLV may predict negative stress, in contrast to data of the quick release tests, while RVE predicts no such negative stress. The results are consistent with the following conclusions: (1) fully preconditioned tendon exhibits pure viscoelastic response, (2) nonlinearity of the tendon viscoelasticity is induced by gradual recruitment of its fibers, (3) a new structure-based RVE theory is a reliable representation of the tendon viscoelastic properties under both stress relaxation and creep tests, and (4) the QLV theory is equivalent to the RVE one (and valid) only under deformations in which no fibers buckle. The results also suggest that the collagen fibers themselves are linear viscoelastic. PMID:20353259
Einat, Raz; Yoram, Lanir
Tendons are composed of longitudinally aligned collagen fibrils arranged in bundles with an undulating pattern, called crimp.\\u000a The crimp structure is established during embryonic development and plays a vital role in the mechanical behaviour of tendon,\\u000a acting as a shock-absorber during loading. However, the mechanism of crimp formation is unknown, partly because of the difficulties\\u000a of studying tendon development in
Andreas Herchenhan; Nicholas S. Kalson; David F. Holmes; Patrick Hill; Karl E. Kadler; Lee Margetts
The tibialis posterior tendon is the largest and anteriormost tendon in the medial ankle. It produces plantar flexion and supination of the ankle and stabilizes the plantar vault. Sonographic assessment of this tendon is done with high-frequency, linear-array transducers; an optimal examination requires transverse retromalleolar, longitudinal retromalleolar, and distal longitudinal scans, as well as dynamic studies. Disorders of the posterior tibial tendon include chronic tendinopathy with progressive rupture, tenosynovitis, acute rupture, dislocation and instability, enthesopathies. The most common lesion is a progressive “chewing gum” lesion that develops in a setting of chronic tendinopathy; it is usually seen in overweight women over 50 years of age with valgus flat feet. Medial ankle pain must also be carefully investigated, and the presence of instability assessed with dynamic maneuvers (forced inversion, or dorsiflexion) of the foot. Sonography plays an important role in the investigation of disorders involving the posterior tibial tendon.
Flexor tendon injuries continue to pose a significant challenge to the hand surgeon. In particular, chronic tendon ruptures with adhesions of the tendons and sheath, damage or loss of the intrasynovial flexor tendons in zone II, and combined soft tissue and bone injuries present especially difficult problems for restoring satisfactory digital function. This challenge in flexor tendon reconstruction has motivated hand surgeons to explore and develop novel solutions for nearly a century. Recent advances and techniques in processing and decellularizing allograft human flexor tendon constructs may prove to be a new horizon for tendon reconstruction. PMID:23707595
Drake, David B; Tilt, Alexandra C; Degeorge, Brent R
A tension leg platform (TLP) tendon system experiences oscillatory tensile stresses, and therefore is vulnerable to fatigue and fracture. Because design factors have significant uncertainty, a reliability analysis to quantify structural performance is appropriate. A maintenance program of periodic inspection and repair shows promise for improving system reliability and enhancing structural integrity. The performance of a TLP tendon system was
C. J. Kung; P. H. Wirsching
Tendon-to-bone integration is a great challenge for tendon or ligament reconstruction regardless of use of autograft or allograft tendons. We mineralized the tendon, thus transforming the tendon-to-bone into a "bone-to-bone" interface for healing. Sixty dog flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons were divided randomly into five groups: (1) normal FDP tendon, (2) CaP (non-extraction and mineralization without fetuin), (3) CaPEXT (Extraction by Na2 HPO4 and mineralization without fetuin), (4) CaPFetuin (non-extraction and mineralization with fetuin), and (5) CaPEXTFetuin (extraction and mineralization with fetuin). The calcium and phosphate content significantly increased in tendons treated with combination of extraction and fetuin compared to the other treatments. Histology also revealed a dense mineral deposition throughout the tendon outer layers and penetrated into the tendon to a depth of 200?µm in a graded manner. Compressive moduli were significantly lower in the four mineralized groups compared with normal control group. No significant differences in maximum failure strength or stiffness were found in the suture pull-out test among all groups. Mineralization of tendon alters the interface from tendon to bone into mineralized tendon to bone, which may facilitate tendon-to-bone junction healing following tendon or ligament reconstruction. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 31:1713-1719, 2013. PMID:23939935
Qu, Jin; Thoreson, Andrew R; Chen, Qingshan; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng
Simple axisymmetric modeling of a nuclear containment building has been often employed in practice to estimate structural behavior for the axisymmetric loadings such as internal pressure. In this case, the prestressing tendons placed in the containment dome should be axisymmetrically approximated, since most dome tendons are not arranged in an axisymmetric manner. Some procedures are proposed that can realistically implement
Se-Jin Jeon; Chul-Hun Chung
Summary Tendons and ligaments are similar structures in terms of their composition, organisation and mechanical properties. The distinction between them stems from their anatomical location; tendons form a link between muscle and bone while ligaments link bones to bones. A range of overlapping functions can be assigned to tendon and ligaments and each structure has specific mechanical properties which appear to be suited for particular in vivo function. The extracellular matrix in tendon and ligament varies in accordance with function, providing appropriate mechanical properties. The most useful framework in which to consider extracellular matrix differences therefore is that of function rather than anatomical location. In this review we discuss what is known about the relationship between functional requirements, structural properties from molecular to gross level, cellular gene expression and matrix turnover. The relevance of this information is considered by reviewing clinical aspects of tendon and ligament repair and reconstructive procedures.
Birch, Helen L.; Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Rumian, Adam P.
While blind or fluoroscopically guided infiltration works well for intra-articular injections, injections into the tendon sheath are much more difficult. Ultrasound guidance with high-frequency transducers now allows visualization and infiltration of tendon sheaths. The interventional phase should be preceded by a diagnostic scan. Patients should be questioned to identify possible contraindications to the procedure and informed of the potential risks. Strict asepsis must be maintained for both patient and operator. This review includes separate discussions of the tendons in different areas of the body that are most commonly treated with ultrasound-guided injections, with descriptions of the lesions that are treated and the approach used for each. Interventional sonography is currently the only technique that allows visualization of the tendon being infiltrated. It requires training and experience as well as good knowledge of the indications and equipment used for the procedures, and the anatomy of the areas being treated.
Campagna, R.; Guerini, H.
Various sonography studies have evaluated the normal flexor tendons of the fingers by reporting the echogenicity of these structures. Due to the descriptive nature of these studies, little information is available concerning the reproducibility of sonographic measures of the finger flexor tendons. The aim of this study was to determine whether sonography measurement of finger flexor tendons can provide reproducible
Hala Reaiche; Marie Williams; Maureen McEvoy
Tendon injuries at the epicondyle can occur in athletes and workers whose job functions involve repetitive, high force hand activities, but the early pathophysiologic changes of tendon are not well known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate early tendon structural changes, specifically the formation of microtears, caused by cyclical loading. The Flexor Digitorum Profundus (FDP) muscle of nine
Leena H. Nakama; Karen B. King; Sven Abrahamsson; David M. Rempel
In the last few years, the effectiveness of cement grout in galvanized or polyethylene ducts, the most widely used corrosion protection system for multistrand bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons, has been under debate, due to significant tendon corrosion damage, several reported failures of individual tendons as well as a few collapses of non-typical structures. While experience in the USA has been
Ruben Mario Salas Pereira
This article describes tendon disorders in cattle and treatments for such disorders. Tendon injuries causing loss of a production animal or a decreased level of production result in significant economic loss to the cattle producer. Tendon disorders may be congenital or acquired. Congenital abnormalities may include tendon laxity, contracted tendons, or tendon displacement. Acquired tendon disorders may include tendon laxity, contracture, luxation, tendinitis, laceration, avulsion, rupture, and tenosynovitis. PMID:18929961
Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André; St Jean, Guy
The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques. PMID:10798233
Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H
Tendons are composed of fibroblasts and collagen fibrils. The fibrils are organized uniaxially and grouped together into fibers. Collagen VI is a non-fibrillar collagen expressed in developing and adult tendons. Human collagen VI mutations result in muscular dystrophy, joint hyperlaxity and contractures. The purpose of this study is to determine the functional roles of collagen VI in tendon matrix assembly. During tendon development, collagen VI was expressed throughout the extracellular matrix, but enriched around fibroblasts and their processes. To analyze the functional roles of collagen VI a mouse model with a targeted inactivation of Col6a1 gene was utilized. Ultrastructural analysis of Col6a1-/- versus wild type tendons demonstrated disorganized extracellular micro-domains and associated collagen fibers in the Col6a1-/- tendon. In Col6a1-/- tendons, fibril structure and diameter distribution were abnormal compared to wild type controls. The diameter distributions were shifted significantly toward the smaller diameters in Col6a1-/- tendons compared to controls. An analysis of fibril density (number/?m(2)) demonstrated a ~2.5 fold increase in the Col6a1-/- versus wild type tendons. In addition, the fibril arrangement and structure were aberrant in the peri-cellular regions of Col6a1-/- tendons with frequent very large fibrils and twisted fibrils observed restricted to this region. The biomechanical properties were analyzed in mature tendons. A significant decrease in cross-sectional area was observed. The percent relaxation, maximum load, maximum stress, stiffness and modulus were analyzed and Col6a1-/- tendons demonstrated a significant reduction in maximum load and stiffness compared to wild type tendons. An increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity was suggested in the absence of collagen VI. This suggests alterations in tenocyte expression due to disruption of cell-matrix interactions. The changes in expression may result in alterations in the peri-cellular environment. In addition, the absence of collagen VI may alter the sequestering of regulatory molecules such as leucine rich proteoglycans. These changes would result in dysfunctional regulation of tendon fibrillogenesis indirectly mediated by collagen VI. PMID:20951202
Izu, Yayoi; Ansorge, Heather L; Zhang, Guiyun; Soslowsky, Louis J; Bonaldo, Paolo; Chu, Mon-Li; Birk, David E
Professional ballet dancers require an extraordinary anatomic, physiologic, and psychologic makeup to achieve and sustain their level of ability and activity. They are subject to a myriad of injuries as a result of the extreme demands of this profession. Tendon injuries are common and often coexist with other pathologies of the bone, ligaments, and psyche. It is critical that the dance doctor not examine the tendon injury in isolation, but rather the cause of the injury, either intrinsic from anatomic malalignment or from external sources, including poor form. PMID:18346542
Hodgkins, Christopher W; Kennedy, John G; O'Loughlin, Padhraigh F
The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength and resilience. A hydraulic testing machine was used to measure tendon force during quasi-static lengthening, and a stress-strain curve was constructed. There was substantial variation in tendon material properties among different muscles. Average elastic modulus differed significantly between some tendons, and values for the six different tendons varied nearly twofold, from 829±140 to 1479±106 MPa. Tendons were stretched to failure, and the stress at failure, or ultimate tensile stress, was taken as a lower-limit estimate of tendon strength. Breaking tests for four of the tendons revealed significant variation in ultimate tensile stress, ranging from 66.83±14.34 to 112.37±9.39 MPa. Resilience, or the fraction of energy returned in cyclic length changes was generally high, and one of the four tendons tested was significantly different in resilience from the other tendons (range: 90.65±0.83 to 94.02±0.71%). An analysis of correlation between material properties revealed a positive relationship between ultimate tensile strength and elastic modulus (r(2)=0.79). Specifically, stiffer tendons were stronger, and we suggest that this correlation results from a constrained value of breaking strain, which did not vary significantly among tendons. This finding suggests an interdependence of material properties that may have a structural basis and may explain some adaptive responses observed in studies of tendon plasticity. PMID:22771746
Matson, Andrew; Konow, Nicolai; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P; Roberts, Thomas J
We have attempted to review the development and current status of flexor tendon surgery. The methods of acute flexor tendon repair, conventional free tendon grafting, staged flexor tendon reconstruction, tenolysis and pulley restoration have been discussed, with the published results included for each procedure. The role of rehabilitation has also been reviewed and the ongoing quest for an active flexor tendon prosthetic implant has been briefly mentioned. It may be seen that flexor tendon surgery is a complex and difficult art which requires a thorough appreciation of the normal flexor tendon system, the exact status of that system following injury and surgery and a strong understanding of the techniques which may be best utilised to restore tendon gliding and digital joint motion. The procedures described require both technical skill and experience and the post-operative therapy programmes must be carefully chosen for each patient. With the important laboratory and clinical advancements occurring in many areas of flexor tendon surgery, it is realistic to believe that in the future the techniques described here will be substantially altered and modified and to hope that results will continue to improve until the patient and surgeon can expect to restore most digits to nearly full function after flexor tendon interruption. PMID:2695588
Strickland, J W
Ordered tissue like tendon is known to exhibit the magic-angle phenomenon in magnetic resonance investigations. Due to the anisotropic structure the transverse relaxation time T2 depends on the orientation of the tendon in the magnetic field. In medical imaging, relaxation measurements of tendon orientation are restricted by the size of the object and the space available in the magnet. For humans, tendon orientation can only be varied within small limits. As a consequence, the magic-angle phenomenon may lead to a misjudgement of tendon condition. It is demonstrated that the NMR-MOUSE (mobile universal surface explorer), a hand-held NMR sensor, can be employed to investigate the anisotropy of T2 in Achilles tendon in vivo. The NMR-MOUSE provides a convenient tool for analyzing the correlation of T2 and the physical condition of tendon.
Haken, R.; Blümich, B.
Recurrent dynamic and structural deformities following clubfoot surgery are commonly due to residual muscle imbalance from\\u000a a strong tibialis anterior muscle and weak antagonists. We asked whether subcutaneous tibialis anterior tendon transfer effectively\\u000a treated recurrent deformities following clubfoot surgery and whether the presence of structural deformities influenced the\\u000a outcome. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I, dynamic supination
George H. Thompson; Harry A. Hoyen; Tracey Barthel
Application of a high-level decontamination or sterilisation procedure and cell removal technique to tendon allograft can reduce the concerns of disease transmission, immune reaction, and may improve remodelling of the graft after implantation. The decellularised matrix can also be used as a matrix for tendon tissue engineering. One such sterilisation factor, Peracetic acid (PAA) has the advantage of not producing harmful reaction residues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PAA treatment and a cell removal procedure on the production of tendon matrix. Human patellar tendons, thawed from frozen were treated respectively as: Group 1, control with no treatment; Group 2, sterilised with PAA (0.1 % (w/v) PAA for 3 h) Group 3, decellularised (incubation successively in hypotonic buffer, 0.1 % (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate, and a nuclease solution); Group 4, decellularised and PAA sterilised. Histological analysis showed that no cells were visible after the decellularisation treatment. The integrity of tendon structure was maintained after decellularisation and PAA sterilisation, however, the collagen waveform was slightly loosened. No contact cytotoxicity was found in any of the groups. Determination of de-natured collagen showed no significant increase when compared with the control. This suggested that the decellularisation and sterilisation processing procedures did not compromise the major properties of the tendon. The sterilised, decellularised tendon could be suitable for clinical use. PMID:23443409
Huang, Q; Ingham, E; Rooney, P; Kearney, J N
Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) is the primary flexor of the lateral four toes. It is a reliable source of tendon for transfer surgery. We present a case whereby a patient who required a reconstruction for adult acquired flatfoot deformity using FDL as a dynamic structure for transfer was found to have an absent FDL tendon at the time of operation, necessitating the use of flexor hallucis longus (FHL) instead. This unusual finding prompted us to investigate the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon. We reviewed our hospital MRI database of foot and ankle images specifically looking for patients with absence of this tendon. After randomization, 756 images were reviewed independently by two surgeons and a consultant musculoskeletal radiologist. No instances of an absent FDL tendon were identified. In conclusion, the frequency of absence of the FDL tendon is less than 1 in 750. Surgeons who require FDL for tendon transfer surgery need not image the foot preoperatively to anticipate the need for the use of FHL as an alternative. PMID:22334461
Magra, Merzesh; Taqvi, Syed; Cooper, Robert; Blundell, Chris M; Davies, Mark B
Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
As the development of light-weight, small volume, and versatile manipulators has grown in the field of robotics, the need for more efficient and relevant power transmission systems in the manipulators has become increasingly apparent. It is clear that the advent of efficient, low friction, and backlash-free actuation systems promises to provide significant gains in manipulator performance. Tendon transmission has been widely used to actuate small volume and light-weight articulated manipulators, such as dextrous mechanical hands, for it permits actuators to be installed remotely from the end-effector, thus reducing the bulk and inertia of the manipulator system. Current research on such actuation systems is accomplished on the basis of specialized designs. The lack of systematic approaches has limited our scope in realizing performance of such transmission systems. Therefore, when associated with systematic methodologies, the study of tendon-driven manipulators promises to be of major importance in the field of robotics. This dissertation is concerned with four issues to enhance our use and understanding of tendon-driven manipulators. First, a systematic approach for the kinematics analysis of tendon-driven manipulators is established. A graph is used to represent the kinematic structure of tendon-driven manipulators. It is shown that the kinematic structure of tendon-driven manipulators is in every way similar to that of epicyclic gear trains. The fundamental circuit equation developed for the kinematic analysis of epicyclic gear trains can thus be applied to this type of mechanism. The displacement equation governing joint angle space and tendon space can easily be obtained. Secondly, the concept of structural isomorphism and the structural characteristics of tendon-driven manipulators are investigated. Based on the explored properties, a methodology for the enumeration of tendon-driven manipulators is developed. By applying the methodology, a class of kinematic structures having pseudo-triangular structure matrix is enumerated. Thirdly, a method for assessing the kinematic/static performance of tendon-driven manipulators is developed. Transmission ellipsoids of the manipulators are investigated. A criterion for differentiating force transmission characteristics and a procedure for identifying least maximum-tendon-force are established.
Curved prestressed concrete structures with unbonded tendons are widely used in highway interchanges and industrial cooling towers, etc. In engineering practice, there is a demand to establish calculating methods for analyzing and designing these prestressed concrete curved structures with unbonded tendons. However, there are some difficulties in calculating the ultimate strength of these curved structures. The major difficulty is to
Nan Zhang; Chung C. Fu; Huimin Che
In a previous study we found that the strength of a Kessler core suture in the flexor tendon was greater in flexor zone 2 than in zone 3. To further investigate the material properties of the flexor tendon without the influence of a locking suture configuration, we measured the ultimate strength of a simple loop suture in the flexor digitorum profundus tendon in zones 1, 2, and 3. Eight cadaver flexor digitorum profundus tendons were tested in 10 mm increments with a 3-0 polyester suture loop pull-out test in the mid-substance of the tendon. The mean strength in zones 1 and 2 (26.7 N, SD 5.6) was significantly higher than the mean strength in zone 3 (17.7 N, SD 5.4). We conclude that the difference is owing to variations of the structure of the flexor tendon in different sections of the tendon, as the suture configuration was a simple loop without a locking or grasping component. PMID:23315625
Havulinna, J; Leppänen, O V; Göransson, H
Mechanical stimulation has been implicated as an important regulatory factor in tendon homeostasis. In this study, a custom-designed tensile loading system was used to apply controlled mechanical stimulation to isolated tendon fascicles, in order to examine the effects of 5% cyclic tensile strain at 1 Hz on cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. Sample viability and gross structural composition were maintained over a 24 h loading period. Data demonstrated no statistically significant differences in cell proliferation or glycosaminoglycan production, however, collagen synthesis was upregulated with the application of cyclic tensile strain over the 24 h period. Moreover, a greater proportion of the newly synthesised matrix was retained within the sample after loading. These data provide evidence of altered anabolic activity within tendon in response to mechanical stimuli, and suggest the importance of cyclic tensile loading for the maintenance of the collagen hierarchy within tendon.
Screen, Hazel R.C. [Medical Engineering Division and IRC in Biomedical Materials, Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: H.R.C.Screen@qmul.ac.uk; Shelton, Julia C. [Medical Engineering Division and IRC in Biomedical Materials, Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Bader, Dan L. [Medical Engineering Division and IRC in Biomedical Materials, Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Lee, David A. [Medical Engineering Division and IRC in Biomedical Materials, Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
In 50 knees the length of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the patellar tendon, and the distance between the tibial tuberosity and the femoral origin of the ACL were evaluated by means of three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which permits subsequent reconstruction of any sectional view. The measurements showed that the patellar tendon was always markedly longer than the ACL
S. Högerle; R. Letsch; K. W. Sievers
The study was designed to examine the effects of partial fatigue on specific mechanical parameters which characterise human tendons in vitro. Specimens prepared from 12 intact Extensor digitorum longus tendons of the foot were subjected to partial fatigue, equivalent to 25% of the median fatigue life, by a cyclic square tension–tension stress waveform at the physiological frequency of 4Hz. The
H. Schechtman; D. L. Bader
A tendon-driven multijoint robot is a humanlike robot which is driven by a tendon-driven actuator. One of the problems is that the complexity of the tendon-driven multijoint robot body structure. The complexity makes it difficult to control body by commonly used methods which are based on a dynamics computation of a physical robot model. We proposed a appropriate control method
Takuma Shirai; Junichi Urata; Yuto Nakanishi; Kei Okada; Masayuki Inaba
Tendons play a significant role in the modulation of forces transmitted between bones and skeletal muscles and consequently protect muscle fibers from contraction-induced, or high-strain, injuries. Myostatin (GDF-8) is a negative regulator of muscle mass. Inhibition of myostatin not only increases the mass and maximum isometric force of muscles, but also increases the susceptibility of muscle fibers to contraction-induced injury. We hypothesized that myostatin would regulate the morphology and mechanical properties of tendons. The expression of myostatin and the myostatin receptors ACVR2B and ACVRB was detectable in tendons. Surprisingly, compared with wild type (MSTN+/+) mice, the tendons of myostatin-null mice (MSTN?/?) were smaller and had a decrease in fibroblast density and a decrease in the expression of type I collagen. Tendons of MSTN?/? mice also had a decrease in the expression of two genes that promote tendon fibroblast proliferation: scleraxis and tenomodulin. Treatment of tendon fibroblasts with myostatin activated the p38 MAPK and Smad2/3 signaling cascades, increased cell proliferation, and increased the expression of type I collagen, scleraxis, and tenomodulin. Compared with the tendons of MSTN+/+ mice, the mechanical properties of tibialis anterior tendons from MSTN?/? mice had a greater peak stress, a lower peak strain, and increased stiffness. We conclude that, in addition to the regulation of muscle mass and force, myostatin regulates the structure and function of tendon tissues.
Mendias, Christopher L.; Bakhurin, Konstantin I.; Faulkner, John A.
Tendons have complex mechanical behaviors that are viscoelastic, nonlinear, and anisotropic. It is widely held that these behaviors are provided for by the tissue's composition and structure. However, little data are available to quantify such structure–function relationships. This study quantified tendon mechanical behaviors, including viscoelasticity and nonlinearity, for groups of mice that were genetically engineered for altered extracellular matrix proteins.
Dawn M. Elliott; Paul S. Robinson; Jonathan A. Gimbel; Joseph J. Sarver; Joseph A. Abboud; Renato V. Iozzo; Louis J. Soslowsky
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tissue hydration on the structural properties of human patellar tendon. Specimens were subjected to a load relaxation experiment prior to being stretched to failure. The experiments indicated that tendons relaxed faster in hypotonic solutions when compared to hypertonic solutions. At a strain rate of 50% s?1 the structural stiffness
Tammy L. Haut; Roger C. Haut
The operative management of acute Achilles tendon rupture marks the beginning of a comprehensive rehabilitation program. The goals of the rehabilitation program start with the reduction of pain and swelling and the recovery of ankle motion and power. They conclude with the restoration of coordinated activity and safe return to athletic activity. The rehabilitation protocol is directed by the injury and the quality of the repair, along with the patient's age, medical and social history, and athletic inclination. The protocol is dynamic and responsive to changing clinical findings. PMID:19857848
Strom, Adam C; Casillas, Mark M
A tension leg platform (TLP) tendon system experiences oscillatory tensile stresses, and therefore is vulnerable to fatigue and fracture. Because design factors have significant uncertainty, a reliability analysis to quantify structural performance is appropriate. A maintenance program of periodic inspection and repair shows promise for improving system reliability and enhancing structural integrity. The performance of a TLP tendon system was simulated in order to study the relationship of design factors to system reliability. Effects on system reliability and maintenance performance (repair and replacement rates) can be studied as a function of (a) number of joints, J; (b) number of members, M; (c) inspection frequency; (d) inspection sensitivity as defined by the POD (probability of detection) curve; (e) ultimate strength; (f) repair policy; etc. The performance of an initially damaged or flawed tendon system is investigated. The reliability of a system that uses pressurized tendons to detect through-thickness cracks is studied, as is the vulnerability of the tendon system before replacement of broken tendons.
Kung, C.J. (American Bureau of Shipping, New York, NY (United States)); Wirsching, P.H. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering)
Latissimus dorsi tendon transfer (LDTT) is technically challenging. In order to clarify the local structural anatomy, we undertook a morphometric study using six complete cadavers (12 shoulders). Measurements were made from the tendon to the nearby neurovascular structures with the arm in two positions: flexed and internally rotated, and adducted in neutral rotation. The tendon was then transferred and measurements were taken from the edge of the tendon to a reference point on the humeral head in order to assess the effect of a novel two-stage release on the excursion of the tendon. With the shoulder flexed and internally rotated, the mean distances between the superior tendon edge and the radial nerve, brachial artery, axillary nerve and posterior circumflex artery were 30 mm (26 to 34), 28 mm (17 to 39), 21 mm (12 to 28) and 15 mm (10 to 21), respectively. The mean distance between the inferior tendon edge and the radial nerve, brachial artery and profunda brachii artery was 18 mm (8 to 27), 22 mm (15 to 32) and 14 mm (7 to 21), respectively. Moving the arm to a neutral position reduced these distances. A mean of 15 mm (8 to 21) was gained from a standard soft-tissue release, and 32 mm (20 to 45) from an extensile release. These figures help to define further the structural anatomy of this region and the potential for transfer of the latissimus dorsi tendon. PMID:23539704
Henry, P D G; Dwyer, T; McKee, M D; Schemitsch, E H
Fibres, aponeuroses, and tendons are often considered mechanically "in series" in skeletal muscles. This notion has led to oversimplified calculations of fibre forces from tendon forces, to incorrect derivations of constitutive laws for aponeuroses, and to misinterpretations of the recovery of elastic energy in stretch-shortening cycles of muscles. Here, we demonstrate theoretically, using examples of increasing complexity, that tendon and aponeurosis are not in series in a muscle fibre-aponeurosis-tendon complex. We then demonstrate that assuming the tendon and aponeurosis to be in series can lead to the appearance of mechanical work creation in these passive viscoelastic structures, a result that is mechanically impossible. Finally, we explain the mechanical role of the incompressible muscle matrix in force transmission from fibres to aponeuroses and tendon, and emphasize that incompressibility necessitates the introduction of extra forces necessary to maintain this constraint. Unfortunately, this requirement eliminates, for all but the simplest cases, a theoretical approach of muscle modeling based on intuitive free-body diagrams. PMID:16085074
Epstein, Marcelo; Wong, Max; Herzog, Walter
The highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons play a critical role for transferring tensile stress, and they demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans (PGs) have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. PGs are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; the changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathies. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between PG content/location and birefringence properties of tendons. Fresh chicken tendons were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarization light microscopy during the extraction of PGs, using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Complementary time-lapsed images taken from the two modalities mutually demonstrated that the extraction of PGs disturbed the local organization of collagen bundles. This corresponded with a decrease in birefringence and associated banding pattern observed by PS-OCT. Furthermore, this study revealed there was a higher concentration of PGs in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles, and therefore the change in birefringence was reduced when extraction was performed on unsheathed tendons. The results provide new insights of tendon structure and the role of PGs on the structural stability of tendons, which also demonstrates the great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology. PMID:23224178
Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Wimpenny, Ian; Weightman, Alan
This series of case suggests that the entity of tenosynovitis of the popliteus tendon is more common than once recognized. A high index of sucpicion and accurate palpation of the lateral aspect of the knee lead one to the diagnosis. Knowledge of this entity may prevent future misdiagnosis of tear of the lateral meniscus and unnecessary meniscectomy as experienced by Helfet, Holden, and myself. There is a definite correlation with activities requiring downhill walking or running. The runners invariably complained of the oneset of symptoms during downhill running rather than uphill running. Back packing enthusiastscomplained of no symptoms for several days after ascending into the mountains, only to experience the symptoms at the end of a long, rapid descent out of the mountains. The pathomechanics of this inflammation of the popliteus tendon is not fully understood. Preliminary analysis of gait movies suggests that in downhill running there is an increased vector to displace the weight-bearing femur forward on the relatively fixed tibia as the knee is increasingly flexed (Fig. 5). Previously mentioned EMG functional studies indicate that the popliteus muscle is active during this weight-bearing phase of gait and may act to retard the femur from forward displacement on the tibia in conjunction with the quadriceps. More specifically, it may help to retard the lateral femoral condyle from rotating forward off the lateral tibial plateau. Downhill running or walking therefore may cause increased stress on the popliteus muscle-tendon unit in an effort to decelerate the body weight against the altered angle of gravitational pull, with resultant tenosynovitis and symptoms. In this series there were no top flight competitive runners. The typical patient was a 31-year-old physician who was jogging 1 to 5 miles and decided to increase his pace and distance, particularly while jogging downhill. The average age of this series of patients (31 years) at the time of onset, coupled with the fact many of these persons were relatively sedentary until stressing the knee by increased activity, suggests that there will be an increasing number of these patients in the future as jogging and running are prescribed for cardiovascular system conditioning. PMID:848633
Mayfield, G W
Tendon ruptures are common findings in foot and ankle practice. The etiology of tendon ruptures tends to be multifactorial-usually due to a combination of trauma, effects of systemic diseases, adverse effects of medications, and obesity. We present an unusual case of right Achilles tendinitis, left Achilles tendon rupture, bilateral peroneus longus tendon rupture, and left peroneus brevis tendon rupture of unknown etiology. This case report highlights the need for research for other possible, lesser known etiologies of tendon pathology. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic, Level IV, Case Study. PMID:23966259
Axibal, Derek P; Anderson, John G
OBJECTIVES--To analyse the glycosaminoglycans of the adult human rotator cuff tendon matrix, to characterise changes in the glycosaminoglycan composition with age and in chronic rotator cuff tendinitis. METHODS--Rotator cuff (supraspinatus) tendons (n = 84) and common biceps tendons (n = 26) were obtained from cadavers with no history of tendon pathology (age range 11-95 years). Biopsies of rotator cuff tendons (supraspinatus and subscapularis tendons, n = 53) were obtained during open shoulder surgery to repair shoulder lesions (age range 38-80 years). Glycosaminoglycans were extracted by papain digestion and analysed by cellulose acetate electrophoresis, the carbazole assay for uronic acid and the dimethylmethylene blue dye-binding assay for sulphated glycosaminoglycans. Some digests were analysed for keratan sulphate by 5D4 monoclonal antibody ELISA. Soluble proteoglycans were extracted in 4M guanidine hydrochloride and analysed by 4-15% SDS PAGE. RESULTS--The mean (SD) sulphated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content of the normal cadaver supraspinatus tendon was 12.3 (4.3) micrograms/mg dry weight, between three and ten times greater than in the common biceps tendon [1.2 (0.6) micrograms/mg dry weight]. The major GAG was chondroitin sulphate [6.9 (2.6) micrograms/mg dry weight], with a smaller proportion of dermatan sulphate [2.5 (1.2) micrograms/mg dry weight]. In contrast, the common biceps tendon contained predominantly dermatan sulphate [0.8 (0.2) microgram/mg dry weight] with less chondroitin sulphate [0.2 (0.2) microgram/mg dry weight]. There was no difference in the concentration of hyaluronan in these tendons [9.3 (2.8) micrograms/mg dry weight and 10.8 (4.3) micrograms/mg dry weight respectively] and there was no significant change of hyaluronan with age. Keratan sulphate was a small but significant component of the supraspinatus tendon [0.43 (0.33) microgram/mg dry weight, n = 25], whereas there was little or none in the common biceps tendon [0.04 (0.05) microgram/mg dry weight, n = 8] and there was no significant change across the age range. In the supraspinatus tendon, there was a significant decrease in total glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulphate and dermatan sulphate with age (p < 0.001), whether expressed relative to the tendon dry weight or total collagen content, and no change in the relative proportion of the different GAG types. There was, however, a large degree of variation within the samples. Supraspinatus tendons from patients with chronic tendinitis had a significantly increased concentration of hyaluronan [30.4 (10.1) micrograms/mg dry weight, p < 0.001], chondroitin sulphate [8.4 (1.8) micrograms/mg dry weight, p < 0.05] and dermatan sulphate [3.8 (1.1) micrograms/mg dry weight, p < 0.001] compared with normal cadaver supraspinatus tendons, although the keratan sulphate content was not significantly different [0.18 (0.05) microgram/mg dry weight]. CONCLUSIONS--The normal supraspinatus tendon has the proteoglycan/glycosaminoglycan of tendon fibrocartilage, which it is suggested is an adaptation to mechanical forces (tension, compression and shear) which act on the rotator cuff tendons in the shoulder, although other factors such as reduced vascularity, low oxygen tension and the influence of local growth factors may also be important. This functional adaptation may have important consequences for the structural strength of the supraspinatus tendon and to influence the ability of the tendon to repair after injury. The glycosaminoglycan composition of tendon specimens from patients with chronic tendinitis is consistent with acute inflammation and new matrix proteoglycan synthesis, even in relatively old tendon specimens and after at least one injection of corticosteroid. Images
Riley, G P; Harrall, R L; Constant, C R; Chard, M D; Cawston, T E; Hazleman, B L
Complex hand injuries are those that involve significant soft-tissue loss with variable exposure of bones and/or joints, lacerated tendons, and neurovascular structures. Management of these injuries is optimally accomplished through the restoration of thin, pliable, ideally sensate tissue with reliable vascularity and a gliding surface to facilitate restoration of motion after repair. Unfortunately, optimal restoration may require complex surgical reconstruction and/or staged surgical procedures. This article presents an overview of some of the more commonly used options available to the reconstructive surgeon willing to tackle these difficult clinical cases. PMID:23660064
Carty, Matthew J; Blazar, Philip E
Although the Achilles tendon is the strongest in the body, it also is the most often ruptured. Achilles tendon rupture most often occurs during sports activities in middle-aged men. Operative repair of a ruptured Achilles tendon can be accomplished with a variety of techniques, ranging from open repair, to minimally invasive technique, to endoscopic-assisted repair. This article focuses on open repair of acute Achilles tendon rupture. Surgical techniques, rehabilitation protocol, and the authors' preferred method are described. PMID:19857843
Rosenzweig, Seth; Azar, Frederick M
A case history is presented of the repair of a neglected traumatic tendon laceration by the use of a permanent Silastic tendon implant, originally manufactured for hand surgery by a staged procedure. Stage I consists of implantation of the Silastic implant and allowance of a 2- to 3-month period for the production of a pseudosheath. Stage II consists of removal of the implant after using it to guide an auto- or allograft, through the newly formed pseudosheath for attachment to the anastomotic sites. PMID:2258563
LaBarbiera, A P; Solitto, R J
Extensor tendon subluxation can result from a disruption to the extensor retinacular system and/or the sagittal band at the metacarpophalangeal joint. When conservative treatment is insufficient to correct the subluxation, surgical treatment is necessary and various surgical techniques exist. We present a novel stabilization technique to centralize the extensor tendon using a junctura tendinum to lengthen an extensor digitorum communis tendon graft. This technique is simple and effective, creating a strong repair without associated stiffness. To achieve a less morbid, stable repair, we mimicked normal anatomy with minimal disruption to local soft tissue structures. This technique seems to offer biomechanical advantages over previously described techniques and shows successful treatment in the illustrated patient. PMID:23391359
ElMaraghy, Amr W; Pennings, Amanda
Abstract The purpose of the study was to identify factors influencing the outcome and prognosis of rupture of the tendon of the peroneus tertius muscle in 27 horses. Information on history, physical examination findings, diagnosis, treatment, and final outcome was summarized from medical records. Long-term follow-up information on horses was obtained by telephone survey. A stepwise logistic regression model was used to analyze factors influencing the outcome. Rupture occurred in the midbody of the tendon in 11 horses, at the insertion site in 11 horses, and at the origin in 2 horses. Overall, 18/23 (78.3%) horses returned to their previous level of exercise, 5/23 (21.7%) horses were euthanized due to persistent lameness. If the horse was racing at the time of injury or had an additional structure injured besides the peroneus tertius tendon, it was less likely to return to its intended use.
