Sample records for tendons structural

  1. Structure of the human tibialis posterior tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolf Petersen; Gerrit Hohmann; Thomas Pufe; Michael Tsokos; Thore Zantop; Friedrich Paulsen; Bernhard Tillmann

    2004-01-01

    Background  The most common site of rupture of the posterior tibial tendon is the retromalleolar region where the tendon changes its direction\\u000a of pull. The aim of this study was to characterize the tissue of the gliding zone of the tibialis posterior tendon to gain\\u000a further knowledge about possible structural causes for spontaneous tendon rupture.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and

  2. Structure and function of tuna tail tendons.

    PubMed

    Shadwick, Robert E; Rapoport, H Scott; Fenger, Joelle M

    2002-12-01

    The caudal tendons in tunas and other scombrid fish link myotomal muscle directly to the caudal fin rays, and thus serve to transfer muscle power to the hydrofoil-like tail during swimming. These robust collagenous tendons have structural and mechanical similarity to tendons found in other vertebrates, notably the leg tendons of terrestrial mammals. Biochemical studies indicate that tuna tendon collagen is composed of the (alpha1)(2),alpha2 heterotrimer that is typical of vertebrate Type I collagen, while tuna skin collagen has the unusual alpha1,alpha2,alpha3 trimer previously described in the skin of some other teleost species. Tuna collagen, like that of other fish, has high solubility due to the presence of an acid-labile intermolecular cross-link. Unlike collagen in mammalian tendons, no differences related to cross-link maturation were detected among tendons in tuna ranging from 0.05 to 72 kg (approx. 0.25-6 years). Tendons excised post-mortem were subjected to load cycling to determine the modulus of elasticity and resilience (mean of 1.3 GPa and 90%, respectively). These material properties compare closely to those of leg tendons from adult mammals that can function as effective biological springs in terrestrial locomotion, but the breaking strength is substantially lower. Peak tendon forces recorded during steady swimming appear to impose strains of much less than 1% of tendon length, and no more than 1.5% during bursts. Thus, the caudal tendons in tunas do not appear to function as elastic storage elements, even at maximal swimming effort. PMID:12485695

  3. Structure-function relationships in tendons: a review

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, M; Kaiser, E; Milz, S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current review is to highlight the structure-function relationship of tendons and related structures to provide an overview for readers whose interest in tendons needs to be underpinned by anatomy. Because of the availability of several recent reviews on tendon development and entheses, the focus of the current work is primarily directed towards what can best be described as the ‘tendon proper’ or the ‘mid-substance’ of tendons. The review covers all levels of tendon structure from the molecular to the gross and deals both with the extracellular matrix and with tendon cells. The latter are often called ‘tenocytes’ and are increasingly recognized as a defined cell population that is functionally and phenotypically distinct from other fibroblast-like cells. This is illustrated by their response to different types of mechanical stress. However, it is not only tendon cells, but tendons as a whole that exhibit distinct structure-function relationships geared to the changing mechanical stresses to which they are subject. This aspect of tendon biology is considered in some detail. Attention is briefly directed to the blood and nerve supply of tendons, for this is an important issue that relates to the intrinsic healing capacity of tendons. Structures closely related to tendons (joint capsules, tendon sheaths, pulleys, retinacula, fat pads and bursae) are also covered and the concept of a ‘supertendon’ is introduced to describe a collection of tendons in which the function of the whole complex exceeds that of its individual members. Finally, attention is drawn to the important relationship between tendons and fascia, highlighted by Wood Jones in his concept of an ‘ectoskeleton’ over half a century ago – work that is often forgotten today. PMID:18304204

  4. Tendon Control of Cable Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Preumont

    \\u000a Cable structures are used extensively in civil engineering: suspended bridges, cable-stayed bridges, guyed towers, roofs in\\u000a large public buildings and stadiums. The main span of current cable-stayed bridges (Fig.15.1) can reach more than 850  m850 \\\\ m (e.g. Normandy bridge, near Le Havre, in France). These structures are very flexible, because the strength of high performance\\u000a materials increases faster than

  5. Gender differences in the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keitaro Kubo; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga

    2003-01-01

    .   The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures (tendon\\u000a and aponeurosis) in the medial gastrocnemius muscle between men (n=16) and women (n=13). The elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured directly by ultrasonography,\\u000a while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to

  6. Health monitoring of prestressing tendons in post-tensioned concrete structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Salamone; Ivan Bartoli; Claudio Nucera; Robert Phillips; Francesco Lanza di Scalea

    2011-01-01

    Currently 90% of bridges built in California are post-tensioned box-girder. In such structures the steel tendons are the main load-carrying components. The loss of prestress, as well as the presence of defects or the tendon breakage, can be catastrophic for the entire structure. Unfortunately, today there is no well-established method for the monitoring of prestressing (PS) tendons that can provide

  7. Immediate and short-term effects of exercise on tendon structure: biochemical, biomechanical and imaging responses.

    PubMed

    Tardioli, Alex; Malliaras, Peter; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-09-01

    Introduction Tendons are metabolically active structures, and their biochemical, biomechanical and structural properties adapt to chronic exercise. However, abnormal adaptations may lead to the development of tendinopathy and pain. Acute and subacute adaptations might contribute to tendon pathology. Sources of data A systematic search of peer-reviewed articles was performed using a wide range of electronic databases. A total of 61 publications were selected. Areas of agreement Exercise induces acute responses in collagen turnover, blood flow, glucose, lactate and other inflammatory products (e.g. prostaglandins and interleukins). Mechanical properties are influenced by activity duration and intensity. Acute bouts of exercise affect tendon structure, with some of the changes resembling those reported in pathological tendons. Areas of controversy Given the variation in study designs, measured parameters and outcomes, it remains debatable how acute exercise influences overall tendon properties. There is discrepancy regarding which investigation modality and settings provide optimal assessment of each parameter. Growing points There is a need for greater homogeneity between study designs, including subject consortium and age, exercise protocols and time frames for parameter assessing. Areas timely for developing research Innovative methods, measuring each parameter simultaneously, would allow a greater understanding of how and when changes occur. This methodology is key to revealing pathological processes and pathways that alter tendon properties according to various activities. Optimal tendon properties differ between activities: more compliant tendons are beneficial for slow stretch shortening cycle (SSC) activities such as countermovement jumps, whereas stiffer tendons are considered beneficial for fast SSC movements such as sprinting. PMID:22279080

  8. Modeling of SMA Tendons for Active Control of Structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alu R. Shahin; Peter H. Meckl; James D. Jones

    1997-01-01

    The use of shape memory alloy (SMA) wires as active tendons to reduce vibra-tion of a building model is analytically investigated. Approximate dynamic equations for one bay of a multi-story building with SMA tendons are derived based on laws of thermodynamics and Brinson's constitutive equations. These equations are used to provide comparisons between us-ing SMA tendons passively and active for

  9. Effects of freezing on the biomechanical and structural properties of human posterior tibial tendons.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Sandro; Buda, Roberto; Di Caprio, Francesco; Agati, Patrizia; Bigi, Adriana; De Pasquale, Viviana; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2008-04-01

    This work analyzes the effects of storage by fresh-freezing at -80 degrees C on the histological, structural and biomechanical properties of the human posterior tibial tendon (PTT), used for ACL reconstruction. Twenty-two PTTs were harvested from eleven donors. For each donor one tendon was frozen at -80 degrees C and thawed in physiological solution at 37 degrees C, and the other was tested without freezing (control). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and biomechanical analysis were performed. We found the following mean changes in frozen-thawed tendons compared to controls: TEM showed an increase in the mean diameter of collagen fibrils and in fibril non-occupation mean ratio, while the mean number of fibrils decreased; DSC showed a decrease in mean denaturation temperature and denaturation enthalpy. Biomechanical analysis showed a decrease in ultimate load and ultimate stress, an increase in stiffness and a decrease in ultimate strain of tendons. In conclusion fresh-freezing brings about significant changes in the biomechanical and structural properties of the human PTT. A high variability exists in the biophysical properties of tendons among individuals and in the effects of storage on tendons. Therefore, when choosing an allograft tendon, particular care is needed to choose a biomechanically suitable graft. PMID:17216243

  10. Structure and Function of Ligaments, Tendons, and Joint Capsule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick H. Silver; Joseph W. Freeman; Gino Bradica

    For vertebrates to achieve locomotion and to hurl objects efficiently, they must be able to develop muscular forces, store\\u000a elastic energy in tendon, and then transfer this energy to the attached joints. After joint movement has been achieved, excess\\u000a energy dissipates by reverse transmission from the joint to the muscle-tendon unit, where it is dissipated in the muscle.\\u000a Locomotion and

  11. Effects of freezing on the biomechanical and structural properties of human posterior tibial tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandro Giannini; Roberto Buda; Francesco Di Caprio; Patrizia Agati; Adriana Bigi; Viviana De Pasquale; Alessandro Ruggeri

    2008-01-01

    This work analyzes the effects of storage by fresh-freezing at ?80°C on the histological, structural and biomechanical properties\\u000a of the human posterior tibial tendon (PTT), used for ACL reconstruction. Twenty-two PTTs were harvested from eleven donors.\\u000a For each donor one tendon was frozen at ?80°C and thawed in physiological solution at 37°C, and the other was tested without\\u000a freezing (control).

  12. Quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament: Cryosectional anatomy and structural properties in young adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-U. Stäubli; L. Schatzmann; P. Brunner; L. Rincón; L.-P. Nolte

    1996-01-01

    Structural tensile properties analyses of 10-mm-wide central sections of quadriceps tendon-bone (QT-B) and bone-patellar ligament (B-PL) complexes from young male donors (mean age 24.9 years, range 19–32 years) were complemented by a cryosectional analysis: each QT-B complex was composed of the segment of the quadriceps tendon with the proximal half of the patella attached, each B-PL complex was composed of

  13. Tendon, tendon healing, hyperlipidemia and statins

    PubMed Central

    Esenkaya, Irfan; Unay, Koray

    2011-01-01

    Summary Both hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome have adverse effect on tendon structure. Atorvastatin is most widely used antihyperlipidemic drug. Statins have adverse effects on the tendon. Many studies have analyzed the relationship between atorvastatin and skeletal muscles. Atorvastatin administered after the surgical repair of a ruptured tendon appears to affect revascularization, collagenization, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen construction. Therefore, further investigations on the effects of atorvastatin on tendon healing are needed. PMID:23738266

  14. Structural and Mechanical Effects of In Vivo Fatigue Damage Induction on Murine Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Sereysky, Jedd B.; Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Jepsen, Karl J.; Flatow, Evan L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an in vivo mouse model of tendon fatigue and use this model to investigate and quantify the physical manifestations of fatigue damage in mouse tendon. Patellar tendons of C57BL/6J mice were fatigue loaded at 2 Hz to three endpoints (4 N peak force per cycle for 1 h, 6 N for 1 h, and 4 N for 2 h), during which hysteresis, tangent stiffness, and peak strain of each cycle were measured. Damage accumulation was then quantified using in situ histology, and each tendon was loaded monotonically to failure. Histological damage increased significantly in all three groups (?2-fold), and monotonic stiffness decreased significantly in the 6 N, 1 h and 4 N, 2-h groups (~25%), suggesting that damage initially manifests as changes to the collagen structure of the tendon and subsequently as changes to the function. For the fatigue loading protocols used in this study, none of the evaluated real-time parameters from fatigue loading correlated with damage area fraction measured structural damage or monotonic stiffness, suggesting that they are not suited to serve as proxies for damage accumulation. In future studies, this model will be used to compare the biological response of mouse tendon to fatigue damage across genetic strains. PMID:22072573

  15. Structural and biomechanical changes in the Achilles tendon after chronic treatment with statins.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, L P; Vieira, C P; Guerra, F D; Almeida, M S; Pimentel, E R

    2015-03-01

    Cases of tendinopathy and tendon ruptures have been reported as side effects associated with statin therapy. This work assessed possible changes in the structural and biomechanical properties of the tendons after chronic treatment with statins. Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: treated with atorvastatin (A-20 and A-80), simvastatin (S-20 and S-80) and the group that received no treatment (C). The doses of statins were calculated using allometric scaling, based on the doses of 80?mg/day and 20?mg/day recommended for humans. The morphological aspect of the tendons in A-20, S-20 and S-80 presented signals consistent with degeneration. Both the groups A-80 and S-80 showed a less pronounced metachromasia in the compression region of the tendons. Measurements of birefringence showed that A-20, A-80 and S-80 groups had a lower degree of organization of the collagen fibers. In all of the groups treated with statins, the thickness of the epitenon was thinner when compared to the C group. In the biomechanical tests the tendons of the groups A-20, A-80 and S-20 were less resistant to rupture. Therefore, statins affected the organization of the collagen fibers and decreased the biomechanical strength of the tendons, making them more predisposed to ruptures. PMID:25544391

  16. Nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves for stress monitoring in prestressing tendons for post-tensioned concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Ivan; Nucera, Claudio; Srivastava, Ankit; Salamone, Salvatore; Phillips, Robert; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Coccia, Stefano; Sikorsky, Charles S.

    2009-03-01

    Many bridges, including 90% of the California inventory, are post-tensioned box-girders concrete structures. Prestressing tendons are the main load-carrying components of these and other post-tensioned structures. Despite their criticality, much research is needed to develop and deploy techniques able to provide real-time information on the level of prestress in order to detect dangerous stress losses. In collaboration with Caltrans, UCSD is investigating the combination of ultrasonic guided waves and embedded sensors to provide both prestress level monitoring and defect detection capabilities in concrete-embedded PS tendons. This paper presents a technique based on nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves in the 100 kHz - 2 MHz range for monitoring prestress levels in 7-wire PS tendons. The technique relies on the fact that an axial stress on the tendon generates a proportional radial stress between adjacent wires (interwire stress). In turn, the interwire stress modulates nonlinear effects in ultrasonic wave propagation through both the presence of finite strains and the interwire contact. The nonlinear ultrasonic behavior of the tendon under changing levels of prestress is monitored by tracking higher-order harmonics at (n?) arising under a fundamental guided-wave excitation at (?). Experimental results will be presented to identify (a) ranges of fundamental excitations at (?) producing maximum nonlinear response, and (b) optimum lay-out of the transmitting and the receiving transducers within the test tendons. Compared to alternative methods based on linear ultrasonic features, the proposed nonlinear ultrasonic technique appears more sensitive to prestress levels and more robust against changing excitation power at the transmitting transducer or changing transducer/tendon bond conditions.