BackgroundTendon ruptures have been linked to anabolic steroid usage, suggesting pathological changes in tendon structure due to steroid intake. Anecdotal reports from athletes suggest a protective effect of GH on tendon, especially in those who use anabolic steroids.AimTo investigate how administration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), anabolic steroid and combination of the two affect the expression of genes involved
Sukhbir Bhullar; Kirsten Legerlotz
Thirteen injured digits in 10 patients (10 hands) with 20 potentially injured flexor tendons were preoperatively evaluated using real-time ultrasonography. The time interval between injury and ultrasonographic evaluation averaged 22 days. If a complete tendon laceration was found, the location of the proximal tendon stump was determined. Surgery was performed an average of 4 days after the ultrasonographic evaluation to
Donald H. Lee; Michelle L. Robbin; Robert Galliott; Veronica A. Graveman
The objective of the two-staged flexor tendon method is to improve the predictability of final results in difficult problems dealing with tendon reconstruction. This article reviews the evolution and benefits of this procedure. It also considers the use of the technique to help deal with problems requiring pulley and skin reconstruction simultaneously with re-constituting the flexor tendon system.
Triceps tendon avulsion injuries are rare. We report four weight lifters with triceps tendon raptures, two of whom had received local steroid injections for pain in the triceps. All four patients had taken oral anabolic steroids before injury. All patients had closed avulsion of the triceps tendon from its insertion into the olecranon. Three patients were injured while bench pressing
Jonathan L Sollender; Ghazi M Rayan; Glen A Barden
A finger exoskeleton has been developed to aid treatment of tendon injuries. The exoskeleton is designed to assist flexion\\/extension motions of a finger within its full range, in a natural and coordinated manner, \\u000awhile keeping the tendon tension within acceptable limits to avoid gap formation or rupture of the suture. In addition to offering robot assisted operation modes for tendon
Ismail Hakan Ertas; Elif Hocaoglu; Duygun Erol Barkana; Volkan Patoglu
Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare. We present the clinical histories and MRI findings of three recent male patients with tibialis anterior tendon rupture aged 58–67 years, all of whom presented with pain over the dorsum of the ankle. Two of the three patients presented with complete rupture showing discontinuity of the tendon, thickening of the retracted portion of
Robert A. Gallo; Brett H. Kolman; Richard H. Daffner; Robert L. Sciulli; Catherine C. Roberts; Patrick J. DeMeo
Tendons are connective tissues required for motion and are frequently injured. Poor healing and inadequate return to normal tissue structure and mechanical function make tendon a prime candidate for tissue engineering; however functional tendons have yet to be engineered. The physical environment, from substrate stiffness to dynamic mechanical loading, may regulate tenogenic stem cell differentiation. Tissue stiffness and loading parameters derived from embryonic development may enhance tenogenic stem cell differentiation and tendon tissue formation. We highlight the current understanding of the mechanical environment experienced by embryonic tendons and how progenitor cells may sense and respond to physical inputs. We further discuss how mechanical factors have only recently been used to induce tenogenic fate in stem cells. PMID:23916867
Schiele, Nathan R; Marturano, Joseph E; Kuo, Catherine K
The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.
Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna
Two-dimensional (2D) electrospun fibre mats have been investigated as fibrous sheets intended as biomaterials scaffolds for tissue repair. It is recognised that tissues are three-dimensional (3D) structures and that optimisation of the fabrication process should include both 2D and 3D scaffolds. Understanding the relative merits of the architecture of 2D and 3D scaffolds for tendon repair is required. This study investigated three different electrospun scaffolds based on poly(?-caprolactone) fibres intended for repair of injured tendons, referred to as; 2D random sheet, 2D aligned sheet and 3D bundles. 2D aligned fibres and 3D bundles mimicked the parallel arrangement of collagen fibres in natural tendon and 3D bundles further replicated the tertiary layer of a tendon's hierarchical configuration. 3D bundles demonstrated greatest tensile properties, being significantly stronger and stiffer than 2D aligned and 2D random fibres. All scaffolds supported adhesion and proliferation of tendon fibroblasts. Furthermore, 2D aligned sheets and 3D bundles allowed guidance of the cells into a parallel, longitudinal arrangement, which is similar to tendon cells in the native tissue. With their superior physical properties and ability to better replicate tendon tissue, the 3D electrospun scaffolds warrant greater investigation as synthetic grafts in tendon repair. PMID:23504088
Bosworth, L A; Alam, N; Wong, J K; Downes, S
Summary During development, the interaction between tenocytes and myotubes leads to the formation of highly specialized muscle-tendon structural interfaces: myotendinous junctions (MTJs). Structural integrity of MTJs is critical for force transmission from contracting muscle through tendon to bone. We recently developed an in vitro model of three-dimensional (3-D) skeletal muscle-tendon constructs to address mechanisms of the MTJs development. We hypothesized that engineered in vitro 3-D skeletal muscle-tendon constructs would develop MTJs ultrastructurally resembling those found during fetal development in vivo. To test this hypothesis we compared MTJs structures in vivo to those developed in 3-D skeletal muscle constructs co-cultured with engineered self-organized tendon constructs (SOT), or segments of adult (ART) or fetal rat tail (FRT) by means of electron microscopy. Our study showed that at sites of termination some of the myofibers of the engineered 3-D skeletal muscle-FRT and -SOT constructs displayed emerging finger-like sarcolemmal projections surrounded by collagen fibers. These structures resemble fetal MTJs in vivo. Muscle-ART constructs did not develop MTJs. Muscle-FRT constructs in addition to muscle and tendon also demonstrated well developed cartilage, possessing high potential for development into bone. The muscle-FRT construct model could be used for studies of developmental mechanisms involved in the establishment of interfaces among all four muscular-skeletal tissues: muscle, tendon and cartilage/bone.
Kostrominova, Tatiana Y.; Calve, Sarah; Arruda, Ellen M.; Larkin, Lisa M.
Mechanical loading is known to alter tendon structure, but its cellular mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of mechanical loading on tendon cells in vivo. C57BL/6J female mice were used in a treadmill running study. The treadmill running protocol consisted of treadmill training for one week, followed by sustained moderate running at 13 m/min for 50 min/day, 5 days/week, for 3 weeks. Immunohistochemical staining of tendon sections of mice after treadmill running revealed that numerous cells in the tendon section expressed ?-SMA, whereas in the tendon sections of control mice, only a few cells exhibited weak ?-SMA signals. Furthermore, mouse patellar tendon cells (MPTCs) derived from treadmill running mice were generally larger in culture, proliferated faster, expressed a higher level of ?-SMA, and formed more abundant stress fibers compared to MPTCs from control mice. In addition, MPTCs from treadmill running mice generated larger traction forces (169 ± 66.1 Pa) than those from control mice (102 ± 34.2 Pa). Finally, cells from treadmill running mice produced higher levels of total collagen (516.4 ± 92.7 µg/10,000 cells) than their counterparts (303.9± 34.8 µg/10,000 cells). Thus, mechanical loading via treadmill running increased the presence of myofibroblasts in mouse patellar tendons. As myofibroblasts are activated fibroblasts, their presence in the tendon following treadmill running indicates that they actively repair and remodel tendon tissue under strenuous mechanical loading, leading to known changes in tendon structure.
Szczodry, M.; Zhang, J.; Lim, C.T.; Davitt, H. L.; Yeager, T.; Fu, F.; Wang, J. H-C.
Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1-/- mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro-engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-?2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709
Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine
Collagen is the predominant structural protein in tendons and ligaments, and can be controlled by hormonal changes. In animals, injections of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase collagen synthesis in tendons and ligaments and to improve structural tissue healing, but the effect of local IGF-I administration on tendon collagen synthesis in human has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to study whether local injections of IGF-I would have a stimulating effect on tendon collagen synthesis. Twelve healthy nonsmoking men [age 62?±?1?years (mean?±?SEM), BMI 27?±?1] participated. Two injections of either human recombinant IGF-I (0.1?mL Increlex©) or saline (control) into each patellar tendon were performed 24-h apart, respectively. Tendon collagen fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was measured by stable isotope technique in the hours after the second injection. Simultaneously, interstitial peritendinous (IGF-I) and [procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP)], as a marker for type I collagen synthesis, were determined by microdialysis technique. Tendon collagen FSR and PINP were significantly higher in the IGF-I leg compared with the control leg (P?0.05). In conclusion, local IGF-I administration can directly enhance tendon collagen synthesis both within and around the human tendon tissue. PMID:22288768
Hansen, M; Boesen, A; Holm, L; Flyvbjerg, A; Langberg, H; Kjaer, M
Tissue engineering aims to induce tissue self-regeneration in vivo or to produce a functional tissue replacement in vitro to be then implanted in the body. To produce a viable and functional tendon, a uniaxially orientated collagen type I matrix has to be generated. Biochemical and physical factors can potentially alter both the production and the organisation of this matrix, and
Pierre-Olivier Bagnaninchi; Ying Yang; Alicia J El Haj; Nicola Maffulli; U Bosch
Tendons are load-bearing collagenous tissues consisting mainly of type I collagen and various proteoglycans (PGs) including decorin and versican. It is widely accepted that highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons a play critical role for transferring tensile stress and demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. Tendinopathy (defined as a syndrome of tendon pain, tenderness and swelling that affects the normal function of the tissue) is a common disease associated with sporting injuries or degeneration. PG's are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathy. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between proteoglycan content/location and birefringent properties of tendons. Tendons dissected from freshly slaughtered chickens were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarizing light microscope during the extraction of PGs or glycosaminoglycans using established protocols (guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) or proteinase K solution). The macroscopic and microscopic time lapsed images are complimentary; mutually demonstrating that there was a higher concentration of PG's in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles; and the integrity of the sheath affected extraction process and the OCT birefringence bands. Extraction of PGs using GuHCl disturbed the organization of local collagen bundles, which corresponded to a reduction in the frequency of birefringence bands and the band width by PS-OCT. The feature of OCT penetration depth helped us to define the heterogeneous distribution of PG's in tendon, which was complimented by polarizing light microscopy. The results provide new insight of tendon structure and also demonstrate a great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.
Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Weightman, Alan; Wimpenny, Ian; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Ahearne, Mark
A lot of people, overall athletic one suffer from tendinitis or complete rupture of the Achilles tendon. This structure becomes inflamed and damaged mainly from a variety of mechanical forces and sometimes due to metabolic problems, such as diabetes or arthritis. Over the past three decades extensive studies have been performed on the structural and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon trying to explain the constitutive equations to describe and foresee tendon behavior. Among the various mechanical parameters, the vibrational behavior is also of interest. Several investigations are performed in order to study how the Achilles tendon vibrations influence the response of the muscle proprioception and human posture. The present article describes how in vitro tensile experiments can be performed, taking into account the need to simulate physiological condition of Achilles tendon and thus approaching some opened problems in the design of the experimental set-up. A new system for evaluating tendon vibrations by non contact techniques is proposed. Preliminary simple elongation tests are made extracting the main mechanical parameters: stress and strain at different fixed stretches, in order to characterize the tissue. Finally, a vibration study is made at each pretensioned tendon level evaluating the oscillating curves caused by a small hammer.
Revel, Gian M.; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo; Pianosi, Antonella
While microgravity exposure is known to cause deterioration of skeletal muscle performance, little is known regarding its effect on tendon structure and function. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical properties of human tendon and to assess the effectiveness of resistive countermeasures in preventing any detrimental effects. Eighteen men (aged 25-45 yr) underwent 90 days of bed rest: nine performed resistive exercise during this period (BREx group), and nine underwent bed rest only (BR group). Calf-raise and leg-press exercises were performed every third day using a gravity-independent flywheel device. Isometric plantar flexion contractions were performed by using a custom-built dynamometer, and ultrasound imaging was used to determine the tensile deformation of the gastrocnemius tendon during contraction. In the BR group, tendon stiffness estimated from the gradient of the tendon force-deformation relation decreased by 58% (preintervention: 124 +/- 67 N/mm; postintervention: 52 +/- 28 N/mm; P < 0.01), and the tendon Young's modulus decreased by 57% postintervention (P < 0.01). In the BREx group, tendon stiffness decreased by 37% (preintervention: 136 +/- 66 N/mm; postintervention: 86 +/- 47 N/mm; P < 0.01), and the tendon Young's modulus decreased by 38% postintervention (P < 0.01). The relative decline in tendon stiffness and Young's modulus was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in the BR group compared with the BREx group. Unloading decreased gastrocnemius tendon stiffness due to a change in tendon material properties, and, although the exercise countermeasures did attenuate these effects, they did not completely prevent them. It is suggested that the total loading volume was not sufficient to completely prevent alterations in tendon mechanical properties. PMID:15705722
Reeves, N D; Maganaris, C N; Ferretti, G; Narici, M V
In athletes, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is recommended after injury to restore the normal knee function and allow subsequent return to sport. Successful ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon (PT) and hamstring tendon (HT) grafts combined with a well-structured rehabilitation program could bring athletes back to their previous level of sport activities. We prospectively followed-up 100 athletes who underwent ACL
Alberto Gobbi; Ramces Francisco
Tendon fibroblasts synthesize collagen and form fibrils during embryonic development, but to what extent mature fibroblasts are able to recapitulate embryonic development and develop normal tendon structure is unknown. The present study examined the capability of mature human tendon fibroblasts to initiate collagen fibrillogenesis when cultured in fixed-length fibrin gels. Fibroblasts were dissected from semitendinosus and gracilis tendons from healthy humans and cultured in 3D linear fibrin gels. The fibroblasts synthesized an extracellular matrix of parallel collagen fibrils that were aligned along the axis of tension. The fibrils had a homogeneous narrow diameter that was similar to collagen fibrils occurring in embryonic tendon. Immunostaining showed colocalization of collagen type I with collagen III, XII and XIV. A fibronectin network was formed in parallel with the collagen, and fibroblasts stained positive for integrin ?5. Finally, the presence of cell extensions into the extracellular space with membrane-enclosed fibrils in fibripositors indicated characteristics of embryonic tendon. We conclude that mature human tendon fibroblasts retain an intrinsic capability to perform collagen fibrillogenesis similar to that of developing tendon, which implies that the hormonal/mechanical milieu, rather than intrinsic cellular function, inhibits regenerative potential in mature tendon.
Bayer, Monika L.; Yeung, Chin-Yan C.; Kadler, Karl E.; Qvortrup, Klaus; Baar, Keith; Svensson, Rene B.; Peter Magnusson, S.; Krogsgaard, Michael; Koch, Manuel; Kjaer, Michael
By means of scanning and transmissive electron microscopy, the construction of the fibrous framework of the human skeletal muscles, fasciae and tendons has been investigated and its morphofunctional analysis has been performed. The fibrous framework of the endomysium is presented as a complexly organized system of anastomosing fibers of the connective tissue, forming a net-like construction. The fibrous structures of the framework are united into a whole construction by connecting fibers and fibrils. Different types of structural interconnection of collagenous fibers with sarcolemma are revealed. The structure of the fibrous framework both in different muscles and within one muscle has certain peculiarities. The main constructive element of the fascial fibrous framework make large anastomosing collagenous fibers, their architectonics is stabilized by connective fibers and fibrils. The construction of the tendinous fibrous framework is characterized by a pronounced anisotropia of the largest collagenous fibers and a developed network of connective structures both on the surface and inside the collagenous fibers. Structural mechanisms, interconnecting muscles and tendons, are demonstrated. Presence of anastomoses between the fibrils in the composition of the collagenous fibers in the fascia and Achilles tendon are stated. Together with the peculiarities existing, the general principle of the structural organization of the fibrous framework of the muscle system is the net-like constructure dependent on presence of anastomoses and elements of the connective system between the fibrous structures. Depending on the organ's function, the construction of the network acquires certain specific morphological forms. PMID:2936318
Khoroshkov, Iu A; Odintsova, N A
Actuators and gear trains of most biped humanoid robots are divergently allocated on the links of two legs. Disadvantages\\u000a of such a mechanical design are complicated wiring of power cord and sensing\\/ control signal bundles and imprecise kinetics\\u000a models of mixed link-and-actuator structures. Based on these drawbacks, this paper proposes a tendon-driven mechanism to develop\\u000a a lower body structure of
Chung-Hsien Kuo; Kuo-Wei Chiou
The reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee with the patellar tendon is the "gold standard". Dislocation of the patella, rupture of the patellar tendon and fracture of the patella were reported to occur. In this biomechanical investigation on the changes of the patellar tendon following harvesting of a graft, 51 sheep knee underwent destructive testing at t0 (n = 11), 4 weeks p.op. (n = 5), 3 months p.op. (n = 14), 6 months p.op. (n = 15), and 12 months p.op. (n = 6). Harvesting of a graft produces a stiffness and strength of the patellar tendon of 50-70% of normal. There was no significant change of free patellar tendon length up to 12 months p.op. The cross-sectional area is definitely increased (p < 0.05). The tensile stress is always above normal, nevertheless the strength shows a massive decline until 6 months p.op. and does not regain normal strength by one year p.op. Stiffness shows comparable biomechanical pattern like tensile stress. There are time-dependent changes, the structural weakness is compensated by an increase of cross-sectional area. There is no restitution of the patellar tendon ad integrum, the remainder is a defect with scar tissue and alterated biomechanical properties. Revision surgery using the same host patellar tendon cannot be recommended. PMID:8101030
Scherer, M A; Früh, H J; Ascherl, R; Siebels, W
Tendon pathology is frequently sub-clinical prior to frank rupture, denoting the need for non-destructive methods of assessing disease presence and progression. Despite the lack of clinical presentation, previous studies have observed that distinct changes to the tendon microstructure are present, and that such qualitative changes have a dose-response relationship with the level of damage accumulated. These initial findings suggest that there is value in investigating the physical nature of damage within tendon, not only to better understand the pathological process, but to gain insight into reparative processes and develop treatments. However, a necessary first step towards carrying out these avenues of research is to develop diagnostic tools for quantitatively assessing the level of damage present. In this study, we established a dose-response relationship between a quantitative measure of structural damage and the level of global damage induced. Furthermore, we developed and validated an automated technique for quantifying matrix disorganization (damage), which correlates and co-localizes strongly with manual quantification. In combination, these findings allow us to measure the amount of damage accumulation of a region of tendon on a clinical scale, rapidly and accurately.
Sereysky, Jedd B.; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Ros, Stephen J.; Jepsen, Karl J.; Flatow, Evan L.
Ultrasound is a therapeutic agent commonly used to treat sports-related musculoskeletal conditions, including tendon injuries or tendinopathy. Despite the widespread popularity of therapeutic ultrasound, few clinical studies have proved its efficacy. Several animal studies have been conducted to explore its effectiveness. In addition, a number of in vitro studies investigating the mechanisms underlying the ability of this physical modality to enhance tendon healing or to treat tendinopathy are in progress. There is strong supporting evidence from animal studies about the positive effects of ultrasound on tendon healing. In vitro studies have also demonstrated that ultrasound can stimulate cell migration, proliferation, and collagen synthesis of tendon cells that may benefit tendon healing. These positive effects of therapeutic ultrasound on tendon healing revealed by in vivo and in vitro studies help explain the physiologic responses to this physical modality and could serve as the foundation for clinical practice. PMID:21552108
Tsai, Wen-Chung; Tang, Sf-T; Liang, Fang-Chen
Mineralisation of the tendon tissue has been described in various models of injury, ageing and disease. Often resulting in painful and debilitating conditions, the processes underlying this mechanism are poorly understood. To elucidate the progression from healthy tendon to mineralised tendon, an appropriate model is required. In this study, we describe the spontaneous and non-pathological ossification and calcification of tendons of the hindlimb of the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The appearance of the ossified avian tendon has been described previously, although there have been no studies investigating the developmental processes and underlying mechanisms leading to the ossified avian tendon. The tissue and cells from three tendons - the ossifying extensor and flexor digitorum longus tendons and the non-ossifying Achilles tendon - were analysed for markers of ageing and mineralisation using histology, immunohistochemistry, cytochemistry and molecular analysis. Histologically, the adult tissue showed a loss of healthy tendon crimp morphology as well as markers of calcium deposits and mineralisation. The tissue showed a lowered expression of collagens inherent to the tendon extracellular matrix and presented proteins expressed by bone. The cells from the ossified tendons showed a chondrogenic and osteogenic phenotype as well as tenogenic phenotype and expressed the same markers of ossification and calcification as the tissue. A molecular analysis of the gene expression of the cells confirmed these results. Tendon ossification within the ossified avian tendon seems to be the result of an endochondral process driven by its cells, although the roles of the different cell populations have yet to be elucidated. Understanding the role of the tenocyte within this tissue and the process behind tendon ossification may help us prevent or treat ossification that occurs in injured, ageing or diseased tendon. PMID:23826786
Agabalyan, Natacha A; Evans, Darrell J R; Stanley, Rachael L
Background While a great deal is known regarding the performance of muscle with intact tendon, little is known about muscle performance when tendon is surgically lengthened or shortened. This knowledge may allow surgeons to more accurately predict functional outcome following tendon repair when correcting a simple tendon laceration or performing a more complex vascularized neuromuscular transfer. Materials and Methods We studied muscle performance 12 weeks following extensor tendon repairs producing altered tendon lengths. Forty male Fischer 344 rats underwent division of the proximal and distal tendons of the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Tendons were immediately repaired producing tendons with increased length, decreased length, or pre-surgical length (control). Observation confirmed that altered tendon length produced inverse changes in initial resting muscle tension. Results Muscle in the Decreased Tendon Length group demonstrated a 15.2% greater muscle mass, 4.9% greater muscle length, 9.6% greater physiologic cross-sectional area, 12.6% greater maximum isometric force, and 31.9% greater maximum power relative to the Control Tendon Length group (p < 0.05). The Increased Tendon Length group did not differ significantly from the Control Tendon Length group for any measurement. Histologically, muscles set with a decreased tendon length demonstrated normal appearing hypertrophied fibers, without evidence of detrimental histological effects such as fibrosis, denervation, necrosis, inflammation, fiber type changes, or fiber splitting. Conclusion These data support the clinical practice of setting muscles with increased passive tension when performing tendon transfer surgeries. Conversely, setting muscles with decreased tension does not necessarily result in a force or power deficit.
Krochmal, Daniel J.; Kuzon, William M.; Urbanchek, Melanie G.
The extensor carpi ulnaris musculotendinous unit has important agonist and antagonist action in wrist motion, including the dart-throwing action, and is a dynamic stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint during forearm rotation. Despite its functional and clinical importance, little is known about its internal structure. Investigation of the ultrastructure of the human extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon was undertaken using plane polarized light microscopy and microcomputer tomography with 3D reconstruction. The study demonstrates that the tendon comprises fibre bundles (fascicles) approximately 0.1 mm in diameter that are arranged in a gradual spiral. The spiralling fibres make an angle of 8º to the longitudinal axis of the tendon. The spiral structure of the human ECU tendon has important biomechanical implications, allowing fascicular sliding during forearm rotation. The observed features may prevent injury. PMID:22190565
Kalson, N S; Malone, P S C; Bradley, R S; Withers, P J; Lees, V C
A 17-year-old male presented to us following a hyperflexion injury to his right knee sustained while playing soccer. Immediately after the traumatic event, he developed a large, tense knee effusion. Physical examination revealed limited range of motion. MRI revealed a lobulated mass in the posteromedial aspect of the knee joint. The mass was excised and sections submitted to pathology. A pathologic, microscopic, and immunohistochemical characteristics revealed the final diagnosis of fibroma of tendon sheath in the knee. At 12 months followup, the patient reported no subjective symptoms, such as pain or limitation of athletic activities and has full range of motion. Additionally, he has demonstrated no signs of recurrence. We report a case of fibroma of the tendon sheath originating from the synovial membrane of the joint capsule of the knee.
Griesser, Michael J; Wakely, Paul E; Mayerson, Joel
\\u000a Achilles tendon lengthening is a delicate procedure whereby the risk of over lengthening (creating calcaneus), rupture, and\\u000a weakening of the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle is devastating. The Silfverskiöld test is clinically performed to differentiate\\u000a gastrocnemius equinus from gastrocnemius-soleus equinus. Many surgical techniques have been developed to treat negative results\\u000a of the Silfverskiöld test. The authors prefer a gastrocnemius-soleus recession in order to
Bradley M. Lamm; Dror Paley
Actuators and gear trains of most biped humanoid robots are divergently allocated on the links of two legs. Disadvantages of such a mechanical design are complicated wiring of power cord and sensing/ control signal bundles and imprecise kinetics models of mixed link-and-actuator structures. Based on these drawbacks, this paper proposes a tendon-driven mechanism to develop a lower body structure of a full-size biped humanoid robot. The actuators are compacted as an actuator module, and they are placed at a distal site. A 12 degree-of-freedom mechanical structure is proposed with 100 cm in height and 45 kg in weight. The gait planning module is simulated and evaluated using the Matlab software. At the same time, an ARM7 based controller is developed to automatically generate walking patterns as well as to control the motors. Finally, a tendon-driven biped humanoid robot prototype is realized for practical waling control in the future.
Kuo, Chung-Hsien; Chiou, Kuo-Wei
Forearm lacerations involving muscle bellies are usually treated by repairing muscle fascia. Repair of tendons themselves is stronger and restores normal muscle anatomy better. Tendon repair requires good knowledge of forearm muscle and tendon anatomy. We have made cadaver measurements to produce graphical maps of locations of individual muscles tendons of origin and insertion, some practical guides for finding tendon ends and a simple grasping stitch for intramuscular tendons. PMID:21606787
Burnham, Jeremy M; Hollister, Anne M; Rush, David A; Avallone, Thomas J; Shi, Runhua; Jordan, Jenee' C
A spontaneous rupture of a tendon may be defined as a rupture that occurs during movement and activity, that should not and usually does not damage the involved musculotendinous units (1). Spontaneous tendon ruptures were uncommon before the 1950s. Böhler found only 25 Achilles tendon ruptures in Wien between 1925 and 1948 (2). Mösender & Klatnek treated 20 Achilles tendon ruptures between 1953 and 1956, but 105 ruptures between 1964 and 1967 (3). Lawrence et al. found only 31 Achilles tendon ruptures in Boston during a period of 55 years (1900-1954) (4). During the recent decades tendon ruptures have, however, become relatively common in developed countries, especially in Europe and North America. A high incidence of tendon ruptures has been reported in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany. Hungary, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA; somewhat lower incidences have been reported in Canada, France, Great Britain and Spain. On the other hand, Greece, Japan, the Netherlands and Portugal have reported a clearly lower incidence. Interestingly, Achilles tendon ruptures are a rarity in developing countries, especially in Africa and East-Asia (5). In many developed countries, the increases in the rupture incidence have been dramatic. In the National Institute of Traumatology in Budapest, Hungary, the number of patients with an Achilles tendon rupture increased 285% in men and 500% in women between two successive 7-year periods, 1972-1978 and 1979-1985 (5). PMID:9211612
Józsa, L; Kannus, P
Pectoralis major tendon rupture is a rare shoulder injury, most commonly seen in weight lifters. This injury is being seen more regularly due to the increased emphasis on healthy lifestyles. Surgical repair of the pectoralis major tendon rupture has been shown to provide superior outcomes regarding strength return. Thus it appears that surgical repair is the treatment of choice for those wishing to return to competitive or recreational athletic activity. This article describes the history and physical examination process for the athlete with pectoralis tendon major rupture. Surgical vs conservative treatment will be discussed. This manuscript provides post surgical treatment guidelines that can be followed after surgical repair of the pectoralis tendon rupture.
Triceps tendon avulsion injuries are rare. We report four weight lifters with triceps tendon raptures, two of whom had received local steroid injections for pain in the triceps. All four patients had taken oral anabolic steroids before injury. All patients had closed avulsion of the triceps tendon from its insertion into the olecranon. Three patients were injured while bench pressing heavy weights, and one patient was injured while swinging a baseball bat. Satisfactory results were achieved after surgical reinsertion of the tendon. PMID:9593095
Sollender, J L; Rayan, G M; Barden, G A
The use of stems cells in tendon repair is of particular interest given the frequency of tendon injuries worldwide together with the technical difficulty often encountered when repairing or augmenting tendons. Stems cells have the capability to differentiate into a variety of different cell types including osteocytes and tenocytes, and if normal architecture of damaged tendon (either macroscopic or microscopic) could be restored, this would significantly improve the management of patients with these injuries. There is already encouraging research on the use of stems cells clinically although considerable further work is required to improve knowledge and clinical applications of stem cells in tissue engineering.
MacLean, S.; Khan, W. S.; Malik, A. A.; Snow, M.; Anand, S.
The tetrapod limb exhibits distinct dorsoventral joint, tendon, and muscle asymmetry. The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, Lmx1b, is required to achieve the dorsal character of these structures, but the mechanism by which Lmx1b orchestrates this asymmetrical development is unknown. To identify target tissues and genes regulated by Lmx1b, we examined Lmx1b expression during joint, tendon and muscle formation (9.5–16.5 dpc) and
Sandra D. Dreyer; Takuji Naruse; Roy Morello; Bernhard Zabel; Andreas Winterpacht; Randy L. Johnson; Brendan Lee; Kerby C. Oberg
Tendons and ligaments are elastic collagenous tissues with similar composition and hierarchical structure, contributing to\\u000a motion. Their strength is related to the number and size of the collagen fibrils. Collagen fibrils increase in size during\\u000a development and in response to increased physical demands or training. Tendon disorders are commonly seen in clinical practice\\u000a and give rise to significant morbidity. Treatment
Andrea Hoffmann; Gerhard Gross
Structural constitutive modeling approaches are often based on the assumption of affine fiber kinematics, even though this\\u000a assumption has rarely been evaluated experimentally. We are interested in applying mathematical models to understand the mechanisms\\u000a responsible for the inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and non-linear properties of human supraspinatus tendon (SST); however, the\\u000a relationship between macroscopic and fiber-level deformation in this tendon remains unknown
Spencer P. Lake; Daniel H. Cortes; Jennifer A. Kadlowec; Louis J. Soslowsky; Dawn M. Elliott
Understanding the transformation of tendon forces into joint torques would greatly aid in the investigation of the complex temporal and spatial coordination of multiple muscles in finger movements. In this study, the effects of the finger posture on the tendon force transmission within the finger extensor apparatus were investigated. In five cadaver specimens, a constant force was applied sequentially to the two extrinsic extensor tendons in the index finger, extensor digitorum communis and extensor indicis proprius. The responses to this loading, i.e., fingertip force/moment and regional strains of the extensor apparatus, were measured and analyzed to estimate the tendon force transmission into the terminal and central slips of the extensor hood. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the amount of tendon force transmitted to each tendon slip was significantly affected by finger posture, specifically by the interphalangeal (IP) joint angles (p<0.01). Tendon force transmitted to each of the tendon slips was found to decrease with the IP flexion. The main effect of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint angle was not as consistent as the IP angle, but there was a strong interaction effect for which MCP flexion led to large decreases in the slip forces (>30%) when the IP joints were extended. The ratio of terminal slip force:central slip force remained relatively constant across postures at approximately 1.7:1. Force dissipation into surrounding structures was found to be largely responsible for the observed force-posture relationship. Due to the significance of posture in the force transmission to the tendon slips, the impact of finger posture should be carefully considered when studying finger motor control or examining injury mechanisms in the extensor apparatus. PMID:19045521
Lee, Sang Wook; Chen, Hua; Towles, Joseph D; Kamper, Derek G
Outcomes after tendon repair are often unsatisfactory, despite improvements in surgical techniques and rehabilitation methods. Recent studies aimed at enhancing repair have targeted the paucicellular nature of tendon for enhancing repair; however, most approaches for delivering growth factors and cells have not been designed for dense connective tissues such as tendon. Therefore, we developed a scaffold capable of delivering growth factors and cells in a surgically manageable form for tendon repair. Platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), along with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), were incorporated into a heparin/fibrin-based delivery system (HBDS). This hydrogel was then layered with an electrospun nanofiber poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) backbone. The HBDS allowed for the concurrent delivery of PDGF-BB and ASCs in a controlled manner, while the PLGA backbone provided structural integrity for surgical handling and tendon implantation. In vitro studies verified that the cells remained viable, and that sustained growth factor release was achieved. In vivo studies in a large animal tendon model verified that the approach was clinically relevant, and that the cells remained viable in the tendon repair environment. Only a mild immunoresponse was seen at dissection, histologically, and at the mRNA level; fluorescently labeled ASCs and the scaffold were found at the repair site 9days post-operatively; and increased total DNA was observed in ASC-treated tendons. The novel layered scaffold has the potential for improving tendon healing due to its ability to deliver both cells and growth factors simultaneously in a surgically convenient manner. PMID:23416576
Manning, C N; Schwartz, A G; Liu, W; Xie, J; Havlioglu, N; Sakiyama-Elbert, S E; Silva, M J; Xia, Y; Gelberman, R H; Thomopoulos, S
Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.
Heterotopic mineralization may result in tendon weakness, but effects on other biomechanical responses have not been reported. We used a needle injury, which accelerates spontaneous mineralization of murine Achilles tendons, to test two hypotheses: that injured tendons would demonstrate altered biomechanical responses; and that unilateral injury would accelerate mineralization bilaterally. Mice underwent left hind (LH) injury (I; n?=?11) and were euthanized after 20 weeks along with non-injured controls (C; n?=?9). All hind limbs were examined by micro computed tomography followed by biomechanical testing (I?=?7 and C?=?6). No differences were found in the biomechanical responses of injured tendons compared with controls. However, the right hind (RH) tendons contralateral to the LH injury exhibited greater static creep strain and total creep strain compared with those LH tendons (p???0.045) and RH tendons from controls (p???0.043). RH limb lesions of injured mice were three times larger compared with controls (p?=?0.030). Therefore, despite extensive mineralization, changes to the responses we measured were limited or absent 20 weeks postinjury. These results also suggest that bilateral occurrence should be considered where tendon mineralization is identified clinically. This experimental system may be useful to study the mechanisms of bilateral new bone formation in tendinopathy and other conditions. PMID:23754538
O'Brien, Etienne John Ogilvy; Shrive, Nigel G; Rosvold, Joshua M; Thornton, Gail M; Frank, Cyril B; Hart, David A
For active patients, surgery is usually the preferred treatment for an acute Achilles tendon rupture. Classical open techniques require a long tendon exposure, which can result in damage to its blood supply and gliding structures. Adhesions may form, which impair the final functional result. Closed surgical techniques do not allow for a perfect adaptation of the tendon stumps and have a higher rate of rerupture. The "mini-open" technique has advantages over both of these techniques. Percutaneously introduced threads prevent adhesions along the tendon. The rupture is exposed through a minimal incision and is carefully sutured with fine threads to allow a direct healing process without the formation of intermediate scar tissue. The minimally invasive approach and the introduction of percutaneous threads considerably reduce the time spent in surgery. An aggressive rehabilitation program can be initiated 1 week after surgery and allows good early functional results. PMID:12512412
Rippstein, Pascal F; Jung, Maximilien; Assal, Mathieu
Calcific tendinosis (tendonosis/tendonitis) is a condition which results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in any tendon of the body. Calcific tendonitis usually presents with pain, which can be exacerbated by prolonged use of the affected tendon. We report a case of calcific tendinosis in the posterior tibialis tendon at the navicular insertion. The pathology is rare in the foot, and extremely rare in the tibialis posterior tendon, indeed there are only 2 reported in the published literature. This case report highlights the need to consider calcific tendinosis in the foot despite its rarity. If this diagnosis is considered early, appropriate investigations can then be requested and unnecessary biopsies, use of antibiotics and surgery can be avoided. We also discuss possible causes of calcific tendinosis in the tibialis posterior tendon, the role of imaging modalities and review treatment methods.
Harries, Luke; Kempson, Susan; Watura, Roland
We present our findings in six athletic patients with a ruptured or partially ruptured posterior tibial tendon. Pain in the midarch region, difficulty pushing off while running, and a pronated flattened longitudinal arch are the usual symptoms and physical findings of this injury. Surgical treatment, including reattachment of the rup tured posterior tibial tendon, is effective in restoring some but
Lee Woods; Robert E. Leach
Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis is an inflammatory process of the superior oblique tendons of the longus colli muscle, a neck flexor in the upper cervical spine, caused by deposition of calcium hydroxy- apatite crystals; the definitive diagnostic test is computed tomography (CT). Presented in this article are two cases seen at our institution. Patients typically present with acute onset of neck
Rhea Victoria; B. Razon; Asad Nasir; George S. Wu; Manal Soliman; Jeffrey Trilling
This report discusses the friction factor and ultimate tensile strength achieved by multi-strand tendons stressed around short radius curves. It was found that a pre-fabricated tendon of as many as 33 one-half-inch diameter strands, stressed through 1.7 r...
T. J. Bezouska
A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams. Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. Moisture may seep into the grout around the tendons and cause corro...
G. Thomas A. Brown
Mechanical properties of tendon predict tendon health and function, but measuring these properties in vivo is difficult. An ultrasound-based (US) analysis technique called acoustoelastography (AE) uses load-dependent changes in the reflected US signal to estimate tissue stiffness non-invasively. This thesis explores whether AE can provide information about stiffness alteration resulting from tendon tears both ex vivo and in vivo. An ex vivo ovine infraspinatus tendon model suggests that the relative load transmitted by the different tendon layers transmit different fractions of the load and that ultrasound echo intensity change during cyclic loading decreases, becoming less consistent once the tendon is torn. An in vivo human tibialis anterior tendon model using electrically stimulated twitch contractions investigated the feasibility of measuring the effect in vivo. Four of the five subjects showed the expected change and that the muscle contraction times calculated using the average grayscale echo intensity change compared favorably with the times calculated based on the force data. Finally an AE pilot study with patients who had rotator cuff tendon tears found that controlling the applied load and the US view of the system will be crucial to a successful in vivo study.
Frisch, Catherine Kayt Vincent
Abstract Attachment of dissimilar materials is a major challenge because high levels of localized stress may develop at their interfaces. An effective biologic solution to this problem exists at one of nature's most extreme interfaces: the attachment of tendon (a compliant, structural “soft tissue”) to bone (a stiff, structural “hard tissue”). The goal of our study was to develop biomechanical models to describe how the tendon-to-bone insertion derives its mechanical properties. We examined the tendon-to-bone insertion and found two factors that give the tendon-to-bone transition a unique grading in mechanical properties: 1), a gradation in mineral concentration, measured by Raman spectroscopy; and 2), a gradation in collagen fiber orientation, measured by polarized light microscopy. Our measurements motivate a new physiological picture of the tissue that achieves this transition, the tendon-to-bone insertion, as a continuous, functionally graded material. Our biomechanical model suggests that the experimentally observed increase in mineral accumulation within collagen fibers can provide significant stiffening of the partially mineralized fibers, but only for concentrations of mineral above a “percolation threshold” corresponding to formation of a mechanically continuous mineral network within each collagen fiber (e.g., the case of mineral connectivity extending from one end of the fiber to the other). Increasing dispersion in the orientation distribution of collagen fibers from tendon to bone is a second major determinant of tissue stiffness. The combination of these two factors may explain the nonmonotonic variation of stiffness over the length of the tendon-to-bone insertion reported previously. Our models explain how tendon-to-bone attachment is achieved through a functionally graded material composition, and provide targets for tissue engineered surgical interventions and biomimetic material interfaces.
Genin, Guy M.; Kent, Alistair; Birman, Victor; Wopenka, Brigitte; Pasteris, Jill D.; Marquez, Pablo J.; Thomopoulos, Stavros
Tendon transfer is one treatment option for patients with massive irreparable rotator cuff tears. Although surgical indications are not clearly defined, the traditional thought is that the ideal candidate is young and lacks significant glenohumeral arthritis. The proposed benefits of tendon transfers are pain relief and potential increase in strength. The biomechanical rationale for the procedure is to restore the glenohumeral joint force couple and possibly to restore normal shoulder kinematics. The selection of donor tendon depends on the location of the rotator cuff deficiency. Transfers of latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major tendons have been shown to consistently improve pain; however, functional benefits are unpredictable. Trapezius tendon transfer may be an alternative in patients with massive posterosuperior rotator cuff tears, although longer-term follow-up is required. PMID:23908255
Omid, Reza; Lee, Brian
This paper reports on the design of an artificial tendon intended for use in a powered, lower limb prosthesis. To specify performance requirements, the properties of mammalian weight bearing tendons are drawn from the literature and compared with a number of existing tendon models. Based on the data, a mathematical model of an energy storing tendon is proposed and used
Glenn K. Klute; Joseph M. Czerniecki; Blake Hannaford
A novel technique to estimate the contribution of finger extensor tendons to joint moment generation was proposed. Effective static moment arms (ESMAs), which represent the net effects of the tendon force on joint moments in static finger postures, were estimated for the 4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) in the index finger. Specifically, the ESMAs for the five tendons contributing to the finger extensor apparatus were estimated by directly correlating the applied tendon force to the measured resultant joint moments in cadaveric hand specimens. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that the finger posture, specifically interphalangeal joint angles, had significant effects on the measured ESMA values in 7 out of 20 conditions (four DOFs for each of the five muscles). Extensor digitorum communis and extensor indicis proprius tendons were found to have greater MCP ESMA values when IP joints are flexed, whereas abduction ESMAs of all muscles except extensor digitorum profundus were mainly affected by MCP flexion. The ESMAs were generally smaller than the moment arms estimated in previous studies that employed kinematic measurement techniques. Tendon force distribution within the extensor hood and dissipation into adjacent structures are believed to contribute to the joint moment reductions, which result in smaller ESMA values. PMID:18387615
Lee, Sang Wook; Chen, Hua; Towles, Joseph D; Kamper, Derek G
While not proven definitively, the hypothesis that intra-articular psoas tendon release allows fluid to track into the retroperitoneal space has been widely accepted. This study attempts to identify the path through which fluid enters the pelvis and retroperitoneal space. Six hemi-pelvis human cadaveric specimens were utilized for this study. 3 specimens underwent a capsulotomy and psoas tendon release, while 3 had only a capsulotomy. Arthroscopy fluid was combined with Barium and Methylene blue, and fluid was run at 50 mmHg for 2 hours. A gross dissection was performed at the end of the arthroscopy and the path of fluid flow into the pelvis and throughout the thigh was identified. All 6 specimens showed extravasation of fluid into the pelvis at the 5 minute mark. Specimens with a psoas tendon release showed an altered pattern of fluid flow. In all three of these specimens, the psoas muscle belly was bright blue, along with the remaining tendon. Two of the 3 specimens showed tracking of fluid along the vasculature in both directions. The volume of fluid tracking into the pelvis was increased following a psoas release. Arthroscopy fluid rapidly enters the pelvis following the initiation of hip arthroscopy, regardless of the status of the psoas tendon. Release of the psoas tendon allows fluid to diffuse into the psoas muscle and anterior medial thigh, tracking both proximally and distally along the neurovascular structures, and the volume of fluid tracking into the pelvis is increased following a psoas release. PMID:23233181
Hanypsiak, Bryan T; Stoll, Marc A; Gerhardt, Michael B; DeLong, Jeffrey M
Assembling artificial collagenous tissues with structural, functional, and mechanical properties which mimic natural tissues is of vital importance for many tissue engineering applications. While the electro-mechanical properties of collagen are thought to play a role in, for example, bone formation and remodeling, this functional property has not been adequately addressed in engineered tissues. Here the electro-mechanical properties of rat tail tendon are compared with those of dried isoelectrically focused collagen hydrogels using piezoresponse force microscopy under ambient conditions. In both the natural tissue and the engineered hydrogel D-periodic type I collagen fibrils are observed, which exhibit shear piezoelectricity. While both tissues also exhibit fibrils with parallel orientations, Fourier transform analysis has revealed that the degree of parallel alignment of the fibrils in the tendon is three times that of the dried hydrogel. The results obtained demonstrate that isoelectrically focused collagen has similar structural and electro-mechanical properties to that of tendon, which is relevant for tissue engineering applications. PMID:22522132
Denning, D; Abu-Rub, M T; Zeugolis, D I; Habelitz, S; Pandit, A; Fertala, A; Rodriguez, B J
Introduction Tendon injury is a common problem in athletes, with poor tissue regeneration and a high rate of re-injury. Stem cell therapy is an attractive treatment modality as it may induce tissue regeneration rather than tissue repair. Currently, there are no reports on the use of pluripotent cells in a large animal tendon model in vivo. We report the use of intra-lesional injection of male, fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells (fdESC) that express Oct-4, Nanog, SSEA4, Tra 1-60, Tra 1-81 and telomerase. Methods Tendon injury was induced using a collagenase gel-physical defect model in the mid-metacarpal region of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of eight female adult Thoroughbred or Thoroughbred cross horses. Tendon lesions were treated one week later with intra-lesional injection of male derived fdESCs in media or media alone. Therapy was blinded and randomized. Serial ultrasound examinations were performed and final analysis at eight weeks included magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical assays (total DNA, glycosaminoglycan, collagen), gene expression (TNC, TNMD, SCX, COL1A1, COL3A1, COMP, DCN, MMP1, MMP3, MMP13, 18S) and histology. Differences between groups were assessed with Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Results Cell survival was demonstrated via the presence of the SRY gene in fdESC treated, but not control treated, female SDFT at the end of the trial. There were no differences in tendon matrix specific gene expression or total proteoglycan, collagen or DNA of tendon lesions between groups. Tissue architecture, tendon size, tendon lesion size, and tendon linear fiber pattern were significantly improved on histologic sections and ultrasound in the fdESC treated tendons. Conclusions Such profound structural effects lend further support to the notion that pluripotent stem cells can effect musculoskeletal regeneration, rather than repair, even without in vitro lineage specific differentiation. Further investigation into the safety of pluripotent cellular therapy as well as the mechanisms by which repair was improved seem warranted.
This is a case report of two children with congenital dislocation of the knee. They have been treated surgically with Z-lengthening of the quadriceps tendon and additional reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon with Achilles tendon allograft to fill in the remaining average 6 cm gap of the tendon. The patients were two girls, 6 and 9 years old. One of them had
Yetkin Söyüncü; Ercan M?hç?; Haluk Özcanl?; Merter Özenci; Feyyaz Aky?ld?z; A. Turan Ayd?n
A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive growth factors and BMP-12 on tendon-to-bone healing. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed increased formation of new bone and fibrocartilage at the healing tendon attachment site in the treated animals, and biomechanical testing showed improved load-to-failure. Other techniques with potential to augment repair site biology include use of platelets isolated from autologous blood to deliver growth factors to a tendon repair site. Modalities that improve local vascularity, such as pulsed ultrasound, have the potential to augment rotator cuff healing. Important information about the biology of tendon healing can also be gained from studies of substances that inhibit healing, such as nicotine and antiinflammatory medications. Future approaches may include the use of stem cells and transcription factors to induce formation of the native tendon-bone insertion site after rotator cuff repair surgery.
Patellar tendonitis or "jumper's knee" is an important cause of anterior knee pain. The natural history, classification of the lesion, and treatment methods, however, remain controversial. This article presents a retrospective review of 40 patients (50 knees) with various stages of patellar tendonitis and examines the etiology, presentation, clinical picture, investigation, and results of conservative treatment. Twenty-nine men and 11 women ranging in age from 17-48 years comprised the study population. Ten patients had bilateral involvement. The overall evaluation of patients' treatment was 70% with normal or nearly normal results and 30% with abnormal or very abnormal results; most required surgical treatment in the form of arthroscopy, anterior compartment decompression, and patellar tendon exploration. Thirty-seven percent of the patients had a previous history of anterior knee pain (25% had Osgood-Schlatter disease and 12.5% had anterior knee pain). Patellar tendon involvement is appraised according to a new concept. Since patellar tendonitis is part of the wider picture of anterior knee pain, patellar tendonitis is classified as primary or secondary according to presentation, magnetic resonance imaging in general, and the pathology of the patellar tendon in particular. Treatment is planned accordingly. PMID:10323501
Duri, Z A; Aichroth, P M; Wilkins, R; Jones, J
The ability of tendons to glide smoothly during muscle contraction is impaired after injury by fibrous adhesions that form between the damaged tendon surface and surrounding tissues. To understand how adhesions form we incubated excised tendons in fibrin gels (to mimic the homeostatic environment at the injury site) and assessed cell migration. We noticed cells exiting the tendon from only the cut ends. Furthermore, treatment of the tendon with trypsin resulted in cell extravagation from the shaft of the tendons. Electron microscopy and immunolocalisation studies showed that the tendons are covered by a novel cell layer in which a collagen type IV/laminin basement membrane (BM) overlies a keratinised epithelium. PCR and western blot analyses confirmed the expression of laminin ?1 in surface cells, only. To evaluate the cell retentive properties of the BM in vivo we examined the tendons of the Col4a1+/Svc mouse that is heterozygous for a G-to-A transition in the Col4a1 gene that produces a G1064D substitution in the ?1(IV) chain of collagen IV. The flexor tendons had a discontinuous BM, developed fibrous adhesions with overlying tissues, and were acellular at sites of adhesion formation. In further experiments, tenotomy of wild-type mice resulted in expression of laminin throughout the adhesion. In conclusion, we show the existence of a novel tendon BM-epithelium that is required to prevent adhesion formation. The Col4a1+/Svc mouse is an effective animal model for studying adhesion formation because of the presence of a structurally-defective collagen type IV-containing BM.
Taylor, Susan H.; Al-Youha, Sarah; Van Agtmael, Tom; Lu, Yinhui; Wong, Jason; McGrouther, Duncan A.; Kadler, Karl E.
In the present experiment we obtained the tensile properties of the human gastrocnemius tendon, a high-stressed tendon suitable for spring-like action during locomotion. Measurements were taken in vivo in six men. The gastrocnemius tendon elongation during tendon loading?unloading induced by muscle contraction?relaxation was measured using real-time ultrasonography. Tendon forces were calculated from the moment generated during isometric plantarflexion contraction, using
Constantinos N Maganaris; John P Paul
The combination of spontaneous anterior tibial tendon rupture and posterior tibial tendon dysfunction has rarely been reported in the literature. This is a case report of a 78-year-old patient presenting with a history of longstanding, progressive flatfoot deformity, clinically grade III posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, and dropfoot gait. Radiographic films revealed severe flatfoot, and the clinical examination was consistent with a complete rupture of the anterior tibial tendon and severe posterior tibial tendon degeneration as well as rupture of the spring and deltoid ligaments. Treatment by triple arthrodesis and repair of the anterior tibial tendon affected pain relief and clinical as well as radiographic correction at the 4-month postoperative assessment. PMID:17145469
Frigg, Arno Martin; Valderrabano, Victor; Kundert, Hans-Peter; Hintermann, Beat
We present the case of a patient with flexor digitorum profundus tendon laceration at the A2 pulley level caused by an injury to the base of the right ring finger by a knife. The patient was treated by flexor tendon reconstruction from the palm to the fingertip by using the left second toe flexor tendon as a graft, which improved the active range of motion. Further improvement was achieved by subsequent tenolysis, which eventually restored nearly normal function. Our experience with this case indicates that the intrasynovial tendon is a reasonable graft source for the synovial space in fingers and may enable restoration of excellent postoperative function.
Sasaki, Jun; Itsubo, Toshiro; Nakamura, Koichi; Hayashi, Masanori; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Kato, Hiroyuki
Patellar tendon width and length are commonly used for preoperative planning for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). In the study reported here, we assessed the accuracy of preoperative measurements made by palpation through the skin, and correlated these measurements with the actual dimensions of the tendons at surgery. Before making incisions in 53 patients undergoing ACLR with patellar tendon autograft, we measured patellar tendon length with the knee in full extension and in 90° of flexion, and tendon width with the knee in 90° of flexion. The tendon was then exposed, and its width was measured with the knee in 90° of flexion. The length of the central third of the tendon was measured after the graft was prepared. Mean patellar tendon length and width with the knee in 90° of flexion were 39 mm and 32 mm, respectively. No clinical difference was found between the estimated pre-incision and surgical widths. However, the estimated pre-incision length with the knee in full extension and in 90° of flexion was significantly shorter than the surgical length. Skin measurements can be used to accurately determine patellar tendon width before surgery, but measurements of length are not as reliable. PMID:24078943
Zooker, Chad; Pandarinath, Rajeev; Kraeutler, Matthew J; Ciccotti, Michael G; Cohen, Steven B; Deluca, Peter F
Originally described by Brock and Teare, today hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is clinically defined as left (or right) ventricular hypertrophy without a known cardiac or systemic cause, such as systemic hypertension, Fabry's disease or aortic stenosis.Also appreciated today is the enormous genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity of this disease with more than 300 mutations over more than 24 genes, encoding various sarcomeric, mitochondrial and calcium-handling proteins, all as genetic causes for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.Phenotypically, the disease can vary from negligible to extreme hypertrophy, affecting either the left and/or right ventricle in an apical, midventricular or subaortic location.Left ventricular false tendons are thin, fibrous or fibromuscular structures that traverse the left ventricular cavity. Recently, a case report was presented where it was shown that such a false tendon, originating from a subaortic location, was responsible for striking ST-segment elevation on the surface electrocardiogram.In this case report, a case is presented where such a subaortic tendon led to the classic echocardiographic appearance of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, thus in the assessment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, this entity needs to be excluded in order to prevent a false positive diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19573250
Extracellular matrix (ECM) materials are currently utilized for soft tissue repair applications such as vascular grafts, tendon reconstruction, and hernia repair. These materials are derived from tissues such as human dermis and porcine small intestine submucosa, which must be rendered acellular to prevent disease transmission and decrease the risk of an immune response. The ideal decellularization technique removes cells and cellular remnants, but leaves the original collagen architecture intact. The tissue utilized in this study was the central tendon of the porcine diaphragm, which had not been previously investigated for soft tissue repair. Several treatments were investigated during this study including peracetic acid, TritonX-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and tri(n-butyl) phosphate (TnBP). Of the decellularization treatments investigated, only 1% TnBP was effective in removing cell nuclei while leaving the structure and composition of the tissue intact. Overall, the resulting acellular tissue scaffold retained the ECM composition, strength, resistance to enzymatic degradation, and biocompatibility of the original tissue, making 1% TnBP an acceptable decellularization treatment for porcine diaphragm tendon. PMID:21210498
Deeken, C R; White, A K; Bachman, S L; Ramshaw, B J; Cleveland, D S; Loy, T S; Grant, S A
Rupture of the triceps mechanism is an uncommon injury that has been recognized with increasing frequency in recent years. It has been proposed that such injuries commonly accompany fractures of the radial head and must be actively evaluated in the presence of such a fracture. We present a unique case of isolated rupture of the triceps tendon in an athlete who was lifting weights. This case was complicated by a history of olecranon bursitis that had been treated with numerous local steroid injections, as well as a history of anabolic steroid abuse. Both systemic steroids and local injections may predispose tendons to rupture. Triceps tendon ruptures may result in uniformly good to excellent results if recognized and treated surgically. This case also serves as a reminder of the risks of treating inflamed tissues with local steroid injections, especially in strength athletes who place high demands on their musculoskeletal structures. Finally, this case documents a second case of triceps mechanism rupture in an athlete who has abused anabolic steroids. A study by Hunter et al. suggests that oral steroid abuse may be associated with detrimental effects on the mechanical properties of connective tissue, demonstrating another negative effect of anabolic steroid use in athletes. PMID:8346768
Stannard, J P; Bucknell, A L
During neonatal development, tendons undergo a well orchestrated process whereby extensive structural and compositional changes occur in synchrony to produce a normal tissue. Conversely, during the repair response to injury, structural and compositional changes occur, but a mechanically inferior tendon is produced. As a result, developmental processes have been postulated as a potential paradigm through which improved adult tissue healing may occur. By examining injury at distinctly different stages of development, vital information can be obtained into the structure-function relationships in tendon. The mouse is an intriguing developmental model due to the availability of assays and genetically altered animals. However, it has not previously been used for mechanical analysis of healing tendon due to the small size and fragile nature of neonatal tendons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differential healing response in tendon at two distinct stages of development through mechanical, compositional, and structural properties. To accomplish this, a new in vivo surgical model and mechanical analysis method for the neonatal mouse Achilles tendons were developed. We demonstrated that injury during early development has an accelerated healing response when compared to injury during late development. This accelerated healing model can be used in future mechanistic studies to elucidate the method for improved adult tendon healing.
Ansorge, Heather L; Hsu, Jason E; Edelstein, Lena; Adams, Sheila; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J
A parametric study is being undertaken of the effects of extra low frequency (ELF) conductive electric fields on chicken tendon explant fibroplasia, collagen synthesis and oriented migration. Independent variables are: pulse repetition rate, pulse duratio...
S. F. Cleary L. M. Liu R. Diegelmann
Tendon has a complex hierarchical structure composed of both a collagenous and a non-collagenous matrix. Despite several studies that have aimed to elucidate the mechanism of load transfer between matrix components, the roles of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) remain controversial. Thus, this study investigated the elastic properties of tendon using a modified shear-lag model that accounts for the structure and non-linear mechanical response of the GAGs. Unlike prior shear-lag models that are solved either in two dimensions or in axially symmetric geometries, we present a closed-form analytical model for three-dimensional periodic lattices of fibrils linked by GAGs. Using this approach, we show that the non-linear mechanical response of the GAGs leads to a distinct toe region in the stress-strain response of the tendon. The critical strain of the toe region is shown to decrease inversely with fibril length. Furthermore, we identify a characteristic length scale, related to microstructural parameters (e.g. GAG spacing, stiffness, and geometry) over which load is transferred from the GAGs to the fibrils. We show that when the fibril lengths are significantly larger than this length scale, the mechanical properties of the tendon are relatively insensitive to deletion of GAGs. Our results provide a physical explanation for the insensitivity for the mechanical response of tendon to the deletion of GAGs in mature tendons, underscore the importance of fibril length in determining the elastic properties of the tendon, and are in excellent agreement with computationally intensive simulations. PMID:23932185
Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Connizzo, Brianne K; Freedman, Benjamin R; Soslowsky, Louis J; Shenoy, Vivek B
A histologically normal insertion site does not regenerate following rotator cuff tendon-to-bone repair, which is likely due\\u000a to abnormal or insufficient gene expression and\\/or cell differentiation at the repair site. Techniques to manipulate the biologic\\u000a events following tendon repair may improve healing. We used a sheep infraspinatus repair model to evaluate the effect of osteoinductive\\u000a growth factors and BMP-12 on
David Kovacevic; Scott A. Rodeo
Three unusual cases of rupture of finger extensor tendons by attrition are reported. In one instance it was associated with long-standing nonunion of a scaphoid fracture, with a posttraumatic dorsal subluxation of the lower end of the ulna in another, and with a Madelung's deformity in the third. Extensor tendon rupture has not been previously recorded in the English-language literature after the first two conditions. PMID:2584656
Harvey, F J; Harvey, P M
Computer modeling is gaining popularity in the design and verification of cathodic protection (CP) systems for offshore structures. The work presented in this article expands the use of CP simulation to consider the metallic electrical resistance of risers/tendons used with tension leg platforms where anodes are mounted on the hull or subsea structure. The SEACORR/CP computer system was used to perform a parametric study to identify the limitations of CP and coatings in providing corrosion protection. The effect of using a titanium riser instead of a steel riser was also considered.
Osvoll, H.; Gartland, P.O. [CorrOcean AS, Trondheim (Norway); Thomason, W.H. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)
Background Treatment of ruptured Achilles tendons currently constitutes of conservative early functional treatment or surgical treatment either by open or minimal invasive techniques. We hypothesize that an experimental Achilles tendon suture in an animal model significantly deteriorates Achilles tendon microcirculation immediately following suturing. Methods Fifteen Achilles tendons of eight male Wistar rats (275–325 g) were included. After preparation of the Achilles tendon with a medial paratendinous approach, Achilles tendon microcirculation was assessed using combined Laser-Doppler and spectrophotometry (Oxygen-to-see) regarding: - tendinous capillary blood flow [arbitrary units AU] - tendinous tissue oxygen saturation [%] - tendinous venous filling pressure [rAU] The main body of the Achilles tendon was measured in the center of the suture with 50 Hz. 10 minutes after Achilles tendon suture (6-0 Prolene), a second assessment of microcirculatory parameters was performed. Results Achilles tendon capillary blood flow decreased by 57% following the suture (70 ± 30 AU vs. 31 ± 16 AU; p < 0.001). Tendinous tissue oxygen saturation remained at the same level before and after suture (78 ± 17% vs. 77 ± 22%; p = 0.904). Tendinous venous filling pressure increased by 33% (54 ± 16 AU vs. 72 ± 20 AU; p = 0.019) after suture. Conclusion Achilles tendon suture in anaesthetised rats causes an acute loss of capillary perfusion and increases postcapillary venous filling pressures indicating venous stasis. The primary hypothesis of this study was confirmed. In contrast, tendinous tissue oxygen saturation remains unchanged excluding acute intratendinous hypoxia within the first 10 minutes after suture. Further changes of oxygen saturation remain unclear. Furthermore, it remains to be determined to what extent reduced capillary blood flow as well as increased postcapillary stasis might influence tendon healing from a microcirculatory point of view in this animal setting.
Kraemer, Robert; Lorenzen, Johan; Rotter, Robert; Vogt, Peter M; Knobloch, Karsten
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven to be an ideal technique for evaluating tendons and ligaments, which, because of their fibrous structure, have a low signal intensity on all sequences. Trauma and a wide variety of other conditions cause aberrations in the normal appearance of these structures, ranging from minor alterations in shape, size, appearance, and continuity to various changes
Jamshid Tehranzadeh; Roger Kerr; Jay Amster
The Achilles tendon is believed to have first developed two million years ago enabling humans to run twice as fast. However if the Achilles tendon is so important in terms of evolution, then why is this tendon so prone to injury - especially for those more active like athletes. The Achilles tendon had an integral role in evolving apes from a herbivorous diet to early humans who started hunting for food over longer distances, resulting in bipedal locomotion. Evolutionary advantages of the Achilles tendon includes it being the strongest tendon in the body, having an energy-saving mechanism for fast locomotion, allows humans to jump and run, and additionally is a spring and shock absorber during gait. Considering these benefits it is therefore not surprising that studies have shown athletes have thicker Achilles tendons than subjects who are less active. However, contradictory to these findings that show the importance of the Achilles tendon for athletes, it is well known that obtaining an Achilles tendon injury for an athlete can be career-altering. A disadvantage of the Achilles tendon is that the aetiology of its pathology is complicated. Achilles tendon ruptures are believed to be caused by overloading the tensed tendon, like during sports. However studies have also shown athlete Achilles tendon ruptures to have degenerative changes in the tendon. Other flaws of the Achilles tendon are its non-uniform vascularity and incomplete repair system which may suggest the Achilles tendon is on the edge of evolution. Research has shown that there is a genetic influence on the predisposition a person has towards Achilles tendon injuries. So if this tendon is here to stay in our anatomy, and it probably is due to the slow rate of evolution in humans, research in genetic modification could be used to decrease athletes' predisposition to Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:21900004
Malvankar, S; Khan, W S
Nonhealing neuropathic ulcers overlying the fifth metatarsal are frequently associated with cavus foot structure and are often complicated by osteomyelitis. Partial fifth ray amputation for metatarsal phalangeal joint ulceration and osteomyelitis is a time-proven procedure. Recurrent wounds and persistent osteomyelitis at the amputation stump or fifth metatarsal base create significant challenges in a cavus foot with neuropathy. Long-term success with removal of the entire fifth ray is largely dependent on preventing infection of the cuboid and maintaining peroneal tendon function. The described technique demonstrates our surgical principles and technical pearls in performing a staged complete fifth ray amputation with initial antibiotic bead placement and delayed peroneal tendon transfer. The peroneus longus tendon transfer has the advantage of preserving the eversion force to counterbalance the posterior tibial tendon and allowing the first ray to elevate, thereby alleviating some of the sagittal plane deformity associated with a cavus foot structure. The surgical tips and pearls are accompanied by procedure indications and incision planning options. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a staged protocol involving complete fifth ray resection, initial antibiotic bead placement, and delayed peroneus longus tendon transfer. PMID:22621858
Boffeli, Troy J; Abben, Kyle W
Lizards exhibit continual bone growth at the epiphysis, and their limb muscles are distributed differently from those of mammals because of differences in weight bearing. We therefore characterized the bone-tendon (B-T) interface (also termed the enthesis) in lizards. Using the forelimbs of five monitor lizards and three iguanas, we performed histological investigations on 57 B-T interfaces. Most reptilian tendons were very short and were often composed of wavy fiber bundles. Fibrocartilage (FC)-mediated direct insertion was observed at all epiphyses, whereas periosteum-mediated indirect insertions, including fleshy attachments, were often located on the flat surfaces of the pectoral girdles and at the diaphyses of the limb bones. The reptilian B-T interface was characterized by variability in the morphology of the FC-mediated insertions, especially by morphologies intermediate between those of FC- and periosteum-mediated interfaces; i.e., 1) various degrees of absence of the clear FC zonation seen in mammals, including the tidemark; 2) involvement of the periosteum in the FC; 3) the presence of various types of FC cells in the tendon near the interface, to reinforce the tendon against compression or shear stress; and 4) both FC and hyaline cartilage (lateral articular cartilage) receiving the tendon at the epiphysis. Overall, variations in the connective tissue, especially the FC tissue, were very evident in the reptilian B-T interface. The specific structures of the interfaces probably represent adaptations to the continuous growth and loose joint structures of lizards. PMID:12201047
Suzuki, Daisuke; Murakami, Gen; Minoura, Nachio
Detailed anatomic dissections of the deep medial knee retinaculum have shown a consistent prominent anatomic structure extending from the distal deep quadriceps tendon to the adductor tubercle region, forming a distinct medial quadriceps tendon–femoral ligament (MQTFL). Reconstruction of this anatomic structure has yielded consistent medial stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without drilling into the patella over more than 3 years in patients with recurrent patella instability and dislocation. Results are similar to those of MPFL reconstruction but with reduced risk of patella fracture, a known and serious complication of MPFL reconstruction. The reconstruction graft is secured at the anatomic femoral origin of the MQTFL and brought under the vastus medialis such that it may be woven and attached to the deep distal medial quadriceps tendon to provide a secure, reliable reproduction of the MQTFL and excellent stabilization of the patellofemoral joint without risk of patella fracture.
Fulkerson, John P.; Edgar, Cory
During rotator cuff repair surgery, fixation and incorporation of ruptured rotator cuff tendon into the bone is a major concern.\\u000a The repair usually fails at the tendon–bone interface, especially in cases where the tear is massive. The periosteum contains\\u000a multipotent stem cells that have the potential to differentiate into osteogenic and chondrogenic tissues, which may restore\\u000a the original structure at
Chih-Hsiang Chang; Chih-Hwa Chen; Chun-Yi Su; Hsien-Tao Liu; Chung-Ming Yu
Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) regulate extracellular matrix organization, a process essential in development, tissue repair, and metastasis. In vivo interactions of biglycan and fibromodulin, two SLRPs highly expressed in tendons and bones, were investigated by generating biglycan\\/fibromodulin dou- ble-deficient mice. Here we show that collagen fibrils in tendons from mice deficient in biglycan and\\/or fibro- modulin are structurally and mechanically
LAURENT AMEYE; DEAN ARIA; KARL JEPSEN; AKE OLDBERG; TIANSHUN XU; MARIAN F. YOUNG
Axial speed of sound (SOS) measurements have been successfully applied to noninvasively evaluate tendon load, while preliminary studies showed that this technique also has a potential clinical interest in the follow up of tendon injuries. The ultrasound propagation theory predicts that the SOS is determined by the effective stiffness, mass density and Poisson's ratio of the propagating medium. Tendon stiffness characterizes the tissue's mechanical quality, but it is often measured in quasi-static condition and for entire tendon segments, so it might not be the same as the effective stiffness which determines the SOS. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the relationship between axial SOS and tendon's nonlinear elasticity, measured in standard laboratory conditions, and to evaluate if tendon's mass density and cross-sectional area (CSA) affect the SOS level. Axial SOS was measured during in vitro cycling of 9 equine superficial digital tendons. Each tendon's stiffness was characterized with a tangent modulus (the continuous derivative of the true stress/true strain curve) and an elastic modulus (the slope of this curve's linear region). Tendon's SOS was found to linearly vary with the square root of the tangent modulus during loading; tendon's SOS level was found correlated to the elastic modulus's square root and inversely correlated to the tendon's CSA, but it was not affected by tendon's mass density. These results confirm that tendon's tangent and elastic moduli, measured in laboratory conditions, are related to axial SOS and they represent one of its primary determinants. PMID:22078274
Vergari, Claudio; Ravary-Plumioën, Bérangère; Evrard, Delphine; Laugier, Pascal; Mitton, David; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie
The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of changes in human tendon properties and metabolism during resistance training and detraining. Nine men (21-27 years) completed 3 months of isometric plantar flexion training and another 3 months of detraining. At the beginning and on every 1 month of training and detraining periods, the stiffness, blood circulation (blood volume and oxygen saturation), serum procollagen type 1 C-peptide (P1P; reflects synthesis of type 1 collagen), echointensity (reflects collagen content), and MRI signal intensity (reflects collagen structure) of the Achilles tendon were measured. Tendon stiffness did not change until 2 months of training, and the increase (50.3%) reached statistical significance at the end of the training period. After 1 month of detraining, tendon stiffness had already decreased to pre-training level. Blood circulation in the tendon did not change during the experimental period. P1P increased significantly after 2 months of training. Echointensity increased significantly by 9.1% after 2 months of training, and remained high throughout the experiment. MRI signal intensity increased by 24.2% after 2 months and by 21.4% after 3 months of training, but decreased to the pre-training level during the detraining period. These results suggested that the collagen synthesis, content, and structure of human tendons changed at the 2-month point of training period. During detraining, the sudden decrease in tendon stiffness might be related to changes in the structure of collagen fibers within the tendon. PMID:22105708
Kubo, Keitaro; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro; Maki, Akira; Yata, Hideaki; Tsunoda, Naoya
Over the past three decades extensive studies have been performed on the structural and mechanical properties of Achilles tendon trying to explain its mechanical proprieties and trying to realize more precise mathematical model trough constitutive equations. Among the various mechanical parameters, deformation-load and stress-strain curves give first mechanical parameters of interest, but also the vibrational behavior of tendon may be of interest, in particular for in-vivo applications. The present paper describes how in vitro tensile experiments can be performed, taking also into account the need to simulate physiological condition of Achilles tendon, approaching thus some opened problems in the design of the experimental set-up. A new system for measuring tendon vibrations by non-contact techniques under specific deformation-load conditions is presented. In the first step preliminary simple elongation tests are made in order to characterize the tissue extracting the mainly mechanical parameters: load-deformation and stress-strain curves. Then, an experimental vibration study is made at each tension level evaluating the free oscillations caused by a small hammer. Modification of first resonance frequency as function of load or strain is reported. The underlying idea is to establish a measurement procedure to perform the mechanical characterization of tendons by extracting parameters, as the resonance frequency, achievable also during in-vivo investigation.