  17. 398 / JOURNAL OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING / APRIL 2001 TENDON MODEL FOR NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF PRESTRESSED

    E-print Network

    Shiohara, Hitoshi

    of pretensioned and bonded or unbonded post- tensioned plane concrete structures such as elastic and plastic OF PRESTRESSED CONCRETE STRUCTURES By Xiao-Han Wu,1 Shunsuke Otani,2 Member, ASCE, and Hitoshi Shiohara,3 Member between tendon and concrete of the prestressed concrete member, is proposed. Especially for multitendon

  18. Mechanical, Compositional, and Structural Properties of the Post-natal Mouse Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Ansorge, Heather L.; Adams, Sheila; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    During post-natal development, tendons undergo a well orchestrated process whereby extensive structural and compositional changes occur in synchrony to produce a normal tissue. Conversely, during the repair response to injury, structural and compositional changes occur, but in this case, a mechanically inferior tendon is produced. As a result, the process of development has been postulated as a potential paradigm through which improved adult tissue healing may occur. In this study we measured the mechanical, compositional, and structural properties in the post-natal mouse Achilles tendon at 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days old. Throughout post-natal development, the mechanical properties, collagen content, fibril diameter mean, and fibril diameter standard deviation increased. Biglycan expression decreased and decorin expression and fiber organization were unchanged. This study provides a new mouse model that can be used to quantitatively examine mechanical development, as well as compositional and structural changes and biological mechanisms, during post-natal tendon development. This model is advantageous due to the large number of genetically modified mice and commercially available assays that are not available in other animal models. A mouse model therefore allows future mechanistic studies to build on this work. PMID:21431455

  19. Nonlinear ultrasonic guided waves for stress monitoring in prestressing tendons for post-tensioned concrete structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Bartoli; Claudio Nucera; Ankit Srivastava; Salvatore Salamone; Robert Phillips; Francesco Lanza di Scalea; Stefano Coccia; Charles S. Sikorsky

    2009-01-01

    Many bridges, including 90% of the California inventory, are post-tensioned box-girders concrete structures. Prestressing tendons are the main load-carrying components of these and other post-tensioned structures. Despite their criticality, much research is needed to develop and deploy techniques able to provide real-time information on the level of prestress in order to detect dangerous stress losses. In collaboration with Caltrans, UCSD

  20. Effect of tear size, corticosteroids and subacromial decompression surgery on the hierarchical structural properties of torn supraspinatus tendons

    PubMed Central

    Tilley, J. M. R.; Murphy, R. J.; Chaudhury, S.; Czernuszka, J. T.; Carr, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effects of disease progression and common tendinopathy treatments on the tissue characteristics of human rotator cuff tendons have not previously been evaluated in detail owing to a lack of suitable sampling techniques. This study evaluated the structural characteristics of torn human supraspinatus tendons across the full disease spectrum, and the short-term effects of subacromial corticosteroid injections (SCIs) and subacromial decompression (SAD) surgery on these structural characteristics. Methods Samples were collected inter-operatively from supraspinatus tendons containing small, medium, large and massive full thickness tears (n = 33). Using a novel minimally invasive biopsy technique, paired samples were also collected from supraspinatus tendons containing partial thickness tears either before and seven weeks after subacromial SCI (n = 11), or before and seven weeks after SAD surgery (n = 14). Macroscopically normal subscapularis tendons of older patients (n = 5, mean age = 74.6 years) and supraspinatus tendons of younger patients (n = 16, mean age = 23.3) served as controls. Ultra- and micro-structural characteristics were assessed using atomic force microscopy and polarised light microscopy respectively. Results Significant structural differences existed between torn and control groups. Differences were identifiable early in the disease spectrum, and increased with increasing tear size. Neither SCI nor SAD surgery altered the structural properties of partially torn tendons seven weeks after treatment. Conclusions These findings may suggest the need for early clinical intervention strategies for torn rotator cuff tendons in order to prevent further degeneration of the tissue as tear size increases. Further work is required to establish the long-term abilities of SCI and SAD to prevent, and even reverse, such degeneration. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:252–61. PMID:25106417

  1. Achilles tendons from decorin- and biglycan-null mouse models have inferior mechanical and structural properties predicted by an image-based empirical damage model.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J A; Freedman, B R; Zuskov, A; Iozzo, R V; Birk, D E; Soslowsky, L J

    2015-07-16

    Achilles tendons are a common source of pain and injury, and their pathology may originate from aberrant structure function relationships. Small leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) influence mechanical and structural properties in a tendon-specific manner. However, their roles in the Achilles tendon have not been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and structural differences observed in mouse Achilles tendons lacking class I SLRPs; either decorin or biglycan. In addition, empirical modeling techniques based on mechanical and image-based measures were employed. Achilles tendons from decorin-null (Dcn(-/-)) and biglycan-null (Bgn(-/-)) C57BL/6 female mice (N=102) were used. Each tendon underwent a dynamic mechanical testing protocol including simultaneous polarized light image capture to evaluate both structural and mechanical properties of each Achilles tendon. An empirical damage model was adapted for application to genetic variation and for use with image based structural properties to predict tendon dynamic mechanical properties. We found that Achilles tendons lacking decorin and biglycan had inferior mechanical and structural properties that were age dependent; and that simple empirical models, based on previously described damage models, were predictive of Achilles tendon dynamic modulus in both decorin- and biglycan-null mice. PMID:25888014

  2. A 3D bioprinted complex structure for engineering the muscle-tendon unit.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Tyler K; Burt, Morgan; Seol, Young-Joon; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Lee, Sang Jin; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional integrated organ printing (IOP) technology seeks to fabricate tissue constructs that can mimic the structural and functional properties of native tissues. This technology is particularly useful for complex tissues such as those in the musculoskeletal system, which possess regional differences in cell types and mechanical properties. Here, we present the use of our IOP system for the processing and deposition of four different components for the fabrication of a single integrated muscle-tendon unit (MTU) construct. Thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) was co-printed with C2C12 cell-laden hydrogel-based bioink for elasticity and muscle development on one side, while poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) was co-printed with NIH/3T3 cell-laden hydrogel-based bioink for stiffness and tendon development on the other. The final construct was elastic on the PU-C2C12 muscle side (E = 0.39 ± 0.05 MPa), stiff on the PCL-NIH/3T3 tendon side (E = 46.67 ± 2.67 MPa) and intermediate in the interface region (E = 1.03 ± 0.14 MPa). These constructs exhibited >80% cell viability at 1 and 7 d after printing, as well as initial tissue development and differentiation. This study demonstrates the versatility of the IOP system to create integrated tissue constructs with region-specific biological and mechanical characteristics for MTU engineering. PMID:26081669

  3. Structure, ontogeny and evolution of the patellar tendon in emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and other palaeognath birds

    PubMed Central

    Pitsillides, Andrew A.; Hutchinson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The patella (kneecap) exhibits multiple evolutionary origins in birds, mammals, and lizards, and is thought to increase the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscles. Despite appreciable interest in the specialized anatomy and locomotion of palaeognathous birds (ratites and relatives), the structure, ontogeny and evolution of the patella in these species remains poorly characterized. Within Palaeognathae, the patella has been reported to be either present, absent, or fused with other bones, but it is unclear how much of this variation is real, erroneous or ontogenetic. Clarification of the patella’s form in palaeognaths would provide insight into the early evolution of the patella in birds, in addition to the specialized locomotion of these species. Findings would also provide new character data of use in resolving the controversial evolutionary relationships of palaeognaths. In this study, we examined the gross and histological anatomy of the emu patellar tendon across several age groups from five weeks to 18 months. We combined these results with our observations and those of others regarding the patella in palaeognaths and their outgroups (both extant and extinct), to reconstruct the evolution of the patella in birds. We found no evidence of an ossified patella in emus, but noted its tendon to have a highly unusual morphology comprising large volumes of adipose tissue contained within a collagenous meshwork. The emu patellar tendon also included increasing amounts of a cartilage-like tissue throughout ontogeny. We speculate that the unusual morphology of the patellar tendon in emus results from assimilation of a peri-articular fat pad, and metaplastic formation of cartilage, both potentially as adaptations to increasing tendon load. We corroborate previous observations of a ‘double patella’ in ostriches, but in contrast to some assertions, we find independent (i.e., unfused) ossified patellae in kiwis and tinamous. Our reconstructions suggest a single evolutionary origin of the patella in birds and that the ancestral patella is likely to have been a composite structure comprising a small ossified portion, lost by some species (e.g., emus, moa) but expanded in others (e.g., ostriches). PMID:25551026

  4. Molecular targets for tendon neoformation

    PubMed Central

    Aslan, Hadi; Kimelman-Bleich, Nadav; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Tendons and ligaments are unique forms of connective tissue that are considered an integral part of the musculoskeletal system. The ultimate function of tendon is to connect muscles to bones and to conduct the forces generated by muscle contraction into movements of the joints, whereas ligaments connect bone to bone and provide joint stabilization. Unfortunately, the almost acellular and collagen I–rich structure of tendons and ligaments makes them very poorly regenerating tissues. Injured tendons and ligaments are considered a major clinical challenge in orthopedic and sports medicine. This Review discusses the several factors that might serve as molecular targets that upon activation can enhance or lead to tendon neoformation. PMID:18246194

  5. Effects of resistance and stretching training programmes on the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined whether resistance and stretching training programmes altered the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures in vivo. Eight subjects completed 8 weeks (4 days per week) of resistance training which consisted of unilateral plantar flexion at 70 % of one repetition maximum with 10 repetitions per set (5 sets per day). They performed resistance training (RT) on one side and resistance training and static stretching training (RST; 10 min per day, 7 days per week) on the other side. Before and after training, the elongation of the tendon structures in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was directly measured using ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum, followed by a ramp relaxation. The relationship between estimated muscle force (Fm) and tendon elongation (L) was fitted to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. The hysteresis was calculated as the ratio of the area within the Fm-L loop to the area beneath the load portion of the curve. The stiffness increased significantly by 18.8 ± 10.4 % for RT and 15.3 ± 9.3 % for RST. There was no significant difference in the relative increase of stiffness between RT and RST. The hysteresis, on the other hand, decreased 17 ± 20 % for RST, but was unchanged for RT. These results suggested that the resistance training increased the stiffness of tendon structures as well as muscle strength and size, and the stretching training affected the viscosity of tendon structures but not the elasticity. PMID:11773330

  6. Does aerobic exercise training promote changes in structural and biomechanical properties of the tendons in experimental animals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, M A; Lemos, A; Lira, K D S; Silveira, P V C; Coutinho, M P G; E Moraes, S R A

    2012-12-01

    To develop a systematic review to evaluate, through the best scientific evidence available, the effectiveness of aerobic exercise in improving the biomechanical characteristics of tendons in experimental animals. Two independent assessors conducted a systematic search in the databases Medline/PUBMED and Lilacs/BIREME, using the following descriptors of Mesh in animal models. The ultimate load of traction and the elastic modulus tendon were used as primary outcomes and transverse section area, ultimate stress and tendon strain as secondary outcomes. The assessment of risk of bias in the studies was carried out using the following methodological components: light/dark cycle, temperature, nutrition, housing, research undertaken in conjunction with an ethics committee, randomization, adaptation of the animals to the training and preparation for the mechanical test. Eight studies, comprising 384 animals, were selected; it was not possible to combine them into one meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the samples. There was a trend to increasing ultimate load without changes in the other outcomes studied. Only one study met more than 80% of the quality criteria. Physical training performed in a structured way with imposition of overloads seems to be able to promote changes in tendon structure of experimental models by increasing the ultimate load supported. However, the results of the influence of exercise on the elastic modulus parameters, strain, transverse section area and ultimate stress, remain controversial and inconclusive. Such a conclusion must be evaluated with reservation as there was low methodological control in the studies included in this review. PMID:24868114

  7. Application of fiber-reinforced plastic rods as prestressing tendons in concrete structures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mattock, A.H.; Babaei, K.

    1989-08-01

    The study is concerned with the possibility of utilizing fiber-reinforced plastic rods as prestressing tendons, in place of traditional steel tendons, in elements of prestressed-concrete bridges exposed to corrosive environments. A survey was made of available information on the behavior characteristics of fiber-reinforced plastic tension elements and, in particular, those of glass-fiber-reinforced (GFR) tension elements. Also, an analytical study was made of the flexural behavior of concrete elements prestressed by GFR tendons. Based on the analytical study and on the survey of available information, an assessment is made of the impact on the design of prestressed-concrete members if GFR tendons are used. Some preliminary design recommendations are made, together with proposals for research needed before GFR prestressing tendons should be used in practice. Four GFR tendons with Con-Tech Systems anchorages were tested, the primary variable being the embedded length of the GFR rods in the anchorages. All the tendons failed by the rods pulling out of the anchorages. For embedded lengths of 15.2 in or greater, the failure loads were 90% of the advertised tendon strength of 220 ksi, or about 100% of the guaranteed tensile strength of 197 ksi (60 kN/rod).

  8. Quadriceps tendon allografts as an alternative to Achilles tendon allografts: a biomechanical comparison.

    PubMed

    Mabe, Isaac; Hunter, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps tendon with a patellar bone block may be a viable alternative to Achilles tendon for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) if it is, at a minimum, a biomechanically equivalent graft. The objective of this study was to directly compare the biomechanical properties of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon allografts. Quadriceps and Achilles tendon pairs from nine research-consented donors were tested. All specimens were processed to reduce bioburden and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. Specimens were subjected to a three phase uniaxial tension test performed in a custom environmental chamber to maintain the specimens at a physiologic temperature (37 ± 2 °C) and misted with a 0.9 % NaCl solution. There were no statistical differences in seven of eight structural and mechanical between the two tendon types. Quadriceps tendons exhibited a significantly higher displacement at maximum load and significantly lower stiffness than Achilles tendons. The results of this study indicated a biomechanical equivalence of aseptically processed, terminally sterilized quadriceps tendon grafts with bone block to Achilles tendon grafts with bone block. The significantly higher displacement at maximum load, and lower stiffness observed for quadriceps tendons may be related to the failure mode. Achilles tendons had a higher bone avulsion rate than quadriceps tendons (86 % compared to 12 %, respectively). This was likely due to observed differences in bone block density between the two tendon types. This research supports the use of quadriceps tendon allografts in lieu of Achilles tendon allografts for ACL-R. PMID:24414293

  9. An analytical model for elucidating tendon tissue structure and biomechanical function from in vivo cellular confocal microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Snedeker, J G; Pelled, G; Zilberman, Y; Ben Arav, A; Huber, E; Müller, R; Gazit, D

    2009-01-01

    Fibered confocal laser scanning microscopes have given us the ability to image fluorescently labeled biological structures in vivo and at exceptionally high spatial resolutions. By coupling this powerful imaging modality with classic optical elastography methods, we have developed novel techniques that allow us to assess functional mechanical integrity of soft biological tissues by measuring the movements of cells in response to externally applied mechanical loads. Using these methods we can identify minute structural defects, monitor the progression of certain skeletal tissue disease states, and track subsequent healing following therapeutic intervention in the living animal. Development of these methods using a murine Achilles tendon model has revealed that the hierarchical and composite anatomical structure of the tendon presents various technical challenges that can confound a mechanical analysis of local material properties. Specifically, interfascicle gliding can yield complex cellular motions that must be interpreted within the context of an appropriate anatomical model. In this study, we explore the various classes of cellular images that may result from fibered confocal microscopy of the murine Achilles tendon, and introduce a simple two-fascicle model to interpret the images in terms of mechanical strains within the fascicles, as well as the relative gliding between fascicles. PMID:19122452

  10. Bridging tendon defects using autologous tenocyte engineered tendon in a hen model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yilin; Liu, Yongtao; Liu, Wei; Shan, Qingxin; Buonocore, Samuel D; Cui, Lei

    2002-10-01

    Tendon defects remain a major concern in plastic surgery because of the limited availability of tendon autografts. Whereas immune rejection prohibits the use of tendon allografts, most prosthetic replacements also fail to achieve a satisfactory long-term result of tendon repair. The tissue engineering technique, however, can generate different tissues using autologous cells and thus may provide an optimal approach to address this concern. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of engineering tendon tissues with autologous tenocytes to bridge a tendon defect in either a tendon sheath open model or a partial open model in the hen. In a total of 40 Leghorn hens, flexor tendons were harvested from the left feet and were digested with 0.25% type II collagenase. The isolated tenocytes were expanded in vitro and mixed with unwoven polyglycolic acid fibers to form a cell-scaffold construct in the shape of a tendon. The constructs were wrapped with intestinal submucosa and then cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium plus 10% fetal bovine serum for 1 week before in vivo transplantation. On the feet, a defect of 3 to 4 cm was created at the second flexor digitorum profundus tendon by resecting a tendon fragment. The defects were bridged either with a cell-scaffold construct in the experimental group ( n= 20) or with scaffold material alone in the control group ( n= 20). Specimens were harvested at 8, 12, and 14 weeks postrepair for gross and histologic examination and for biomechanical analysis. In the experimental group, a cordlike tissue bridging the tendon defect was formed at 8 weeks postrepair. At 14 weeks, the engineered tendons resembled the natural tendons grossly in both color and texture. Histologic examination at 8 weeks showed that the neo-tendon contained abundant tenocytes and collagen; most collagen bundles were randomly arranged. The undegraded polyglycolic acid fibers surrounded by inflammatory cells were also observed. At 12 weeks, tenocytes and collagen fibers became longitudinally aligned, with good interface healing to normal tendon. At 14 weeks, the engineered tendons displayed a typical tendon structure hardly distinguishable from that of normal tendons. Biomechanical analysis demonstrated increased breaking strength of the engineered tendons with time, which reached 83 percent of normal tendon strength at 14 weeks. In the control group, polyglycolic acid constructs were mostly degraded at 8 weeks and disappeared at 14 weeks. However, the breaking strength of the scaffold materials accounted for only 9 percent of normal tendon strength. The results of this study indicated that tendon tissue could be engineered in vivo to bridge a tendon defect. The engineered tendons resembled natural tendons not only in gross appearance and histologic structure but also in biomechanical properties. PMID:12360068