Revel, Gian M.; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo
Two methods are used to route the tibialis posterior tendon anteriorly to achieve dorsiflexion: (1) around the medial side of the tibia, or the subcutaneous route; and (2) through the interosseous membrane, or the interosseous route. This study determined the effect of site of tendon insertion on ankle and foot motions and compared the efficacy of both routes. Eleven fresh normal cadaveric legs were used. The detached tibialis posterior tendon was transferred anteriorly through the interosseous membrane and anchored to the first cuneiform along the first metatarsal axis by a barbed staple. The specimen was mounted on a mechanical testing machine. Tension was applied to the tendon and ankle and foot motions were measured. The experimental procedure was repeated with tendon insertion along the second metatarsal axis and serially through to the fifth metatarsal axis. The entire experiment was repeated using the subcutaneous route. The interosseous route was more effective in achieving maximum dorsiflexion with minimal pronation. Shifting the insertion medially caused supination, whereas a more lateral insertion caused pronation. PMID:7554643
Goh, J C; Lee, P Y; Lee, E H; Bose, K
Various studies have shown that the operative treatment of a freshly ruptured Achilles tendon is generally considered to be more appropriate than a nonoperative regimen. However, complications in open reconstructions are reported to occur in 11-29%. The method used in this study reduced the risk of complications arising from operation, but simultaneously allowed early postoperative mobilization and functional treatment. It was a percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon, using two Lengemann extension wires for coadaptation of the ruptured tendon. To fix the rupture site, the authors used a fibrin sealant. The spikes of the wire were hooked in at the fascia of the soleus muscle. Via a big, curved needle, the wire was placed in the distal stumps of the ruptured tendon and guided out laterally and medially above the calcaneus. After blocking the wires distally, the fibrin sealant was applied at the rupture site. The current report describes this method of treatment in 66 patients. The postoperative observation period was 1 year. Sixty-four patients were male and two were female. Their average age was 42 years. The Achilles tendon ruptures occurred during sporting activities and were treated by operation within 22 hours on average. The outcome was very good in 98%. One patient (2%) suffered a rerupture due to trauma. There were no other complications. PMID:15132929
Gorschewsky, Ottmar; Pitzl, Martin; Pütz, Andrej; Klakow, Andreas; Neumann, Wolfram
The extracellular matrix (ECM) of skeletal muscle and tendon is composed of different types of collagen molecules that play important roles in the transmission of forces throughout the body, and in the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. Fibroblasts are the primary cells in muscle and tendon that maintain, repair, and modify the ECM in response to mechanical loading, injury, and inactivity. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that digest collagen and other structural molecules, which are synthesized and excreted by fibroblasts. MMPs are required for baseline ECM homeostasis, but disruption of MMP regulation due to injury or disease can alter the normal ECM architecture and prevent proper force transmission. Chronic injuries and diseases of muscles and tendons can be severely debilitating, and current therapeutic modalities to enhance healing are quite limited. This review will discuss the mechanobiology of MMPs, and the potential use of MMP inhibitors to improve the treatment of injured and diseased skeletal muscle and tendon tissue. PMID:23640595
Davis, Max E; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Sugg, Kristoffer B; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L
We present the case of a patient with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis and an acute onset of total dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon. On MRI, a rupture of the tendon was apparent. Intraoperatively, however, massive tenosynovitis with stricture of the tendon was identified as the cause of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. This case illustrates a pitfall in MRI imaging with potential diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. PMID:12120910
Hasler, Paul; Hintermann, Beat; Meier, Monika
This study investigated whether gene transfer to the tendon-bone insertion site is possible during early tendon-transplant healing using viral vectors. In addition, we evaluated the optimal gene delivery technique for an in vivo adenoviral gene transfer to a tendon-bone insertion site in a bone tunnel. Twenty-six rabbits underwent a bilateral transfer of the flexor digitorum longus tendon into a bone
Christian Lattermann; Boris A. Zelle; Janey D. Whalen; Axel W. A. Baltzer; Paul D. Robbins; Christopher Niyibizi; Christopher H. Evans; Freddie H. Fu
PURPOSE: The present study evaluated the presence of stem cells in hamstring tendons from adult subjects of different ages. The aim was to isolate, characterize and expand these cells in vitro, and to evaluate whether cell activities are influenced by age. METHODS: Tendon stem cells (TSCs) were isolated through magnetic sorting from the hamstring tendons of six patients. TSC percentage, morphology and clonogenic potential were evaluated, as well as the expression of specific surface markers. TSC multi-potency was also investigated as a function of age, and quantitative polimerase chain reaction was used to evaluate gene expression of TSCs cultured in suitable differentiating media. RESULTS: The presence of easily harvestable stem cell population within adult human hamstring tendons was demonstrated. These cells exhibit features such as clonogenicity, multi-potency and mesenchymal stem cells markers expression. The age-related variations in human TSCs affect the number of isolated cells and their self-renewal potential, while multi-potency assays are not influenced by tendon ageing, even though cells from younger individuals expressed higher levels of osteogenic and adipogenic genes, while chondrogenic genes were highly expressed in cells from older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: These results may open new opportunities to study TSCs to better understand tendon physiology, healing and pathological processes such as tendinopathy and degenerative age-related changes opening new frontiers in the management of tendinopathy and tendon ruptures. PMID:23503946
Ruzzini, Laura; Abbruzzese, Franca; Rainer, Alberto; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The purpose of this study was to compare the tensile strength of the central one third patellar tendon--as used for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament--to that of the residual patellar tendon. Ten matched pairs of human cadaveric knees were used for this study, each specimen consisting of an intact patella-patellar tendon-proximal tibial unit. One knee from each pair was randomly selected for removal of both the medial and lateral one third of the patellar tendon, leaving the central one third intact. The contralateral knee of each pair underwent removal of the central one third of the patellar tendon, leaving the residual two thirds intact. Each specimen was then mounted in a materials testing machine and tensile tested to failure at a strain rate of 100%.s-1. The most important result to emerge from these experiments was that there was no significant difference in maximum force to failure for the residual patellar tendon compared to the central one third. Thus any thought that removal of the central one third as a graft still leaves a tendon twice as wide and therefore twice as strong as a graft is dispelled by these experiments. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Matava, M J; Hutton, W C
After flexor tendon repair there is often increased resistance to tendon gliding at the repair site, which is greater for techniques using increased suture strands or suture material. This increased “friction” may be measured as the “work of flexion” in the laboratory setting. Tendon repairs performed in zone 2 in human cadaver hands using the two strand Kessler, the lateral
M. Aoki; P. R. Manske; D. L. Pruitt; B. J. Larson
Giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath is a benign, solitary lesion, which is less common in foot than in hand. Recurrence is the most common complication after excision. We report a case of GCT-TS in the flexor tendon of the right big toe in 28 years old lady. The mass was excised widely with preservation of the flexor tendon.
Mohie Eldin Fadel; Axel Schulz; Ralph Linker; Jörg Jerosch
Tendinopathy is of distinct interest as it describes a painful tendon disease with local tenderness, swelling and pain associated with sonographic features such as hypoechogenic texture and diameter enlargement. Recent research elucidated microcirculatory changes in tendinopathy using laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry such as at the Achilles tendon, the patellar tendon as well as at the elbow and the wrist
The central third of the patellar tendon of the right knee was removed in 40 adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. The animals were divided into two groups of 20 animals each. In group 1 the tendon defect was left open and in group 2 the tendon defect was closed. The peritenon was closed in all cases. The animals were
Giuseppe Milano; Antonio Gigante; Alfredo Schiavone Panni; Pier Damiano Mulas; Carlo Fabbriciani
Injuries of the peroneus tendons are common and both the athlete and the older population are at risk. MR imaging is a useful technique for revealing injuries of the peroneus tendons as well as showing anatomic factors associated with these lesions. This article reviews clinical factors and MR imaging characteristics of injuries of the peroneus tendons. PMID:11402870
Rademaker, J; Teichgräber, U K; Schröder, R J; Oestmann, J W; Felix, R
The authors present a new non-intrusive experimental procedure based on laser techniques for the measurement of mechanical properties of tendons. The procedure is based on the measurement of the first resonance frequency of the tendon by laser Doppler vibrometry during in vitro tensile experiments, with the final aim of establishing a measurement procedure to perform the mechanical characterization of tendons
Gian Marco Revel; Alessandro Scalise; Lorenzo Scalise
To determine the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis on postoperative mobility in flexor tendon repairs, case notes of 72 flexor tendon injuries in twenty four patients were analyzed retrospectively (2001-2003). Only patients with non-contaminated injuries from sharp instruments in flexor zone 2 were included in the study; 57% were male, average age was 31 years, and 24% were smokers. The majority of injuries were caused by metal blades (45%). Most tendons were repaired with modified Kessler technique (69%). Twenty-five percent received intravenous flucloxacillin or co-amoxiclav perioperatively. Reduced total active motion (TAM, found in 25% of patients more than 7 weeks after surgical repair) significantly complicated patients without perioperative intravenous flucloxacillin cover. The use of intravenous perioperative flucloxacillin is a plausible adjunct in surgery to prevent postoperatively reduced mobility. PMID:18780024
Schumacher, Hagen H A; James, Nick K
Posteromedial ankle complaints are most often caused by a disorder of the posterior tibial tendon. Two predominant groups of patients can be distinguished: the first involves younger patients who have some form of systemic inflammatory disease; the second involves older patients whose dysfunction is caused by chronic overuse. This article illustrates endoscopy of the posterior tibial tendon in a group of patients who had diverse pathology. None of the patients showed postoperative complications. All showed a quick recovery, early mobilization, none or mild postoperative pain, and nice wound healing. Although not all patients were free of complaints, all were satisfied with the intervention itself. Tendoscopy of the poterior tibial tendon offers the advantage of less morbidity, reduction of the postoperative pain, early mobilization, no wound healing problems and outpatient treatment. PMID:16798520
Bulstra, Gythe H; Olsthoorn, Paul G M; Niek van Dijk, C
Fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents have been reported to induce tendon lesions in juvenile rats. In the present study, we characterized fluoroquinolone-induced Achilles tendon lesions by comparing the effects of 10 fluoroquinolones and examining the potential of one of these antimicrobial agents, pefloxacin, to induce tendon lesions when coadministered with one of nine anti-inflammatory compounds. Among the 10 fluoroquinolones tested, fleroxacin and pefloxacin were the most toxic, inducing lesions at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight or more, while lomefloxacin, levofloxacin, and ofloxacin or sparfloxacin and enoxacin induced lesions at 300 mg/kg or more and 900 mg/kg, respectively. In contrast, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and tosufloxacin had no effect even at the high dose of 900 mg/kg. The severity of the Achilles tendon lesions appeared to correlate with the structure of the substituent at the seventh position. Furthermore, pefloxacin-induced tendon lesions were inhibited by coadministration with dexamethasone and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Phenidone (1-phenyl-3-pyrazolidinone) and 2-(12-hydroxydodeca-5,10-diynyl)3,5,6-trimethyl-1,4-benzoqui none (AA861) also decreased the incidence of tendon lesions. In contrast, catalase, dimethyl sulfoxide, indomethacin, pyrilamine, and cimetidine did not modify these tendon lesions. These results suggest that nitric oxide and 5-lipoxigenase products partly mediate fluoroquinolone-induced tendon lesions.
Kashida, Y; Kato, M
Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair and remodeling\\u000a of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs), have recently been identified in tendons. This\\u000a review aims to summarize the current information about the in vitro characteristics of TDSCs, including issues related to TDSC isolation and culture, their cell morphology,
Pauline Po Yee Lui; Kai Ming Chan
Simultaneous rupture of quadriceps tendon with contralateral patellar tendon is very rare. There are only two case reports\\u000a in English literature. We report the case of a healthy 41-year-old female with simultaneous rupture of her left quadriceps\\u000a tendon and right patellar tendon. There were no known precipitating factors for this injury. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation\\u000a achieved satisfactory outcome.
A. Jalgaonkar; A. Rafee; O. Haddo; S. Sarkar
Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears
Richard Kijowski; Michael Tuite; Matthew Sanford
The extensor carpi ulnaris musculotendinous unit has important agonist and antagonist action in wrist motion, including the dart-throwing action, and is a dynamic stabilizer of the distal radioulnar joint during forearm rotation. Despite its functional and clinical importance, little is known about its internal structure. Investigation of the ultrastructure of the human extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon was undertaken using
N. S. Kalson; P. S. C. Malone; R. S. Bradley; P. J. Withers; V. C. Lees
Mallet injuries are the most common closed tendon injury in the athlete. Flexor digitorum profundus ruptures are rare in baseball, but are common injuries in contact sports. The diagnosis for each condition is based on clinical examination, although radiographs should be evaluated for a possible bony component. Treatment for mallet injury depends on the athlete's goals of competition and understanding of the consequences of any treatment chosen. Gripping, throwing, and catching would be restricted or impossible with the injured finger immobilized. Treatment of FDP ruptures is almost always surgical and requires reattachment of the torn tendon to the distal phalanx. PMID:22883898
Yeh, Peter C; Shin, Steven S
Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a considerable cause of morbidity with reduced function following injury. Recent studies have shown little difference in outcome between the techniques of open and non-operative treatment using an early active rehabilitation programme. Meta-analyses have shown that non-operative management has increased risk of re-rupture whereas surgical intervention has risks of complications related to the wound and iatrogenic nerve injury. Minimally invasive surgery has been adopted as a way of reducing infections rates and wound breakdown however avoiding iatrogenic nerve injury must be considered. We discuss the techniques and outcomes of percutaneous and minimally invasive repairs of the Achilles tendon.
Sterility testing is the final, and critical, step in quality control of tissue banking. It informs the decision whether to release the tissue allografts for clinical use, or not. The most common method for sterility testing of structural bone and tendon allografts is to swab using cotton tip streaks. This method provides low recovery efficiency; and therefore may pass allografts with low bioburden, providing false negatives. Our pilot data revealed organism recovery efficiencies of 60, 30 and 100% from cotton swab, membrane filtration and sponge swaps, respectively. Our aim was to develop a high sensitivity sterility test for structural bone and tendon allografts using a sponge sampling method. Eighty-one bone and tendon allograft samples were inoculated with organism suspensions (10(2) or less organisms per 0.1 mL) of Clostridium sporogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus spp. Nasco sponges (4 × 8 cm) were used to aseptically sample the whole surface of allograft samples. The sponges were cut in half and cultured in either tryptone soya or fluid thioglycollate broths for 14 days. Positive culture samples were further examined for microbial morphology. The results showed that the sensitivity of the method, and negative predictive value, is 100% for all inoculated organisms incubated with thioglycollate. We conclude that this sponge sampling method should be applied as the standard for sterility testing of structural bone and tendon allografts. PMID:21603957
Nguyen, Huynh; Morgan, David A F; Cull, Sharon; Benkovich, Morris; Forwood, Mark R
INTRODUCTION Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is a common cause of adult flat foot deformity, and its etiology is unknown. PURPOSE In this study, we characterized the morphologic pattern and distribution of types I, III and V collagen in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. METHOD Tendon samples from patients with and without posterior tibial tendon dysfunction were stained by immunofluorescence using antibodies against types I, III and V collagen. RESULTS Control samples showed that type V deposited near the vessels only, while surgically obtained specimens displayed type V collagen surrounding other types of collagen fibers in thicker adventitial layers. Type III collagen levels were also increased in pathological specimens. On the other hand, amounts of collagen type I, which represents 95% of the total collagen amount in normal tendon, were decreased in pathological specimens. CONCLUSION Fibrillogenesis in posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is altered due to higher expression of types III and V collagen and a decreased amount of collagen type I, which renders the originating fibrils structurally less resistant to mechanical forces.
Satomi, Erika; Teodoro, Walcy R.; Parra, Edwin R.; Fernandes, Tulio D.; Velosa, Ana Paula P.; Capelozzi, Vera Luiza; Yoshinari, Natalino Hajime
Achilles tendon rupture is a serious injury for which the best treatment is still controversial. Its primary goal should be to restore normal length and tension, thus obtaining an optimal function. Tendon elongation correlates significantly with clinical outcome; lengthening is an important cause of morbidity and may produce permanent functional impairment. In this article, we review all factors that may influence the repair, including the type of surgical technique, suture material, and rehabilitation program, among many others.
This study provides a model of the complex deltoid origin and end tendons, as a basis for further anatomical, biomechanical and clinical research. Although the deltoid is used in transpositions with upper limb paralysis, its detailed morphology and segmentation has not been object of much study. Morphologically, the deltoid faces two distinct challenges. It closely envelops a ball joint, and it reduces its width over a short distance from a very wide origin along clavicle, acromion and spina scapula, to an insertion as narrow as the humerus. These challenges necessitate specific morphological tendon adaptations. A qualitative model for these tendons is developed by the stepwise transformation of a unipennate muscle model into a functional deltoid muscle. Each step is the solution to one of the mentioned morphological challenges. The final model is of an end tendon consisting of a continuous succession of bipennate end tendon blades centrally interspaced by unipennate tendon parts. The origin tendon consists of lamellae that interdigitate with the end tendon blades, creating a natural segmentation. The model is illustrated by qualitative dissection results. In addition, in view of a proliferation of terms found in the literature to describe deltoid tendons, tendon concepts are reviewed and the systematic use of the unique and simple terminology of ‘origin and end tendons’ is proposed.
Leijnse, J N A L; Han, S-H; Kwon, Y H
Tissues and organs in vivo are under a hypoxic condition; that is, the oxygen tension is typically much lower than in ambient air. However, the effects of such a hypoxic condition on tendon stem cells, a recently identified tendon cell, remain incompletely defined. In cell culture experiments, we subjected human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) to a hypoxic condition with 5% O2, while subjecting control cells to a normaxic condition with 20% O2. We found that hTSCs at 5% O2 had significantly greater cell proliferation than those at 20% O2. Moreover, the expression of two stem cell marker genes, Nanog and Oct-4, was upregulated in the cells cultured in 5% O2. Finally, in cultures under 5% O2, more hTSCs expressed the stem cell markers nucleostemin, Oct-4, Nanog and SSEA-4. In an in vivo experiment, we found that when both cell groups were implanted with tendon-derived matrix, more tendon-like structures formed in the 5% O2 treated hTSCs than in 20% O2 treated hTSCs. Additionally, when both cell groups were implanted with Matrigel, the 5% O2 treated hTSCs showed more extensive formation of fatty, cartilage-like and bone-like tissues than the 20% O2 treated cells. Together, the findings of this study show that oxygen tension is a niche factor that regulates the stemness of hTSCs, and that less oxygen is better for maintaining hTSCs in culture and expanding them for cell therapy of tendon injuries.
Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H.-C.
A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a) corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b) gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c) causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks.
Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Brown, Emery N.; Herr, Hugh M.
Tissues and organs in vivo are under a hypoxic condition; that is, the oxygen tension is typically much lower than in ambient air. However, the effects of such a hypoxic condition on tendon stem cells, a recently identified tendon cell, remain incompletely defined. In cell culture experiments, we subjected human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) to a hypoxic condition with 5% O2, while subjecting control cells to a normaxic condition with 20% O2. We found that hTSCs at 5% O2 had significantly greater cell proliferation than those at 20% O2. Moreover, the expression of two stem cell marker genes, Nanog and Oct-4, was upregulated in the cells cultured in 5% O2. Finally, in cultures under 5% O2, more hTSCs expressed the stem cell markers nucleostemin, Oct-4, Nanog and SSEA-4. In an in vivo experiment, we found that when both cell groups were implanted with tendon-derived matrix, more tendon-like structures formed in the 5% O2 treated hTSCs than in 20% O2 treated hTSCs. Additionally, when both cell groups were implanted with Matrigel, the 5% O2 treated hTSCs showed more extensive formation of fatty, cartilage-like and bone-like tissues than the 20% O2 treated cells. Together, the findings of this study show that oxygen tension is a niche factor that regulates the stemness of hTSCs, and that less oxygen is better for maintaining hTSCs in culture and expanding them for cell therapy of tendon injuries. PMID:23613849
Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C
The posterior tibial tendon transfer through the interosseous membrane, as popularized by Watkins in 1954, is a procedure for treating reducible eversion and dorsiflexory paresis used by lower extremity foot and ankle surgeons. The posterior tibial tendon has been transferred to various locations on the midfoot for equinus and equinovarus deformities. Dorsiflexory paresis is a common symptom in equinovarus deformity, clubfoot deformity, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, leprosy, mononeuropathy, trauma to the common peroneal nerve, cerebrovascular accident, and Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. The main difficulty with this procedure, often discussed by surgeons, is inadequate tendon length, making anchoring to the cuneiforms or cuboid difficult. The goal of our cadaveric study was threefold. First, we sought to determine whether the tendon length is sufficient when transferring the posterior tibial tendon to the dorsum of the foot through the interosseous membrane for a dynamic or a static transfer. Second, we wished to describe the surgical technique designed to obtain the maximal length. Finally, we sought to discuss the strategies used when the tendon length for transfer is insufficient. PMID:23369302
Pappas, Alexander J; Haffner, Kyle E; Mendicino, Samuel S
We report on 7 cases of partial rupture of the distal biceps tendon. The mean patient age was 52 years (range, 38-58 years). There were 5 men and 2 women. The dominant arm was affected in all 7 patients. Pain was the chief complaint in all patients. Immobilization and physiotherapy were attempted in all patients, and 4 had at least
Dimitris G. Vardakas; Douglas S. Musgrave; Sokratis E. Varitimidis; Felix Goebel; Dean G. Sotereanos
The treatment of pectoralis major tendon ruptures has been the subject of much debate. The classical history of the injury is forced abduction and external rotation. The cases of two patients (an amateur rugby union player and a recreational snowboarder) are reported. The diagnosis was made by clinical examination in both patients, and both were operated on more than two
J F Quinlan; M Molloy; B J Hurson
The need for a consistent therapeutic approach to tendon injury repair is long overdue. Patients with tendon microtears or full ruptures are eligible for a wide range of invasive and non invasive interventions, often subjectively decided by the physician. Surgery produces the best outcomes, and while studies have been conducted to optimize graft constructs and to track outcomes, the data from these studies have been inconclusive on the whole. What has been established is a clear understanding of healthy tendon architecture and the inherent process of healing. With this knowledge, tissue regeneration efforts have achieved immense progress in scaffold design, cell line selection, and, more recently, the appropriate use of cytokines and growth factors. This paper evaluates the plasticity of bone-marrow-derived stem cells and the elasticity of recently developed biomaterials towards tendon regeneration efforts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells, and poly(1,8-octanediol co-citrate) scaffolds (POC) are discussed in the context of established grafting strategies. With POC scaffolds to cradle the growth of MSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells, developing a fibroelastic network guided by cytokines and growth factors may contribute towards consistent graft constructs, enhanced functionality, and better patient outcomes.
Thaker, Hatim; Sharma, Arun K.
KEVLAR is a high strength, high modulus synthetic fiber manufactured by the E.I. DuPont de Nemours Company. The fiber is resistant to chloride and alkali attack. The resistance is enhanced when the fibers are assembled into a resin matrix and fabricated as rods. These properties suggest that KEVLAR reinforced rods may be a substitute for high strength steel prestress tendons
Traumatic dislocation of the peroneal tendons is an often unrecognized injury which has been reported to occur most commonly during snow skiing. The strength of the peroneal retinaculum is exceeded during resist ance to violent passive dorsiflexion or to inversion stress. Pain, swelling, and ecchymosis may hinder early diagnosis; however, intense retromalleolar pain on ac tive eversion is a specific,
Scott R. Arrowsmith; Lamar L. Fleming; Fred L. Allman
To decelerate the body and limbs, muscles lengthen actively to dissipate energy. During rapid energy-dissipating events, tendons buffer the work done on muscle by storing elastic energy temporarily, then releasing this energy to do work on the muscle. This elastic mechanism may reduce the risk of muscle damage by reducing peak forces and lengthening rates of active muscle. PMID:23873133
Roberts, Thomas J; Konow, Nicolai
The tail tendons from wallabies ( Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep rupture at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to- rupture decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on
XIAO TONG WANG; ROBERT F. KER
Background Tendons function to transmit loads from muscle to move and stabilize joints and absorb impacts. Functionality of lacerated tendons is diminished, however clinical practice often considers surgical repair only after 50% or more of the tendon is lacerated, the “50% rule.” Few studies provide mechanical insight into the “50% rule.” Method of Approach In this study cyclic and static stress relaxation tests were performed on porcine flexor tendons before and after a 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, or 2.75mm deep transverse, mid-substance laceration. Elastic and viscoelastic properties, such as maximum stress, change in stress throughout each test, and stiffness, were measured and compared pre- and post-laceration. Results Nominal stress and stiffness parameters decreased, albeit disproportionately in magnitude, with increasing percent loss of cross-sectional area. Conversely, mean stress at the residual area (determined using remaining intact area at the laceration cross-section) exhibited a marked increase in stress concentration beginning at 47.2% laceration using both specified load and constant strain analyses. Conclusions The marked increase in stress concentration beginning near 50% laceration provides mechanical insight into the “50% rule.” Additionally, a drastic decrease in viscoelastic stress parameters after only an 8.2% laceration suggests that time-dependent mechanisms protecting tissues during impact loadings are highly compromised regardless of laceration size.
Kondratko, Jaclyn; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray
Open incision of the patellar tendon (PT) is thought to promote acute vascular responses which ultimately result in an enhanced degree of tendon repair. Such a clinical procedure is commonly applied to patients with refractory tendinitis. The objective of this study was to quantify the vascular adaptations (both anatomical and physiological) to longitudinal incision of the PT, and the resultant effects on tendon organisation. Fifty-four New Zealand White rabbits were separated into 3 experimental groups and 2 control groups. Experimental groups underwent surgical incision of the right PT, and were assessed 3 d, 10 d and 42 d following injury; normal unoperated controls were evaluated at time zero, and sham-operated controls were evaluated at 3 d to control for the effects of incising the overlying skin. Quantitative measures of PT blood supply (blood flow, microvascular volume) and geometric properties of PT substance were obtained for each PT. Histomorphology was assessed to evaluate vascular remodelling and matrix organisation in the healing PT. Longitudinal open incision surgery of the PT led to rapid increases in both blood flow and vascular volume. The incision of overlying tissues alone (sham-operated) contributed to this measurable increase, and accounted for 36% and 42% of the elevated blood flow and vascular volume respectively at the 3 d interval. In the incised PT, blood flow significantly increased by 3 d compared with both time zero and sham-operated controls, and remained significantly elevated at the 10 d interval. Similarly, vascular volume of the incised PT increased at 3 d compared both with time zero and sham-operated controls. At the 10 d interval, the increase in vascular volume was greatest in the central PT substance. By 42 d both blood flow and vascular volume of the incised tendon had diminished, with only blood flow remaining significantly different from controls. In the contralateral limb, a significant neurogenically mediated vasodilation was measured in the contralateral PTs at both early time intervals, but was not seen by the later 42 d interval. With respect to PT geometric properties in the experimental animals, a larger PT results as the tendon matrix and blood vessels remodel. PT cross-sectional area increased rapidly by 3 d to 1·3 times control values, and remained significantly elevated at 42 d postinjury. Morphological assessments demonstrated the disruption of matrix organisation by vascular and soft tissue components associated with the longitudinal incisions. Substantial changes in matrix organisation persisted at 42 d after surgery. These findings suggest that open longitudinal incision of the PT increases the vascular supply to deep tendon early after injury. These changes probably arise through both vasomotor and angiogenic activity in the tissue. Since PT blood flow and vascular volume return towards control levels after 6 wk but structural features remain disorganised, we propose that vascular remodelling is more rapid and complete than matrix remodelling after surgical incision of the PT.
DOSCHAK, M. R.; MATYAS, J. R.; HART, D. A.; BRAY, R. C.
The flexor hallucis longus is the most common site of lower extremity tendon disorders in ballet dancers. Reduced vascularity is an important factor contributing to tendon degeneration and rupture under strain. A study was conducted on the vascular pattern of the human flexor hallucis longus tendon with injection techniques and immunohistochemically by using antibodies against laminin. Blood supply arose from the posterior tibial and the medial plantar artery. Peritendinous blood vessels penetrated the tendon and anastomosed with a longitudinally oriented intratendinous network. Injection specimens and immunohistochemistry revealed one avascular zone in which the tendon passed behind the talus and a second in which the tendon wrapped around the first metatarsal head. These are the most typical areas for tendon degeneration and rupture. PMID:12956563
Petersen, Wolf; Pufe, Thomas; Zantop, Thore; Paulsen, Friedrich
Collagens V and XI comprise a single regulatory type of fibril-forming collagen with multiple isoforms. Both co-assemble with collagen I or II to form heterotypic fibrils and have been implicated in regulation of fibril assembly. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of collagens V and XI in the regulation of tendon fibrillogenesis. Flexor digitorum longus tendons from a haplo-insufficient collagen V mouse model of classic Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS) had decreased biomechanical stiffness compared with controls consistent with joint laxity in EDS patients. However, fibril structure was relatively normal, an unexpected finding given the altered fibrils observed in dermis and cornea from this model. This suggested roles for other related molecules, i.e. collagen XI, and compound Col5a1(+/-),Col11a1(+/-) tendons had altered fibril structures, supporting a role for collagen XI. To further evaluate this, transcript expression was analyzed in wild type tendons. During development (E18-P10) both collagen V and XI were comparably expressed; however, collagen V predominated in mature (P30) tendons. The collagens had a similar expression pattern. Tendons with altered collagen V and/or XI expression (Col5a1(+/-); Col11a1(+/-); Col5a1(+/-),Col11a1(+/-); Col11a1(-/-); Col5a1(+/-),Col11a1(-/-)) were analyzed at E18. All genotypes demonstrated a reduced fibril number and altered structure. This phenotype was more severe with a reduction in collagen XI. However, the absence of collagen XI with a reduction in collagen V was associated with the most severe fibril phenotype. The data demonstrate coordinate roles for collagens V and XI in the regulation of fibril nucleation and assembly during tendon development. PMID:21467034
Wenstrup, Richard J; Smith, Simone M; Florer, Jane B; Zhang, Guiyun; Beason, David P; Seegmiller, Robert E; Soslowsky, Louis J; Birk, David E
Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffolding materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. An ideal tendon tissue engineered scaffold should mimic the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) of the native tendon. Here, we propose a novel electrospun nanoyarn network that is morphologically and structurally similar to the ECM of native tendon tissues. The nanoyarn, random nanofiber, and aligned nanofiber scaffolds of a synthetic biodegradable polymer, poly(l-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) [P(LLA-CL)], and natural collagen I complex were fabricated using electrospinning. These scaffolds were characterized in terms of fiber morphology, pore size, porosity, and chemical and mechanical properties for the purpose of culturing tendon cells (TCs) for tendon tissue engineering. The results indicated a fiber diameter of 632±81?nm for the random nanofiber scaffold, 643±97?nm for the aligned nanofiber scaffold, and 641±68?nm for the nanoyarn scaffold. The yarn in the nanoyarn scaffold was twisted by many nanofibers similar to the structure and inherent nanoscale organization of tendons, indicating an increase in the diameter of 9.51±3.62??m. The nanoyarn scaffold also contained 3D aligned microstructures with large interconnected pores and high porosity. Fourier transform infrared analyses revealed the presence of collagen in the three scaffolds. The mechanical properties of the sample scaffolds indicated that the scaffolds had desirable mechanical properties for tissue regeneration. Further, the results revealed that TC proliferation and infiltration, and the expression of tendon-related ECM genes, were significantly enhanced on the nanoyarn scaffold compared with that on the random nanofiber and aligned nanofiber scaffolds. This study demonstrates that electrospun P(LLA-CL)/collagen nanoyarn is a novel, 3D, macroporous, aligned scaffold that has potential application in tendon tissue engineering. PMID:23557537
Xu, Yuan; Wu, Jinglei; Wang, Haoming; Li, Hanqin; Di, Ning; Song, Lei; Li, Sontao; Li, Dianwei; Xiang, Yang; Liu, Wei; Mo, Xiumei; Zhou, Qiang
Researchers have provided much insight into the various factors that influence the incidence of musculoskeletal problems in the poultry industry. However, a better understanding of the mechanobiology of broiler bone and tendon can have a positive effect on the welfare of the production bird and assist in the development of improved production practices. This study investigated the mechanical adaptability responses due to disuse on the biomechanical properties of the broiler tibia and gastrocnemius tendon. Beginning at 3 wk of age, broilers were placed in a harness system designed to eliminate load bearing of the leg. After 2 wk of this treatment, the average values for body mass and shank length of the birds were 58 and 85% of the values for the controls, respectively. The treatment reduced the mineral content of the tibia by approximately 50%, tibia structural strength by 40%, and tibia material strength by 8%. The structural strength and toughness of the gastrocnemius tendon were reduced by 10 and 30%, respectively, whereas the material strength, material toughness, and material stiffness of the tendon increased by approximately 75, 65, and 70%, respectively. PMID:17435028
Foutz, T; Ratterman, A; Halper, J
OBJECTIVES--To analyse the glycosaminoglycans of the adult human rotator cuff tendon matrix, to characterise changes in the glycosaminoglycan composition with age and in chronic rotator cuff tendinitis. METHODS--Rotator cuff (supraspinatus) tendons (n = 84) and common biceps tendons (n = 26) were obtained from cadavers with no history of tendon pathology (age range 11-95 years). Biopsies of rotator cuff tendons
G P Riley; R L Harrall; C R Constant; M D Chard; T E Cawston; B L Hazleman
The profundus tendons of young adult chickens have been used to study flexor tendon healing within the digital sheath. Histological observation has shown that the preserved digital sheath prevented the tendon healing with adhesions and that the epitendon played a leading role in the process of tendon repair. Muscle tension must be removed from the sutured site for tendon repair
Yukuo Tokita; Akio Yamaya; Yoshiyasu Ito; Toshiyuki Fukuoka; Kenichiro Uchinishi; Yutaka Yabe
The orientation dependence of the free induction decay (FID) of 1H NMR water signal in ex vivo bovine digital flexor tendon at the native level of hydration is reported. Residual dipolar coupling due to the overall tissue anisotropy produces a 6:1 change in the signal intensity as an angle between the long axis of a specimen and the external magnetic field is changed from the "magic angle" of 54.7 degrees to 0 degrees. The strength of residual dipolar interactions between water protons was estimated by orientational analysis of the signal intensity to be equal to 780 Hz. Apparent signal maxima are observed at orientations 8-13 degrees away from 54.7 degrees due to an inhomogeneous contribution to the decay. A small fraction of total water in tendon is detectable at all orientations and exhibits a shift in the precession frequency. It is hypothesized that this water fraction resides in the interconnecting gaps at the ends of collagen molecules. The gaps have a disordered environment that allows for a zero time average of dipolar interactions. Measured frequency and phase shifts are interpreted as signatures of the bulk magnetic susceptibility effect due to geometry of the cavity formed by adjacent gaps at the ends of the collagen molecules. The multiexponentiality of the FID decay is hypothesized to be due to the exchange between orientationally restricted water structured along the length of the collagen molecule and disordered water in the cavity. PMID:16032660
Krasnosselskaia, Lada V; Fullerton, Gary D; Dodd, Stephen J; Cameron, Ivan L
The molecules involved in vertebrate tendon formation during development remain largely unknown. To date, only two DNA-binding proteins have been identified as being involved in vertebrate tendon formation, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Scleraxis and, recently, the Mohawk homeobox gene. We investigated the involvement of the early growth response transcription factors Egr1 and Egr2 in vertebrate tendon formation. We established that Egr1 and Egr2 expression in tendon cells was correlated with the increase of collagen expression during tendon cell differentiation in embryonic limbs. Vertebrate tendon differentiation relies on a muscle-derived FGF (fibroblast growth factor) signal. FGF4 was able to activate the expression of Egr genes and that of the tendon-associated collagens in chick limbs. Egr gene misexpression experiments using the chick model allowed us to establish that either Egr gene has the ability to induce de novo expression of the reference tendon marker scleraxis, the main tendon collagen Col1a1, and other tendon-associated collagens Col3a1, Col5a1, Col12a1, and Col14a1. Mouse mutants for Egr1 or Egr2 displayed reduced amounts of Col1a1 transcripts and a decrease in the number of collagen fibrils in embryonic tendons. Moreover, EGR1 and EGR2 trans-activated the mouse Col1a1 proximal promoter and were recruited to the tendon regulatory regions of this promoter. These results identify EGRs as novel DNA-binding proteins involved in vertebrate tendon differentiation by regulating type I collagen production.
Lejard, Veronique; Blais, Frederic; Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Bonnet, Aline; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Havis, Emmanuelle; Malbouyres, Maryline; Bidaud, Christelle Bonod; Maro, Geraldine; Gilardi-Hebenstreit, Pascale; Rossert, Jerome; Ruggiero, Florence; Duprez, Delphine
The molecules involved in vertebrate tendon formation during development remain largely unknown. To date, only two DNA-binding proteins have been identified as being involved in vertebrate tendon formation, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Scleraxis and, recently, the Mohawk homeobox gene. We investigated the involvement of the early growth response transcription factors Egr1 and Egr2 in vertebrate tendon formation. We established that Egr1 and Egr2 expression in tendon cells was correlated with the increase of collagen expression during tendon cell differentiation in embryonic limbs. Vertebrate tendon differentiation relies on a muscle-derived FGF (fibroblast growth factor) signal. FGF4 was able to activate the expression of Egr genes and that of the tendon-associated collagens in chick limbs. Egr gene misexpression experiments using the chick model allowed us to establish that either Egr gene has the ability to induce de novo expression of the reference tendon marker scleraxis, the main tendon collagen Col1a1, and other tendon-associated collagens Col3a1, Col5a1, Col12a1, and Col14a1. Mouse mutants for Egr1 or Egr2 displayed reduced amounts of Col1a1 transcripts and a decrease in the number of collagen fibrils in embryonic tendons. Moreover, EGR1 and EGR2 trans-activated the mouse Col1a1 proximal promoter and were recruited to the tendon regulatory regions of this promoter. These results identify EGRs as novel DNA-binding proteins involved in vertebrate tendon differentiation by regulating type I collagen production. PMID:21173153
Lejard, Véronique; Blais, Frédéric; Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Bonnet, Aline; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Havis, Emmanuelle; Malbouyres, Maryline; Bidaud, Christelle Bonod; Maro, Géraldine; Gilardi-Hebenstreit, Pascale; Rossert, Jérome; Ruggiero, Florence; Duprez, Delphine
Ligaments and tendons have a significant role in the musculoskeletal system and are frequently subjected to injury. This study presents a model of collagen fibers, based on the study of a statistical distribution of fibers when they are subjected to quasistatic linear stretching. With respect to other methodologies, this model is able to describe the behavior of the bundle using less ad hoc hypotheses and is able to describe all the quasistatic stretch-load responses of the bundle, including the yield and failure regions described in the literature. It has two other important results: the first is that it is able to correlate the mechanical behavior of the bundle with its internal structure, and it suggests a methodology to deduce the fibers population distribution directly from the tensile-test data. The second is that it can follow fibers’ structure evolution during the stretching and it is possible to study the internal adaptation of fibers in physiological and pathological conditions.
Purpose To investigate the usefulness of the “inducer grafting” technique for regeneration of the semitendinosus (ST) tendon after its harvest for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods Twenty knees of 20 patients (mean age at the time of surgery, 23.1?years) underwent ACL reconstruction with a double bundle autograft using the ST tendon (7 patients) and the ST + the gracilis (G) tendons (13 patients). “Inducer grafting” technique After harvesting the ST tendon, a passing pin with a loop thread is inserted along with the tendon stripper. The passing pin is pulled out from the medial thigh and the loop thread retained. As an inducer graft, the ST tendon branch is used. After the ACL graft has been secured, the inducer graft is sutured to the pes anserinus and the proximal end passed through by pulling the thread out. Then the inducer graft is placed within the tendon canal. The mean follow-up period was 15?months. The presence and morphology of the regenerated ST tendon were examined by MRI. And the isometric hamstring strength was examined at 45°, 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Results One month after the operation in all the patients, MRI demonstrated a low-intensity structure at the anatomical location of the ST, at the level of the superior pole of the patella and the joint line, apparently representing the regenerated ST tendon. Four months after the operation, the distal portion of the regenerated ST tendon had reached the pes anserinus in all patients. Twelve months after the operation, the regenerated ST tendon was hypertrophic in 19 of the 20 patients (95%). The isometric knee flexion torque of the ACL-reconstructed limb was significantly lower at 90° and 120° compared with the contralateral limb. Conclusion These results suggest that the “inducer grafting” technique is able to improve the regeneration rate of the harvested ST tendon and promote hypertrophy of the regenerated ST tendon, extending all the way to the pes anserinus. However, this technique couldn’t improve the deficits in knee flexion torque after ACL reconstruction.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between foot type and the morphometry of selected muscles and tendons of the lower limb. Sixty-one healthy participants (31 male, 30 female; aged 27.1?±?8.8 years) underwent gray-scale musculoskeletal ultrasound examination to determine the anterior-posterior (AP) thickness of tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, and peroneus longus muscles and tendons as well as the Achilles tendon. Foot type was classified based on arch height and footprint measurements. Potentially confounding variables (height, weight, hip and waist circumference, rearfoot and ankle joint range of motion, and levels of physical activity) were also measured. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association between foot type with muscle and tendon morphometry accounting for potentially confounding variables. Foot type was significantly and independently associated with AP thickness of the tibialis anterior tendon, peroneus longus muscle, and Achilles tendon, accounting for approximately 7% to 16% of the variation. Flat-arched feet were associated with a thicker tibialis anterior tendon, a thicker peroneus longus muscle, and a thinner Achilles tendon. Foot type is associated with morphometry of tendons that control sagittal plane motion of the rearfoot; and the peroneus longus muscle that controls frontal plane motion of the rearfoot. These findings may be related to differences in tendon loading during gait. PMID:23301865
Murley, G S; Tan, J M; Edwards, R M; De Luca, J; Munteanu, S E; Cook, J L
Background: Donor muscles are often highly stretched in tendon transfer surgery. Despite literature reports that showed adaptation of the serial sarcomere number to moderate stretch, little is known regarding adaptation to stretch outside of the physiological range (commonly seen in clinical tendon transfer). This study was performed to evaluate muscle-tendon-unit adaptation to tendon transfer surgery in an animal model. Methods: Thirty-seven male New Zealand White rabbits were used for muscle analysis, and twenty-five of those rabbits were also used for biological analysis of the tendons after the experiment. The extensor digitorum muscle of the second toe was transferred at a specific sarcomere length of 3.7 ?m, chosen to be near the end of the descending limb of the rabbit sarcomere length-tension curve. Animals were killed at five time points, at which complete muscle architectural analysis as well as measurements of tendon dimension, tendon water content, and tendon cytokine transcript levels were performed. Results: As expected, a rapid increase in the serial sarcomere number (mean and standard error of the mean, 4658 ± 154 in the transferred muscle compared with 3609 ± 80 in the control muscle) was found one week after the surgery. From this time point until eight weeks, this increased serial sarcomere number paradoxically decreased, while the sarcomere length remained constant. Eventually, at eight weeks, it reached the same value (3749 ± 83) as that in the control muscle (3767 ± 61). Tendon adaptation was delayed relative to muscle adaptation, but it was no less dramatic. Tendon length increased by 1.43 ± 0.74 mm over the eight-week time period, corresponding to a strain of 15.55% ± 4.08%. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of biphasic adaptation of the serial sarcomere number followed by tendon adaptation, and it indicates that muscle adapts more quickly than tendon does. Taken together, these results illustrate a complex and unique interaction between muscles and tendons that occurs during adaptation to stretching during tendon transfer. Clinical Relevance: Understanding the time course of muscle-tendon-unit adaptation can provide surgeons with information to guide postoperative care following tendon transfers as well as guidelines for tensioning muscles during tendon transfer.
Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Ward, Samuel R.; Marchuk, Linda L.; Frank, Cyril B.; Lieber, Richard L.
Background Among the various complications described in literature, the patellar tendon ossification is an uncommon occurrence in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone – patellar tendon – bone graft (BPTB). The heterotopic ossification is linked to knee traumatism, intramedullary nailing of the tibia and after partial patellectomy, but only two cases of this event linked to ACL surgery have been reported in literature. Case presentation We present a case of a 42-year-old Caucasian man affected by symptomatic extended heterotopic ossification of patellar tendon after 20 months from ACL reconstruction using BPTB. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by Ultrasound, X-Ray and Computed Tomography studies, blood tests were performed to exclude metabolic diseases then the surgical removal of the lesion was performed. After three years from surgery, the patient did not report femoro-patellar pain, there was not range of motion limitation and the clinical-radiological examinations resulted negative. Conclusion The surgical removal of the ossifications followed by anti-inflammatory therapy, seems to be useful in order to relieve pain and to prevent relapses. Moreover, a thorough cleaning of the patellar tendon may reveal useful, in order to prevent bone fragments remain inside it and to reduce patellar tendon heterotopic ossification risk.
Tendinopathy of the long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon commonly occurs in patients with rotator cuff tears, and the inflammation of one head tends to lead to inflammation of the other. Many theories have been proposed regarding the function of the LHB tendon; however, its exact purpose is poorly understood. It has been described as an important stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint, a depressor of the humeral head, and as a vestigial structure. The LHB tendon can be a significant source of pain in patients with rotator cuff tears. The appropriate treatment depends on the patient's age, comorbidities, activity level, extent of disability, the presence of rotator cuff arthropathy, and the quality of the rotator cuff tissue. Conservative treatment is usually attempted first, with modalities such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injections, physical therapy, and activity modification. If symptoms persist, biceps tenotomy or tenodesis may be combined with rotator cuff repair, depending on the quality of the rotator cuff tissue, the severity of rotator cuff arthropathy, and the willingness of the patient to comply with postoperative immobilization and rehabilitation. Even when rotator cuff repair is not possible, isolated tenotomy or tenodesis of the LHB tendon can provide substantial pain relief. PMID:22301226
Pill, Stephan G; Walch, Gilles; Hawkins, Richard J; Kissenberth, Michael J
Musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries are very common, yet poorly understood. We investigated molecular-level changes in collagen caused by tensile overload of bovine tail tendons in vitro. Previous investigators concluded that tensile tendon rupture resulted in collagen denaturation, but our study suggests otherwise. Based on contemporary collagen biophysics, we hypothesized that tensile overload would lead to reduced thermal stability without change in the nativity of the molecular conformation. The thermal behavior of collagen from tail tendons ruptured in vitro at two strain rates (0.01 s(-1) and 10 s(-1)) was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The 1,000-fold difference in strain rate was used since molecular mechanisms that determine mechanical behavior are thought to be strain rate-dependent. DSC revealed that the collagen in tensile overloaded tendons was less thermally stable by 3 degrees to 5 degrees C relative to undamaged controls and was not denatured since there was no change in enthalpy of denaturation. The decrease in thermal stability occurred throughout the overloaded regions, independent of rupture site, and was greater in specimens ruptured at the lower strain rate. The deformation mechanism apparently involves disruption of the lattice structure of the collagen fibrils and greatly increases the molecular freedom of the collagen molecules, leading to reduced thermal molecular stability and the previously reported increased proteolysis. This has important implications for understanding soft tissue injuries, disease etiology and treatment, and for developing tissue engineered products with improved durability. PMID:18524005
Willett, Thomas L; Labow, Rosalind S; Lee, J Michael
We report here a biochemical comparison between type 1 rat tail tendon collagen and collagen isolated from sea urchin peristome tissue. The sea urchin collagen consisted of two species of apparent mol masses, 140 and 116 kDa. Amino acid compositional analysis of the 140 and 116 kDa species revealed the presence of hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine as well as a glycine content of 28.1 mol.%. In solubility experiments the rat tail tendon collagen was found to precipitate at sodium chloride concentrations between 1 and 2 M while peristome collagen remained soluble at salt concentrations as high as 4 M. Incubation of the peristome and rat tail tendon collagen preparations with a sea urchin collagenase/gelatinase resulted in cleavage of the former but not the latter collagen. Upon heat denaturation at 60 degrees C, however, the rat tail tendon collagen served as a substrate for the gelatinase. Cyanogen bromide cleavage of rat tail and peristome collagens generated largely unique peptide maps. Collectively, these results suggest that structural differences exist between echinoderm and vertebrate type 1 collagens. PMID:9226889
Robinson, J J
Tendon functionality is related to its mechanical properties. Tendon damage leads to a reduction in mechanical strength and altered biomechanical behavior, and therefore leads to compromised ability to carry out normal functions such as joint movement and stabilization. Damage can also accumulate in the tissue and lead to failure. A noninvasive method with which to measure such damage potentially could quantify structural compromise from tendon injury and track improvement over time. In this study, tendon mechanics are measured before and after damage is induced by “overstretch” (strain exceeding the elastic limit of the tissue) using a traditional mechanical test system while ultrasonic echo intensity (average gray scale brightness in a B-mode image) is recorded using clinical ultrasound. The diffuse damage caused by overstretch lowered the stress at a given strain in the tissue and decreased viscoelastic response. Overstretch also lowered echo intensity changes during stress relaxation and cyclic testing. As the input strain during overstretch increased, stress levels and echo intensity changes decreased. Also, viscoelastic parameters and time-dependent echo intensity changes were reduced.
Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray
Extensor mechanism injuries constitute a major cause of anterior knee pain in the elite athlete. Sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the imaging methods of choice when assessing the infrapatellar tendon. A comprehensive imaging review of infrapatellar tendon normal anatomy, tendinopathy, and partial/full-thickness tendon tears is provided. The value of imaging the infrapatellar tendon in clinical practice, including whether sonography can predict symptoms in asymptomatic athletes, is discussed. Acute avulsion fractures, including periosteal sleeve avulsion, and chronic avulsion injuries, including Sinding-Larsen-Johansson and Osgood-Schlatter syndromes, are shown. Mimics of infrapatellar tendon pathology, including infrapatellar plica injury, patellar tendon-lateral femoral condyle friction syndrome, and Hoffa's syndrome, are illustrated. PMID:16784942
Peace, K A L; Lee, J C; Healy, J
Certain similarities can clearly be appreciated between Achilles and patellar tendon ruptures. Both are strong tendons that transmit force bridging at least one joint of the lower limb. When healthy, both require massive forces to be disrupted, and both can be weakened through certain systemic disease processes, steroids, and fluoroquinones. Both allow for a variety of innovative management possibilities that ultimately lend themselves to individual surgical preference. We feel that, although surgical management plays an important role in restoring continuity in knee extension and in plantar flexion, functional outcome inevitably relies on patient motivation and a well-established physiotherapy regime. Sports physicians should be able to identify both conditions early in their presentation, but still hold a high index of suspicion for these problems in athletes who have an acute exacerbation of ongoing tendinopathy. PMID:14560546
Maffulli, Nicola; Wong, Jason
During the period 1987-91, 153 cases of total Achilles tendon rupture were diagnosed in the city of Malmo (population 230,000). Almost two thirds were caused by sporting activities, notably badminton. Ruptures caused by nonsports injuries were found in older subjects. Compared to the age-specific incidence in 1950-73, a marked increase in both sports and nonsports injuries was found and patients in the latter group were older than in the former period. Patients with Achilles tendon ruptures can be classified into two subgroups with partly different etiologies: young or middle-aged athletes and older non-athletic persons. The increase in the former group is mostly explained by increased participation in recreational sports; the cause of increase in the latter group is unknown. PMID:8948254
Möller, A; Astron, M; Westlin, N
Wallaby tail tendons fail after repeated application of stresses much lower than would be needed to break them in a single pull. We show that this a fatigue phenomenon, distinct from the creep rupture that occurs after prolonged application of a constant stress. The two phenomena are disctinguished by experiments in which tensile stress is cycled at different frequencies, ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. PMID:9244805
Wang, X T; Ker, R F; Alexander, R M
The surface of soft tendon tissue has been modified using calcium phosphate in order for the tendon to directly connect with hard bone and reconstruct an injured ligament. Calcium phosphate was coated onto the tendon in a soaking process using alternating a CaCl2 (200 mM) and a Na2HPO4 (120 mM) solution. According to SEM\\/EDX observations, calcium phosphate was formed, not
I. Yamaguchi; T. Kogure; M. Sakane; S. Tanaka; A. Osaka; J. Tanaka
De Zee, M., F. Bojsen-Møller, and M. Voigt. Dynamic viscoelastic behavior of lower extremity tendons during sim- ulated running. J Appl Physiol 89: 1352-1359, 2000.—The aim of this project was to see whether the tendon would show creep during long-term dynamic loading (here referred to as dynamic creep). Pig tendons were loaded by a material- testing machine with a human
M. DE ZEE; F. BOJSEN-MØLLER; M. VOIGT
Moment arm, muscle architecture, and tendon compliance in cadaveric human forearms were determined and used to model the wrist torque-joint angle relation (i.e. wrist torque profile). Instantaneous moment arms were calculated by differentiating tendon excursion with respect to joint rotation. Maximum isometric tension of each wrist muscle-tendon unit was predicted based on muscle physiological cross-sectional area. Muscle forces were subsequently
G. J. Loren; S. D. Shoemaker; T. J. Burkholder; M. D. Jacobson; J. Fridén; R. L. Lieber
Spontaneous bilateral rupture of Achilles tendon is rare. Rupture of the Achilles tendon has been described in patients on oral corticosteroid therapy. The sudden dorsiflexion of the plantar-flexed foot is the usual mechanism of injury. Spontaneous bilateral rupture is common in the degenerated tendon, which is often seen in patients with long-term corticosteroid therapy. This case is unusual because the patient has never taken steroids. We discuss the mechanism of injury and other probable causes. PMID:16131683
Rao, S K; Navadgi, B C; Vasdev, A
Background: The 1-incision and 2-incision techniques are commonly used methods to repair a distal biceps rupture, and they differ in the location of reinsertion of tendon into bone.Hypothesis: The native distal biceps brachii tendon inserts on the posterior-ulnar aspect of the bicipital tuberosity, which functions as a cam, increasing the tendon's moment arm during its principal action of forearm supination.
Jon Henry; Jeff Feinblatt; Christopher C. Kaeding; James Latshaw; Alan Litsky; Roman Sibel; Julie A. Stephens; Grant L. Jones
A coupling mechanism that can permanently fix a forcefully contracting muscle to a bone anchor or any totally inert prosthesis would meet a serious need in orthopaedics. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to satisfy these demands. The objective of this study was to test OrthoCoupler’s performance in vitro and in vivo in the goat semitendinosus tendon model. For in vitro evaluation, 40 samples were fatigue-tested, cycling at 10 load levels, n=4 each. For in vivo evaluation, the semitendinosus tendon was removed bilaterally in 8 goats. Left sides were reattached with an OrthoCoupler, and right sides were reattached using the Krackow stitch with #5 braided polyester sutures. Specimens were harvested 60 days post-surgery and assigned for biomechanics and histology. Fatigue strength of the devices in vitro was several times the contractile force of the semitendinosus muscle. The in vivo devices were built equivalent to two of the in vitro devices, providing an additional safety factor. In strength testing at necropsy, suture controls pulled out at 120.5 ± 68.3 N, whereas each OrthoCoupler was still holding after the muscle tore, remotely, at 298±111.3N (mean ± SD)(p<0.0003). Muscle tear strength was reached with the fiber-muscle composite produced in healing still soundly intact. This technology may be of value for orthopaedic challenges in oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and sports-injury reconstruction.
Melvin, Alan; Litsky, Alan; Mayerson, Joel; Witte, David; Melvin, David; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia
Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis (RCT) is an uncommon, self-limiting condition that is often omitted in the differential diagnosis of a retropharyngeal fluid collection. This condition mimics a retropharyngeal abscess and should be considered when evaluating a fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space. Although calcific tendonitis at other sites has been well described in the medical literature, it appears that this entity has been underreported in the otolaryngology literature where only a few case reports have been identified. Presumably, the actual incidence is higher than the reported incidence, due to lack of familiarity with this disorder. As an otolaryngologist's scope of practice includes the managements of retropharyngeal lesions, it is important for the otolaryngologist to recognize the presentation of acute RCT and be familiar with appropriate treatment strategies. Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis presents with neck pain, limitation of neck range of motion and includes inflammation, calcifications, and a sterile effusion within the longus colli muscle. Treatment is medical with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. RCT does not require surgical treatment, and an accurate diagnosis can prevent unnecessary attempts at operative drainage. In this study, we discuss two cases of RCT, summarize the salient features in diagnosis, including key radiologic features, discuss treatment options, and review the literature.
Surgical repair is the most reliable method of restoring flexion and supination strength of the elbow and forearm after acute rupture of the distal biceps tendon. Although there may be small measurable deficits in power, endurance, and terminal forearm rotation when carefully evaluated, most of the patients regain near normal upper extremity motion and function and can return to preinjury activities. There are currently 2 basic surgical approaches for distal biceps tendon repair, using 1 anterior incision or using 1 anterior and 1 lateral incision. Anterior repair alone has the advantage of a minimal risk of heterotopic bone formation, but carries a greater chance of injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. In turn, the 2-incision technique markedly diminishes the risk of radial nerve palsy, but is associated with a greater likelihood of heterotopic bone formation limiting forearm rotation. Rerupture of the distal biceps tendon after repair is uncommon with either technique, and the risk of all complications seems to increase with a delay in surgical intervention after rupture. When motion limiting heterotopic ossification does occur, surgical resection can proceed when the process becomes mature as defined by plain radiographs. Fortunately, functional forearm motion can be commonly restored in these cases with careful attention to surgical details and postoperative rehabilitation. PMID:18703974
Cohen, Mark S
This study aims to verify the effects of AsGa Laser in the scarring of tendon lesion in rats with low nourishment condition and to analyze the ideal light density by means of histopathologic findings highlighted by light microscopy. After the proposed nutritional condition was verified the animals were divided into 3 groups denominated as follows: GI control group, GII laser 1 J/sq.cm. and GIII laser 4 J/sq.cm. The lesions were induced by means of routine surgical process for tendon exposure: There was a crushing process with Allis pincers followed by saturated incision. The data obtained in relation to the amount of macrophage, leukocyte, fibroblast, vessel neoformation, fibrosis and collagen were submitted to parametric statistic procedures of variance analysis and "Tukey" Test and the result obtained was p < 0,05. According to the obtained results it can be concluded that low power laser therapy proved to be efficient in tendon repairing even though the animals suffered from malnutrition as well as the 1 J energy density proved to be more efficient in this case.
Carvalho, P. T. C.; Batista, Cheila O. C.; Fabíola, C.
The tail tendons from wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) suffer creep rupture at stresses of 10 MPa or above, whereas their yield stress in a dynamic test is about 144 MPa. At stresses between 20 and 80 MPa, the time-to-rupture decreases exponentially with stress, but at 10 MPa, the lifetime is well above this exponential. For comparison, the stress on a wallaby tail tendon, when its muscle contracts isometrically, is about 13.5 MPa. Creep lifetime depends sharply on temperature and on specimen length, in contrast to strength and stiffness as observed in dynamic tests. The creep curve (strain versus time) can be considered as a combination of primary creep (decelerating strain) and tertiary creep (accelerating strain). Primary creep is non-damaging, but tertiary creep is accompanied by accumulating damage, with loss of stiffness and strength. 'Damage' is quantitatively defined as the fractional loss of stiffness. A creep theory is developed in which the whole of tertiary creep and, in particular, the creep lifetime are predicted from measurements made at the onset of creep, when the tendon is undamaged. This theory is based on a 'damage hypothesis', which can be stated as: damaged material no longer contributes to stiffness and strength, whereas intact material makes its full contribution to both. PMID:9244804
Wang, X T; Ker, R F
Several techniques are available for the correction of hallux abducto valgus, but none of them provide a direct and mechanically sound attachment to the lateral aspect of the first metatarsal head. The author describes adductor hallucis tendon ligamentation, a technique that produces direct stability between the first and second metatarsals. This stability is achieved by transferring the adductor hallucis tendon. The tendon is attached to the distal aspects of the first and second metatarsals. Adductor hallucis tendon ligamentation is a dependable option in the correction of hallux abducto valgus, providing an excellent outcome with good long-term results. PMID:12381801
Shrum, Dale G
Abstract Ultrasound imaging was used to measure the length of muscle fascicles in human gastrocnemius muscles while the muscle was passively lengthened and shortened by moving the ankle. In some subjects the muscle belly ‘buckled’ at short lengths. When the gastrocnemius muscle–tendon unit was passively lengthened from its shortest in vivo length by dorsiflexing the ankle, increases in muscle–tendon length were not initially accompanied by increases in muscle fascicle lengths (fascicle length remained constant), indicating muscle fascicles were slack at short muscle–tendon lengths. The muscle–tendon length at which slack is taken up differs among fascicles: some fascicles begin to lengthen at very short muscle–tendon lengths whereas other fascicles remain slack over a large range of muscle–tendon lengths. This suggests muscle fascicles are progressively ‘recruited’ and contribute sequentially to muscle–tendon stiffness during passive lengthening of the muscle–tendon unit. Even above their slack lengths muscle fascicles contribute only a small part (30%) of the total change in muscle–tendon length. The contribution of muscle fascicles to muscle–tendon length increases with muscle length. The novelty of this work is that it reveals a previously unrecognised phenomenon (buckling at short lengths), posits a new mechanism of passive mechanical properties of muscle (recruitment of muscle fascicles), and confirms with high-resolution measurements that the passive compliance of human gastrocnemius muscle–tendon units is due largely to the tendon. It would be interesting to investigate if adaptations of passive properties of muscles are associated with changes in the distribution of muscle lengths at which fascicles fall slack.
Herbert, Robert D; Clarke, Jillian; Kwah, Li Khim; Diong, Joanna; Martin, Josh; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C
The formation of the musculoskeletal system represents an intricate process of tissue assembly involving heterotypic inductive interactions between tendons, muscles and cartilage. An essential component of all musculoskeletal systems is the anchoring of the force-generating muscles to the solid support of the organism: the skeleton in vertebrates and the exoskeleton in invertebrates. Here, we discuss recent findings that illuminate musculoskeletal assembly in the vertebrate embryo, findings that emphasize the reciprocal interactions between the forming tendons, muscle and cartilage tissues. We also compare these events with those of the corresponding system in the Drosophila embryo, highlighting distinct and common pathways that promote efficient locomotion while preserving the form of the organism.
Schweitzer, Ronen; Zelzer, Elazar; Volk, Talila
In the surgical repair of Achilles tendon ruptures, suturing is standard, although fibrin glue also has been used for repair since the 1980s. Augmentation with the plantaris longus tendon is also a popular technique; however, no study has yet compared the outcome of augmented versus only glued repair of ruptured Achilles tendons. This study compares the long-term results of surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture with fibrin glue versus fibrin glue augmented with the plantaris longus tendon. Forty patients who had undergone Achilles tendon repair with fibrin glue took part in a follow-up examination after an average of 11.5 years. The fibrin group consisted of 16 patients and the fibrin glue augmented with plantaris longus tendon group consisted of 15 patients. The modified Thermann score (adapted from Weber) and results of an isokinetic force measurement were the same in both groups, whereas complications in the 2 groups also did not differ. We conclude that augmentation with the plantaris longus tendon is not necessary when operatively treating acute ruptured Achilles tendons with fibrin glue. Level of Clinical Evidence: 2. PMID:19577719
Hohendorff, Bernd; Siepen, Wolf; Staub, Lukas
The authors present a new non-intrusive experimental procedure based on laser techniques for the measurement of mechanical properties of tendons. The procedure is based on the measurement of the first resonance frequency of the tendon by laser Doppler vibrometry during in vitro tensile experiments, with the final aim of establishing a measurement procedure to perform the mechanical characterization of tendons by extracting parameters such as the resonance frequency, also achievable during in vivo investigation. The experimental procedure is reported, taking into account the need to simulate the physiological conditions of the Achilles tendon, and the measurement technique used for the non-invasive determination of tendon cross-sectional area during tensile vibration tests at different load levels is described. The test procedure is based on a tensile machine, which measures longitudinal tendons undergoing controlled load conditions. Cross-sectional area is measured using a new non-contact procedure for the measurement of tendon perimeter (repeatability of 99% and accuracy of 2%). For each loading condition, vibration resonance frequency and damping, cross-sectional area and tensile force are measured, allowing thus a mechanical characterization of the tendon. Tendon stress-strain curves are reported. Stress-strain curves have been correlated to the first vibration resonance frequency and damping of the tendon measured using a single-point laser Doppler vibrometer. Moreover, experimental results have been compared with a theoretical model of a vibrating cord showing discrepancies. In vitro tests are reported, demonstrating the validity of the method for the comparison of different aged rabbit tendons.
Revel, Gian Marco; Scalise, Alessandro; Scalise, Lorenzo
Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to nonliving materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contra lateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1400± 93N (vs. 1179± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p = 0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p = 0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopaedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction.
Melvin, Alan J.; Litsky, Alan S.; Mayerson, Joel L.; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia
Zones of hypovascularity are thought to exist in several tendons of the shoulder, contributing to localized tendon weakness and subsequent rupture in clinical practice. Although these zones have been demonstrated in many frequently ruptured tendons, the existence of a similar area in the often ruptured long head of biceps (LHB) tendon is largely unknown. Twenty cadaveric upper limb specimens were dissected after injection with either a radio-opaque lead oxide/milk mixture or India ink, followed by histological sectioning of the tendons. The LHB tendon was consistently supplied via its osteotendinous and musculotendinous junctions by branches of the thoracoacromial and brachial arteries respectively. In two specimens, additional branches from the anterior circumflex humeral artery travelling in a mesotenon vascularized the midsection of tendon. These source arteries divided the LHB tendon into either two or three vascular territories, depending upon the presence of the mesotenon-derived vascular supply. A zone of hypovascularity was consistently found in the region of the LHB tendon most frequently prone to rupture. This zone covered an area 1.2-3 cm from the tendon origin, extending from midway through the glenohumeral joint to the proximal inter-tubercular groove. This hypovascular region occurred on the border of two adjacent vascular territories, where reduced caliber choke vessels provide limited arterial supply. While it is probable that the limited arterial supply contributes to the susceptibility of this area to rupture, similar to other tendons the true pathogenesis is likely to be a combination of both vascular and mechanical factors. PMID:20821403
Cheng, Nicholas Mauwei; Pan, Wei-Ren; Vally, Fatima; Le Roux, Cara Michelle; Richardson, Martin Donald
A case of post-traumatic rupture of the common extensor tendon without associated fracture is reported. The extensor digitorum communis tendon to the middle finger was frayed by the distal edge of the extensor retinaculum at the fourth dorsal compartment.
H. TAKAMI; S. TAKAHASHI; H. INANAMI
An important function of skeletal muscle is deceleration via active muscle fascicle lengthening, which dissipates movement energy. The mechanical interplay between muscle contraction and tendon elasticity is critical when muscles produce energy. However, the role of tendon elasticity during muscular energy dissipation remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that tendon elasticity functions as a mechanical buffer, preventing high (and probably damaging) velocities and powers during active muscle fascicle lengthening. We directly measured lateral gastrocnemius muscle force and length in wild turkeys during controlled landings requiring rapid energy dissipation. Muscle-tendon unit (MTU) strain was measured via video kinematics, independent of muscle fascicle strain (measured via sonomicrometry). We found that rapid MTU lengthening immediately following impact involved little or no muscle fascicle lengthening. Therefore, joint flexion had to be accommodated by tendon stretch. After the early contact period, muscle fascicles lengthened and absorbed energy. This late lengthening occurred after most of the joint flexion, and was thus mainly driven by tendon recoil. Temporary tendon energy storage led to a significant reduction in muscle fascicle lengthening velocity and the rate of energy absorption. We conclude that tendons function as power attenuators that probably protect muscles against damage from rapid and forceful lengthening during energy dissipation.
Konow, Nicolai; Azizi, Emanuel; Roberts, Thomas J.
The hamstring tendon autograft is one of the most commonly used graft choices in Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. There are conflicting results regarding postoperative hamstring strength deficits in patients who have had a hamstring graft. The semitendinosus tendon has been shown to regenerate after harvesting for ACL autograft, suggesting that the muscle has the potential to regain normal function. However, no studies have been performed to define the microstructural changes that occur in the semitendinosus muscle after tendon resection. In this study, we hypothesized that fatty infiltration of the semitendinosus muscle after tendon harvest in New Zealand White rabbits increases postoperatively and remains constant or increases during the first year of repair. The semitendinosus tendon was unilaterally detached and harvested from 15 rabbits. Five rabbits were sacrificed at 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals, and the semitendinosus muscle-tendon units were analyzed. The contralateral unoperated limb served as the control. The gross tendon and muscle dimensions and histologic percentage of fatty infiltration were measured. We found no significant difference in fatty infiltration at any time point between the control muscle and test specimens and that there was no progression of fatty infiltration over time. If these results hold true in humans, natural repair of the hamstring muscle following tendon harvest during ACL autograft reconstruction is not inhibited by fatty infiltration. PMID:23625808
Vourazeris, Jason D; Lawless, Matthew W; Markert, Ronald J; Stills, Harold F; Boivin, Gregory P
We report on a 13-year-old boy who was found to have a fibroma of the tendon sheath associated with the patellar tendon and\\u000a within Hoffa’s fat pad of the knee. This benign tumor has never been described in this location previously. The MRI characteristics\\u000a are correlated with the histologic findings.
John Hur; Timothy A. Damron; Andrei I. Vermont; Sharad C. Mathur
BackgroundDifferences in mechanical loading of the patellar tendon have been suggested as a reason for varying effects in rehabilitation of patellar tendinopathy using different eccentric squat exercises and devices. The aim was to characterize the magnitude and pattern of mechanical load at the knee and on the patellar tendon during four types of eccentric squat.