  11. Effect of PNF stretching training on the properties of human muscle and tendon structures.

    PubMed

    Konrad, A; Gad, M; Tilp, M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a 6-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching training program on the various parameters of the human gastrocnemius medialis muscle and the Achilles tendon. Therefore, 49 volunteers were randomly assigned into PNF stretching and control groups. Before and after the stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the musculo-articular complex were measured with a dynamometer. Muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement allowed us to determine the length changes in tendon and muscle, and hence to calculate stiffness. Mean RoM increased from 31.1?±?7.2° to 33.1?±?7.2° (P?=?0.02), stiffness of the tendon decreased significantly in both active (from 21.1?±?8.0 to 18.1?±?5.5?N/mm) and passive (from 12.1?±?4.9 to 9.6?±?3.2?N/mm) conditions, and the pennation angle increased from 18.5?±?1.8° to 19.5?±?2.1° (P?=?0.01) at the neutral ankle position (90°), only in the intervention group, whereas MVC and PRT values remained unchanged. We conclude that a 6-week PNF stretching training program increases RoM and decreases tendon stiffness, despite no change in PRT. PMID:24716522

  12. Silk and collagen scaffolds for tendon reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soon-Yong; Chung, Jin-Wha; Park, Hee-Jung; Jiang, Yuan-Yuan; Park, Jung-Keug; Seo, Young-Kwon

    2014-04-01

    In this study, silk thread (Bombyx mori) was braided to a tube-like shape and sericin was removed from the silk tube. Thereafter, collagen/chondroitin-6-sulfate solution was poured into the silk tube, and the lyophilization process was performed. To assess the inflammatory response in vivo, raw silk and sericin-free silk tubes were implanted in the subcutaneous layer of mice. After 10 days of in vivo implantation, mild inflammatory responses were observed around the sericin-free silk tubes, and severe inflammation with the presence of neutrophils and macrophages was observed around the raw silk tubes. At 24 weeks post implantation, the regenerated tendon had a thick, cylindrical, grayish fibrous structure and a shiny white appearance, similar to that of the native tendon in the rabbit model of tendon defect. The average tensile strength of the native tendons was 220 ± 20 N, whereas the average tensile strength of the regenerated tendons was 167 ± 30 N and the diameter of the regenerated tendon (3 ± 0.2 mm) was similar to that of the native tendons (4 ± 0.3 mm). Histologically, the regenerated tendon resembled the native tendon, and all the regenerated tissues showed organized bundles of crimped fibers. Masson trichrome staining was performed for detecting collagen synthesis, and it showed that the artificial tendon was replaced by new collagen fibers and extracellular matrix. However, the regenerated tendon showed fibrosis to a certain degree. In conclusion, the artificial tendon, comprising a braided silk tube and lyophilized collagen sponge, was optimal for tendon reconstruction. Thus, this study showed an improved regeneration of neo-tendon tissues, which have the structure and tensile strength of the native tendon, with the use of the combination of collagen and silk scaffold. PMID:24705339

  13. Influence of muscle-tendon unit structure on rate of force development during the squat, countermovement, and drop jumps.

    PubMed

    Earp, Jacob E; Kraemer, William J; Cormie, Prue; Volek, Jeffery S; Maresh, Carl M; Joseph, Michael; Newton, Robert U

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has highlighted the importance of muscle and tendon structure to stretch shortening cycle performance. However, the relationships between muscle and tendon structure to performance are highly dependent on the speed and intensity of the movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle and tendon structure is associated with the rate of force development (RFD) throughout static squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and drop jump (DJ; 30-cm height). Twenty-five strength- and power-trained men participated in the study. Using ultrasonography, vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius (GAS) pennation (PEN) and fascicle length (FL), and Achilles tendon (AT) thickness and length were measured. Subjects then performed SJ, CMJ, and DJ, during which RFD was calculated over time 5 distinct time intervals. During CMJs, early RFD could be predicted between 0 and 10 milliseconds by both GAS-FL (r² = 0.213, ? = 0.461) and AT-length (r² = 0.191, ? = 20.438). Between 10 and 30 milliseconds GAS-FL was a significant predictor of CMJ-RFD (r² = 0.218, ? = 0.476). During DJ, initial RFD (0-10 milliseconds) could be significantly predicted by GAS-FL (r² = 0.185, ? = 20.434), VL-PEN (r² = 0.189, ? = 0.435), and GAS-PEN (r² = 0.188, ? = 0.434). These findings suggest that longer ATs may have increased elasticity, which can decrease initial RFD during CMJ; thus, their use in talent identification is not recommended. The GAS fascicle length had an intensity-dependent relationship with RFD, serving to positively predict RFD during early CMJs and an inverse predictor during early DJs. During DDJs, subjects with greater PEN were better able to redirected initial impact forces. Although both strength and plyometric training have been shown to increase FL, only heavy strength training has been shown to increase PEN. Thus, when a high eccentric load or multiple jumps are required, heavy strength training might be used to elicit muscular adaptations that are suited to fast force production during jumping. PMID:21322836

  14. Endoscopy of the digital flexor tendon sheath in horses.

    PubMed

    Nixon, A J

    1990-01-01

    An arthroscopic procedure for examination of the digital flexor tendons and tendon sheath was developed in 16 equine limbs and 12 horses. Distension of the tendon sheath and insertion of the arthroscope was accomplished through a cul-de-sac on the palmar or plantar surface of the tendon sheath 1 to 2 cm palmar or plantar to the digital neurovascular structures and between the annular ligament and proximal digital annular ligament. A single arthroscope entry point allowed examination of all regions of the tendon sheath cavity and most surfaces of the digital flexor tendons within the sheath. Distal to the fetlock, surgical procedures could be performed through additional entry portals on the lateral, medial, or palmar surfaces of the tendon sheath. The palmar digital vessels and nerves were avoided by palmar placement of the instrument incisions and insertion of a needle before incising the skin. The fetlock canal and proximal regions of the tendon sheath were examined by redirecting the arthroscope. Flexion of the fetlock aided passage of the arthroscope into the proximal tendon sheath regions. Evaluation of the palmar surface of the superficial digital flexor tendon was limited by the midline attachment of the tendon sheath, otherwise the surfaces of the tendons and tendon sheath could be examined with 25 degrees and 70 degrees arthroscopes. The tendon sheath was more tightly invested to the tendons in the proximal regions, limiting the arthroscope movements and second instrument access. PMID:2382395

  15. Tendon injury: from biology to tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Nourissat, Geoffroy; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2015-04-01

    Tendon is a crucial component of the musculoskeletal system. Tendons connect muscle to bone and transmit forces to produce motion. Chronic and acute tendon injuries are very common and result in considerable pain and disability. The management of tendon injuries remains a challenge for clinicians. Effective treatments for tendon injuries are lacking because the understanding of tendon biology lags behind that of the other components of the musculoskeletal system. Animal and cellular models have been developed to study tendon-cell differentiation and tendon repair following injury. These studies have highlighted specific growth factors and transcription factors involved in tenogenesis during developmental and repair processes. Mechanical factors also seem to be essential for tendon development, homeostasis and repair. Mechanical signals are transduced via molecular signalling pathways that trigger adaptive responses in the tendon. Understanding the links between the mechanical and biological parameters involved in tendon development, homeostasis and repair is prerequisite for the identification of effective treatments for chronic and acute tendon injuries. PMID:25734975

  16. BME 315 Biomechanics Experiment 4 Deformation of tendon

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    not pull, stretch or manipulate the tendon because small injuries to the fibrous structure will affectBME 315 Biomechanics Experiment 4 Deformation of tendon Pre-lab assignment Review lecture material will be provided in the lab as well. Plan test so that one person or person dissects the tendons from the tail

  17. Diseases of the tendons and tendon sheaths.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Adrian; Anderson, David E; Desrochers, André

    2014-03-01

    Contracted flexor tendon leading to flexural deformity is a common congenital defect in cattle. Arthrogryposis is a congenital syndrome of persistent joint contracture that occurs frequently in Europe as a consequence of Schmallenberg virus infection of the dam. Spastic paresis has a hereditary component, and affected cattle should not be used for breeding purposes. The most common tendon avulsion involves the deep digital flexor tendon. Tendon disruptions may be successfully managed by tenorrhaphy and external coaptation or by external coaptation alone. Medical management alone is unlikely to be effective for purulent tenosynovitis. PMID:24534664

  18. Biologics for tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H

    2015-04-01

    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management. PMID:25446135

  19. Multi-layer electrospun membrane mimicking tendon sheath for prevention of tendon adhesions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shichao; Yan, Hede; Fan, Dapeng; Song, Jialin; Fan, Cunyi

    2015-01-01

    Defect of the tendon sheath after tendon injury is a main reason for tendon adhesions, but it is a daunting challenge for the biomimetic substitute of the tendon sheath after injury due to its multi-layer membrane-like structure and complex biologic functions. In this study, a multi-layer membrane with celecoxib-loaded poly(l-lactic acid)-polyethylene glycol (PELA) electrospun fibrous membrane as the outer layer, hyaluronic acid (HA) gel as middle layer, and PELA electrospun fibrous membrane as the inner layer was designed. The anti-adhesion efficacy of this multi-layer membrane was compared with a single-layer use in rabbit flexor digitorum profundus tendon model. The surface morphology showed that both PELA fibers and celecoxib-loaded PELA fibers in multi-layer membrane were uniform in size, randomly arrayed, very porous, and smooth without beads. Multi-layer membrane group had fewer peritendinous adhesions and better gliding than the PELA membrane group and control group in gross and histological observation. The similar mechanical characteristic and collagen expression of tendon repair site in the three groups indicated that the multi-layer membrane did not impair tendon healing. Taken together, our results demonstrated that such a biomimetic multi-layer sheath could be used as a potential strategy in clinics for promoting tendon gliding and preventing adhesion without poor tendon healing. PMID:25822877

  20. Using NiTi SMA tendons for vibration control of coastal structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Saadat; M. Noori; H. Davoodi; Z. Hou; Y. Suzuki; A. Masuda

    2001-01-01

    Hurricane damage inflicted upon coastal structures, particularly residential structures, results in millions of dollars in financial damage and loss of life each year. A major cause of this damage usually begins with roof uplifts of coastal structures; prevention of roof uplift helps mitigate damage to coastal structures by hurricanes. Development of more effective fastening mechanisms for the connections between the

  1. Tendon matrix composition and turnover in relation to functional requirements

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Helen L

    2007-01-01

    Tendons are dense regular connective tissue structures that are defined based on their anatomical position of connecting muscle to bone. Despite these obvious commons features tendons from different locations within the body show remarkable variation in terms of their morphological, molecular and mechanical properties which relates to their specialized function. An appreciation of these differences is necessary to understand all aspects of tendon biology in health and disease. In our work, we have used a combination of mechanical assessment, histological measurements and molecular analysis of matrix in functionally distinct tendons to determine relationships between function and structure. We have found significant differences in material and molecular properties between spring-like tendons that are subjected to high strains during locomotion and positional tendons which are subjected to much lower strains. Furthermore, we have data to suggest that not only is the matrix composition different but also the ability of cells to synthesize and degrade the matrix (matrix turnover) varies between tendon types. We propose that these differences relate to the magnitude of strain that the tendon experiences during normal activities in life. Tendon cells may be preprogrammed during embryological development for the strain they will encounter in life or may simply respond to the particular strain environment they are subjected to. The elucidation of controlling mechanisms resulting in tendon cell specialization will have important consequences for cell based therapies and engineering strategies to repair damaged tendons. PMID:17696905

  2. Tendon biomechanics and mechanobiology - a mini-review of basic concepts and recent advancements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, James H-C.; Guo, Qianping; Li, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Due to their unique hierarchical structure and composition, tendons possess characteristic biomechanical properties, including high mechanical strength and viscoelasticity, which enable them to carry and transmit mechanical loads (muscular forces) effectively. Tendons are also mechano-responsive by adaptively changing their structure and function in response to altered mechanical loading conditions. In general, mechanical loading at physiological levels is beneficial to tendons, but excessive loading or disuse of tendons is detrimental. This mechano-adaptability is due to the cells present in tendons. Tendon fibroblasts (tenocytes) are the dominant tendon cells responsible for tendon homeostasis and repair. Tendon stem cells (TSCs), which were recently discovered, also play a vital role in tendon maintenance and repair by virtue of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into tenocytes. TSCs may also be responsible for chronic tendon injury, or tendinopathy, by undergoing aberrant differentiation into non-tenocytes in response to excessive mechanical loading. Thus, it is necessary to devise optimal rehabilitation protocols in order to enhance tendon healing while reducing scar tissue formation and tendon adhesions. Moreover, along with scaffolds that can mimic tendon matrix environments and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which serves as a source of growth factors, TSCs may be the optimal cell type for enhancing repair of injured tendons. PMID:21925835

  3. Atraumatic quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis.

    PubMed

    Abram, Simon G F; Sharma, Akash D; Arvind, Chinnakonda

    2012-01-01

    Calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon condition. We present the first case of a quadriceps tendon tear associated with calcific tendonitis. In this case, the patient presented with symptoms mimicking a rupture of the quadriceps tendon. This case illustrates that although calcific tendonitis of the quadriceps is a rare condition it is not benign and should be considered when investigating acute symptoms associated with the extensor mechanism of the knee. PMID:23188846

  4. MRI 'magic angle' imaging of finger tendons.

    PubMed

    Lambe, G; Coutts, G; McArthur, P; Dangerfield, P H

    2006-04-01

    The value of using the technique of magic angle MR imaging to demonstrate finger tendons is explored. Images of fresh frozen cadaveric specimens are presented and the structures that can be visualized in the finger are described. The results suggest that magic angle MR imaging may be a useful non-invasive technique of visualizing the details of the tendons and their surrounds in the hand. PMID:16182418

  5. Recruitment viscoelasticity of the tendon.

    PubMed

    Einat, Raz; Yoram, Lanir

    2009-11-01

    There is still no agreement on the nature of tissues' viscoelasticity and on its reliable modeling. We speculate that disagreements between previous observations stem from difficulties of separating between viscoelastic and preconditioning effects, since both are manifested by similar response features. Here, this and related issues were studied in the tendon as a prototype for other soft tissues. Sheep digital tendons were preconditioned under strain that was higher by 1% than the one used in subsequent testing. Each specimen was then subjected to stress relaxation, and quick release or creep. A stochastic microstructural viscoelastic theory was developed based on the collagen fibers' properties and on their gradual recruitment with stretch. Model parameters were estimated from stress relaxation data and predictions were compared with the creep data. Following its validation, the new recruitment viscoelasticity (RVE) model was compared, both theoretically and experimentally, with the quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) theory. The applied preconditioning protocol produced subsequent pure viscoelastic response. The proposed RVE model provided excellent fit to both stress relaxation and creep data. Both analytical and numerical comparisons showed that the new RVE theory and the popular QLV one are equivalent under deformation schemes at which no fibers buckle. Otherwise, the equivalence breaks down; QLV may predict negative stress, in contrast to data of the quick release tests, while RVE predicts no such negative stress. The results are consistent with the following conclusions: (1) fully preconditioned tendon exhibits pure viscoelastic response, (2) nonlinearity of the tendon viscoelasticity is induced by gradual recruitment of its fibers, (3) a new structure-based RVE theory is a reliable representation of the tendon viscoelastic properties under both stress relaxation and creep tests, and (4) the QLV theory is equivalent to the RVE one (and valid) only under deformations in which no fibers buckle. The results also suggest that the collagen fibers themselves are linear viscoelastic. PMID:20353259

  6. The role of engineered tendon matrix in the stemness of tendon stem cells in vitro and the promotion of tendon-like tissue formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Li, Bin; Wang, James H-C

    2011-10-01

    When injured, tendons tend to heal but with poor structure and compromised function. Tissue engineering is a promising approach to enhancing the quality of healing tendons. Our group and others have identified tendon stem cells (TSCs), a type of tendon-specific stem cells which may be optimal for cellular interventions seeking to restore normal structure and function to injured tendons. However, in vitro expanding of TSCs on regular plastic cell culture dishes only yields a limited number of TSCs before they lose the stemness, i.e., the self-renewal capability and multipotency. In this study, we developed a substrate material for TSCs, engineered tendon matrix (ETM) from decellularized tendon tissues. We showed that ETM in vitro was able to stimulate TSC proliferation and better preserve the stemness of TSCs than plastic culture surfaces. In vivo, implantation of ETM-TSC composite promoted tendon-like tissue formation whereas implantation of TSCs alone led to little such tissue formation. Together, the findings of this study indicate that ETM may be used to effectively expand TSCs in vitro and with TSCs, to enhance repair of injured tendons in vivo. PMID:21703682

  7. SAFE modeling of waves for the structural health monitoring of prestressing tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Ivan; Marzani, Alessandro; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Rizzo, Piervincenzo; Viola, Erasmo; Sorrivi, Elisa; Phillips, Robert

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on the status of ongoing collaborative studies between UCSD, University of Bologna and University of Pittsburgh aimed at developing a monitoring system for prestressing strands in post-tensioned structures based on guided ultrasonic waves (GUWs) and built-in sensors. A Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method was first used to compute dispersion curves of a pretwisted waveguide representing a seven-wire strand. The strand embedded in grout and surrounded by a concrete media was subsequently modeled as an axisymmetric waveguide. The SAFE method allows to account for the material damping and can be used to discriminate low loss guided modes. Experimental tests targeted at the defect detection and prestress level monitoring were performed. Notch like defects, machined in a seven wire strand, were successfully detected using a reflection-based Damage Index (D.I.) vector. The D.I. vector was extracted from GUWs measurements which were processed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). A four dimensional Outlier analysis was performed to discriminate indications of flaws. In a parallel study, transmission measurements were collected to identify wave features sensitive to prestress level in strands embedded in post-tensioned concrete blocks. The most sensitive features are being investigated further to assess their reliability in a monitoring system whit sensors embedded in a real post-tensioned concrete structure.

  8. Structure and dynamics of water in tendon from NMR relaxation measurements.

    PubMed Central

    Peto, S; Gillis, P; Henri, V P

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic relaxation times were measured in collagen tissue when varying the orientation of the fiber with respect to the static field. T1 was found to be only slightly dependent on theta, the fiber-to-field angle, but T2 was very sensitive to the orientation, with a maximum value at the magic angle. The transverse decay curves were multiexponential. Their deconvolution displayed four components; the ones that decayed most slowly were almost independent of theta, but the two fastest ones showed a strong angular dependence that was interpreted with a cross-relaxation model. Quadrupolar dips were visible in the 1/T1 dispersion curves. These dips were independent of theta, so that the magnetization transfer could also be assumed to be independent of the fiber orientation. Finally, each component was assigned to a fraction of protons localized in the macromolecular structure and characterized by particular dynamics. The model of Woessner was applied to the water molecules tightly bound into the macromolecules, which resulted in a dynamical description of this water fraction. This description is compatible with the two-sites model of Ramachandran based on x-ray diffraction and with the extensive studies of Berendsen. However, the important indications obtained from the deconvolution lead to a less static representation of the tissue. PMID:2297563

  9. Tendon lengthening and transfer.

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, F; Bachy, M

    2015-02-01

    Tendon lengthening and transfer are usually indicated for certain neuromuscular disorders, peripheral or central nerve injury, congenital disorder or direct traumatic or degenerative musculotendinous lesion. In musculotendinous lengthening, technique depends on muscle anatomy, degree of correction required, and the need to avoid excessive loss of force. Lengthening within the muscle or aponeurosis is stable. In the tendon, however, it may provide greater gain but is not stable and requires postoperative immobilization to avoid excessive lengthening. Tendon transfer consists in displacing a muscle's tendon insertion in order to restore function. The muscle to be transferred is chosen according to strength, architecture and course, contraction timing, intended direction, synergy and the joint moment arm to be restored. Functions to be restored have to be prioritized, and alternatives to transfer should be identified. The principles of tendon transfer require preoperative assessment of the quality of the tissue through which the transfer is to pass and of the suppleness of the joints concerned. During the procedure, transfer tension should be optimized and the neurovascular bundle should be protected. The method of fixation, whether tendon-to-bone or tendon-to-tendon suture, should be planned according to local conditions and the surgeon's experience. PMID:25572471

  10. Tendon injuries of the hand

    PubMed Central

    Schöffl, Volker; Heid, Andreas; Küpper, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Tendon injuries are the second most common injuries of the hand and therefore an important topic in trauma and orthopedic patients. Most injuries are open injuries to the flexor or extensor tendons, but less frequent injuries, e.g., damage to the functional system tendon sheath and pulley or dull avulsions, also need to be considered. After clinical examination, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have proved to be important diagnostic tools. Tendon injuries mostly require surgical repair, dull avulsions of the distal phalanges extensor tendon can receive conservative therapy. Injuries of the flexor tendon sheath or single pulley injuries are treated conservatively and multiple pulley injuries receive surgical repair. In the postoperative course of flexor tendon injuries, the principle of early passive movement is important to trigger an “intrinsic” tendon healing to guarantee a good outcome. Many substances were evaluated to see if they improved tendon healing; however, little evidence was found. Nevertheless, hyaluronic acid may improve intrinsic tendon healing. PMID:22720265

  11. Imaging of Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anthony; Miller, Theodore T.

    2009-01-01

    Both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and sonography are well suited to tendon imaging. A normal tendon on MRI demonstrates low signal intensity and on sonography, an echogenic fibrillar pattern. MRI is considered the imaging gold standard, providing an anatomic overview and excellent soft tissue contrast. Sonography is a more rapidly performed examination; it has greater resolution than that of MRI; it allows dynamic evaluation of tendons and muscles; and it can guide percutaneous therapeutic procedures. Moreover, the advent of sonographic extended-field-of-view imaging allows the demonstration of the entire length of a tendon, matching MRI’s ability to display a large anatomic region. Sonography should best be considered a focused examination, concentrating on the area of pain and clinical suspicion of pathology, whereas MRI can provide a global assessment of the region of concern. Both modalities demonstrate high accuracy for abnormalities of various tendons. This article reviews normal tendon anatomy and its imaging appearance, as well as the imaging appearances of tendon degeneration and tear. PMID:23015886

  12. Tendon synovial cells secrete fibronectin in vivo and in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Banes, A.J.; Link, G.W.; Bevin, A.G.; Peterson, H.D.; Gillespie, Y.; Bynum, D.; Watts, S.; Dahners, L.

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry and cell biology of the tendon have been largely overlooked due to the emphasis on collagen, the principle structural component of the tendon. The tendon must not only transmit the force of muscle contraction to bone to effect movement, but it must also glide simultaneously over extratendonous tissues. Fibronectin is classified as a cell attachment molecule that induces cell spreading and adhesion to substratum. The external surface of intact avian flexor tendon stained positively with antibody to cellular fibronectin. However, if the surface synovial cells were first removed with collagenase, no positive reaction with antifibronectin antibody was detected. Analysis of immunologically stained frozen sections of tendon also revealed fibronectin at the tendon synovium, but little was associated with cells internal in tendon. The staining pattern with isolated, cultured synovial cells and fibroblasts from the tendon interior substantiated the histological observations. Analysis of polyacrylamide gel profiles of /sup 35/S-methionine-labeled proteins synthesized by synovial cells and internal fibroblasts indicated that fibronectin was synthesized principally by synovial cells. Fibronectin at the tendon surface may play a role in cell attachment to prevent cell removal by the friction of gliding. Alternatively, fibronectin, with its binding sites for hyaluronic acid and collagen, may act as a complex for boundary lubrication.

  13. Accelerated corrosion testing, evaluation and durability design of bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruben Mario Salas Pereira

    2003-01-01

    In the last few years, the effectiveness of cement grout in galvanized or polyethylene ducts, the most widely used corrosion protection system for multistrand bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons, has been under debate, due to significant tendon corrosion damage, several reported failures of individual tendons as well as a few collapses of non-typical structures. While experience in the USA has been

  14. Axisymmetric modeling of prestressing tendons in nuclear containment dome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Se-Jin Jeon; Chul-Hun Chung

    2005-01-01

    Simple axisymmetric modeling of a nuclear containment building has been often employed in practice to estimate structural behavior for the axisymmetric loadings such as internal pressure. In this case, the prestressing tendons placed in the containment dome should be axisymmetrically approximated, since most dome tendons are not arranged in an axisymmetric manner. Some procedures are proposed that can realistically implement

  15. Neutrophils and macrophages accumulate sequentially following Achilles tendon injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Marsolais; Claude H Côté

    2001-01-01

    Structural damage and inflammation occur following tendon injury. The purpose of this study was to determine the time course of inflammatory cell accumulation in two animal models of acute tendinopathy. In the first model, rat Achilles tendons were exposed by blunt dissection, injected with collagenase and sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. In the second model, collagenase

  16. Specialisation of extracellular matrix for function in tendons and ligaments

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Helen L.; Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Rumian, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tendons and ligaments are similar structures in terms of their composition, organisation and mechanical properties. The distinction between them stems from their anatomical location; tendons form a link between muscle and bone while ligaments link bones to bones. A range of overlapping functions can be assigned to tendon and ligaments and each structure has specific mechanical properties which appear to be suited for particular in vivo function. The extracellular matrix in tendon and ligament varies in accordance with function, providing appropriate mechanical properties. The most useful framework in which to consider extracellular matrix differences therefore is that of function rather than anatomical location. In this review we discuss what is known about the relationship between functional requirements, structural properties from molecular to gross level, cellular gene expression and matrix turnover. The relevance of this information is considered by reviewing clinical aspects of tendon and ligament repair and reconstructive procedures. PMID:23885341

  17. Biodegradable synthetic scaffolds for tendon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Ernesto; Baldino, Lucia; Cardea, Stefano; De Marco, Iolanda

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tissue regeneration is aimed at producing biological or synthetic scaffolds to be implanted in the body for regenerate functional tissues. Several techniques and materials have been used to obtain biodegradable synthetic scaffolds, on which adhesion, growth, migration and differentiation of human cells has been attempted. Scaffolds for tendon regeneration have been less frequently proposed, because they have a complex hierarchical structure and it is very difficult to mimic their peculiar mechanical properties. In this review, we critically analyzed the proposed materials and fabrication techniques for tendon tissue engineering and we indicated new preparation processes, based on the use of supercritical fluids, to produce scaffolds with characteristics very similar to the native tendon structure. PMID:23738295

  18. Autologous hamstring tendon used for revision of quadiceps tendon tears.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Frank; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Kim, Jaehon; Martin, Scott D

    2013-04-01

    A paucity of literature exists on quadriceps tendon reruptures. Failed quadriceps tendon repair can cause significant morbidity and disability. Surgical management of quadriceps tendon rerupture can be challenging due to tissue degeneration, tendon retraction, muscle atrophy, and poor bone fixation. A lack of guidance in the literature exists on the appropriate surgical techniques for managing quadriceps tendon reruptures.This article describes the case of a male recreational athlete with a failed primary quadriceps tendon repair who presented 10 months after rerupture. Examination was significant for morbid obesity, assisted ambulation, and a significant defect at the superior pole of the patella on the affected side. Intraoperative findings were consistent with a 2.0- to 4.5-cm tendon defect across the extensor mechanism with complete retinaculi tears. The authors performed a novel surgical approach for revision of quadriceps tears using a bilateral hamstring autograft through a quadriceps tendon weave and a transosseous patellar repair. Tendon length was restored, and extensor mechanism tension was reapproximated. Postoperatively, the patient achieved a good outcome and had returned to full, painless, sport participation at 2-year follow-up.This surgical technique is suitable for revision quadriceps tendon repairs of large tendon gap defects, repairs desiring tendon-to-bone in-growth, and repairs requiring large-force transmission across the repair. PMID:23590798

  19. A single unit digital flexor tendon prosthesis.

    PubMed

    King, R N; Dunn, H K; Bolstad, K E

    1975-07-01

    Historically, the surgical repair of serious injuries to the flexor tendons of the hand have met with less than satisfactory clinical results. In an attempt to solve this problem, studies have been made on the design and testing of a Dacron polyester tendon prosthesis for complete replacement of the digital flexor tendon. The prosthesis attaches proximally at the anatomical musculotendon junction via collagen ingrowth into a fabric structure and in similar manner distally via bone ingrowth at the anatomical insertion site. These fabrics are continuous with the tendon body of the prosthesis consisting of an inextensible braided cord which is silicone rubber coated to prevent tissue adherence in the glide zone of the tendon bed. An added benefit of the prosthesis is a simple means of length adjustment which can easily be carried out on the operating table. Studies have been performed in both dogs and chickens which indicate that sufficient tissue ingrowth occurs at both the distal and proximal anastomoses for retention of full load bearing capability in these animals and that postoperative adhesions are negligible, if present at all. Full prostheses have been implanted in dogs for periods of over 1 year and chickens for 2 months. The chicken is the preferred animal model as a tendency for extensive scar tissue generation was shown in the dog. Both in vivo mechanical testing and histological characterization have been made on sacrificed animals which have received the full prostheses. PMID:1176499

  20. Tendon Driven Finger Actuation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Reich, David M. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Askew, Scott R. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Hargrave, Brian (Inventor); Valvo, Michael C. (Inventor); Abdallah, Muhammad E. (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A humanoid robot includes a robotic hand having at least one finger. An actuation system for the robotic finger includes an actuator assembly which is supported by the robot and is spaced apart from the finger. A tendon extends from the actuator assembly to the at least one finger and ends in a tendon terminator. The actuator assembly is operable to actuate the tendon to move the tendon terminator and, thus, the finger.

  1. Bilateral traumatic quadriceps tendon rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Holm

    1999-01-01

    Summary  Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare condition. In most cases the patients with bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture\\u000a have a general degenerative disease. This case story present a middle-aged male, who became a traumatic bilateral quadriceps\\u000a tendon rupture. Though treated acutely and trained intensively he did not achieve full range of motion.

  2. Flexor Tendon Injuries in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. GROBBELAAR; D. A. HUDSON

    1994-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries in adults differ from those in children. 38 children (22 male and 16 female) with a mean age of 6.7 years were treated for flexor tendon injuries by primary suture and controlled mobilization between 1985 and 1992. 53 flexor tendons were injured (average 1.5 digits per patient) and the injury most commonly affected the little finger (23

  3. Relationship between tendon stiffness and failure: a metaanalysis.

    PubMed

    LaCroix, Andrew S; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E; Lakes, Roderic S; Vanderby, Ray

    2013-07-01

    Tendon is a highly specialized, hierarchical tissue designed to transfer forces from muscle to bone; complex viscoelastic and anisotropic behaviors have been extensively characterized for specific subsets of tendons. Reported mechanical data consistently show a pseudoelastic, stress-vs.-strain behavior with a linear slope after an initial toe region. Many studies report a linear, elastic modulus, or Young's modulus (hereafter called elastic modulus) and ultimate stress for their tendon specimens. Individually, these studies are unable to provide a broader, interstudy understanding of tendon mechanical behavior. Herein we present a metaanalysis of pooled mechanical data from a representative sample of tendons from different species. These data include healthy tendons and those altered by injury and healing, genetic modification, allograft preparation, mechanical environment, and age. Fifty studies were selected and analyzed. Despite a wide range of mechanical properties between and within species, elastic modulus and ultimate stress are highly correlated (R(2) = 0.785), suggesting that tendon failure is highly strain-dependent. Furthermore, this relationship was observed to be predictable over controlled ranges of elastic moduli, as would be typical of any individual species. With the knowledge gained through this metaanalysis, noninvasive tools could measure elastic modulus in vivo and reasonably predict ultimate stress (or structural compromise) for diseased or injured tendon. PMID:23599401

  4. Relationship between tendon stiffness and failure: a metaanalysis

    PubMed Central

    LaCroix, Andrew S.; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E.; Lakes, Roderic S.