A. Frohm; K. Halvorsen; A. Thorstensson
We report on a rare case of fibroma of tendon sheath causing triggering of the right middle finger in an 86-year-old woman. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion attached to the flexor tendon sheath. Surgical excision was curative.
Akiko Nakagawa; Tetsuji Yamamoto; Toshihiro Akisue; Takashi Marui; Toshiaki Hitora
In this study, a numerical model based on the finite element method incorporating an arc-length solution algorithm for materially and geometrically nonlinear analysis of concrete beams prestressed with external tendons is established. The second-order effects are taken into account. The effects of external tendons are expressed by equivalent nodal loads of the beam element and therefore analysis of externally prestressed
Tie-jiong Lou; Yi-qiang Xiang
Changes in the macromolecular orientation and metachromasy of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in newly synthesized and assembled collagen fibers in rat Achilles tendon after tendon excision were investigated in toluidine blue (TB)-stained preparations, based in the selective absorption of polarized light (= linear dichroism, LD) and of absorption of unpolarized light in situ. Extrinsic LD was observed microspectrophotometrically from the early phases of tendon repair onwards, although the absorption peaks in both parallel and perpendicular directions with respect to the plane of polarized light and the long axis of the collagen fibers occurred at the same wavelength, and thus differed from the pattern situation in normal adult controls. Compared to normal adult tendons, the pattern of LD in newly synthesized and assembled fibers was still not fully attained 110 days after surgical tendon removal. This incomplete recovery possibly reflected the influence of aging during the repair process. There was no correlation between LD and metachromasy. The highest absorption values for metachromatic staining occurred on the 7th day after tendon removal, at a time when LD was not intense. Treatment with hyaluronidase showed that the LD in the early stages of tendon repair was mostly due to hyaluronate whereas the LD in the later stages was due to chondroitin sulfates. The changes in LD during Achilles tendon repair were attributed to gradual modifications in the composition and macromolecular orientation of GAGs relative to the long axis of the collagen fibers. PMID:12899449
Mello, M L S; de Campos Vidal, B
Biomechanical properties of human wrist tendons were measured under loads predicted to be experienced by those tendons under physiological conditions. This was accomplished by measuring the architectural properties of the five prime wrist movers—extensors carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL), extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU), flexor carpi radials (FCR), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)- and predicting their maximum tension
Gregory J. Loren; Richard L. Lieber
The moment arm of the knee-extensor mechanism is described by the moment arm of the patellar tendon calculated with respect to the screw axis of the tibia relative to the femur. The moment arm may be found once the line of action of the patellar tendon and the position and orientation of the screw axis are known. In this study,
Janet L. Krevolin; Marcus G. Pandy; John C. Pearce
Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome.
M Shah; N Jooma
Previous descriptions of the pattern of communication between the digital flexor tendon sheaths have been largely based on imaging studies. An anatomic study on 12 cadaveric hands was conducted using water soluble dye and directly observed patterns of communication between the digital flexor tendon sheaths and the radial and ulnar bursae. Four out of twelve specimens (33%) demonstrated a communication
J. M. FUSSEY; K. F. CHIN; N. GOGI; S. GELLA; S. C. DESHMUKH
Spasticity, contracture, and muscle weakness are commonly observed poststroke in muscles crossing the ankle. However, it is not clear how biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon change poststroke, which may affect functions of the impaired muscles directly. Biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon, including the length and cross-sectional area, in the impaired and unimpaired sides of 10 hemiparetic stroke survivors were evaluated using ultrasonography. Elongation of the Achilles tendon during controlled isometric ramp-and-hold and ramping up then down contractions was determined using a block-matching method. Biomechanical changes in stiffness, Young's modulus, and hysteresis of the Achilles tendon poststroke were investigated by comparing the impaired and unimpaired sides of the 10 patients. The impaired side showed increased tendon length (6%; P = 0.04), decreased stiffness (43%; P < 0.001), decreased Young's modulus (38%; P = 0.005), and increased mechanical hysteresis (1.9 times higher; P < 0.001) compared with the unimpaired side, suggesting Achilles tendon adaptations to muscle spasticity, contracture, and/or disuse poststroke. In vivo quantitative characterizations of the tendon biomechanical properties may help us better understand changes of the calf muscle-tendon unit as a whole and facilitate development of more effective treatments.
Zhao, Heng; Ren, Yupeng; Wu, Yi-Ning; Liu, Shu Q.; Zhang, Li-Qun
Despite advances in surgical technique, rotator cuff repairs are plagued by a high rate of failure. This failure rate is in part due to poor tendon-to-bone healing; rather than regeneration of a fibrocartilaginous attachment, the repair is filled with disorganized fibrovascular (scar) tissue. Transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-?3) has been implicated in fetal development and scarless fetal healing and, thus, exogenous addition of TGF-?3 may enhance tendon-to-bone healing. We hypothesized that: TGF-?3 could be released in a controlled manner using a heparin/fibrin-based delivery system (HBDS); and delivery of TGF-?3 at the healing tendon-to-bone insertion would lead to improvements in biomechanical properties compared to untreated controls. After demonstrating that the release kinetics of TGF-?3 could be controlled using a HBDS in vitro, matrices were incorporated at the repaired supraspinatus tendon-to-bone insertions of rats. Animals were sacrificed at 14-56 days. Repaired insertions were assessed using histology (for inflammation, vascularity, and cell proliferation) and biomechanics (for structural and mechanical properties). TGF-?3 treatment in vivo accelerated the healing process, with increases in inflammation, cellularity, vascularity, and cell proliferation at the early timepoints. Moreover, sustained delivery of TGF-?3 to the healing tendon-to-bone insertion led to significant improvements in structural properties at 28 days and in material properties at 56 days compared to controls. We concluded that TGF-?3 delivered at a sustained rate using a HBDS enhanced tendon-to-bone healing in a rat model. PMID:21246611
Manning, Cionne N; Kim, H Mike; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly; Galatz, Leesa M; Havlioglu, Necat; Thomopoulos, Stavros
Chronic tendon pathology is a common and often disabling condition, the causes of which remain poorly understood. The continuum model of tendon pathology was proposed to provide a model for the staging of tendon pathology and to assist clinicians in managing this often complex condition (Br. J. Sports Med., 43, 2009, 409). The model presents clinical, histological and imaging evidence for the progression of tendon pathology as a three-stage continuum: reactive tendinopathy, tendon disrepair and degenerative tendinopathy. It also provides clinical information to assist in identifying the stage of pathology, in addition to proposed treatment approaches for each stage. The usefulness of such a model is determined by its ability to incorporate and inform new and emerging research. This review examines the degree to which recent research supports or refutes the continuum model and proposes future directions for clinical and research application of the model. PMID:23837792
McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy
Flexor tendon injuries in the hand present a real challenge in treatment. Poorly chosen or poorly executed treatment may lead to a functionless finger at best, impairing total hand function. A variety of approaches to treatment of flexor tendon injuries is available to the specially trained surgeon and a particular method is selected based on the merits of the case in question. Primary tendon repair is a viable choice under the proper conditions, while delayed primary repair allows a somewhat broader application of this technique. Flexor tendon grafting remains a very useful operation for the surgeon caring for tendon injuries of the hand. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7
Rankin, Edward A.
Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendons is very rare and occurred in an 82-year-old man. This may be the fifth case to have been reported in the English literature. Only minor stress on extensor mechanisms preceded the ruptures. Interrupted mattress sutures restored muscle continuity and function. A "pull-out" wire system was not used for protection of healing muscles because adequate amount of tissue mass was available for approximation. Excellent results require intensive postoperative physical therapy. Old age of the patient should not be a deterrent to surgical treatment in carefully selected individuals. PMID:657630
Siwek, K W; Rao, J P
Heart valve repair is a biomaterial-dependent procedure, yet autogenous tissue for valvular reconstruction has to date been obtained mostly from the pericardium and fascia lata. Most clinical studies recommend valve repair as an alternative to replacement. We now put forward a hypothesis, extrapolated from hand surgery, for use of the plantaris tendon in heart valve repair. This proposal, if implemented, would increase the supply of autogenous donor tissue for valve repair, thereby enhancing the surgeon's armamentarium. The report describes a novel technique that in our judgment warrants future clinical development. (Tex Heart Inst J 2003;30:42–4)
Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H.; Shuhaiber, Hans H.
Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures.
Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe
The terminology used to describe most common tendon disorders in the hand and wrist suggests that they are inflammatory in nature, although current evidence indicates that mechanical and degenerative factors are more important. Corticosteroid injections provide relief in 60% or more of cases; however, the duration of their effectiveness remains uncertain. Surgical release of the stenotic pulley or sheath is curative in well over 90% of cases; complications of surgery are rare, and relief is long-lasting. Enlightened management of these common problems demands evidence-based guidelines defining indications for surgery that will maximize outcomes and minimize costs. PMID:20438999
McAuliffe, John A
The mechanical model of a single tendon three phalanxes finger is presented. By means of the model both kinematic and dynamical behavior of the finger itself can be studied. This finger is a part of a more complex mechanical system that consists in a four finger grasping device for robots or in a five finger human hand prosthesis. A first prototype has been realized in our department in order to verify the real behavior of the model. Some results of both kinematic and dynamical behavior are presented.
Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio
Tendons have uniquely high tensile strength, critical to their function to transfer force from muscle to bone. When injured, their innate healing response results in aberrant matrix organization and functional properties. Efforts to regenerate tendon are challenged by limited understanding of its normal development. Consequently, there are few known markers to assess tendon formation and parameters to design tissue engineering scaffolds. We profiled mechanical and biological properties of embryonic tendon and demonstrated functional properties of developing tendon are not wholly reflected by protein expression and tissue morphology. Using force volume-atomic force microscopy, we found that nano- and microscale tendon elastic moduli increase nonlinearly and become increasingly spatially heterogeneous during embryonic development. When we analyzed potential biochemical contributors to modulus, we found statistically significant but weak correlation between elastic modulus and collagen content, and no correlation with DNA or glycosaminoglycan content, indicating there are additional contributors to mechanical properties. To investigate collagen cross-linking as a potential contributor, we inhibited lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen cross-linking, which significantly reduced tendon elastic modulus without affecting collagen morphology or DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen content. This suggests that lysyl oxidase-mediated cross-linking plays a significant role in the development of embryonic tendon functional properties and demonstrates that changes in cross-links alter mechanical properties without affecting matrix content and organization. Taken together, these data demonstrate the importance of functional markers to assess tendon development and provide a profile of tenogenic mechanical properties that may be implemented in tissue engineering scaffold design to mechanoregulate new tendon regeneration. PMID:23576745
Marturano, Joseph E; Arena, Jeffrey D; Schiller, Zachary A; Georgakoudi, Irene; Kuo, Catherine K
This is a case report of two children with congenital dislocation of the knee. They have been treated surgically with Z-lengthening of the quadriceps tendon and additional reconstruction of the quadriceps tendon with Achilles tendon allograft to fill in the remaining average 6 cm gap of the tendon. The patients were two girls, 6 and 9 years old. One of them had an operative treatment previously with a tendon lengthening procedure and it was failed and the other patient was untreated before. Preoperatively, untreated case was unable to walk. The other patient was limping. None of them was able to flex their knees beyond the neutral extension position. Postoperatively, both patients were able to walk and the knees were reduced to a range of motion of 0 degrees -95 degrees of flexion. The mean follow-up time was 20 months. PMID:16758235
Söyüncü, Yetkin; Mihçi, Ercan; Ozcanli, Haluk; Ozenci, Merter; Akyildiz, Feyyaz; Aydin, A Turan
We studied the range of appearance of asymptomatic patellar tendons and evaluated the effect of age, weight, joint effusions, and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears on this tendon. One hundred and seventy-three patellar tendons in asymptomatic patients were studied at 1.5 tesla. Sagittal short and long TE images were evaluated in regard to tendon thickness, ratio of thickness of patellar
Mark E. Schweitzer; Donald G. Mitchell; Saundra M. Ehrlich
Summary An anatomical study on the blood sources and vascularity of the flexor digital tendon was conducted in the upper extremities of fresh cadavers by means of arterial injection and meticulous dissection of the transparent tendon under the microscope. According to whether or not synovial membrane surrounded the tendon, the flexor digital tendon can be divided into 2 regions: non-synovial
Z-Z Zhang; S-Z Zhong; B Sun; G-T Ho
Small tears in tendons are a common occurrence in athletes and others involved in strenuous physical activity. Natural healing in damaged tendons can result in disordered regrowth of the underlying collagen matrix of the tendon. These disordered regions are weaker than surrounding ordered regions of normal tendon and are prone to re-injury. Multiple cycles of injury and repair can lead
Robert Muratore; Tal Akabas; Isabella B. Muratore
The force and excursion within the canine digital flexor tendons were measured during passive joint manipulations that simulate those used during rehabilitation after flexor tendon repair and during active muscle contraction, simulating the active rehabilitation protocol. Tendon force was measured using a small buckle placed upon the tendon while excursion was measured using a suture marker and video analysis method.
R. L. Lieber; M. J. Silva; D. Amiel; R. H. Gelberman
Background We developed a novel technique to improve tendon-bone attachment by hybridizing calcium phosphate (CaP) with a tendon graft using an alternate soaking process. However, the long-term result with regard to the interface between the tendon graft and the bone is unclear. Methods We analyzed bone tunnel enlargement by computed tomography and histological observation of the interface and the tendon graft with and without the CaP hybridization 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in goats using EndoButton and the postscrew technique (CaP, n = 4; control, n = 4). Results The tibial bone tunnel enlargement rates in the CaP group were lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In the CaP group, in the femoral and tibial bone tunnels at the anterior and posterior of the joint aperture site, direct insertion-like formation that contained a cartilage layer without tidemarks was more observed at the tendon-bone interface than in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the gap area between the tendon graft and the bone was more observed at the femoral bone tunnel of the joint aperture site in the control group than in the CaP group (p < 0.05). The maturation of the tendon grafts determined using the ligament tissue maturation index was similar in both groups. Conclusions The CaP-hybridized tendon graft enhanced the tendon-bone healing 2 years after ACL reconstruction in goats. The use of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts can reduce the bone tunnel enlargement and gap area associated with the direct insertion-like formation in the interface near the joint.
All patients with badminton-related acute Achilles tendon ruptures registered during 1990 to 1994 at the University Hospital of Umeå were retrospectively followed up using a questionnaire. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 years), 27 men and 4 women, were included. Thirty patients (97%) described themselves as recreational players or beginners. The majority of the injuries (29 of 31, 94%) happened at the middle or end of the planned game. Previous local symptoms had been noticed by five patients (16%). Long-term results showed that patients treated with surgery had a significantly shorter sick leave absence than patients treated without surgery (50 versus 75 days). There was no obvious selection favoring any treatment modality. None of the surgically treated patients had reruptures, but two reruptures occurred in the nonsurgically treated group. There seemed to be fewer remaining symptoms and a higher sports activity level after the injury in the surgically treated group. Our results indicate that local muscle fatigue may interfere with strength and coordination. Preventive measures such as specific treatment of minor injuries and adequate training of strength, endurance, and coordination are important. Our findings also indicate that surgical treatment and careful postoperative rehabilitation is of great importance among badminton players of any age or sports level with Achilles tendon rupture. PMID:9617415
Fahlström, M; Björnstig, U; Lorentzon, R
The extensor medii proprius (EMP) is anomalous extensor muscle of the hand. During the routine dissection of a 78-year-old Chinese male cadaver, bilateral EMP and extensor indicis proprius (EIP) were observed in the upper limbs. The EMP originated from the distal third of the ulna and its tendon was inserted into the dorsal aponeurosis of the middle finger on both hands. The tendon of EIP was split into two slips on the dorsum of hand and inserted to the radial and ulnar side of the extensor digitorium communis (EDC)-index, respectively. Awareness of such anatomical variations in the extensor compartment of the forearm could help in the identification and repair of these structures. PMID:24068417
Li, Jing; Ren, Zhen Feng
The objective of this study was to develop a method based on polarization-sensitive optical coherent tomography (PSOCT) for the imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles tendon rupture. Ex vivo PSOCT examinations were performed in 24 patients. The study involved samples from 14 ruptured Achilles tendons, 4 tendinopathic Achilles tendons and 6 patellar tendons (collected during total knee replacement) as non-ruptured controls. The samples were imaged in both intensity and phase retardation modes within 24 h after surgery, and birefringence was quantified. The samples were fixed and processed for histology immediately after imaging. Slides were assessed twice in a blind manner to provide a semi-quantitative histological score of degeneration. In-depth micro structural imaging was demonstrated. Collagen disorganization and high cellularity were observable by PSOCT as the main markers associated with pathological features. Quantitative assessment of birefringence and penetration depth found significant differences between non-ruptured and ruptured tendons. Microstructure abnormalities were observed in the microstructure of two out of four tendinopathic samples. PSOCT has the potential to explore in situ and in-depth pathological change associated with Achilles tendon rupture, and could help to delineate abnormalities in tendinopathic samples in vivo.
Bagnaninchi, P. O.; Yang, Y.; Bonesi, M.; Maffulli, G.; Phelan, C.; Meglinski, I.; El Haj, A.; Maffulli, N.
Debate continues over whether skeletal muscle performance and injury risk vary over the course of the menstrual cycle. Alterations in tendon properties may play a role in the potential fluctuations of both of these variables. The aim of the current study was to determine any association between menstrual cycle phase and corresponding levels of female sex hormones and tendon properties. Fifteen normally menstruating (28-32-day cycles) healthy females (age 23 +/- 1 years, mass 63.1 +/- 2.6 kg, height 1.66 +/- 0.02 m) not taking any form of hormonal contraceptive took part in this study. In vivo patellar tendon properties and associated circulating hormonal levels were assessed on 3 occasions including days 3 +/- 0.4, 13 +/- 0.2, and 21 +/- 0.3. Dynamometry, ultrasonography, electromyography, and biochemical assessment of circulating levels of estradiol and progesterone were utilized. No significant differences were seen in tendon mechanical properties among the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle (p > 0.05). Regressions were carried out and revealed that estrogen and maximal voluntary tendon force explained 17.8% (p = 0.043) of the variance in young's modulus. Our findings link estrogen to a chronic, rather than an acute, impact on tendon behavior. These findings are relevant to clinical outcomes, exercise performance, and injury risk. In terms of tendon properties, menstrual cycle phase does not necessarily need to be considered when organizing training and competition schedules. PMID:19918195
Burgess, Katherine E; Pearson, Stephen J; Onambélé, Gladys L
Ossification of the Achilles tendon (OTA) is an unusual clinical condition. It is characterized by the presence of an ossified mass within the fibrocartilaginous substance of the Achilles tendon. The etiology of the ossification of the Achilles tendon is unknown. Review of the literature suggests that its etiology is multifactorial. The major contributing factors are trauma and surgery with other minor causes such as systemic diseases, metabolic conditions, and infections. To our knowledge, no previous reports suggest any genetic/hereditary predisposition in OAT. We report 3 siblings who have OAT with no history of any of the aforementioned predisposing factors. Could OAT have a hereditary component as one of its etiologies?
Peroneal tendon injuries are recognized with increasing frequency to be the cause of persistent lateral ankle symptoms. The lesions are frequently found in patients with concomitant anatomical or biomechanical abnormalities, such as chronic lateral instability or cavovarus deformity. The most common mechanism involves a sudden inversion injury or repetitive activities. Three categories of injuries can be distinguished: (1) tendinitis and tenosynovitis, (2) tendon subluxation and dislocation and (3) tendon tears and ruptures. Many of these conditions respond to conservative therapy. However, when left untreated, the disorders can lead to persistent lateral ankle pain and substantial functional deficits. This is particularly true in patients with an underlying anatomical predisposition to lesions. PMID:21061115
Knupp, M; Hintermann, B
Although we sometimes use the intrasynovial tendon allograft as a donor, the gliding ability of allograft prepared by lyophilization is significantly decreased. The gliding ability of the grafted tendon after tendon reconstruction is very important because the high gliding resistance causes more adhesion and leads to poor clinical results. We recently revealed that tendon surface treatment with a carbodiimide derivatized HA (cd-HA)-gelatin mixture for intrasynovial tendon allograft significantly improved its gliding ability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this cd-HA-gelatin treatment affects the tendon mechanical property or not. A total of 40 flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons from canines were evaluated for compressive property by using indentation test. Indentation stiffness was measured for normal tendon, rehydrated tendon after lyophilization, rehydrated tendon after lyophilization that was implanted 6 weeks in vivo, and cd-HA treated rehydrated tendon after lyophilization that was implanted 6 weeks in vivo. The results for all groups showed no significant difference in the tendon compressive properties. The findings of these results demonstrate that cd-HA treatment for intrasynovial tendon allograft is an excellent method to improve the tendon gliding ability after lyophilization without changing the compressive property of donor tendon.
Ikeda, Jun; Zhao, Chunfeng; Chen, Qingshan; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.
Tendons transmit tensile loads from muscle to bone. They consist primarily of parallel collagen fibers between longitudinally oriented rows of tendon fibroblasts. In this study, we describe a novel scaffoldless dialysis-roller culture system that allows tendon cells to form large, organized, tendon-like structures. We compare cell and collagen orientation and synthesis in these cultures with that of monolayer and high-density pellet cultures. Monolayers are unable to deposit a substantial matrix, losing most of their secreted collagen to the medium. High-density pellet cultures deposit more matrix, lose less to the medium, and become organized at their periphery but show signs of nutritional compromise in the center core. In the novel system, cells formed highly organized structures resembling embryonic tendons, synthesized much more collagen, and incorporated around 70% of the secreted collagen into the tendon-like extracellular matrix. The three-dimensional cultures appear to allow substantial cell-cell interactions and may mimic important aspects of the early development of tendons, including the formation of membrane-bound extracellular spaces to contain and organize the secreted collagen. PMID:19366312
de Wreede, Rhiannon; Ralphs, James R
This report documents the anatomy of the lateral canthus using gross dissection, histologic examination, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical measurement. Lateral canthal dissections of 16 cadaver orbits demonstrated a well-defined attachment of the tarsal plates to the orbital rim, averaging 10.6 mm in length and 10.2 mm in width at their insertion on Whitnall's tubercle, 1.5 mm behind the orbital rim and 9.7 mm inferior to the frontozygomatic suture. Histologic examination showed a band of dense fibrous tissue attached to the tarsal plates, with intermingled muscle fibers from the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle. A small pocket of fat was identified posterior to the orbital septum and anterior to the lateral canthal tendon. Clinical measurements of normal adults revealed 2 mm of lateral movement of the canthal angle during abduction, apparently caused by posterior fibrous attachments to the check ligament of the lateral rectus muscle. PMID:3566607
Gioia, V M; Linberg, J V; McCormick, S A
Adult acquired flatfoot deformity progresses through well defined stages as set out by Johnson and Strom. Myerson modified this classification system with the addition of a fourth, more advanced stage of the disease. This stage describes the involvement of the tibiotalar joint in addition to the hindfoot malalignment seen in stages II and III. This most advanced stage is comprised of a hindfoot valgus deformity, resulting from degeneration of the posterior tibial tendon, with associated valgus tilting of the talus within the mortise. The deformity at the tibiotalar joint may or may not be rigid. Although rigid deformities are still best treated with fusions of the ankle and hindfoot, supple tibiotalar deformity may be treated with joint sparing procedures involving reconstructive procedures of the foot and deltoid ligaments. PMID:17561206
Bluman, Eric M; Myerson, Mark S
The uniaxial orientation and bundle formation of collagen fibres determine the mechanical properties of tendons. Thus the particular challenge of tendon tissue engineering is to build the tissue with a highly organized structure of collagen fibres. Ultimately the engineered construct will be used as autologous grafts in tendon surgery, withstanding physiological loading. We grew pig tenocytes in porous chitosan scaffolds with multiple microchannels of 250-500 ?m. The cell proliferation and production of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) within the scaffolds have been successfully monitored by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a bench-top OCT system equipped with a broadband light source centred at 1300 nm. Under sterile condition, the measurements were performed on-line and in a non-destructive manner. In addition, a novel method based on OCT imaging, which calculates the occupation ratio of the microchannel derived from the scattered intensity has been developed. It is confirmed that the occupation ratio is correlated to cell proliferation and ECM production in the scaffolds. Thus this method has been utilised to assess the effect of different culture conditions on the tissue formation. The use of a perfusion bioreactor has resulted in a significantly (p<1e-3) higher cell proliferation and matrix production.
Bagnaninchi, P. O.; Yang, Y.; Maffulli, N.; Wang, R. K.; El Haj, A.
The important mechanisms by which soft collagenous tissues such as ligament and tendon respond to mechanical deformation include non-linear elasticity, viscoelasticity and poroelasticity. These contributions to the mechanical response are modulated by the content and morphology of structural proteins such as type I collagen and elastin, other molecules such as glycosaminoglycans, and fluid. Our ligament and tendon constructs, engineered from either primary cells or bone marrow stromal cells and their autogenous matricies, exhibit histological and mechanical characteristics of native tissues of different levels of maturity. In order to establish whether the constructs have optimal mechanical function for implantation and utility for regenerative medicine, constitutive relationships for the constructs and native tissues at different developmental levels must be established. A micromechanical model incorporating viscoelastic collagen and non-linear elastic elastin is used to describe the non-linear viscoelastic response of our homogeneous engineered constructs in vitro. This model is incorporated within a finite element framework to examine the heterogeneity of the mechanical responses of native ligament and tendon.
Ma, J.; Narayanan, H.; Garikipati, K.; Grosh, K.; Arruda, E. M.
Objective: No consensus exists on the etiology, prognostic factors, or recurrence rate of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath. This article presents a series of 65 cases supplemented by a literature review that examines the epidemiology, presentation, gross and microscopic characteristics, and recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Methods: The authors completed a retrospective review of one surgeon's practice from 1976 to 2001, evaluating 65 cases of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. The authors conducted a literature search and compared the case series with historical data. Results: The tumor most commonly presented as a firm, nontender mass in the dominant hand. Our cases showed a slight female predominance of 54%, compared with the literature average of 64%. A pseudocapsule was present in 51% of cases. Overall recurrence rate was 10%. No association was noted between recurrence and pseudocapsule presence, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. Satellite lesions at the first excision were noted in 80% of recurrent cases; however, satellite lesions were not a risk factor for recurrence per se. Conclusions: Our study shows similar findings to the literature, with the notable addition of satellite lesions in recurrent tumors. Marginal excision is the treatment of choice, but may be complicated when the tumor is attached to vital structures. Therefore, an appropriate balance between resection of tumor and maintenance of function must be achieved due to the possibility of recurrence.
Adams, Erin L.; Yoder, Eric M.; Kasdan, Morton L.
A thorough understanding of the normal structural anatomy of the pectoralis major (PM) is of paramount importance in the planning of PM tendon transfers or repairs following traumatic PM tears. However, there is little consensus regarding the complex musculotendinous architecture of the PM in the anatomic or surgical literature. The purpose of this study is to model and quantify the three-dimensional architecture of the pectoralis muscle and tendon. Eleven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens were examined: five (2M/3F) were serially dissected, digitized, and modeled in 3D using Autodesk Maya; six (4M/2F) were dissected and photographed. The PM tendon consisted of longer anterior and shorter posterior layers that were continuous inferiorly. The muscle belly consisted of an architecturally uniform clavicular head (CH) and a segmented sternal head (SH) with 6-7 segments. The most inferior SH segment in all specimens was found to fold anteriorly forming a trough that cradled the inferior aspect of the adjacent superior segment. No twisting of either the PM muscle or tendon was noted. Within the CH, the fiber bundle lengths (FBL) were found to increase from superior to inferior, whereas the mean FBLs of SH were greatest in segments 3-5 found centrally. The mean lateral pennation angle was greater in the CH (29.4 +/- 6.9 degrees ) than in the SH (20.6 +/- 2.7 degrees ). The application of these findings could form the basis of future studies to optimize surgical planning and functional recovery of repair/reconstruction procedures. PMID:19291757
Fung, Lillia; Wong, Brian; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Agur, Anne; Rindlisbacher, Tim; Elmaraghy, Amr
Tenomodulin (Tnmd, also called Tendin) is classified as a type II transmembrane glycoprotein and is highly expressed in developing as well as in mature tendons. Along with scleraxis (scx), Tnmd is a candidate marker gene for tenocytes. Its function is unknown, but it has been reported to have anti-angiogenic properties. Results in a knockout mouse model did not substantiate that claim. It has homology to chondromodulin-I. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of TNMD have been associated with obesity, macular degeneration, and Alzheimer's disease in patients. In the present study, three Tnmd isoforms with deduced molecular weights of 20.3 (isoform II), 25.4 (isoform III), and 37.1 (isoform I) kDa were proposed and verified by Western blot from cells with green fluorescent protein-linked, overexpressed constructs, tissue, and by qPCR of isoforms from human tissues and cultured cells. Overexpression of each Tnmd isoform followed by immunofluorescence imaging showed that isoforms I and II had perinuclear localization while isoform III was cytoplasmic. Results of qPCR demonstrated differential expression of each Tnmd isoform in patient's specimens taken from flexor carpi radialis, biceps brachii, and flexor digitorum profundus tendons. Knockdown of Tnmd increased the expression of both scleraxis (scx) and myostatin, indicating a potential negative feedback loop between Tnmd and its regulators. Knockdown of all Tnmd isoforms simultaneously also reduced tenocyte proliferation. I-TASSER protein three-dimensional conformation modeling predictions indicated each Tnmd isoform had different structures and potential functions: isoform 1, modeled as a cytosine methyltransferase; isoform 2, a SUMO-1-like SENP-1 protease; and isoform 3, an ?-syntrophin, plextrin homology domain scaffolding protein. Further functional studies with each Tnmd isoform may help us to better understand regulation of tenocyte proliferation, tendon development, response to injury and strain, as well as mechanisms in tendinoses. These results may indicate novel therapeutic targets in specific tenomodulin isoforms as well as treatments for tendon diseases. PMID:22700804
Qi, J; Dmochowski, J M; Banes, A N; Tsuzaki, M; Bynum, D; Patterson, M; Creighton, A; Gomez, S; Tech, K; Cederlund, A; Banes, A J
The authors' hypothesis was that weakening the gastrocnemius muscle at the time of tendon transfer will reduce the risk of rupture and facilitate faster rehabilitation with increased active dorsiflexion and improved overall outcome, because the transferred tendon is spared the antagonistic effect of the gastrocnemius during the early recovery period. A retrospective chart review identified 12 patients who underwent a tibialis posterior tendon (PTT) transfer with gastrocnemius Botox injection for foot drop. All statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.2 (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina). There were no failures or tendon ruptures. All patients had zero dorsiflexion (DF) strength preoperatively, and those with DF strength documented postoperatively had a mean DF strength at final clinical evaluation of 3.9 (p < .001) with a mean active DF of 4°. It was concluded that gastrocnemius chemodenervation with Botox at the time of PTT transfer is a safe and effective means of restoring active dorsiflexion. PMID:24063800
Eckel, Tobin T; Nunley, James A
Objectives. (1) To develop a methodology to determine the trajectories of the digital flexor tendons using MRI. (2) To examine changes in tendon trajectories due to wrist posture, with and without pinch force. (3) To calculate the radius of curvature of the flexor tendons and note implications for contact forces on the median nerve. (4) To assess the use of
Peter J. Keir; Richard P. Wells
We evaluated the mechanical properties of six different circumferential tendon sutures with a variable number of suture strands. Seventy-two human cadaver flexor profundus tendons were cut and repaired using only a 6\\/0 polypropylene circumferential suture. The six running suture techniques were: Simple; Simple-locking; Lembert; Halsted; Cross-stitch; Lin-locking; using 10, 14 and 18 suture passes. The increased suture passes increased both
H. Kubota; M. Aoki; D. L. Pruitt; P. R. Manske
Objective. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a shift in tendon alignment at the first metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with\\u000a hallux valgus by means of magnetic resonance imaging. Design. Ten normal feet and 20 feet with the hallux valgus deformity conforming to conventional clinical and radiographic criteria\\u000a were prospectively studied using magnetic resonance imaging. Correlation was made between tendon position
S. Eustace; Daniel Williamson; Michael Wilson; J. O’Byrne; Lisa Bussolari; Mark Thomas; Michael Stephens; John Stack; Barbara Weissman
To determine whether the echo time of magnetic resonance gradient-echo and spin-echo imaging sequences may be important for the occurrence of high signal strength from tendon with pathological alterations, imaging sequences with sufficient spatial resolution and very short echo times were developed for whole-body imagers with standard gradient system. The sequences were applied on the Achilles tendons of five healthy
Fritz Schick; Florian Dammann; Otto Lutz; Claus D. Claussen
Ultrasound can be used to study tendon and muscle movement. However, quantization is mostly based on manual tracking of anatomical landmarks such as the musculotendinous junction, limiting the applicability to a small number of muscle-tendon units. The aim of this study is to quantify tendon displacement without employing anatomical landmarks, using dedicated speckle tracking in long B-mode image sequences. We devised a dedicated two-dimensional multikernel block-matching scheme with subpixel accuracy to handle large displacements over long sequences. Images were acquired with a Philips iE33 with a 7 MHz linear array and a VisualSonics Vevo 770 using a 40 MHz mechanical probe. We displaced the flexor digitorum superficialis of two pig cadaver forelegs with three different velocities (4,10 and 16 mm/s) over 3 distances (5, 10, 15 mm). As a reference, we manually determined the total displacement of an injected hyperechogenic bullet in the tendons. We automatically tracked tendon parts with and without markers and compared results to the true displacement. Using the iE33, mean tissue displacement underestimations for the three different velocities were 2.5 +/- 1.0%, 1.7 +/- 1.1% and 0.7 +/- 0.4%. Using the Vevo770, mean tissue displacement underestimations were 0.8 +/- 1.3%, 0.6 +/- 0.3% and 0.6 +/- 0.3%. Marker tracking displacement underestimations were only slightly smaller, showing limited tracking drift for non-marker tendon tissue as well as for markers. This study showed that our dedicated speckle tracking can quantify extensive tendon displacement with physiological velocities without anatomical landmarks with good accuracy for different types of ultrasound configurations. This technique allows tracking of a much larger range of muscle-tendon units than by using anatomical landmarks.
Korstanje, Jan-Wiebe H.; Selles, Ruud W.; Stam, Henk J.; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Bosch, Johan G.