    2013-01-01

    Tendon is a highly specialized, hierarchical tissue designed to transfer forces from muscle to bone; complex viscoelastic and anisotropic behaviors have been extensively characterized for specific subsets of tendons. Reported mechanical data consistently show a pseudoelastic, stress-vs.-strain behavior with a linear slope after an initial toe region. Many studies report a linear, elastic modulus, or Young's modulus (hereafter called elastic modulus) and ultimate stress for their tendon specimens. Individually, these studies are unable to provide a broader, interstudy understanding of tendon mechanical behavior. Herein we present a metaanalysis of pooled mechanical data from a representative sample of tendons from different species. These data include healthy tendons and those altered by injury and healing, genetic modification, allograft preparation, mechanical environment, and age. Fifty studies were selected and analyzed. Despite a wide range of mechanical properties between and within species, elastic modulus and ultimate stress are highly correlated (R2 = 0.785), suggesting that tendon failure is highly strain-dependent. Furthermore, this relationship was observed to be predictable over controlled ranges of elastic moduli, as would be typical of any individual species. With the knowledge gained through this metaanalysis, noninvasive tools could measure elastic modulus in vivo and reasonably predict ultimate stress (or structural compromise) for diseased or injured tendon. PMID:23599401

  5. Markers for the identification of tendon-derived stem cells in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ - update and future development.

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) for the promotion of tendon and tendon-bone junction repair has been reported in animal studies. Modulation of the tendon stem cell niche in vivo has also been reported to influence tendon structure. There is a need to have specific and reliable markers that can define TDSCs in vitro and tendon stem cells in situ for several reasons: to understand the basic biology of TDSCs and their subpopulations in vitro; to understand the identity, niches and functions of tendon/progenitor stem cells in vivo; to meet the governmental regulatory requirements for quality of TDSCs when translating the exciting preclinical findings into clinical trial/practice; and to develop new treatment strategies for mobilizing endogenous stem/progenitor cells in tendon. TDSCs were reported to express the common mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers and some embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers, and there were attempts to use these markers to label tendon stem cells in situ. Are these stem cell markers useful for the identification of TDSCs in vitro and tracking of tendon stem cells in situ? This review aims to discuss the values of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for the identification of TDSCs in vitro. Important factors influencing marker expression by TDSCs are discussed. The usefulness and limitations of the panel of MSC, ESC and tendon-related markers for tracking stem cells in tendon, especially tendon stem cells, in situ are then reviewed. Future research directions are proposed. PMID:26031740

  6. Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen

    E-print Network

    Masic, Admir

    Water is an important component of collagen in tendons, but its role for the function of this load-carrying protein structure is poorly understood. Here we use a combination of multi-scale experimentation and computation ...

  7. The Tendon Injury Response Is Influenced by Decorin and Biglycan

    PubMed Central

    Dunkman, Andrew A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Adams, Sheila M.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Satchell, Lauren; Kumar, Akash; Pathmanathan, Lydia; Beason, David P.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Defining the constituent regulatory molecules in tendon is critical to understanding the process of tendon repair and instructive to the development of novel treatment modalities. The purpose of this study is to define the structural, expressional, and mechanical changes in the tendon injury response, and elucidate the roles of two class I small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs). We utilized biglycan-null, decorin-null and wild type mice with an established patellar tendon injury model. Mechanical testing demonstrated functional changes associated with injury and the incomplete recapitulation of mechanical properties after six weeks. In addition, SLRP deficiency influenced the mechanical properties with a marked lack of improvement between three and six weeks in decorin-null tendons. Morphological analyses of the injury response and role of SLRPs demonstrated alterations in cell density and shape as well as collagen alignment and fibril structure resulting from injury. SLRP gene expression was studied using RT-qPCR with alterations in expression associated with the injured tendons. Our results show that in the absence of biglycan initial healing may be impaired while in the absence of decorin later healing is clearly diminished. This suggests that biglycan and decorin may have sequential roles in the tendon response to injury. PMID:24072490

  8. Dysfunctional Tendon Collagen Fibrillogenesis in Collagen VI Null Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Izu, Yayoi; Ansorge, Heather L.; Zhang, Guiyun; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Bonaldo, Paolo; Chu, Mon-Li; Birk, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are composed of fibroblasts and collagen fibrils. The fibrils are organized uniaxially and grouped together into fibers. Collagen VI is a non-fibrillar collagen expressed in developing and adult tendons. Human collagen VI mutations result in muscular dystrophy, joint hyperlaxity and contractures. The purpose of this study is to determine the functional roles of collagen VI in tendon matrix assembly. During tendon development, collagen VI was expressed throughout the extracellular matrix, but enriched around fibroblasts and their processes. To analyze the functional roles of collagen VI a mouse model with a targeted inactivation of Col6a1 gene was utilized. Ultrastructural analysis of Col6a1?/? versus wild type tendons demonstrated disorganized extracellular micro-domains and collagen fibers in the Col6a1?/? tendon. In the col6a1?/? tendon, fibril structure and diameter distribution was abnormal compared to wild type controls. Col6a1?/? fibrils had smaller diameters and the diameter distributions were shifted significantly toward the smaller diameters. An analysis of fibril density (number/?m2) demonstrated an ~2.5 fold increase in the Col6a1?/? versus wild type tendons. In addition, the fibril arrangement and structure was aberrant in the peri-cellular regions of Col6a1?/? tendons with frequent very large fibrils and twisted fibrils observed restricted to this region. The biomechanical properties were analyzed in mature tendons. A significant decrease in cross sectional area was observed. The percent relaxation, maximum load, maximum stress, stiffness and modulus were analyzed and Col6a1?/? tendons demonstrated a significant reduction in maximum load and stiffness compared to wild type tendons. An increase in matrix metalloproteinase activity was suggested in the absence of collagen VI. This suggests alterations in tenocyte expression due to disruption of cell-matrix interactions. The changes in expression may result in alterations in the peri-cellular environment. In addition, the absence of collagen VI may alter the sequestering of regulatory molecules such as leucine rich proteoglycans. These changes would result in dysfunctional regulation of tendon fibrillogenesis indirectly mediated by collagen VI. PMID:20951202

  9. Tendon to bone healing and its implications for surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Daniel Lee John; Ilie, Victor; Ilie, Vladimir; Nicklin, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Summary Entheses are complex structures which act to reduce stress concentrations between tendon and skeleton tissues. Understanding the development and function of the enthesis organ has implications for surgical repair, particularly in regards to healing and the regulation of tendon to bone engraftment. In this paper we review the development and function of entheses as well as the enthesis organ concept. Next we examine the process of tendon to bone healing and how this can be regulated, before addressing implications for surgical repair and post-operative care. PMID:25489553

  10. Collagen type V polymorphism in spontaneous quadriceps tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Galasso, Olimpio; Iaccino, Enrico; Gallelli, Luca; Perrotta, Ida; Conforti, Francesco; Donato, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is associated with multiple medical conditions and pharmacological treatments; however, identifying prior risk factors is impossible in most cases. Achilles tendon and anterior cruciate ligament ruptures are associated with collagen, type V, alpha 1 (COL5A1) polymorphism. This genetic variant may be implicated quadriceps tendon rupture. The COL5A1 encodes the protein for pro-?1 chains of the low-abundance heterotrimeric type V collagen. In most noncartilaginous tissues, type V collagen is a quantitatively minor component of type I collagen that has been implicated in the regulation of the size and configuration of type I collagen fibrils. The functional significance of COL5A1 polymorphism in relation to type V collagen expression or activity has not been determined.This article describes a patient with COL5A1 polymorphism and spontaneous simultaneous quadriceps tendon rupture. However, genetic and histologic studies performed on blood and tendon tissues and 3 consecutive sex- and age-matched controls showed a statistically significant reduction in collagen type V expression and an alteration in collagen structure in the tendon. These findings might explain the pathomechanisms of spontaneous tendon ruptures associated with COL5A1 polymorphism. PMID:22495864

  11. Production of a sterilised decellularised tendon allograft for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Huang, Q; Ingham, E; Rooney, P; Kearney, J N

    2013-12-01

    Application of a high-level decontamination or sterilisation procedure and cell removal technique to tendon allograft can reduce the concerns of disease transmission, immune reaction, and may improve remodelling of the graft after implantation. The decellularised matrix can also be used as a matrix for tendon tissue engineering. One such sterilisation factor, Peracetic acid (PAA) has the advantage of not producing harmful reaction residues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PAA treatment and a cell removal procedure on the production of tendon matrix. Human patellar tendons, thawed from frozen were treated respectively as: Group 1, control with no treatment; Group 2, sterilised with PAA (0.1 % (w/v) PAA for 3 h) Group 3, decellularised (incubation successively in hypotonic buffer, 0.1 % (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate, and a nuclease solution); Group 4, decellularised and PAA sterilised. Histological analysis showed that no cells were visible after the decellularisation treatment. The integrity of tendon structure was maintained after decellularisation and PAA sterilisation, however, the collagen waveform was slightly loosened. No contact cytotoxicity was found in any of the groups. Determination of de-natured collagen showed no significant increase when compared with the control. This suggested that the decellularisation and sterilisation processing procedures did not compromise the major properties of the tendon. The sterilised, decellularised tendon could be suitable for clinical use. PMID:23443409

  12. Scaffolds in Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Lamberti, Alfredo; Petrillo, Stefano; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders. Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches. Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date. Available scaffolds for tendon repair include both biological scaffolds, obtained from mammalian tissues, and synthetic scaffolds, manufactured from chemical compounds. Preliminary studies support the idea that scaffolds can provide an alternative for tendon augmentation with an enormous therapeutic potential. However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation. We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair. PMID:22190961

  13. Achilles tendon injuries in athletes.

    PubMed

    Kvist, M

    1994-09-01

    Two-thirds of Achilles tendon injuries in competitive athletes are paratenonitis and one-fifth are insertional complaints (bursitis and insertion tendinitis). The remaining afflictions consist of pain syndromes of the myotendineal junction and tendinopathies. The majority of Achilles tendon injuries from sport occur in males, mainly because of their higher rates of participation in sport, but also with tendinopathies a gender difference is probably indicated. Athletes in running sports have a high incidence of Achilles tendon overuse injuries. About 75% of total and the majority of partial tendon ruptures are related to sports activities usually involving abrupt repetitive jumping and sprinting movements. Mechanical factors and a sedentary lifestyle play a role in the pathology of these injuries. Achilles tendon overuse injuries occur at a higher rate in older athletes than most other typical overuse injuries. Recreational athletes with a complete Achilles tendon rupture are about 15 years younger than those with other spontaneous tendon ruptures. Following surgery, about 70 to 90% of athletes have a successful comeback after Achilles tendon injury. Surgery is required in about 25% of athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries and the frequency of surgery increases with patient age and duration of symptoms as well as occurrence of tendinopathic changes. However, about 20% of injured athletes require a re-operation for Achilles tendon overuse injuries, and about 3 to 5% are compelled to abandon their sports career because of these injuries. Myotendineal junction pain should be treated conservatively. Partial Achilles tendon ruptures are primarily treated conservatively, although the best treatment method of chronic partial rupture seems to be surgery. Complete Achilles tendon ruptures of athletes are treated surgically, because this increases the likelihood of athletes reaching preinjury activity levels and minimises the risk of re-ruptures. Marked forefoot varus is found in athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries, reflecting the predisposing role of ankle joint overpronation. Athletes with the major stress in lower extremities have often a limited range of motion in the passive dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and total subtalar joint mobility, which seems to be predisposing factor for these injuries. Various predisposing transient factors are found in about one-third of athletes with Achilles tendon overuse injuries; of these, traumatic factors (mostly minor injuries) predominate. The typical histological features of chronically inflamed paratendineal tissue of the Achilles tendon are profound proliferation of loose, immature connective tissue and marked obliterative and degenerative alterations in the blood vessels. These changes cause continuing leakage of plasma proteins, which may have an important role in the pathophysiology of these injuries. The chronically inflamed paratendineal tissues of the Achilles tendon do not seem to have enough capacity to form mature connective tissue. PMID:7809555

  14. A Fibre-Reinforced Poroviscoelastic Model Accurately Describes the Biomechanical Behaviour of the Rat Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Heuijerjans, Ashley; Matikainen, Marko K.; Julkunen, Petro; Eliasson, Pernilla; Aspenberg, Per; Isaksson, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Background Computational models of Achilles tendons can help understanding how healthy tendons are affected by repetitive loading and how the different tissue constituents contribute to the tendon’s biomechanical response. However, available models of Achilles tendon are limited in their description of the hierarchical multi-structural composition of the tissue. This study hypothesised that a poroviscoelastic fibre-reinforced model, previously successful in capturing cartilage biomechanical behaviour, can depict the biomechanical behaviour of the rat Achilles tendon found experimentally. Materials and Methods We developed a new material model of the Achilles tendon, which considers the tendon’s main constituents namely: water, proteoglycan matrix and collagen fibres. A hyperelastic formulation of the proteoglycan matrix enabled computations of large deformations of the tendon, and collagen fibres were modelled as viscoelastic. Specimen-specific finite element models were created of 9 rat Achilles tendons from an animal experiment and simulations were carried out following a repetitive tensile loading protocol. The material model parameters were calibrated against data from the rats by minimising the root mean squared error (RMS) between experimental force data and model output. Results and Conclusions All specimen models were successfully fitted to experimental data with high accuracy (RMS 0.42-1.02). Additional simulations predicted more compliant and soft tendon behaviour at reduced strain-rates compared to higher strain-rates that produce a stiff and brittle tendon response. Stress-relaxation simulations exhibited strain-dependent stress-relaxation behaviour where larger strains produced slower relaxation rates compared to smaller strain levels. Our simulations showed that the collagen fibres in the Achilles tendon are the main load-bearing component during tensile loading, where the orientation of the collagen fibres plays an important role for the tendon’s viscoelastic response. In conclusion, this model can capture the repetitive loading and unloading behaviour of intact and healthy Achilles tendons, which is a critical first step towards understanding tendon homeostasis and function as this biomechanical response changes in diseased tendons. PMID:26030436

  15. The Injury Response of Aged Tendons in the Absence of Biglycan and Decorin

    PubMed Central

    Dunkman, Andrew A.; Buckley, Mark R.; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Adams, Sheila M.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Kumar, Akash; Beason, David P.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) biglycan and decorin impact tendon development, aging and healing in mature mice. However, despite the increased risk of tendon injury in the elderly, the role of SLRPs in tendon repair has not been investigated in aged animals. Therefore, our objective was to elucidate the influences of bigylcan and decorin on tendon healing in aged mice to relate our findings to previous work in mature mice. Since the processes of aging and healing are known to interact, our hypothesis was that aging mediates the role of biglycan and decorin on tendon healing. Patellar tendons from wild-type, biglycan-null and decorin-null mice were injured at 270 days using an established model. At 3 and 6 weeks post-surgery, structural, mechanical and biochemical analyses were performed and compared to uninjured controls. Early stage healing was inferior in biglycan-null and decorin-null mice as compared to wild type. However, tendons of all genotypes failed to exhibit improved mechanical properties between 3 and 6 weeks post-injury. In contrast, in a previous investigation of tendon healing in mature (i.e., 120 day-old) mice, only biglycan-null mice were deficient in early stage healing while decorin-null? mice were deficient in late-stage healing. These results confirm that the impact of SLRPs on tendon healing is mediated by age and could inform future age-specific therapies for enhancing tendon healing. PMID:24157578

  16. Parameters influencing prevalence and outcome of tendonitis in Thoroughbred and Arabian racehorses.

    PubMed

    Kalisiak, O

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendonitis and suspensory desmitis are among most prevalent musculoskeletal injuries observed in racehorses. The aim of this study was to determine which horse and race-related parameters can help to diminish the possibility of injury or--when injury has occurred--to evaluate the potential for the horse to continue a successful career after convalescence. Special attention was given to the comparison of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses. 187 horses with ultrasonographically visible lesions were included in the study. Following parameters were analyzed: structure (Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon [SDFT], Deep Digital Flexor Tendon [DDFT], Suspensory Ligament [SL]); percentage of cross sectional area increase; hypoechogenic lesion character; in horses with SDF tendonitis - tendonitis grade according to Genovese. This study showed that Thoroughbreds are more at risk of musculoskeletal problems than Arabian racehorses. In both breeds, the most frequent injuries concern SDFT, then SL. Over 95% of tendonitis concern forelimbs. In Thoroughbreds, the prevalence of tendonitis is higher in bigger horses, in males when compared to females and in fence/steeple racehorses when compared to flat track racehorses. The inside limb is more at risk of SDF tendonitis, when the external limb - of SL desmitis. Tendonitis severity increases with age and is greater in steeplechasers when compared to flat track racehorses. The outcome of tendonitis without hypoechogenic lesion is much better than that with hypoechogenic lesion. Evaluation of hypoechogenic lesion length is an easy and accurate prognosis tool, as the chances of returning to racing drop dramatically with lesions longer than 12 cm. PMID:22708365

  17. The Effect of Lubricin on the Gliding Resistance of Mouse Intrasynovial Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masanori; Zhao, Chunfeng; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Chikenji, Takako; Jay, Gregory D.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of lubricin on the gliding resistance of intrasynovial tendons by comparing lubricin knockout, heterozygous, and wild type mice. A total of thirty-six deep digital flexor (DDF) tendons in the third digits of each hind paw from eighteen adult mice were used, including six lubricin knockout mice (Prg4 –/–), six heterozygous mice (Prg4 +/–), and six wild type mice (Prg4 +/+). The tendon gliding resistance was measured using a custom-made device. Tendon structural changes were evaluated by scanning electron and light microscopy. The gliding resistance of intrasynovial tendons from lubricin knockout mice was significantly higher than the gliding resistance of either wild type or heterozygous mice. The surface of the lubricin knockout tendons appeared to be rougher, compared to the wild type and heterozygous tendons. Synovial hyperplasia was found in the lubricin knockout mice. Cartilage-like tissue was found in the tendon and pulley of the lubricin knockout mice. Our findings confirm the importance of lubricin in intrasynovial tendon lubrication. This knockout model may be useful in determining the effect of lubricin on tendon healing and the response to injury. PMID:24349551

  18. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with Wilson disease. A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Stein; W. Petersen; H. Laprell

    1999-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a A 58-year old man with wilson's disease sustained a bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon. The histological\\u000a investigation showed advanced degeneration of tendon structure and cupper deposits. After tenosuture the patient had complete\\u000a cure with full range of movement. We discuss about relation of wilson × s disease, cupper deposits and degenerative changes\\u000a of tendon tissue.

  19. [The effect of repair of paratendon in tendon healing].

    PubMed

    Pan, Z; Wang, C; Zhou, W

    1997-09-01

    In order to investigate the effect of repair of paratendon in tendon healing, two different ways were performed to repair the transected extensor tendons of chick's toe. End to end suture of the extensor tenon was performed in group 1 while the paratendon was also repaired simultaneously in addition to suture of the tendon in group 2. Gross observation and histological examination were undertaken in the 3rd and 6th week after operation. The result showed, in group 1, extensive adhesion and irregular proliferation of fibroblasts was found in the 3rd week, severe adhesion and irregular arrangement of fibroblasts with less collagen fiber was found in the 6th week; while in group 2, smooth and regular "fusiform structure" was formed, slight adhesion and regular proliferation of fibroblasts were found in the 3rd week, adhesion disappeared and the structure of paratendon and tondon recovered in the 6th week. It was concluded that repair of extensor tendon and paratendon simultaneously could promote the intrinsic tendon healing and prevent tendon adhesion. PMID:9867929

  20. Outcomes following quadriceps tendon ruptures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K O'Shea; P Kenny; J Donovan; F Condon; J. P McElwain

    2002-01-01

    Complete rupture of the quadriceps femoris tendon is a well-described injury. There is a scarcity of literature relating to the outcome of patients with this injury after surgery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of patients who had surgical repair of their ruptured quadriceps tendon at our institution over a seven year period-totalling 27 patients. Males were more commonly affected with

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute tendon ruptures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard H. Daffner; Barry L. Riemer; Anthony R. Lupetin; Nilima Dash

    1986-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute tendon ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee or the Achilles tendon of the ankle may usually be made by clinical means. Massive soft tissue swelling accompanying these injuries often obscures the findings, however. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can rapidly demonstrate these tendon ruptures. Examples of the use of MRI for quadriceps tendon, and Achilles

  2. Synovial chondromatosis in the quadriceps tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Ki Choi; Jae-Hoon Jeong; Chun-Taek Lee; Sung-Jae Kim

    2003-01-01

    We present a case of synovial chondromatosis originating from the quadriceps tendon sheath, which caused a complete quadriceps tendon rupture. The patient was treated using marginal excision. The ruptured quadriceps tendon was repaired. This is the first description of a quadriceps tendon rupture associated with synovial chondromatosis.

  3. The dynamics of collagen uncrimping and lateral contraction in tendon and the effect of ionic concentration.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Mark R; Sarver, Joseph J; Freedman, Benjamin R; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2013-09-01

    Under tensile loading, tendon undergoes a number of unique structural changes that govern its mechanical response. For example, stretching a tendon is known to induce both the progressive "uncrimping" of wavy collagen fibrils and extensive lateral contraction mediated by fluid flow out of the tissue. However, it is not known whether these processes are interdependent. Moreover, the rate-dependence of collagen uncrimping and its contribution to tendon's viscoelastic mechanical properties are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to (a) develop a methodology allowing for simultaneous measurement of crimp, stress, axial strain and lateral contraction in tendon under dynamic loading; (b) determine the interdependence of collagen uncrimping and lateral contraction by testing tendons in different swelling conditions; and (c) assess how the process of collagen uncrimping depends on loading rate. Murine flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendons in varying ionic environments were dynamically stretched to a set strain level and imaged through a plane polariscope with the polarizer and analyzer at a fixed angle. Analysis of the resulting images allowed for direct measurement of the crimp frequency and indirect measurement of the tendon thickness. Our findings demonstrate that collagen uncrimping and lateral contraction can occur independently and interstitial fluid impacts tendon mechanics directly. Furthermore, tensile stress, transverse contraction and degree of collagen uncrimping were all rate-dependent, suggesting that collagen uncrimping plays a role in tendon's dynamic mechanical response. This study is the first to characterize the time-dependence of collagen uncrimping in tendon, and establishes structure-function relationships for healthy tendons that can be used to better understand and assess changes in tendon mechanics after disease or injury. PMID:23876711

  4. Study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Wimpenny, Ian; Weightman, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons play a critical role for transferring tensile stress, and they demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans (PGs) have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. PGs are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; the changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathies. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between PG content/location and birefringence properties of tendons. Fresh chicken tendons were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarization light microscopy during the extraction of PGs, using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Complementary time-lapsed images taken from the two modalities mutually demonstrated that the extraction of PGs disturbed the local organization of collagen bundles. This corresponded with a decrease in birefringence and associated banding pattern observed by PS-OCT. Furthermore, this study revealed there was a higher concentration of PGs in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles, and therefore the change in birefringence was reduced when extraction was performed on unsheathed tendons. The results provide new insights of tendon structure and the role of PGs on the structural stability of tendons, which also demonstrates the great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.

  5. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, Jess; Galli, Melissa; Borchers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Achilles tendon (AT) rupture in athletes is increasing in incidence and accounts for one of the most devastating sports injuries because of the threat to alter or end a career. Despite the magnitude of this injury, reliable risk assessment has not been clearly defined, and prevention strategies have been limited. The purpose of this review is to identify potential intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes stated in the current literature. Evidence Acquisition: A MEDLINE search was conducted on AT rupture, or “injury” and “risk factors” and “athletes” from 1980 to 2011. Emphasis was placed on epidemiology, etiology, and review articles focusing on the risk for lower extremity injury in runners and gymnasts. Thirty articles were reviewed, and 22 were included in this assessment. Results: Aerial and ground athletes share many intrinsic risk factors for AT rupture, including overuse and degeneration of the tendon as well as anatomical variations that mechanically put an athlete at risk. Older athletes, athletes atypical in size for their sport, high tensile loads, leg dominance, and fatigue also may increase risk. Aerial athletes tend to have more extrinsic factors that play a role in this injury due to the varying landing surfaces from heights and technical maneuvers performed at various skill levels. Conclusion: Risk assessment for AT rupture in aerial and ground athletes is multivariable and difficult in terms of developing prevention strategies. Quantitative measures of individual risk factors may help identify major contributors to injury. PMID:24427410

  6. Connecting muscles to tendons: tendons and musculoskeletal development in flies and vertebrates

    E-print Network

    Connecting muscles to tendons: tendons and musculoskeletal development in flies and vertebrates of the musculoskeletal system represents an intricate process of tissue assembly involving heterotypic inductive interactions between tendons, muscles and cartilage. An essential component of all musculoskeletal systems

  7. Popliteus tendon tenosynovitis.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, G W

    1977-01-01

    This series of case suggests that the entity of tenosynovitis of the popliteus tendon is more common than once recognized. A high index of sucpicion and accurate palpation of the lateral aspect of the knee lead one to the diagnosis. Knowledge of this entity may prevent future misdiagnosis of tear of the lateral meniscus and unnecessary meniscectomy as experienced by Helfet, Holden, and myself. There is a definite correlation with activities requiring downhill walking or running. The runners invariably complained of the oneset of symptoms during downhill running rather than uphill running. Back packing enthusiastscomplained of no symptoms for several days after ascending into the mountains, only to experience the symptoms at the end of a long, rapid descent out of the mountains. The pathomechanics of this inflammation of the popliteus tendon is not fully understood. Preliminary analysis of gait movies suggests that in downhill running there is an increased vector to displace the weight-bearing femur forward on the relatively fixed tibia as the knee is increasingly flexed (Fig. 5). Previously mentioned EMG functional studies indicate that the popliteus muscle is active during this weight-bearing phase of gait and may act to retard the femur from forward displacement on the tibia in conjunction with the quadriceps. More specifically, it may help to retard the lateral femoral condyle from rotating forward off the lateral tibial plateau. Downhill running or walking therefore may cause increased stress on the popliteus muscle-tendon unit in an effort to decelerate the body weight against the altered angle of gravitational pull, with resultant tenosynovitis and symptoms. In this series there were no top flight competitive runners. The typical patient was a 31-year-old physician who was jogging 1 to 5 miles and decided to increase his pace and distance, particularly while jogging downhill. The average age of this series of patients (31 years) at the time of onset, coupled with the fact many of these persons were relatively sedentary until stressing the knee by increased activity, suggests that there will be an increasing number of these patients in the future as jogging and running are prescribed for cardiovascular system conditioning. PMID:848633

  8. Accuracy of MRI technique in measuring tendon cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Couppé, C; Svensson, R B; Sødring-Elbrønd, V; Hansen, P; Kjaer, M; Magnusson, S P

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has commonly been applied to determine tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) and length either to measure structural changes or to normalize mechanical measurements to stress and strain. The ability to reproduce CSA measurements on MRI images has been reported, but the accuracy in relation to actual tendon dimensions has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare tendon CSA measured by MRI with that measured in vitro with the mould casting technique. The knee of a horse was MRI-scanned with 1.5 and 3 tesla, and two examiners measured the patellar tendon CSA. Thereafter, the patellar tendon of the horse was completely dissected and embedded in an alginate cast. The CSA of the embedded tendon was measured directly by optical imaging of the cast impression. 1.5 tesla grey tendon CSA and 3 tesla grey tendon CSA were 16.5% and 13.2% lower than the mould tendon CSA, respectively. Also, 3 tesla tendon CSA, based on the red-green border on the National Institute of Health (NIH) colour scale, was lower than the mould tendon CSA by 2.8%. The typical error between examiners was below 2% for all the measured CSA. The typical error between examiners was below 2% for all the measured CSA. These data show that measuring tendon CSA on the grey-scale MRI images is associated with an underestimation, but by optimizing the measurement using a 3 tesla MRI and the appropriate NIH colour scale, this underestimation could be reduced to 2.8% compared with the direct measurements on the mould. PMID:24119143

  9. Differential scanning calorimetric examination of the ruptured Achilles tendon in human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wiegand; L. Vámhidy; L. Kereskai; D. L?rinczy

    2010-01-01

    The Achilles tendon rupture is a common injury of the foot in middle age and physically active population in Europe. The aetiology of the degenerative changes in the collagen structures of the tendon which could be disposed for the rupture is still not clear. Our hypothesis was that before the injury there is a clear pathological abnormality in the tissue

  10. Traumatic bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Hansen; Søren Larsen; Troels Laulund

    2001-01-01

    Bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture is a very rare event, with only an estimated 40 cases reported in the literature.\\u000a We report a case of bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture and review the literature. The reviewed literature recommends\\u000a early repair; therefore, early diagnosis is crucial. Reportedly, up to 50% of spontaneous bilateral quadriceps ruptures are\\u000a misdiagnosed at first, resulting in

  11. Tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitor cells have unique tenogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Multipotent progenitor populations exist within the tendon proper and peritenon of the Achilles tendon. Progenitor populations derived from the tendon proper and peritenon are enriched with distinct cell types that are distinguished by expression of markers of tendon and vascular or pericyte origins, respectively. The objective of this study was to discern the unique tenogenic properties of tendon proper- and peritenon-derived progenitors within an in vitro model. We hypothesized that progenitors from each region contribute differently to tendon formation; thus, when incorporated into a regenerative model, progenitors from each region will respond uniquely. Moreover, we hypothesized that cell populations like progenitors were capable of stimulating tenogenic differentiation, so we generated conditioned media from these cell types to analyze their stimulatory potentials. Methods Isolated progenitors were seeded within fibrinogen/thrombin gel-based constructs with or without supplementation with recombinant growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF5). Early and late in culture, gene expression of differentiation markers and matrix assembly genes was analyzed. Tendon construct ultrastructure was also compared after 45 days. Moreover, conditioned media from tendon proper-derived progenitors, peritenon-derived progenitors, or tenocytes was applied to each of the three cell types to determine paracrine stimulatory effects of the factors secreted from each of the respective cell types. Results The cell orientation, extracellular domain and fibril organization of constructs were comparable to embryonic tendon. The tendon proper-derived progenitors produced a more tendon-like construct than the peritenon-derived progenitors. Seeded tendon proper-derived progenitors expressed greater levels of tenogenic markers and matrix assembly genes, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors. However, GDF5 supplementation improved expression of matrix assembly genes in peritenon progenitors and structurally led to increased mean fibril diameters. It also was found that peritenon-derived progenitors secrete factor(s) stimulatory to tenocytes and tendon proper progenitors. Conclusions Data demonstrate that, relative to peritenon-derived progenitors, tendon proper progenitors have greater potential for forming functional tendon-like tissue. Furthermore, factors secreted by peritenon-derived progenitors suggest a trophic role for this cell type as well. Thus, these findings highlight the synergistic potential of including these progenitor populations in restorative tendon engineering strategies. PMID:25005797

  12. Computer modeling of cathodic protection on risers\\/tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Osvoll; P. O. Gartland; W. H. Thomason