Tendon injuries are common in human athletes [1-4]. Furthermore, such injuries are also\\u000aprevalent in the ageing sedentary population [5-7]. In recent decades, the incidence of tendon\\u000ainjuries has risen due to both an increase in an elderly population and a rise in participation in\\u000arecreational and competitive sporting activities. In the general population the lifetime cumulative\\u000aincidence of Achilles
Marieke de Mos
The authors describe one case of post-traumatic dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. They found eleven other cases reported in the literature. The type of lesion should be looked for in cases of trauma to the wrist without a bony lesion. The treatment should be surgical when function is impaired, either shortly after the initial trauma or if the dislocation becomes habitual. The aim is to reconstruct a tendon sheath. The results were generally satisfactory. PMID:3749557
Loty, B; Meunier, B; Mazas, F
In general, there is a higher incidence of musculoskeletal injuries during physical activity in women than in men. We hypothesized that in women rates of tendon collagen synthesis would be lower than in men at rest and after exercise, especially in the later luteal phase when estrogen and progesterone concentrations are higher than the early follicular phase. We studied tendon collagen fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in 15 young, healthy female subjects in either the early follicular (n = 8) or the late luteal phase (n = 7) 72 h after an acute bout of one-legged exercise (60 min kicking at 67% workload maximum) (72 h) and compared the results with those previously obtained for men. Samples were taken from the patellar tendon in both the exercised and rested legs to determine collagen FSR by the incorporation of [15N]proline into tendon collagen hydroxyproline. There was no effect of menstrual phase on tendon collagen synthesis either at rest or after exercise. However, there was a significant difference between women and men at rest (women = 0.025 +/- 0.002%/h, men = 0.045 +/- 0.008%/h; P < 0.05) and 72 h after exercise (women = 0.027 +/- 0.005%/h; men = 0.058 +/- 0.008%/h). Furthermore, rest and 72-h tendon collagen synthesis were not different in women, whereas in men tendon collagen synthesis remained significantly elevated 72 h after exercise. It is concluded that both in the resting state and after exercise, tendon collagen FSR is lower in women than in men, which may contribute to a lower rate of tissue repair after exercise. PMID:16990502
Miller, Benjamin F; Hansen, Mette; Olesen, Jens L; Schwarz, Peter; Babraj, John A; Smith, Kenneth; Rennie, Michael J; Kjaer, Michael
Acute and chronic tendon injuries are very common among athletes and in sedentary population. Most physicians prescribe anti-inflammatory managements to relieve the worst symptoms of swelling and pain, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and physical therapies. However, experimental research shows that pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins may play important regulatory roles in tendon healing. Noticeably nearly all cases of chronic
Kai-Ming Chan; Sai-Chuen Fu
Rock climbing has increased in popularity over the past two decades. Closed traumatic rupture of the finger flexor tendon pulleys is rare among the general population but is seen much more commonly in rock climbers. This article reviews the anatomy and biomechanics of the finger flexor tendon pulleys, how they may be injured in rock climbing and how these injuries are best diagnosed and managed. PMID:23730085
Crowley, Timothy P
Prestressed-concrete containments in the United States using greased prestressing tendons are inspected periodically to ensure structural integrity and to identify and correct problem areas before they become critical. An analysis of the available utility inspection data and an evaluation of the current and proposed guidelines were conducted to provide a measure of the reliability of the inspection process. Comments from utility and industry personnel were factored into the analysis. The results indicated that the majority of the few incidences of problems or abnormalities which occurred were minor in nature and did not threaten the structural integrity of the containment.
Dougan, J.R.; Ashar, H.
This report describes two cases of traumatic closed index extensor tendon rupture at the musclotendinous junction. Both patients were injured when their work gloves were caught in the revolving parts of machines, and both were treated surgically. One of the patients completely ruptured the index extensor digitorum communis (EDC) and the extensor indicis proprius (EIP) tendons at the musclotendinous junction of dorsal forearm. In this patient, the distal stump of the index EDC tendon was sutured to the middle EDC tendon in an end-to-side juncture. The other patient completely ruptured the EIP tendon and partially ruptured the index EDC tendon at the musclotendinous junction. In this patient, tendon transfer of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) to the EIP tendon and plication of the index EDC tendon were performed. In both cases, surgical intervention enabled the patients to extend their index fingers almost normally; however, the former complained of inability to extend his index finger independently. Tendon transfer of the EDM in cases of index extensor tendon rupture at the musclotendinous junction is a good method to restore ability to independently extend the index finger. However, consideration should be given to anatomical variation in the little finger. The EDC tendon is sometimes absent leaving the EDM tendon as the only extensor tendon to the little finger. PMID:22379446
Komura, Shingo; Yokoi, Tatsuo; Nonomura, Hidehiko
Recurrent volar displacement of the extensor digitorum communis tendon (EDC) at the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) more commonly occurs post-trauma or in the rheumatoid hand. This disabling condition of the hand results in painful swelling of the MCPJ, associated with "locking" of the extensor tendon. We report a simple surgical technique used to successfully 'secure' the EDC from recurrent displacement. This was performed for a 59-year-old man who developed the condition in his ring finger, following Vth ray amputation for severe Dupuytren's disease. First, the EDC over the IIIrd and IVth MCPJ are exposed using a longitudinal incision. The junctura tendinum between the EDC tendons was next extended proximally by 2 cm on the radial side of the IVth EDC and then divided to create a distally based junctura slip. Next, a 'lasso' was created by passing the slip beneath the IVth EDC tendon and then securing it onto itself with a 5/0 Ethibond suture (Ethicon Inc.). This reconstruction was then tested in all ranges of MCPJ flexion, successfully preventing volar displacement of the extensor tendon. The 'junctura lasso' provided a satisfactory solution for the patient, who, over the next four years; for the duration of his follow-up, suffered no further displacement of the extensor tendon. PMID:23422060
Yong, Chin Chean; Connolly, Cara M; Erdmann, Matt
Rotator cuff tears represent the most common shoulder injuries in the United States. The debilitating effect of this degenerative condition coupled with the high incidence of failure associated with existing graft choices underscore the clinical need for alternative grafting solutions. The two critical design criteria for the ideal tendon graft would require the graft to not only exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties but also be able to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tendon-to-bone interface. Centered on these design goals, this review will highlight current approaches to functional and integrative tendon repair. In particular, the application of biomimetic design principles through the use of nanofiber- and nanocomposite-based scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering will be discussed. This review will begin with nanofiber-based approaches to functional tendon repair, followed by a section highlighting the exciting research on tendon-to-bone interface regeneration, with an emphasis on implementation of strategic biomimicry in nanofiber scaffold design and the concomitant formation of graded multi-tissue systems for integrative soft tissue repair. This review will conclude with a summary and future directions section.
Zhang, Xinzhi; Bogdanowicz, Danielle; Erisken, Cevat; Lee, Nancy M.; Lu, Helen H.
Rotator cuff tears represent the most common shoulder injuries in the United States. The debilitating effect of this degenerative condition coupled with the high incidence of failure associated with existing graft choices underscores the clinical need for alternative grafting solutions. The 2 critical design criteria for the ideal tendon graft would require the graft to not only exhibit physiologically relevant mechanical properties but also be able to facilitate functional graft integration by promoting the regeneration of the native tendon-to-bone interface. Centered on these design goals, this review will highlight current approaches to functional and integrative tendon repair. In particular, the application of biomimetic design principles through the use of nanofiber- and nanocomposite-based scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering will be discussed. This review will begin with nanofiber-based approaches to functional tendon repair, followed by a section highlighting the exciting research on tendon-to-bone interface regeneration, with an emphasis on implementation of strategic biomimicry in nanofiber scaffold design and the concomitant formation of graded multi-tissue systems for integrative soft-tissue repair. This review will conclude with a summary and discussion of future directions. PMID:22244070
Zhang, Xinzhi; Bogdanowicz, Danielle; Erisken, Cevat; Lee, Nancy M; Lu, Helen H
The authors devised an alternative arthroscopic double bundle ACL reconstruction technique using a bone patellar tendon bone\\u000a (BPTB)–gracilis tendon composite autograft. One tibial and two femoral tunnels were used to reconstruct two bundles of anterior\\u000a cruciate ligaments (ACL) [an anteromedial bundle (AM) and a post-erolateral bundle (PL)]. BTBB was fixed in the tunnels produced\\u000a on the isometric points of the
Kwang Am Jung; Su Chan Lee; Moon Bok Song; Choon Key Lee
Harvested hamstring tendons were recently shown to possess the ability to regrow and regain their function in flexing the knee joint. In this study, we report a case of failed regrowth of previously harvested semitendinosus tendon to its original insertion site in a 24-year-old professional soccer player. The disturbance resulted in the formation of a clearly visible Popeye-type muscular prominence
Teppo L. N. Järvinen; Tero A. H. Järvinen; Tero Penttilä; Arsi Harilainen; Jerker Sandelin; Timo Paakkala
The aim of this study was to describe the tenovaginoscopic approach to the bovine common digital flexor tendon sheath (CDFTS). A comparative anatomical, ultrasonographic and endoscopic study was undertaken using 26 healthy cadaver feet from adult dairy cows. Tenovaginoscopy was performed using a rigid, 30° arthroscope (length 18 cm; outer diameter 4mm) enabling a direct view of the synovial cavity and the following structures: digital flexor tendons, digital annular ligaments, lateral and medial pouches, three mesotendons, the vinculum of the superficial digital flexor tendon, and a slot-shaped opening in the manicaflexoria of the hind feet. Additionally, four clinical cases of septic tenosynovitis treated with lavage under tenovaginoscopic control were examined. Tenovaginoscopy represents a feasible, minimally invasive method for the diagnosis and treatment of septic tenosynovitis of the CDFTS, which allows the degree of alterations of the normal structures to be evaluated. PMID:21292522
Bertagnoli, Alberto; Räber, Marta; Morandi, Nicola; Mortellaro, Carlo M; Steiner, Adrian
The biceps brachii is a unique muscle with 2 proximal tendons and a single distal tendon. Although these tendons are part of the same muscle, they have significantly different functions. It is hypothesized that the long head of the biceps acts as a pain generator in the shoulder, though the biomechanical function is still under debate. Conversely, the distal biceps tendon is the major supinator of the forearm and serves a secondary flexor. As such, injuries to these tendons must be evaluated independently. Biceps brachii ruptures most often occur in middle-aged men following a traumatic event. Injuries to the long head of the biceps are primarily treated nonoperatively with adequate results. Injuries of distal tendon occur less often, but are receiving significant attention in the literature in regard to treatment options. Surgical repair of distal biceps ruptures is indicated in patients who want to restore supination strength and endurance. It is unclear which operative technique is superior, although the most recent data suggest increased strength of the cortical button repair. This article provides a comprehensive review of both proximal and distal biceps brachii ruptures in addition to our treatment algorithm. PMID:20631471
Geaney, Lauren E; Mazzocca, Augustus D
Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies.
BENJAMIN, M.; RALPHS, J. R.
Tendons can function as springs and thereby preserve energy during cyclic loading. They might also have damping properties, which, hypothetically, could reduce risk of microinjuries due to fatigue at sites of local stress concentration within the tendon. At mechanical testing, damping will appear as hysteresis. How is damping influenced by training or disuse? Does training decrease hysteresis, thereby making the tendon a better spring, or increase hysteresis and thus improve damping? Seventy-eight female 10-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups. Two groups had botulinum toxin injected into the calf muscles to unload the left Achilles tendon through muscle paralysis. One of these groups was given doxycycline, as a systemic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor. The third group served as loaded controls. The Achilles tendons were harvested after 1 or 6 wk for biomechanical testing. An increase with time was seen in tendon dry weight, wet weight, water content, transverse area, length, stiffness, force at failure, and energy uptake in all three groups (P < 0.001 for each parameter). Disuse had no effect on these parameters. Creep was decreased with time in all groups. The only significant effect of disuse was on hysteresis (P = 0.004) and creep (P = 0.007), which both decreased with disuse compared with control, and on modulus, which was increased (P = 0.008). Normalized glycosaminoglycan content was unaffected by time and disuse. No effect of doxycycline was observed. The results suggest that in growing animals, the tendons continue to grow regardless of mechanical loading history, whereas maintenance of damping properties requires mechanical stimulation. PMID:17412787
Eliasson, Pernilla; Fahlgren, Anna; Pasternak, Björn; Aspenberg, Per
Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have recently been widely applied for the characterization of tissues. For example, they can be used for the quantification of Achilles tendon properties based on the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the speed of sound (SOS) when the ultrasound wave passes through the tissues. This study is to develop an integrated system to investigate the properties of Achilles tendons using QUS images from UBIS 5000 (DMS, Montpellier, France) and B-mode ultrasound images from HDI 5000 (ATL, Ultramark, USA). Subjects including young (32 females and 17 males; mean age: 23.7 ± 2.0) and middle-aged groups (8 female and 8 males; mean age: 47.3 ± 8.5 s) were recruited and tested for this study. Only subjects who did not exercise regularly and had no record of tendon injury were studied. The results show that the BUA is significantly higher for the young group (45.2 ± 1.6 dB MHz-1) than the middle-age group (40.5 ± 1.9 dB MHz-1), while the SOS is significantly lower for the young (1601.9 ± 11.2 ms-1) compared to the middle-aged (1624.1 ± 8.7 m s-1). On the other hand, the thicknesses of Achilles tendons for both groups (young: 4.31 ± 0.23 mm; middle age: 4.24 ± 0.23 mm) are very similar. For one patient who had an Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) surgery, the thickness of the Achilles tendon increased from 4 mm to 4.33 mm after the surgery. In addition, the BUA increased by about 7.2% while the SOS decreased by about 0.6%. In conclusion, noninvasive ultrasonic assessment of Achilles tendons is useful for assisting clinical diagnosis and for the evaluation of a therapeutic regimen.
Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chen, Tainsong; Lin, Chii-Jeng
Whenever a tendon or its bone insertion is disrupted or removed, existing surgical techniques provide a temporary connection or scaffolding to promote healing, but the interface of living to non-living materials soon breaks down under the stress of these applications, if it must bear the load more than acutely. Patients are thus disabled whose prostheses, defect size, or mere anatomy limit the availability or outcomes of such treatments. Our group developed the OrthoCoupler™ device to join skeletal muscle to prosthetic or natural structures without this interface breakdown. In this study, the goat knee extensor mechanism (quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar tendon) was removed from the right hind limb in 16 goats. The device connected the quadriceps muscle to a stainless steel bone plate on the tibia. Mechanical testing and histology specimens were collected from each operated leg and contralateral unoperated control legs at 180 days. Maximum forces in the operated leg (vs. unoperated) were 1,400 ± 93 N (vs. 1,179 ± 61 N), linear stiffnesses were 33 ± 3 N/mm (vs. 37 ± 4 N/mm), and elongations at failure were 92.1 ± 5.3 mm (vs. 68.4 ± 3.8 mm; mean ± SEM). Higher maximum forces (p = 0.02) and elongations at failure (p=0.008) of legs with the device versus unoperated controls were significant; linear stiffnesses were not (p=0.3). We believe this technology will yield improved procedures for clinical challenges in orthopedic oncology, revision arthroplasty, tendon transfer, and tendon injury reconstruction. PMID:22179930
Melvin, Alan J; Litsky, Alan S; Mayerson, Joel L; Stringer, Keith; Juncosa-Melvin, Natalia
Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. PMID:22982669
Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro
Sequence variants within the type V collagen (COL5A1) and tenascin C (TNC) genes have to date been shown to be associated with chronic Achilles tendinopathies and/or spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures. Type V collagen and tenascin C are quantitatively minor components of tendon, while type I collagen is the major structural component. There is increased expression of the COL1A1 gene, which encodes for the alpha1 chain of type I collagen, in the painful Achilles tendon. A functional Sp1-binding site polymorphism (SNP rs1800012; IVS1+1023G>T) within this gene has been shown to be associated with several connective tissue disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Sp1-binding site polymorphism within the COL1A1 gene is associated with chronic Achilles tendinopathies and/or spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures. Achilles tendinopathy (n=85), Achilles rupture (n=41) and asymptomatic control (n=125) participants were genotyped for the COL1A1 Sp1-binding site polymorphism. There were no observed statistical differences in the genotype (p=0.602) or allele (p=0.694) distributions between the groups. In conclusion, this study has shown that there is no association between the Sp1-binding site polymorphism within the first intron of COL1A1 and Achilles tendinopathy or Achilles tendon rupture within the population studied. PMID:18353721
Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V; Schwellnus, Martin P; Collins, Malcolm
A case of closed rupture of the extensor digitorum communis tendon following a fracture of the lower end of the radius with anterior displacement, is described. This rare complication was treated successfully by abductor pollicis longus tendon transfer.
IAIN MACKAY; ROBERT G. SIMPSON
BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to compare the initial strength of acromioclavicular joint reconstructions using coracoclavicular (CC) tendon grafts utilizing interference screws, a tendon square knot or side-to-side suturing for graft fixation.
Robert Z. Tashjian; Jodi D. Southam; Todd Clevenger; Kent N. Bachus
We assessed the applicability of a partially biodegradable synthetic material composed of polyglycolic acid (PGA) and dacron to repair or replace severely injured tendons. Adult rabbits underwent complete laceration and repair of one Achilles tendon. Grou...
W. G. Rodkey H. E. Cabaud J. A. Feagin P. C. Perlik
Anatomic variations of the extensor tendons of the forearm are frequent and its knowledge is important to assess the diseased and traumatized hand. During routine cadaveric dissection in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India, we came across unusual variations in the left upper limb of a 51-years-old male cadaver. The variants are, the complete absence of the extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), the abductor pollicis longus (APL) having six slips of insertion with additional muscle slip from the brachio-radialis (BR). The extensor digitorum communis (EDC) had five tendon slips, the extra tendon splits close to the metacarpo-phalangeal (MP) joint and contribute to the tendons of the ring and little fingers. The number of accessory tendons of APL has functional significance in the development of de Quervain's stenosing tendovaginitis. The present case is unique in the sense that, all the three variations are present in the ipsilateral upper limb. The occurrence of these anomalies and its clinical and embryological significance are discussed. PMID:18273511
Nayak, S R; Krishnamurthy, A; Pai, Mangala M; Prabhu, Latha V; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Thomas, Merin M
Biological fixation of soft tissue-based grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction poses a major clinical challenge. The ACL integrates with subchondral bone through a fibrocartilage enthesis, which serves to minimize stress concentrations and enables load transfer between two distinct tissue types. Functional integration thus requires the reestablishment of this fibrocartilage interface on reconstructed ACL grafts. We designed and characterized a novel mechanoactive scaffold based on a composite of poly-?-hydroxyester nanofibers and sintered microspheres; we then used the scaffold to test the hypothesis that scaffold-induced compression of tendon grafts would result in matrix remodeling and the expression of fibrocartilage interface-related markers. Histology coupled with confocal microscopy and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the effects of scaffold-induced compression on tendon matrix collagen distribution, cellularity, proteoglycan content, and gene expression over a 2-week period. Scaffold contraction resulted in over 15% compression of the patellar tendon graft and upregulated the expression of fibrocartilage-related markers such as Type II collagen, aggrecan, and transforming growth factor-?3 (TGF-?3). Additionally, proteoglycan content was higher in the compressed tendon group after 1 day. The data suggest the potential of a mechanoactive scaffold to promote the formation of an anatomic fibrocartilage enthesis on tendon-based ACL reconstruction grafts.
Spalazzi, Jeffrey P.; Vyner, Moira C.; Jacobs, Matthew T.; Moffat, Kristen L.
During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age.
Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
Patellar tendon-related pain is common in the athletic patient. When it occurs in skeletally mature patients participating in running, jumping, or kicking sports, the diagnosis of jumper’s knee patellar tendonitis is usually made. If patellar tendon pain is associated with a mass, the differential diagnosis should be broadened to include crystalline arthropathy. This article presents a case of a highly athletic 45-year-old man with a history of gout, anterior knee pain, and an enlarging mass in the region of the patellar tendon. Conservative management failed, and an excisional biopsy found it to be an intra-tendinous gouty tophus. To our knowledge, only 1 report exists documenting a patellar tendon mass secondary to gout, and no case report exists documenting this problem in an athlete. The interplay between athletics and gout has not been well described. Despite the long-term protective nature of fitness, transient elevations in uric acid associated with athletic endeavors may contribute acutely to manifestations of gout in some athletes. Resultant intra- or extra-articular pathology may present as, and easily be mistaken for, a sports-related injury. Without appropriate medical management, tophaceous deposition may continue to occur and treatment of the resultant mass may require surgical intervention.
Gililland, Jeremy M.; Webber, Nicholas P.; Jones, Kevin B.; Randall, R. Lor; Aoki, Stephen K.
The mechanical behavior of tendons has been well studied in vitro. A noninvasive method to acquire mechanical data would be highly beneficial. Elastography has been a promising method of gathering in vivo tissue mechanical behavior, but it has inherent limitations. This study presents acoustoelasticity as an alternative ultrasound-based method of measuring tendon stress and strain by reporting a relationship between ultrasonic echo intensity (B mode ultrasound image brightness) and mechanical behavior of tendon in vitro. Porcine digital flexor tendons were cyclically loaded in a mechanical testing system while ultrasonic echo response was recorded. We report that echo intensity closely follows the applied cyclic strain pattern in time with higher strain protocols resulting in larger echo intensity changes. We also report that echo intensity is related nonlinearly to stress and nearly linearly to strain. This indicates that ultrasonic echo intensity is related to the mechanical behavior in a loaded tissue by an acoustoelastic response, as previously described in homogeneous, nearly incompressible materials. Acoustoelasticity is therefore able to relate strain-dependent stiffness and stress to the reflected echo, even in the processed B-mode signals reflected from viscoelastic, inhomogeneous material such as tendon, and is a promising metric to acquire in vivo mechanical data noninvasively.
Duenwald, Sarah; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Frisch, Kayt; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray
Injuries to ligaments and tendons heal by formation of inferior repair tissue. This may result in severe joint dysfunction. Because of an increased occurrence of sports-related injuries, musculoskeletal disorders may become one of the major burden of health care. Tissue engineering offers the potential to improve the quality of ligament and tendon tissues during the healing process and may provide a more effective approach to the treatment of injuries to ligaments and tendons than traditional methods. Application of growth factors, gene transfer techniques, cell therapy and cell-matrix composites have shown to affect the process of ligament and tendon healing. The benefits of using mesenchymal stem cells on a three dimensional biological matrix have been shown recently. Tissue engineering will also include mechanical manipulation of tissue environments to accelerate cell differentiation and to improve matrix formation. Fibroblast-seeded polymer scaffolds could be useful in ligament and tendon replacement in which autogenous fibroblasts would be obtained through biopsy, cultured and seeded onto a scaffold. PMID:11968548
Bosch, U; Krettek, C
We present a rare case of spontaneous tendon rupture of the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Inflammation in SLE presents as periarthritis, which may develop into Jaccoud's arthropathy. We bridged the ruptured tendon of the EDC (III) at the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of this patient with a tendon graft. This case demonstrates that this portion of the MP joint can be a site of tendon rupture of fingers in SLE patients. PMID:22782531
Oishi, Hisao; Oda, Ryo; Morisaki, Shinsuke; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Kubo, Toshikazu
Several studies report that tendons can regenerate after harvesting. These studies have been performed especially in patellar\\u000a and hamstring tendons. At our institution, 10 cm length of full thickness peroneus longus tendon has been harvested to reconstruct\\u000a torn anterior cruciate ligament since 1997 as a different graft source. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the\\u000a peroneus longus tendon
Servet Kerimo?lu; Polat Ko?ucu; Murat Livao?lu; Ismail Yükünç; Ahmet U?ur Turhan
Objective:To examine the relative prevalence of histological changes that have been found to be associated with the process of tendinopathy in lesions of the tendon of the long head of the biceps brachii and to evaluate the reliability of histopathological evaluation of tendon tissue in lesions of the tendon of the long head of the biceps.Design:Tendon samples were taken from
U G Longo; F Franceschi; L Ruzzini; C Rabitti; S Morini; N Maffulli; V Denaro
Chronic patellar tendon rupture is a rare disabling injury that is technically difficult to repair. Many different surgical\\u000a methods have been reported for the reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon ruptures. We are reporting the use of contralateral\\u000a bone-tendon-bone (BTB) autograft for chronic patellar tendon rupture reconstruction followed by double-wire loop reinforcement\\u000a and without postoperative immobilization. One year after the operation,
Miroslav Z. Milankov; Natasa Miljkovic; Milan Stankovic
Tissue engineering may play a major role in the treatment of rotator cuff tendon lesions through replacement of an injured\\u000a tendon segment. Tendons have very poor spontaneous regenerative capabilities, and despite intensive remodelling, complete\\u000a regeneration is never achieved and the strength of tendon and ligaments remains as much as 30% lower than normal even months\\u000a or years following an acute
Roberto Rotini; Milena Fini; Gianluca Giavaresi; Alessandro Marinelli; Enrico Guerra; Diego Antonioli; Alessandro Castagna; Roberto Giardino
Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is commonly performed with autogenous hamstring tendon grafts.Purpose: To ascertain the effects of braiding on ultimate tensile strength and stiffness of hamstring tendon graft.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Sixteen fresh-frozen semitendinosus and gracilis tendons were harvested from eight matched (right and left) human cadaveric specimens. Both sets of hamstring tendons from each matched pair were
Peter J. Millett; Bruce S. Miller; Matthew Close; William I. Sterett; William Walsh; Richard J. Hawkins
\\u000a The deep tendon reflex responses are judged by clinicians through visual observation with great variations between different\\u000a examiners leading to high possibilities of errors. This study proposed an alternative approach to quantify the deep tendon\\u000a reflex responses. In the preliminary stage, the motion analysis system was used to collect quantitative data for patellar\\u000a tendon reflex, one of the deep tendon
L. K. Tham; N. A. Abu Osman; K. S. Lim; B. Pingguan-Murphy; W. A. B. Wan Abas
A novel technique to estimate the contribution of finger extensor tendons to joint moment generation was proposed. Effective static moment arms (ESMAs), which represent the net effects of the tendon force on joint moments in static finger postures, were estimated for the 4 degrees of freedom (DOFs) in the index finger. Specifically, the ESMAs for the five tendons contributing to
Sang Wook Lee; Hua Chen; Joseph D. Towles; Derek G. Kamper
Background. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of amniotic membrane as a long-term bioprosthesis in hand surgery.The role of the amniotic membrane was investigated in chickens with regard to the prevention of adhesion formation following tendon repair in zone II. Methods. In the control group, the flexor tendon sheath was excised and the tendon repaired. In
Fahir Demirkan; Nagehan Colakoglu; Ozkan Herek; Gürkan Erkula
Multiple grooved substrata with groove depth 5 µm were found to facilitate the healing of completely divided rat flexor tendons in vitro. Sections of tendons cultured on plain substrata showed only partial healing with incompletely sealed epitenon layers and immature thin collagen fibres. Tendons cultured on patterned substrata healed with complete restoration of the epitenon layer and reconstitution of the
B. Wòjciak; J. Crossan; A. S. G. Curtis; C. D. W. Wilkinson
Tendon elasticity is important for economical locomotion; however it is unknown whether tendon stiffness is appropriate to achieve an optimal efficiency in various muscles. Here we test the hypothesis that the Achilles tendon is of an appropriate stiffness to maximise medial gastrocnemius muscle efficiency during locomotion with different power requirements. To test this hypothesis we used a three element Hill
G. A. Lichtwark; A. M. Wilson
This report compares the morphology and the concentrations of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in an injured superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of a horse with those of a normal tendon. An injured 6-year-old male Thoroughbred exhibited heat and swelling around the SDFT of the right forelimb. On histopathological examination, exuberant granulation was observed in the affected tendon, with activated tenocytes, angiogenesis, haemorrhage,
A. Kobayashi; M. Sugisaka; K. Takehana; M. Yamaguchi; Eerdunchaolu K. Iwasa; M. Abe
An inflammatory process was induced by intratendinous injection of bacterial collagenase into the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) of the left thoracic limb of 10 horses. One week later, the tendons in five of the horses (group 1) were treated with glycosaminoglycan polysulphate (GAGPS), and the tendons of the other five (group 2) were treated with saline solution. The horses
J. R. E. Moraes; G. G. Facco; F. R. Moraes; J. R. Engracia Filho; L. G. Miyazato; D. C. Beretta
This study examines the hypothesis that recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 can enhance bone ingrowth into a tendon graft placed into a bone tunnel. We transplanted the long digital extensor tendon into a drill hole in the proximal tibia in 65 adult mongrel dogs. We applied two different doses of the bone morphogenetic protein to the tendon-bone interface in one
Scott A. Rodeo; Katsunori Suzuki; Xiang-hua Deng; John Wozney; Russell F. Warren
Background: To date, no studies document the effect of anabolic steroids on rotator cuff tendons.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Hypothesis: Anabolic steroids enhance remodeling and improve the biomechanical properties of bioartificially engineered human supraspinatus tendons.Methods: Bioartificial tendons were treated with either nandrolone decanoate (nonload, steroid, n = 18), loading (load, nonsteroid, n = 18), or both (load, steroid, n = 18).
Ioannis K. Triantafillopoulos; Albert J. Banes; Karl F. Bowman; Melissa Maloney; William E. Garrett; Spero G. Karas
This study investigated the strain pattern in human patellar tendon in an area of the tendon where changes commonly associated with patellar tendinitis are found. Eight fresh frozen human knees were instrumented with strain gauges on both the anterior and posterior side of the proximal patellar tendon. Both static and dynamic measurements were carried out in a range from 0°
Louis C. Almekinders; Jurrien H. Vellema; Paul S. Weinhold
This paper describes the assessment of neutron doses to the concrete pressure vessels and stressing tendons above the cores of the Wylfa nuclear power plant. Following the observation of unexpected levels of activation in a routinely removed tendon from the top cap gallery, it was thought prudent to assess neutron doses to the vessel and its tendons and to consider
D. A. Allen; D. A. Thornton; G. A. Wright; A. J. Bird; S. Rycroft
We evaluated the biomechanical properties of patellar tendon allografts from donors aged 18 to 55 years. Bone-patellar tendon-bone complexes were harvested from acceptable donors and processed. Fat and soft tissue were removed, and the tendons were sectioned lengthwise leaving the central third. Area measure ments were taken, and mechanical testing was per formed. Specimens were pulled to failure at a
Charlene M. Flahiff; Andrew T. Brooks; J. Marcus Hollis; Jack L. Vander Schilden; Richard W. Nicholas
In rare incidences of combined ruptures of the ACL and patellar tendon, either the patellar tendon ruptures or the associated ACL tear is often initially missed. Even when recognized, there is no established treatment regimen. We report a case of an intercollegiate football player with a combined rupture of the ACL and patellar tendon that was successfully treated by primary
Lydia A. Futch; William P. Garth; Greg J. Folsom; William K. Ogard
Background: The triceps tendon has been described as a single unit with contribution from each of the 3 heads of the muscle. An observation at the time of surgical repair of a triceps tendon injury led to an anatomical study to further define the anatomy of this tendon as it inserts on the olecranon.Hypothesis: The medial head of the triceps
Michael Madsen; Robert G. Marx; Peter J. Millett; Scott A. Rodeo; John W. Sperling; Russell F. Warren
Generally, outcome after surgical repair of complete Achilles tendon rupture is good. However, some patients have ongoing problems with dorsiflexion of the ankle joint. We report on eight patients, who did not achieve heel contact because of reduced ankle dorsiflexion 5 months after surgical repair of complete Achilles tendon rupture. All patients received at least three cycles of injections with 200-300 units of Botulinum toxin A (BOTOX) into the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle. Weakening of the triceps surae by Botulinum toxin allowed patients to perform the required exercises and to tolerate casting at night. Thus, all patients were able to tolerate plantigrade foot position 9 months after beginning of Botulinum toxin treatment. At final follow-up after 2 years, pain had significantly improved, and a mean dorsiflexion of 21 degrees was reached. In conclusion, treatment of the calf muscles with BOTOX is a safe and effective method to improve restricted dorsiflexion in patients after Achilles tendon repair. PMID:19826783
Reuter, Iris; Lorbach, Olaf; Mehnert, Sabine; Kaps, Manfred; Engelhardt, Martin
Giant cell tumours of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) and pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) are part of a spectrum of benign proliferative lesions of synovial origin that may affect the joints, bursae and tendon sheaths. This review article describes the clinicopathological features and imaging findings in patients with GCTTS. GCTTS usually presents as a soft tissue mass with pressure erosion of the underlying bone. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of GCTTS typically shows low to intermediate signal on T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo sequences due to the presence of haemosiderin, which exerts a paramagnetic effect. On gradient-echo sequences, the paramagnetic effect of haemosiderin is further exaggerated, resulting in areas of very low signal due to the blooming artefact. Ultrasonography shows a soft mass related to the tendon sheath that is hypervascular on colour or power Doppler imaging. PMID:20077044
Wan, J M C; Magarelli, N; Peh, W C G; Guglielmi, G; Shek, T W H
Stem cells are one of the most fascinating areas in regenerative medicine today. They play a crucial role in development and regeneration and are defined as cells that continuously reproduce themselves while maintaining the ability to differentiate into various cell types. Stem cells are found at all developmental stages, from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) which differentiate into all cell types, to adult stem cells (ASCs) which are responsible for tissue regeneration. Studies using animal models have shown promising results following cell therapy for induced injury in musculoskeletal system, including tendon healing, but the results can be variable. Alternative sources for cell therapy in tendon pathology may include ESCs, ASCs (bone marrow, adipose tissue or tendon derived stem cells) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). While ethical and safety concerns currently forbid clinical application of ESCs and iPSCs, initial clinical trials with ASCs are promising. PMID:23738298
Filomeno, Paola; Dayan, Victor; Touriño, Cristina
During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of the core samples indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the surface was due to leakage of the filler from the conduits and its subsequent migration to the concrete surface through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks with no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength tests indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased relative to the strength at 28 days age.
Costello, J.F.; Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.
Introduction Weight lifting is commonly associated with an increase in knee injury risk. Local steroid injection is thought to be associated\\u000a with increased risk of spontaneous tendon rupture. The purpose of this report is to describe incidence of rupture of the patellar\\u000a tendon after receiving multiple local steroid injections in weight lifters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods Seven weight lifters presented at the hospital
Shen-Kai Chen; Cheng-Chang Lu; Pei-His Chou; Lan-Yuen Guo; Wen-Lan Wu
A case of a young body-builder who had ingested megadoses of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) for 6 yr and who sustained bilateral avulsions of the distal biceps tendon is presented. Explosive behavior, painful gynecomastia, and a slight hypertrophy of both the left and right ventricular walls of the heart were other possible adverse effects of AAS in this patient. Reinsertion of both distal biceps tendons to the radial tuberosity was performed according to the Boyd-Anderson technique and a good result was achieved. PMID:7968426
Visuri, T; Lindholm, H
Introduction A prospective study of modified percutaneous Achilles tendon repair performed between 1999 and 2005 under local infiltration\\u000a anesthesia is presented; the study evaluated the results of percutaneous repair technique by visualization of the synovia\\u000a under endoscopic control, followed by early functional postoperative treatment for surgical intervention of acute Achilles\\u000a tendon ruptures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients Sixty-two patients (58 males, 4 females, mean age 32)
Mahmut Nedim Doral; Murat Bozkurt; Egemen Turhan; Mehmet Ayvaz; Özgür Ahmet Atay; Ak?n Üzümcügil; Gürsel Leblebicio?lu; Defne Kaya; Tolga Aydo?
Spontaneous ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee are very rare. They tend to increase considerably in patients with metabolic diseases such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The reported case regards a 48-year-old man with chronic, spontaneous and simultaneous quadriceps, and contra-lateral patellar tendon rupture. The patient suffered from chronic renal failure and for the past year from tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Ruptured tendons were repaired and both knee were evaluated monthly for the next 12 months. Good functional recovery was achieved on both knees without relapse. This case emphasizes the importance of long-term high parathyroid hormone level in the etiology of tendons ruptures.