    1995-01-01

    Computer modeling is gaining popularity in the design and verification of cathodic protection (CP) systems for offshore structures. The work presented in this article expands the use of CP simulation to consider the metallic electrical resistance of risers\\/tendons used with tension leg platforms where anodes are mounted on the hull or subsea structure. The SEACORR\\/CP computer system was used to

  13. Improved Achilles tendon healing by early mechanical loading in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jihong; Jiang, Dianming; Wen, Shuzheng; Jing, Shangfei; Fan, Dongsheng; Hao, Zengtao; Han, Chaoqian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the structure and the attachment strength of a healing tendon-bone interface and the role of mechanical loading in tendon healing. Methods: Sixty rabbits underwent unilateral detachment and repair of the Achilles tendon. Thirty animals were immobilized (Group A), and the others wereallowed loadingimmediately postoperatively (Group B). Animals were sacrificed at 4 weeks and evaluated for histological and biomechanical testing. Statistical analysis was performed with an independent t test with significance set at P = 0.05. Results: The ultimate stress was greater in group B (4.598 ± 1.321 N/mm2) compared with the control group (3.388 ± 0.994 N/mm2) (P < 0.05). Similarly, a more organized tendon-to-bone interface with a larger area of chondrocytes was found in group B (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Mechanical loading improves the structure and the attachment strength of the healing tendon-to-bone interface. PMID:25785105

  14. Prominent Actin Fiber Arrays in Drosophila Tendon Cells Represent Architectural Elements Different from Stress Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Silva, Juliana; Hahn, Ines; Huber, Olga; Mende, Michael; Reissaus, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Tendon cells are specialized cells of the insect epidermis that connect basally attached muscle tips to the cuticle on their apical surface via prominent arrays of microtubules. Tendon cells of Drosophila have become a useful genetic model system to address questions with relevance to cell and developmental biology. Here, we use light, confocal, and electron microscopy to present a refined model of the subcellular organization of tendon cells. We show that prominent arrays of F-actin exist in tendon cells that fully overlap with the microtubule arrays, and that type II myosin accumulates in the same area. The F-actin arrays in tendon cells seem to represent a new kind of actin structure, clearly distinct from stress fibers. They are highly resistant to F-actin–destabilizing drugs, to the application of myosin blockers, and to loss of integrin, Rho1, or mechanical force. They seem to represent an important architectural element of tendon cells, because they maintain a connection between apical and basal surfaces even when microtubule arrays of tendon cells are dysfunctional. Features reported here and elsewhere for tendon cells are reminiscent of the structural and molecular features of support cells in the inner ear of vertebrates, and they might have potential translational value. PMID:18667532

  15. The Location-Specific Role of Proteoglycans in the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Mark R.; Huffman, George R.; Iozzo, Renato V.; Birk, David E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons like the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) that contain region-specific distributions of proteoglycans (PGs) as a result of the heterogeneous, multi-axial loads they are subjected to in vivo provide valuable models for understanding structure-function relationships in connective tissues. However, the contributions of specific PGs to FCU tendon mechanical properties are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine how the location-dependent, viscoelastic mechanical properties of the FCU tendon are impacted individually by PG-associated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and by two small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), biglycan and decorin. Full length FCU tendons from biglycan- and decorin-null mice were compared to wild type mice to evaluate the effects of specific SLRPs, while chondroitinase ABC digestion of isolated specimens removed from the tendon midsubstance was used to determine how chontroitin/dermatan sulfate (CS/DS) GAGs impact mechanics in mature FCU tendons. A novel combined genetic knockout/ digestion technique also was employed to compare SLRP-null and wild-type tendons in the absence of CS/DS GAGs that may impact properties in the mature state. In all genotypes, mechanical properties in the FCU tendon midsubstance were not affected by GAG digestion. Full-length tendons exhibited complex, multi-axial deformation under tension that may be associated with their in vivo loading environment. Mechanical properties were adversely affected by the absence of biglycan, and a decreased modulus localized in the center of the tendon was measured. These results help elucidate the role that local alterations in proteoglycan levels may play in processes that adversely impact tendon functionality including injury and pathology. PMID:23941206

  16. ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING PATELLAR TENDON AND QUADRICEPS TENDON: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasser Sarrafan; Seyed Abdolhossein Mehdinasab

    Objective: The goal of this study was to compare the results of knee anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon. Methodology: In this study 30 patients with rupture of anterior cruciate ligament of knee were compared in two 15-person group with the use of patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon. After precise rehabilitation program for

  17. Patella baja following chronic quadriceps tendon rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Hockings; John C. Cameron

    2004-01-01

    Patella baja is a complication of chronic quadriceps tendon rupture. In this case we present the treatment of this problem by the proximal transfer of the tibial tubercle allowing an environment in which the quadriceps tendon can heal.

  18. Common Disorders of the Achilles Tendon

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leg and connects the calf muscle to the heel bone. Also called the “heel cord,” the Achilles tendon facilitates walking by helping to raise the heel off the ground. Achilles Tendonitis and Achilles Tendonosis ...

  19. Achilles tendon rupture rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, R. S.; Parsons, N.; Underwood, M.; Costa, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The evidence base to inform the management of Achilles tendon rupture is sparse. The objectives of this research were to establish what current practice is in the United Kingdom and explore clinicians’ views on proposed further research in this area. This study was registered with the ISRCTN (ISRCTN68273773) as part of a larger programme of research. Methods We report an online survey of current practice in the United Kingdom, approved by the British Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society and completed by 181 of its members. A total of ten of these respondents were invited for a subsequent one-to-one interview to explore clinician views on proposed further research in this area. Results The survey showed wide variations in practice, with patients being managed in plaster cast alone (13%), plaster cast followed by orthoses management (68%), and orthoses alone (19%). Within these categories, further variation existed regarding the individual rehabilitation facets, such as the length of time worn, the foot position within them and weight-bearing status. The subsequent interviews reflected this clinical uncertainty and the pressing need for definitive research. Conclusions The gap in evidence in this area has resulted in practice in the United Kingdom becoming varied and based on individual opinion. Future high-quality randomised trials on this subject are supported by the clinical community. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2015;4:65–9 PMID:25868938

  20. Blood supply of the quadriceps tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Petersen; V. Stein; B. Tillmann

    1999-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a Degenerative changes have been considered to be a cause for spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture. Aim of this study is to\\u000a investigate the microvasculature of the quadriceps tendon by injection techniques and immunohistochemical methods (antibodies\\u000a against laminin) with regard to the pathogenesis of tendon degeneration. The blood supply of the quadriceps tendon arises\\u000a from descending branches of the lateral circumflex

  1. Histologic analysis of ruptured quadriceps tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per David Trobisch; Matthias Bauman; Kuno Weise; Fabian Stuby; David J. Hak

    2010-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are uncommon injuries. Degenerative changes in the tendon are felt to be an important precondition\\u000a for rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 45 quadriceps tendon ruptures in 42 patients. Quadriceps tendon ruptures occurred\\u000a most often in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Men were affected six times as often as women. A tissue sample from the\\u000a rupture-zone was

  2. Patellar Tendon Rupture after Lateral Release without Predisposing Systemic Disease or Steroid Use

    PubMed Central

    De Giorgi, S.; Notarnicola, A.; Vicenti, G.; Moretti, B.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic technique for lateral release is the most widely used procedure for the correction of recurrent dislocations of the patella. In the relevant literature, several complications of lateral release are described, but the spontaneous patellar tendon rupture has never been suggested as a possible complication of this surgical procedure. Patellar tendon rupture is a rather infrequent and often unilateral lesion. Nevertheless, in case of systemic diseases (LES, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic renal insufficiency) that can weaken collagen structures, bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are described. We report a case of a 24-year-old girl with spontaneous rupture of patellar tendon who, at the age of 16, underwent an arthroscopic lateral release for recurrent dislocation of the patella. This is the first case of described spontaneous patellar tendon rupture that occurred some years after an arthroscopic lateral release. PMID:25960904

  3. Elastic fibres are broadly distributed in tendon and highly localized around tenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Tyler M; Thompson, Mark S; Urban, Jill; Yu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Elastic fibres have the unique ability to withstand large deformations and are found in numerous tissues, but their organization and structure have not been well defined in tendon. The objective of this study was to characterize the organization of elastic fibres in tendon to understand their function. Immunohistochemistry was used to visualize elastic fibres in bovine flexor tendon with fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2 and elastin antibodies. Elastic fibres were broadly distributed throughout tendon, and highly localized longitudinally around groups of cells and transversely between collagen fascicles. The close interaction of elastic fibres and cells suggests that elastic fibres are part of the pericellular matrix and therefore affect the mechanical environment of tenocytes. Fibres present between fascicles are likely part of the endotenon sheath, which enhances sliding between adjacent collagen bundles. These results demonstrate that elastic fibres are highly localized in tendon and may play an important role in cellular function and contribute to the tissue mechanics of the endotenon sheath. PMID:23587025

  4. Silastic tendon graft: its role in neglected tendon repair.

    PubMed

    LaBarbiera, A P; Solitto, R J

    1990-01-01

    A case history is presented of the repair of a neglected traumatic tendon laceration by the use of a permanent Silastic tendon implant, originally manufactured for hand surgery by a staged procedure. Stage I consists of implantation of the Silastic implant and allowance of a 2- to 3-month period for the production of a pseudosheath. Stage II consists of removal of the implant after using it to guide an auto- or allograft, through the newly formed pseudosheath for attachment to the anastomotic sites. PMID:2258563

  5. Staged tendon grafts and soft tissue coverage

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, David

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the two-staged flexor tendon method is to improve the predictability of final results in difficult problems dealing with tendon reconstruction. This article reviews the evolution and benefits of this procedure. It also considers the use of the technique to help deal with problems requiring pulley and skin reconstruction simultaneously with re-constituting the flexor tendon system. PMID:22022043

  6. Management of complications of flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Pulos, Nicholas; Bozentka, David J

    2015-05-01

    Innovations in operative techniques, biomaterials, and rehabilitation protocols have improved outcomes after treatment of flexor tendon injuries. However, despite these advances, treatment of flexor tendon injuries remains challenging. The purpose of this review is to highlight the complications of flexor tendon injuries and review the management of these complications. PMID:25934203

  7. Biomechanics of tendon injury and repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony W. Lin; Luis Cardenas; Louis J. Soslowsky

    2004-01-01

    Many clinical and experimental studies have investigated how tendons repair in response to an injury. This body of work has led to a greater understanding of tendon healing mechanisms and subsequently to an improvement in their treatment. In this review paper, characterization of normal and healing tendons is first covered. In addition, the debate between intrinsic and extrinsic healing is

  8. Early active mobilization for extensor tendon injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sylaidis; M. Youatt; A. Logan

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic splinting following extensor tendon repair gives better results than static splinting, but involves cumbersome splints and recommended protocols are often complicated. We prefer controlled active mobilization of extensor tendon repairs without dynamic splinting. Six weeks after repair, excellent or good function was obtained in 22 out of 24 simple extensor tendon injuries and in 11 out of 13 complex

  9. Achilles tendon reflex measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna

    1995-06-01

    The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.

  10. Tendon Ruptures Associated With Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Alan A.; Horowitz, Bruce G.; Nagel, Donald A.

    1977-01-01

    In five patients, tendon ruptures occurred in association with corticosteroid therapy, either systemic or local infiltration. The chronic nature of the pain in all of these patients suggests that what we often call tendinitis may in fact be early or partial ruptures of tendons. Patients who receive local infiltration of corticosteroids should perhaps be advised of the risk of a ruptured tendon. In addition, particularly when the Achilles tendon is involved, immobilization should be utilized initially for a presumed tendinitis or early rupture, to protect the tendon from further injury. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:919538

  11. Biaxial tensile testing and constitutive modeling of human supraspinatus tendon.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Peloquin, John M; Cortes, Daniel H; Kadlowec, Jennifer A; Soslowsky, Louis J; Elliott, Dawn M

    2012-02-01

    The heterogeneous composition and mechanical properties of the supraspinatus tendon offer an opportunity for studying the structure-function relationships of fibrous musculoskeletal connective tissues. Previous uniaxial testing has demonstrated a correlation between the collagen fiber angle distribution and tendon mechanics in response to tensile loading both parallel and transverse to the tendon longitudinal axis. However, the planar mechanics of the supraspinatus tendon may be more appropriately characterized through biaxial tensile testing, which avoids the limitation of nonphysiologic traction-free boundary conditions present during uniaxial testing. Combined with a structural constitutive model, biaxial testing can help identify the specific structural mechanisms underlying the tendon's two-dimensional mechanical behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of collagen fiber organization to the planar tensile mechanics of the human supraspinatus tendon by fitting biaxial tensile data with a structural constitutive model that incorporates a sample-specific angular distribution of nonlinear fibers. Regional samples were tested under several biaxial boundary conditions while simultaneously measuring the collagen fiber orientations via polarized light imaging. The histograms of fiber angles were fit with a von Mises probability distribution and input into a hyperelastic constitutive model incorporating the contributions of the uncrimped fibers. Samples with a wide fiber angle distribution produced greater transverse stresses than more highly aligned samples. The structural model fit the longitudinal stresses well (median R(2) ? 0.96) and was validated by successfully predicting the stress response to a mechanical protocol not used for parameter estimation. The transverse stresses were fit less well with greater errors observed for less aligned samples. Sensitivity analyses and relatively affine fiber kinematics suggest that these errors are not due to inaccuracies in measuring the collagen fiber organization. More likely, additional strain energy terms representing fiber-fiber interactions are necessary to provide a closer approximation of the transverse stresses. Nevertheless, this approach demonstrated that the longitudinal tensile mechanics of the supraspinatus tendon are primarily dependent on the moduli, crimp, and angular distribution of its collagen fibers. These results add to the existing knowledge of structure-function relationships in fibrous musculoskeletal tissue, which is valuable for understanding the etiology of degenerative disease, developing effective tissue engineering design strategies, and predicting outcomes of tissue repair. PMID:22482671

  12. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Charvet, Benjamin; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Havis, Emmanuelle; Ronsin, Olivier; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Robert, Nicolas; Lu, Yinhui; Kadler, Karl E.; Baumberger, Tristan; Doursounian, Levon; Berenbaum, Francis; Duprez, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Tendon formation and repair rely on specific combinations of transcription factors, growth factors, and mechanical parameters that regulate the production and spatial organization of type I collagen. Here, we investigated the function of the zinc finger transcription factor EGR1 in tendon formation, healing, and repair using rodent animal models and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adult tendons of Egr1–/– mice displayed a deficiency in the expression of tendon genes, including Scx, Col1a1, and Col1a2, and were mechanically weaker compared with their WT littermates. EGR1 was recruited to the Col1a1 and Col2a1 promoters in postnatal mouse tendons in vivo. Egr1 was required for the normal gene response following tendon injury in a mouse model of Achilles tendon healing. Forced Egr1 expression programmed MSCs toward the tendon lineage and promoted the formation of in vitro–engineered tendons from MSCs. The application of EGR1-producing MSCs increased the formation of tendon-like tissues in a rat model of Achilles tendon injury. We provide evidence that the ability of EGR1 to promote tendon differentiation is partially mediated by TGF-?2. This study demonstrates EGR1 involvement in adult tendon formation, healing, and repair and identifies Egr1 as a putative target in tendon repair strategies. PMID:23863709

  13. Tendon glycosaminoglycan proteoglycan sidechains promote collagen fibril sliding-AFM observations at the nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Rigozzi, S; Müller, R; Stemmer, A; Snedeker, J G

    2013-02-22

    The extracellular matrix of tendon is mainly composed of discontinuous Type-I collagen fibrils and small leucine rich proteoglycans (PG). Macroscopic tendon behaviors like stiffness and strength are determined by the ultrastructural arrangement of these components. When a tendon is submitted to load, the collagen fibrils both elongate and slide relative to their neighboring fibrils. The role of PG glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sidechains in mediating inter-fibril load sharing remains controversial, with competing structure-function theories suggesting that PGs may mechanically couple neighboring collagen fibrils (cross-linking them to facilitate fibril stretch) or alternatively isolating them (promoting fibril gliding). In this study, we sought to clarify the functional role of GAGs in tensile tendon mechanics by directly investigating the mechanical response of individual collagen fibrils within their collagen network in both native and GAG depleted tendons. A control group of Achilles tendons from adult mice was compared with tendons in which GAGs were enzymatically depleted using chondroitinase ABC. Tendons were loaded to specific target strains, chemically fixed under constant load, and later sectioned for morphological analysis by an atomic force microscope (AFM). Increases in periodic banding of the collagen fibrils (D-period) or decreases in fibril diameter was considered to be representative of collagen fibril elongation and the mechanical contribution of GAGs at the ultrascale was quantified on this basis. At high levels of applied tendon strain (10%), GAG depleted tendons showed increased collagen stretch (less fibril sliding). We conclude that the hydrophilic GAGs seem thus not to act as mechanical crosslinks but rather act to promote collagen fibril sliding under tension. PMID:23219277

  14. The study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by PS-OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Weightman, Alan; Wimpenny, Ian; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Ahearne, Mark

    2011-03-01

    Tendons are load-bearing collagenous tissues consisting mainly of type I collagen and various proteoglycans (PGs) including decorin and versican. It is widely accepted that highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons a play critical role for transferring tensile stress and demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. Tendinopathy (defined as a syndrome of tendon pain, tenderness and swelling that affects the normal function of the tissue) is a common disease associated with sporting injuries or degeneration. PG's are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathy. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between proteoglycan content/location and birefringent properties of tendons. Tendons dissected from freshly slaughtered chickens were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarizing light microscope during the extraction of PGs or glycosaminoglycans using established protocols (guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl) or proteinase K solution). The macroscopic and microscopic time lapsed images are complimentary; mutually demonstrating that there was a higher concentration of PG's in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles; and the integrity of the sheath affected extraction process and the OCT birefringence bands. Extraction of PGs using GuHCl disturbed the organization of local collagen bundles, which corresponded to a reduction in the frequency of birefringence bands and the band width by PS-OCT. The feature of OCT penetration depth helped us to define the heterogeneous distribution of PG's in tendon, which was complimented by polarizing light microscopy. The results provide new insight of tendon structure and also demonstrate a great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.