Grecomoro, Giuseppe; Martorana, Umberto
Spontaneous ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee are very rare. They tend to increase considerably in patients with metabolic diseases such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The reported case regards a 48-year-old man with chronic, spontaneous and simultaneous quadriceps, and contra-lateral patellar tendon rupture. The patient suffered from chronic renal failure and for the past year from tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Ruptured tendons were repaired and both knee were evaluated monthly for the next 12 months. Good functional recovery was achieved on both knees without relapse. This case emphasizes the importance of long-term high parathyroid hormone level in the etiology of tendons ruptures. PMID:19384613
Grecomoro, Giuseppe; Camarda, Lawrence; Martorana, Umberto
We tested four types of surgical repair for load to failure and distraction in a bovine model of Achilles tendon repair. A total of 20 fresh bovine Achilles tendons were divided transversely 4 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion and randomly repaired using the Dresden technique, a Krackow suture, a triple-strand Dresden technique or a modified oblique Dresden technique, all using a Fiberwire suture. Each tendon was loaded to failure. The force applied when a 5 mm gap was formed, peak load to failure, and mechanism of failure were recorded. The resistance to distraction was significantly greater for the triple technique (mean 246.1 N (205 to 309) to initial gapping) than for the Dresden (mean 180 N (152 to 208); p = 0.012) and the Krackow repairs (mean 101 N (78 to 112; p < 0.001). Peak load to failure was significantly greater for the triple-strand repair (mean 675 N (453 to 749)) than for the Dresden (mean 327.8 N (238 to 406); p < 0.001), Krackow (mean 223.6 N (210 to 252); p < 0.001) and oblique repairs (mean 437.2 N (372 to 526); p < 0.001). Failure of the tendon was the mechanism of failure for all specimens except for the tendons sutured using the Krackow technique, where the failure occurred at the knot. The triple-strand technique significantly increased the tensile strength (p = 0.0001) and gap resistance (p = 0.01) of bovine tendon repairs, and might have advantages in human application for accelerated post-operative rehabilitation. PMID:22529088
Ortiz, C; Wagner, E; Mocoçain, P; Labarca, G; Keller, A; Del Buono, A; Maffulli, N
The ability of tendons to glide smoothly during muscle contraction is impaired after injury by fibrous adhesions that form between the damaged tendon surface and surrounding tissues. To understand how adhesions form we incubated excised tendons in fibrin gels (to mimic the homeostatic environment at the injury site) and assessed cell migration. We noticed cells exiting the tendon from only
Susan H. Taylor; Sarah Al-Youha; Tom van Agtmael; Yinhui Lu; Jason Wong; Duncan A. McGrouther; Karl E. Kadler; Sudha Agarwal
Few studies have analyzed the effect of stretching after immobilization on the structural and biochemical properties of tendons. Here, the effect of stretching and immobilization on the proximal (p), intermediate (i), and distal (d) regions of the deep digital flexor tendon in rats was analyzed. The d region was subjected to compression and tension forces, the i region was subjected to compressive forces and the p region received tension forces. Rats were separated into five groups: GI--control for GII; GII--immobilized rats; GIII--control for GIV and GV groups; GIV--immobilized and stretched rats; and GV--immobilized rats which were allowed free cage activity. GII showed a higher molecular organization in the d and p regions as detected by measuring optical retardation, a lower concentration of hydroxyproline in the i region and a significant decrease in noncollagenous proteins found in the three regions of the tendon. Regarding the glycosaminoglycans, diminishing dermatan sulfate and the absence of chondroitin sulfate in the i region were observed in GII when compared to GI. However, in the same region of GIV, higher concentrations of chondroitin and dermatan sulfate were observed along with a strong metachromasy. An increase in hydroxyproline content in the i region and a higher molecular organization in the d and p regions were observed in GIV. Apparently, the active isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 also increased after stretching in all regions. These results suggest that stretching after immobilization contributed to the increase in molecular organization and to the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. PMID:21967646
de Aro, Andrea Aparecida; Vidal, Benedicto de Campos; Biancalana, Adriano; Tolentino, Felipe Thadeu; Gomes, Laurecir; Mattiello, Stela Márcia; Pimentel, Edson Rosa
As the repair of injured or degenerated tendon is often compromised by the shortage of suitable donor tissue, other procedures need to be developed. The application of a functional tissue engineered tendon could prove to be a promising alternative therapy. Due to their good biocompatibility, collagen hydrogel based scaffolds have been considered to be potentially suitable for engineering tendon tissue in vitro. One of the major limitations of collagen hydrogels for engineering tissues is the difficulty in controlling their architecture and collagen concentration which results in poor mechanical strength. This study aims to overcome these limitations by creating a highly biocompatible scaffold that is both mechanically robust and aligned. Collagen fibers were pre-aligned under a high magnetic field then concentrated using plastic compression. Primary tenocytes cultured from rats were seeded on the aligned scaffolds. Following a protocol in public domain, thick cultured collagen constructs were rolled up into a spiral after undergoing plastic compressed. Both a light microscopy and a polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PSOCT) with central beam at 1300 nm were used to monitor the birefringence in the constructs. Conventional light microscopy showed that the tenocytes aligned along the pre-organized collagen bundles in contrast to the random distributed observed on unaligned scaffolds. PSOCT only revealed weak birefringence from aligned but uncompressed constructs. However, PSOCT images showed contrast band structures in the spiral constructs which suggests that the birefringence signal depends on the density of aligned collagen fibers. The effect of aligned cells, neo-formed matrix and the plastic compression on the birefringence signals are discussed in this paper briefly.
Yang, Ying; Ahearne, Mark; Wimpenny, Ian; Torbet, Jim
Understanding the relationship between cell shape and cellular function is important for study of cell biology in general and for regulation of cell phenotype in tissue engineering in particular. In this study, microcontact printing technique was used to create cell-adhesive rectangular and circular islands. The rectangular islands had three aspect ratios: 19.6, 4.9, and 2.2, respectively, whereas circular islands had a diameter of 50 microm. Both rectangular and circular islands had the same area of 1960 microm(2). In culture, we found that human tendon fibroblasts (HTFs) assumed the shapes of these islands. Quantitative immunofluorescence measurement showed that more elongated cells expressed higher collagen type I than did less stretched cells even though cell spreading area was the same. This suggests that HTFs, which assume an elongated shape in vivo, have optimal morphology in terms of expression of collagen type I, which is a major component of normal tendons. Using immunohistochemistry along with cell traction force microscopy (CTFM), we further found that these HTFs with different shapes exhibited variations in actin cytoskeletal structure, spatial arrangement of focal adhesions, and spatial distribution and magnitude of cell traction forces. The changes in the actin cytoskeletal structure, focal adhesion distributions, and traction forces in cells with different shapes may be responsible for altered collagen expression, as they are known to be involved in cellular mechanotransduction. PMID:18240273
Li, Fang; Li, Bin; Wang, Qing-Ming; Wang, James H-C
The structural integrity and the biomechanical characteristics of ligaments and tendons result from the interactions between collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g. proteoglycans, PGs) in the extracellular matrix. In this paper, a dissipative theory of temporary interfibrillar bridges in the anisotropic network of collagen type I, embedded in a ground substance, is derived. The glycosaminoglycan chains of decorin are assumed to mediate interactions between fibrils, behaving as viscous structures that transmit deformations outside the collagen molecules. This approach takes into account the dissipative effects of the unfolding preceding fibrillar elongation, together with the slippage of entire fibrils and the strain-rate-dependent damage evolution of the interfibrillar bridges. Thermodynamic consistency is used to derive the constitutive equations, and the transition state theory is applied to model the rearranging properties of the interfibrillar bridges. The constitutive theory is applied to reproduce the hysteretic spectrum of the tissues, demonstrating how PGs determine damage evolution, softening and non-recoverable strains in their cyclic mechanical response. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental response of ligaments and tendons from referenced studies. The relevance of the proposed model in mechanobiology research is discussed, together with several applications from medical practice to bioengineering science.
Ciarletta, P.; Ben Amar, M.
Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a benign proliferative process of synovial tissue creating multiple cartilaginous nodules in joints. It most commonly occurs in the large joints of the knee, hip, and shoulder, uncommonly in the small joints of the hand and foot, and only rarely in the tenosynovial membrane of tendon sheath, termed tenosynovial chondromatosis (TC). Unlike SC, TC predisposes to the foot or hand. The rarity and unfamiliarity of imagers with TC, as well as the variability of its histologic features often lead to an erroneous diagnosis of extraskeletal chondroma or even chondrosarcoma as in the present case. Calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) crystals are usually deposited in the articular cartilage or periarticular structures such as synovium and capsule, and rarely in other soft tissue structures including bursa, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and dura mater. CPPD crystals may also be deposited in extraskeletal chondroma and SC. We present an exceptionally rare case of huge tophaceous pseudogout associated with TC that is considered to arise from the flexor digitorum longus tendon sheaths of the foot, initially mistaken for a chondrosarcoma. PMID:23828620
Bahk, Won-Jong; Chang, Eun-Deok; Lee, An-Hi; Kang, Yong-Koo; Park, Jung-Mi; Chung, Yang-Guk
Injectable calcium phosphate cement (ICPC) has been applied to enhance the tendon-to-bone healing. However, its slow degradation delays the osteointegration of grafted tendon in bone tunnels. We therefore constructed a synthetic biomaterial of ICPC combined with recombined bone xenograft granules (RBX). In this study, the first stage study demonstrated that the ICPCB contained 3 mg BMPs (ICPCB-3) obtained a porous structure. More importantly, the values of ICPCB-3 were highest in cell proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of osteogenic genes, and newly ectopic bone-forming area (P < 0.05). Then, ICPCB-3 was used in an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction model. Ninety skeletal mature rabbits underwent bilateral ACL reconstructions and were assigned to 3 groups: control group, ICPC alone group, and ICPCB-3 group. Animals were sacrificed at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. The results showed compared with ICPC, ICPCB-3 composite markedly accelerated tendon-to-bone healing. In addition, little remnants were observed in ICPCB-3 group. Moreover, the maximum loads to failure of ICPCB-3 group was significantly higher than ICPC group at 24 weeks (P < 0.01). We conclude that the ICPCB composite, with a porous structure and better osteointegration effect, has direct clinical instruction to arthroscopic techniques of the ACL reconstruction. PMID:24075477
Weimin, Pan; Dan, Li; Yiyong, Wei; Yunyu, Hu; Li, Zhou
The supraspinatus tendon is composed of 5 different layers consisting of intertwining bundles. On a front portion of the tendon, the layers become coated bundles which insert on the trochanter. At the insertion, the superficial or bursal surface of the tendon corresponding to the tendon fibers in contact with the subacromial bursa can be distinguished from the deep surface corresponding to the fibers in contact with the glenohumeral joint. A tendon tear may involve partial or total disruption of the tendon fibers and is called full-thickness tear if it affects the entire tendon, and partial-thickness tear if it involves only part of the tendon. Partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon include lesions of the superficial, deep and central surface or tendon delamination.A contrast enhanced examination requires injection of contrast agent into the joint (arthrography followed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to study the deep surface, and injection into the subacromial bursa (bursography followed by CT) to study the superficial surface. MRI and ultrasound (US) examination allow the study of these different tendon layers without the use of contrast agent (which is not possible at CT). PMID:23396264
Guerini, H; Fermand, M; Godefroy, D; Feydy, A; Chevrot, A; Morvan, G; Gault, N; Drapé, J L
The supraspinatus tendon is composed of 5 different layers consisting of intertwining bundles. On a front portion of the tendon, the layers become coated bundles which insert on the trochanter. At the insertion, the superficial or bursal surface of the tendon corresponding to the tendon fibers in contact with the subacromial bursa can be distinguished from the deep surface corresponding to the fibers in contact with the glenohumeral joint. A tendon tear may involve partial or total disruption of the tendon fibers and is called full-thickness tear if it affects the entire tendon, and partial-thickness tear if it involves only part of the tendon. Partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon include lesions of the superficial, deep and central surface or tendon delamination. A contrast enhanced examination requires injection of contrast agent into the joint (arthrography followed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to study the deep surface, and injection into the subacromial bursa (bursography followed by CT) to study the superficial surface. MRI and ultrasound (US) examination allow the study of these different tendon layers without the use of contrast agent (which is not possible at CT).
Guerini, H.; Fermand, M.; Godefroy, D.; Feydy, A.; Chevrot, A.; Morvan, G.; Gault, N.; Drape, J.L.
The aim of this study was to quantify the amount of tendon excursion and load experienced during simulated active and passive rehabilitation exercises. Six cadaver specimens were utilized to examine tendon excursion and load. Lateral fluoroscopic images were used to measure the excursions of metal markers placed in the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus tendons of the index, middle, and ring fingers. Measurements were performed during ten different passive and active simulated motions. Mean tendon forces were higher in all active versus passive movements. Blocking movements placed the highest loads on the flexor tendons. Active motion resulted in higher tendon excursion than did passive motion. Simulated hook position resulted in the highest total tendon excursion and the highest inter-tendinous excursion. This knowledge may help optimize the management of the post-operative exercise therapy regimen. PMID:23221181
Sapienza, A; Yoon, H K; Karia, R; Lee, S K
Loss of Achilles tendon combined with overlying soft tissue loss is a challenging problem. Multiple techniques like tendon graft with coverage by soft tissue flap or composite flaps have been used. All these options are technically demanding. Reports do exist whereby muscle flaps bridging the defect used as cover in course of time could transmit the tendon force across the defect. We are presenting a case where a free gracilis muscle flap used to cover the soft tissue defect at the Achilles tendon at 2 years follow up provided stable cover and produced active function of the Achilles tendon allowing the patient to stand tip toe. Mechanism of its action has been analysed by MRI and M-mode ultrasound. While in primary Achilles tendon injury reconstruction is still the recommended option, in complex situations mere filling of the gap with the flap without formal reconstruction of the tendon could give good functional outcome. This technique can be used in demanding situations.
Sabapathy, S. Raja; Venkataramani, Hari; Latheef, Latheesh; Bhardwaj, Praveen
Ankle injuries are a frequent cause of patient visits to the emergency department and orthopaedic and primary care offices. Although lateral ligament sprains are the most common pathologic conditions, peroneal tendon subluxations occur with a similar inversion mechanism. Multiple grades of subluxation have been described with a recent addition of intrasheath subluxation. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality
Jennifer A Roth; Walter C Taylor; Joseph Whalen
The cause of carpal tunnel syndrome in a 51 year-old female patient was the attachement of the flexor digitorum superficialis tendon to the palmar aponeurosis. Variations of the musculature in the hand are not only of anatomic interest, but are also of clinical significance in so far as they may present a source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. PMID:3699592
In patients with tennis elbow, the common extensor tendon showed a pronounced reactive change consisting of mesenchymal cell proliferation along with aggregates of newly formed vascular channels. When studied ultrastructurally, many of the mesenchymal cells adjacent to the vascular channels were surrounded by a basal lamina, which is not normally seen around tenocytes. The cytoplasm of these cells showed features
Kiriti Sarkar; Hans K. Uhthoff
The repeated use of local steroid injections in the treatment of tenosynovitis in the active athlete is to be abandoned, not only because it masks the symptoms of tenosynovitis, giving the patient a false sense of security, but also because local injection of steroid decreases the tensile strength of tendon and predisposes it to complete rupture.
Louis J. Unverferth; Melvin L. Olix
This paper describes a novel bow spring and tendon actuator design for a haptic interface that provides high- bandwidth force transmission to the ìngers, with a large range of motion. This is combined with a low-cost step- per motor and a low-cost optical encoder, along with self- calibration and control compensation to produce a smooth force source with excellent hard
Dale A. Lawrence; Lucy Y. Pao; Sutha Aphanuphong
The paper describes tests on two concrete beams, prestressed with parallel-lay aramid ropes (Parafil). One beam had a length of 5m, with an I-beam section, and was stressed with a single, straight, unbonded tendon in a duct on the centerline. The other be...
C. J. Burgoyne G. B. Guimaraes J. J. Chambers
Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes. PMID:15884646
Cooper, Maureen A; Laverty, Peter H; Soiderer, Emily E
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality and is associated with many orthopedic procedures. Previous studies have reported highly variable DVT rates in patients with Achilles tendon rupture undergoing operative and nonoperative treatment. We performed a retrospective chart review for all patients who underwent Achilles tendon repair at our institution from January 2006 to February 2012. Patient data were collected from the electronic medical record system. A total of 115 patients were eligible for the present study. Of these patients, 27 (23.47%) with a surgically treated Achilles tendon rupture developed a symptomatic DVT either while waiting for, or after, surgical intervention, with approximately one third of these diagnosed before surgical intervention. Of the 27 patients with DVT, 3 had a proximal DVT and 24 had a distal DVT. One patient developed a pulmonary embolism. The DVT incidence was greater in the 2 older age groups (40 to 59 and 60 to 79 years) compared individually with the younger age group (20 to 39 years; p < .0026 and p < .0014, respectively). We have shown a high incidence of DVT after Achilles tendon rupture. We recommend a high level of suspicion for the signs and symptoms of DVT during the follow-up period. In addition, patient education and early mobilization should be advocated, especially for patients older than 40 years. Additional randomized controlled trials investigating any benefits to pharmaceutical DVT prophylaxis in this population are needed to establish evidence-based recommendations. PMID:23623625
Makhdom, Asim M; Cota, Adam; Saran, Neil; Chaytor, Ruth
The authors report on a rare case of multicentric giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in the right index finger of a 76-year-old woman. In the present case, three lesions simultaneously arose at different sites in the same finger. Magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative findings revealed no contiguity among the three lesions. A multicentric origin of the tumor is
Toshihiro Akisue; Tetsuji Yamamoto; Teruya Kawamoto; Toshiaki Hitora
Dislocation of the flexor hallucis longus tendon is an exceptional occurrence. To our knowledge, this is the first case ever reported of an intermittent dislocation in a 17-year-old woman; she was a synchronised swimmer. She consulted for a right internal retro-malleolar syndrome. Voluntary \\
M. Renard; J. Simonet; P. Bencteux; P. Raynaud; N. Biga; J. Thiébot
Many robotic hands or prosthetic hands have been developed in the last several decades, and many use tendon-driven mechanisms for their transmissions. Robotic hands are now built with underactuated mechanisms, which have fewer actuators than degrees of freedom, to reduce mechanical complexity or to realize a biomimetic motion such as flexion of an index finger. The design is heuristic and
Ryuta Ozawa; Kazunori Hashirii; Hiroaki Kobayashi
Abstract Two cats presented with bilateral flexor tendon contracture following onychectomy. This previously unreported complication proved to be painful and debilitating. Deep digital flexor tenectomy successfully resolved the problem. Twelve months after surgery, the first cat remains free of complications. The second cat recovered full limb function, but died of unrelated causes.
Ten athletes with distal biceps tendon ruptures that had been anatomically repaired with a double-incision technique were reviewed to determine their functional recovery. All of the patients were men, with an average age of 40 years (range, 25 to 49). Eight of the 10 patients were weight lifters or body builders, and 7 had participated on a competitive level at
Donald F. DAlessandro; Clarence L. Shields; James E. Tibone; Robert W. Chandler
Eccentric contractions, where the active muscle is stretched, can lead to muscle damage. One of the signs of damage is a rise in the whole-muscle passive tension. Here we have asked, how many eccentric contractions are necessary to produce a measurable rise in passive tension and can this be detected by the muscle's tension sensors, the tendon organs? Responses of
J. E. Gregory; D. L. Morgan; U. Proske
Three types of tendons were developed for tension leg platforms. Each type is a 500 mm diameter, 25 mm wall, 10 m long steel pipe that has forged connectors girth-welded at both ends, and has a yield strength of approximately 56 kgf/sq mm. The three-piece...
Y. Takeshi Y. Shiomi S. Yano N. Noudo H. Mimura
We describe the imaging and pathologic features of a case of intratendinous patellar gouty tophus incidentally discovered in a patient with knee pain. The possibility of intratendinous gouty tophus must be kept in mind by sports physicians, especially in the management of patellar tendinopathy in athletes. It may be associated with other injuries, such as enthesopathies or partial tendon tears. PMID:22457228
Rodas, Gil; Pedret, Carles; Català, Jordi; Soler, Robert; Orozco, Lluís; Cusi, Manuel
Tendon properties have an important effect on the mechanical behaviour of muscles, with compliant tendons allowing near-isometric muscle contraction and facilitating elastic energy storage and recoil. Stiff tendons, in contrast, facilitate rapid force transfer and precise positional control. In humans, the long Achilles tendon contributes to the mechanical efficiency of running via elastic energy storage and recovery, and its presence has been linked to the evolution of habitual bipedalism. Gibbons also possess relatively long hind limb tendons; however, their role is as yet unknown. Based on their large dimensions, and inferring from the situation in humans, we hypothesize that the tendons in the gibbon hind limb will facilitate elastic energy storage and recoil during hind-limb-powered locomotion. To investigate this, we determined the material properties of the gibbon Achilles and patellar tendon in vitro and linked this with available kinematic and kinetic data to evaluate their role in leaping and bipedalism. Tensile tests were conducted on tendon samples using a material testing machine and the load-displacement data were used to calculate stiffness, Young's modulus and hysteresis. In addition, the average stress-in-life and energy absorption capacity of both tendons were estimated. We found a functional difference between the gibbon Achilles and patellar tendon, with the Achilles tendon being more suitable for elastic energy storage and release. The patellar tendon, in contrast, has a relatively high hysteresis, making it less suitable to act as elastic spring. This suggests that the gibbon Achilles tendon might fulfil a similar function as in humans, contributing to reducing the locomotor cost of bipedalism by acting as elastic spring, while the high stiffness of the patellar tendon might favour fast force transfer upon recoil and, possibly, enhance leaping performance. PMID:23868842
Vereecke, Evie E; Channon, Anthony J
Tendon pain after repair of an acute Achilles tendon rupture can result from suture granuloma formation, modification of the threshold of the pain receptors inside the tendon by scar tissue, expansion of the paratenon by tendon enlargement with secondary stimulation of mechanoreceptors, or underlying tendon degeneration. In the present technique report, an endoscopic technique of Achilles tenolysis for denervation and debulking is described that might be applicable in cases in which conservative treatment fails to alleviate the pain. PMID:23085384
Lui, Tun Hing
Transosseous repair of a supraspinatus tendon (SSP) defect (Patte size II) can be difficult if the tendon is retracted and\\u000a the muscle atrophied. In this situation alternatives are margin convergence techniques, local tendon transfers or distant\\u000a tendon transfers in massive tears. The object of this study was to compare two local tendon transfers in terms of the feasibility\\u000a of the
Philip Kasten; Markus Loew; Markus Rickert
Background: Postfixation loosening within the Krackow stitch—tendon construct may be associated with gap formation in patellar tendon repair.Hypothesis: Pretensioning the Krackow stitch—tendon construct decreases postfixation gap formation in transpatellar patellar tendon repair.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Patellar tendon rupture was simulated in 8 pairs of cadaveric knees. Standard manual traction was used in all specimens to remove Krackow stitch slack.
Erik M. Krushinski; Brent G. Parks; Richard Y. Hinton
The function of the posterior tibial (PT) tendon is to stabilize the hindfoot against valgus and eversion forces. It functions as the primary invertor of the foot and assists the Achilles tendon in plantar flexion. The PT tendon is a stance phase muscle, firing from heel strike to shortly after heel lift-off. It decelerates subtalar joint pronation after heel contact. It functions as a powerful subtalar joint supinator and as a support of the medial longitudinal arch. The action of the tendon travels to the transverse tarsal joints, locking them and allowing the gastrocnemius to support heel rise. Acute injuries of the PT tendon are rare and mostly affect the active middle-aged patient or they are the result of complex injuries to the ankle joint complex. Dysfunction of the PT tendon following degeneration and rupture, in contrast, has shown an increasing incidence in recent years. To which extent changed lifestyle, advancing age, comorbidities, and obesity play a role has not yet been clarified in detail. Dysfunction of the PT tendon results in progressive destabilization of the hind- and midfoot. Clinically, the ongoing deformation of the foot can be classified into four stages: in stage 1, the deformity is distinct and fully correctable; in stage II, the deformity is obvious, but still correctable; in stage III, the deformity has become stiff; and in stage IV, the ankle joint is also involved in the deformity. Treatment modalities depend on stage: while conservative measures may work in stage I, surgical treatment is mandatory for the later stages. Reconstructive surgery is advised in stage II, whereas in stage III and IV correcting and stabilizing arthrodeses are advised. A promising treatment option for stage IV may be adding an ankle prosthesis to a triple arthrodesis, as long as the remaining competence of the deltoid ligament is sufficient. An appropriate treatment is mandatory to avoid further destabilization and deformation of the foot. Failures of treatment result mostly from underestimation of the problem or insufficient treatment of existing instability and deformity. PMID:21088955
Hintermann, B; Knupp, M
Successful tissue engineered repair in the aging adult requires an abundant source of autologous, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although the number of bone marrow-derived MSCs declines dramatically with aging, their effectiveness in repair with increasing age has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that MSCs harvested from geriatric rabbits would not repair patellar tendon defects as well as MSCs harvested from younger adult rabbits. In a novel within-subjects experiment, autologous MSCs were isolated from 1-year old rabbits, culture expanded, and cryogenically preserved. After housing the rabbits for 3 years, MSCs were re-harvested from the 4-year old rabbits and expanded. Five hundred thousand thawed and fresh MSCs were each separately mixed with type I collagen gel (333.3 x 10(3) cells/mg collagen) 24 h before surgery, and the resulting constructs implanted in bilateral full-length central third tendon defects. Twelve weeks post-surgery, the bone-tendon repair-bone units were failed in tension. Intra-animal (paired) comparisons between repair tissue treated with 1-year old MSCs and repair tissue treated with 4-year old MSCs resulted in no significant differences (alpha=0.05) in material properties including maximum stress (10.8 MPa vs. 9.9 MPa; p=0.762), modulus (139.8 MPa vs. 146.2 MPa; p=0.914), and strain energy density (0.52 N mm/mm(3) vs. 0.53 N mm/mm(3); p=0.966). Despite an age-related trend, there were also no significant differences in structural properties including maximum force (62.9 N vs. 27.0 N; p=0.070), stiffness (24.9 N/mm vs. 12.0 N/mm; p=0.111), and strain energy (87.2 N mm vs. 31.4 N mm; p=0.061). A subset of the rabbits (n=4 1 yrMSC, n=2 4 yrMSC) showed the presence of ectopic bone in the repair region and were not included in the mechanical analyses. We conclude that in the rabbit model MSCs do not lose their benefit as a tendon repair therapy with aging and that MSCs can be cryogenically stored for 3 years and still effectively repair soft tissue injuries. PMID:15734238
Dressler, M R; Butler, D L; Boivin, G P
Corticosteroid injection is commonly used to treat tendon injuries but is often associated with tendon rupture and impaired tendon healing. The effects of dexamethasone on tenocytes have been studied in vitro but only using high concentrations of dexamethasone in monolayer cultures of tenocytes over short periods of time. We have therefore investigated the effects of physiological and pharmacological concentrations of dexamethasone on monolayer cultures of tenocytes over extended time periods. We have also used fibroblastic-colony forming unit cultures to examine the effects of dexamethasone on a progenitor cell population located in tendons. Culturing tenocytes in the presence of dexamethasone for a period of 24 days resulted in a concentration-related decrease in cell number and collagen synthesis as compared to control cultures. This effect was time dependent with cell number in both dexamethasone-treated and control cultures leveling off after 14 days with the control cultures reaching higher cell densities. In contrast in control cultures, collagen accumulation continued to increase until week 4, whereas in the presence of dexamethasone, this tended to level off after 14 days. To study the role of progenitor cell recruitment, the effects of dexamethasone were investigated using the fibroblastic-colony forming unit assay. Treatment with dexamethasone at concentrations of 0.1 nM to 10 microM leads to a progressive reduction in mean colony size as compared to control cultures. Colony number remained constant at concentrations below 10 nM but fell progressively at concentrations above this. In conclusion, dexamethasone reduces both cell number and collagen synthesis in tenocyte cultures in a concentration-dependent manner by both direct effects on tenocyte proliferation and collagen accumulation, and also by modulating the recruitment of tendon progenitor cells. PMID:16435354
Scutt, Nanette; Rolf, Christer G; Scutt, Andrew
Passive elastic behavior of tendon tissue from rats subjected to different dietary treatments was characterized. For that purpose, twenty-four weanling Wistar rats (41.02 ± 0.16 g) were randomly distributed into four groups. During 88 days each group was fed on different diets: control diet and diets containing advanced glycation end products (AGEs) from glucose-lysine model system, from bread crust and bread dough, respectively. After the trial animals were sacrificed and tendon samples were extracted and tested mechanically to fracture in a uniaxial tensile test machine. A transversely-hyperelastic model was formulated based on stress-strain relationships and its parameters were fit to the experimental data using the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm. Material parameters were incorporated in a finite element model to study different stress-strain distributions in a muscle-tendon unit. Results show higher strains and stresses in the muscle belly when properties of a stiffer tendon associated with a diet rich in AGEs are included in the model. A real increase in this mechanical response of the tissue could imply possible pain in joint mobility. PMID:23064866
Grasa, J; Calvo, B; Delgado-Andrade, C; Navarro, M P
Introduction In this study, we aimed to investigate ultrasonographic (US) changes suggestive of gouty arthritis in the hyaline cartilage, joints and tendons from asymptomatic individuals with hyperuricemia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, controlled study including US examinations of the knees and first metatarsal-phalangeal joints (first MTPJs), as well as of the tendons and enthesis of the lower limbs. Differences were estimated by ?2 or unpaired t-tests as appropriate. Associations were calculated using the Spearman's correlation coefficient rank test. Results Fifty asymptomatic individuals with hyperuricemia and 52 normouricemic subjects were included. Hyperechoic enhancement of the superficial margin of the hyaline cartilage (double contour sign) was found in 25% of the first MTPJs from hyperuricemic individuals, in contrast to none in the control group (P < 0.0001). Similar results were found on the femoral cartilage (17% versus 0; P < 0.0001). Patellar enthesopathy (12% versus 2.9%; P = 0.01) and tophi (6% versus 0; P = 0.01) as well as Achilles enthesopathy (15% versus 1.9%; P = 0.0007) were more frequent in hyperuricemic than in normouricemic individuals. Intra-articular tophi were found in eight hyperuricemic individuals but in none of the normouricemic subjects (P = 0.003). Conclusions These data demonstrate that morphostructural changes suggestive of gouty arthritis induced by chronic hyperuricemia frequently occur in both intra- and extra-articular structures of clinically asymptomatic individuals.
Bone is a hierarchically structured composite which imparts it with unique mechanical properties and bioresorptive potential. These properties are primarily influenced by the underlying nanostructure of bone, which consists of nanocrystals of hydroxyapatite embedded and uniaxially aligned within collagen fibrils. There is also a small fraction of non-collagenous proteins in bone, and these are thought to play an important role in bone's formation. In our in vitro model system of bone formation, polyanionic peptides are used to mimic the role of the non-collagenous proteins. In our prior studies, we have shown that intrafibrillar mineralization can be achieved in synthetic reconstituted collagen sponges using a polymer-induced liquid-precursor (PILP) mineralization process. This led to a nanostructured arrangement of hydroxyapatite crystals within the individual fibrils which closely mimics that of bone. This report demonstrates that biogenic collagen scaffolds obtained from turkey tendon, which consist of densely packed and oriented collagen fibrils, can also be mineralized by the PILP process. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies show that the mineralization process leads to a high degree of crystallographic orientation at the macroscale, thus emulating that found in the biological system of naturally mineralizing turkey tendon.
Jee, S.S.; DiMasi, E.; Kasinath, R.K.; Kim, Y.Y.; Gower, L.
Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A) injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mousegastrocnemius muscle (GC) was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18) or normal saline (n = 18) and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p < 0.05) and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm vs. 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, p < 0.05) compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit.
Haubruck, Patrick; Mannava, Sandeep; Plate, Johannes F.; Callahan, Michael F.; Wiggins, Walter F.; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Tuohy, Christopher J.; Saul, Katherine R.; Smith, Thomas L.
Since neovascularization has been reported that it is associated with tendinopathy, assessments of vascularity are important for both diagnosis and treatment estimation. Photoacoustic imaging, taking the advantages of good ultrasonic resolution and high optical absorption contrast, has been shown a promising tool for vascular imaging. In this study, we explore the feasibility of photoacoustic micro-imaging in noninvasive monitoring of microvascular changes in Achilles tendon injuries on a mouse model in vivo. During collagenase-induced tendinitis, a 25-MHz photoacoustic microscope was used to image microvascular changes in Achilles tendons of mice longitudinally up to 23 days. In addition, complementary tissue structural information was revealed by collateral 25-MHz ultrasound microscopy. Morphological changes and proliferation of new blood vessels in Achilles tendons were observed during and after the acute inflammation. Observed microvascular changes during tendinitis were similar to the findings in the literatures. This study demonstrates that photoacoustic imaging can potentially be a complementary tool for high sensitive diagnosis and assessment of treatment performance in tendinopathy.
Wang, Po-Hsun; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Li, Meng-Lin
Tendons are often injured and heal poorly. Whether this is caused by a slow tissue turnover is unknown, since existing data provide diverging estimates of tendon protein half-life that range from 2 mo to 200 yr. With the purpose of determining life-long turnover of human tendon tissue, we used the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955–1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples (donor birth years 1945–1983) with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and compared to known atmospheric levels to estimate tissue turnover. We found that Achilles tendon tissue retained levels of 14C corresponding to atmospheric levels several decades before tissue sampling, demonstrating a very limited tissue turnover. The tendon concentrations of 14C approximately reflected the atmospheric levels present during the first 17 yr of life, indicating that the tendon core is formed during height growth and is essentially not renewed thereafter. In contrast, 14C levels in muscle indicated continuous turnover. Our observation provides a fundamental premise for understanding tendon function and pathology, and likely explains the poor regenerative capacity of tendon tissue.—Heinemeier, K. M., Schjerling, P., Heinemeier, J., Magnusson, S. P., Kjaer, M. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C.
Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, Jan; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Kjaer, Michael
We investigated the hypothesis that exogenous collagen cross-linking can augment intact regions of tendon to mitigate mechanical propagation of partial tears. We first screened the low toxicity collagen cross-linkers genipin, methylglyoxal and ultra-violet (UV) light for their ability to augment tendon stiffness and failure load in rat tail tendon fascicles (RTTF). We then investigated cross-linking effects in load bearing equine superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFT). Data indicated that all three cross-linking agents augmented RTTF mechanical properties but reduced native viscoelasticity. In contrast to effects observed in fascicles, methylglyoxal treatment of SDFT detrimentally affected tendon mechanical integrity, and in the case of UV did not alter tendon mechanics. As in the RTTF experiments, genipin cross-linking of SDFT resulted in increased stiffness, higher failure loads and reduced viscoelasticity. Based on this result we assessed the efficacy of genipin in arresting tendon tear propagation in cyclic loading to failure. Genipin cross-linking secondary to a mid-substance biopsy-punch significantly reduced tissue strains, increased elastic modulus and increased resistance to fatigue failure. We conclude that genipin cross-linking of injured tendons holds potential for arresting tendon tear progression, and that implications of the treatment on matrix remodeling in living tendons should now be investigated. PMID:22102295
Fessel, Gion; Wernli, Jeremy; Li, Yufei; Gerber, Christian; Snedeker, Jess G
Background The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of aging on tendon response to repetitive exposures of stretch-shortening cycles (SSC's). Methods The left hind limb from young (3 mo, N = 4) and old (30 mo, N = 9) male Fisher 344 × Brown Norway rats were exposed to 80 maximal SSCs (60 deg/s, 50 deg range of motion) 3x/week for 4.5 weeks in vivo. After the last exposure, tendons from the tibialis anterior muscle were isolated, stored at -80°C, and then tested using a micro-mechanical testing machine. Deformation of each tendon was evaluated using both relative grip-to-grip displacements and reference marks via a video system. Results At failure, the young control tendons had higher strain magnitude than the young exposed (p < 0.01) and the old control