  15. Ultrasound elasticity imaging of human posterior tibial tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Liang

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a common degenerative condition leading to a severe impairment of gait. There is currently no effective method to determine whether a patient with advanced PTTD would benefit from several months of bracing and physical therapy or ultimately require surgery. Tendon degeneration is closely associated with irreversible degradation of its collagen structure, leading to changes to its mechanical properties. If these properties could be monitored in vivo, it could be used to quantify the severity of tendonosis and help determine the appropriate treatment. Ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) is a real-time, noninvasive technique to objectively measure mechanical properties in soft tissue. It consists of acquiring a sequence of ultrasound frames and applying speckle tracking to estimate displacement and strain at each pixel. The goals of my dissertation were to 1) use acoustic simulations to investigate the performance of UEI during tendon deformation with different geometries; 2) develop and validate UEI as a potentially noninvasive technique for quantifying tendon mechanical properties in human cadaver experiments; 3) design a platform for UEI to measure mechanical properties of the PTT in vivo and determine whether there are detectable and quantifiable differences between healthy and diseased tendons. First, ultrasound simulations of tendon deformation were performed using an acoustic modeling program. The effects of different tendon geometries (cylinder and curved cylinder) on the performance of UEI were investigated. Modeling results indicated that UEI accurately estimated the strain in the cylinder geometry, but underestimated in the curved cylinder. The simulation also predicted that the out-of-the-plane motion of the PTT would cause a non-uniform strain pattern within incompressible homogeneous isotropic material. However, to average within a small region of interest determined by principal component analysis (PCA) would improve the estimation. Next, UEI was performed on five human cadaver feet mounted in a materials testing system (MTS) while the PTT was attached to a force actuator. A portable ultrasound scanner collected 2D data during loading cycles. Young's modulus was calculated from the strain, loading force and cross sectional area of the PTT. Average Young's modulus for the five tendons was (0.45+/-0.16GPa) using UEI. This was consistent with simultaneous measurements made by the MTS across the whole tendon (0.52+/-0.18GPa). We also calculated the scaling factor (0.12+/-0.01) between the load on the PTT and the inversion force at the forefoot, a measurable quantity in vivo. This study suggests that UEI could be a reliable in vivo technique for estimating the mechanical properties of the human PTT. Finally, we built a custom ankle inversion platform for in vivo imaging of human subjects (eight healthy volunteers and nine advanced PTTD patients). We found non-linear elastic properties of the PTTD, which could be quantified by the slope between the elastic modulus (E) and the inversion force (F). This slope (DeltaE/DeltaF), or Non-linear Elasticity Parameter (NEP), was significantly different for the two groups: 0.16+/-0.20 MPa/N for healthy tendons and 0.45+/-0.43 MPa/N for PTTD tendons. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83+/-0.07, which indicated that the classifier system is valid. In summary, the acoustic modeling, cadaveric studies, and in vivo experiments together demonstrated that UEI accurately quantifies tendon mechanical properties. As a valuable clinical tool, UEI also has the potential to help guide treatment decisions for advanced PTTD and other tendinopathies.

  16. Tissue engineering for tendon repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre-Olivier Bagnaninchi; Ying Yang; Alicia J El Haj; Nicola Maffulli; U Bosch

    2007-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to induce tissue self-regeneration in vivo or to produce a functional tissue replacement in vitro to be then implanted in the body. To produce a viable and functional tendon, a uniaxially orientated collagen type I matrix has to be generated. Biochemical and physical factors can potentially alter both the production and the organisation of this matrix, and

  17. In vitro tendon engineering with avian tenocytes and polyglycolic acids: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dejun; Liu, Wei; Wei, Xian; Xu, Feng; Cui, Lei; Cao, Yilin

    2006-05-01

    Although there are many reports of in vivo tendon engineering using different animal models, only a few studies involve the short-term investigation of in vitro tendon engineering. Our previous study demonstrated that functional tendon tissue could be engineered in vivo in a hen model using tenocytes and polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers. This current study explored the feasibility of in vitro tendon engineering using the same type of cells and scaffold material. Tenocytes were extracted from the tendons of a hen's foot with enzyme digestion and cultured in DMEM plus 10% FBS. Unwoven PGA fibers were arranged into a cord-like construct and fixed on a U-shape spring, and tenocytes were then seeded on PGA fibers to generate a cell-PGA construct. In experimental group 1, 22 cell-scaffold constructs were fixed on the spring with no tension and collected at weeks 4 (n = 7), 6 (n = 7) and 10 (n = 8); in experimental group 2, five cell-scaffold constructs were fixed on the spring with a constant strain and collected after 6 weeks of culture. In the control group, three cell-free scaffolds were fixed on the spring without tension. The collected engineered tendons were subjected to gross and histological examinations and biomechanical analysis. The results showed that tendon tissue could be generated during in vitro culture. In addition, the tissue structure and mechanical property became more mature and stronger with the increase of culture time. Furthermore, application of constant strain could enhance tissue maturation and improve mechanical property of the in vitro engineered tendon (1.302 +/- 0.404 Mpa with tension vs 0.406 +/- 0.030 Mpa without tension at 6 weeks). Nevertheless, tendon engineered with constant strain appeared much thinner in its diameter than tendon engineered without mechanical loading. Additionally, its collagen fibers were highly compacted when compared to natural tendon structure, suggesting that constant strain may not be the optimal means of mechanical load. Thus, application of dynamic mechanical load with a bioreactor to the construction of tendon tissue will be our next goal in this series of in vitro tendon engineering study. PMID:16771649

  18. Enhancement of acute tendon repair using chitosan matrix.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Eitan; Beutel, Bryan G; Robinson, Dror

    2015-05-01

    Structural failure of rotator cuff repairs has been attributed to multiple factors, including poor repair tissue quality and poor tendon-bone integration. Chitosan gel has been shown to facilitate scarless healing of soft tissues. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that use of a chitosan gel would improve the morphologic appearance of acute rotator cuff repair in a rat model after 12 weeks. Forty Wistar rats were used. In each case, bilateral tenotomy of the supraspinatus tendon was performed, followed by acute repair with sutures. The left shoulder served as a suture-only control, and the right shoulder was augmented with a chitosan gel applied between the ends of the tendon. Histologic analyses were performed to determine the functional and anatomical characteristics of the repair immediately after the operation and 3 days and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after surgery. In the gel-augmented specimens, number of fibroblasts and amount of repair tissue were increased. Compared with the controls, these specimens showed minimal evidence of monocytic infiltration or inflammatory response around the matrix. Structural properties of the augmented shoulder, including pennation angles and fatty atrophy, were significantly improved. These study results showed that use of a chitosan matrix can enhance biological repair of rotator cuff tendons in a rat model. PMID:25950535

  19. An alternative cruciate reconstruction graft: The central quadriceps tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Fulkerson; Rolf Langeland

    1995-01-01

    The central quadriceps tendon, above the patella, is thicker and wider than the patella tendon. Using precise technique, one can obtain a tendon graft for cruciate reconstruction with 50% greater mass than a patellar tendon bone-tendonbone graft of similar width. The central quadriceps tendon graft may be harvested by a second surgeon while the first surgeon is simultaneously accomplishing notchplasty

  20. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon composite autograft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Wook Kim; Jong-Oh Kim; Jae-Doo You; Sung-Jae Kim; Hyun-Kon Kim

    2001-01-01

    At present, no single graft option clearly outperforms another. Autografts (patellar tendon, hamstring) and allografts (Achilles tendon, patellar tendon) are the grafts most often used. However, each grafts has advantages and disadvantages. Quadriceps tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is not new, but an alternative composite graft is introduced here that consists of quadriceps tendon–patellar bone and bone obtained

  1. An improved force feedback control algorithm for active tendons.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tieneng; Liu, Zhifeng; Cai, Ligang

    2012-01-01

    An active tendon, consisting of a displacement actuator and a co-located force sensor, has been adopted by many studies to suppress the vibration of large space flexible structures. The damping, provided by the force feedback control algorithm in these studies, is small and can increase, especially for tendons with low axial stiffness. This study introduces an improved force feedback algorithm, which is based on the idea of velocity feedback. The algorithm provides a large damping ratio for space flexible structures and does not require a structure model. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a structure similar to JPL-MPI. The results show that large damping can be achieved for the vibration control of large space structures. PMID:23112660

  2. An Improved Force Feedback Control Algorithm for Active Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tieneng; Liu, Zhifeng; Cai, Ligang

    2012-01-01

    An active tendon, consisting of a displacement actuator and a co-located force sensor, has been adopted by many studies to suppress the vibration of large space flexible structures. The damping, provided by the force feedback control algorithm in these studies, is small and can increase, especially for tendons with low axial stiffness. This study introduces an improved force feedback algorithm, which is based on the idea of velocity feedback. The algorithm provides a large damping ratio for space flexible structures and does not require a structure model. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated on a structure similar to JPL-MPI. The results show that large damping can be achieved for the vibration control of large space structures. PMID:23112660

  3. Influence of 90-day simulated microgravity on human tendon mechanical properties and the effect of resistive countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Reeves, N D; Maganaris, C N; Ferretti, G; Narici, M V

    2005-06-01

    While microgravity exposure is known to cause deterioration of skeletal muscle performance, little is known regarding its effect on tendon structure and function. Hence, the aims of this study were to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity on the mechanical properties of human tendon and to assess the effectiveness of resistive countermeasures in preventing any detrimental effects. Eighteen men (aged 25-45 yr) underwent 90 days of bed rest: nine performed resistive exercise during this period (BREx group), and nine underwent bed rest only (BR group). Calf-raise and leg-press exercises were performed every third day using a gravity-independent flywheel device. Isometric plantar flexion contractions were performed by using a custom-built dynamometer, and ultrasound imaging was used to determine the tensile deformation of the gastrocnemius tendon during contraction. In the BR group, tendon stiffness estimated from the gradient of the tendon force-deformation relation decreased by 58% (preintervention: 124 +/- 67 N/mm; postintervention: 52 +/- 28 N/mm; P < 0.01), and the tendon Young's modulus decreased by 57% postintervention (P < 0.01). In the BREx group, tendon stiffness decreased by 37% (preintervention: 136 +/- 66 N/mm; postintervention: 86 +/- 47 N/mm; P < 0.01), and the tendon Young's modulus decreased by 38% postintervention (P < 0.01). The relative decline in tendon stiffness and Young's modulus was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in the BR group compared with the BREx group. Unloading decreased gastrocnemius tendon stiffness due to a change in tendon material properties, and, although the exercise countermeasures did attenuate these effects, they did not completely prevent them. It is suggested that the total loading volume was not sufficient to completely prevent alterations in tendon mechanical properties. PMID:15705722

  4. Treatment of Tendon Injuries of the Lower Limb with Growth Factors Associated with Autologous Fibrin Scaffold or Collagenous Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Giacomo; Bottai, Vanna; Ghilardi, Marco; Bugelli, Giulia; Lazzerini, Ilaria; Guido, Giulio

    2015-05-01

    Tendon injuries are an increasing problem in orthopedics as we are faced with a growing demand in sports and recreation and an aging population. Tendons have poor spontaneous regenerative capacity, and often, complete recovery after injury is not achieved. Once injured, tendons do not completely re-acquire the biological and biomechanical properties of normal tendons due to the formation of adhesions and scarring, and often these abnormalities in the arrangement and structure are risk factors for re-injury. These problems associated with the healing of tendon injuries are a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. This study examined 9 cases of subcutaneous injuries including quadriceps tendon (2 cases), patellar tendon (1 case), and Achilles tendon (6 cases), incomplete and complete, treated consecutively. The surgical technique has provided, as appropriate, the termino-terminal tenorraphy, techniques of plastics of rotation flap, reinsertion with suture anchors, and in one case tendon augmentation with cadaver tissue. In cases where we needed mechanical support to the suture, we used preloaded growth factors on porcine collagen scaffold; in cases where we needed only one biological support, we used fibrin scaffold. PMID:26055027

  5. Electromechanical Delay of the Knee Flexor Muscles Is Impaired After Harvesting Hamstring Tendons for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stavros Ristanis; Elias Tsepis; Dimitrios Giotis; Nicholas Stergiou; Guiliano Cerulli; Anastasios D. Georgoulis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Changes in electromechanical delay during muscle activation are expected when there are substantial alterations in the structural properties of the musculotendinous tissue. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, specific tendons are being harvested for grafts. Thus, there is an associated scar tissue development at the tendon that may affect the corresponding electromechanical delay.Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate whether

  6. The Effects of Irreversible Electroporation on the Achilles Tendon: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mingwei; Ding, Weidong; Xu, Kui; Fan, Qingyu; Li, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate the potential effects of irreversible electroporation ablation on the Achilles tendon in a rabbit model and to compare the histopathological and biomechanical changes between specimens following electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation. Methods A total of 140 six-month-old male New Zealand rabbits were used. The animals were randomly divided into two groups, 70 in the radiofrequency ablation group and 70 in the electroporation group. In situ ablations were applied directly to the Achilles tendons of rabbits using typical electroporation (1800 V/cm, 90 pulses) and radiofrequency ablation (power control mode) protocols. Histopathological and biomechanical evaluations were performed to examine the effects of electroporation ablation and radiofrequency ablation over time. Results Both electroporation and radiofrequency ablation produced complete cell ablation in the target region. Thermal damage resulted in tendon rupture 3 days post radiofrequency ablation. In contrast, electroporation-ablated Achilles tendons preserved their biomechanical properties and showed no detectable rupture at this time point. The electroporation-ablated tendons exhibited signs of recovery, including tenoblast regeneration and angiogenesis within 2 weeks, and the restoration of their integral structure was evident within 12 weeks. Conclusions When applying electroporation to ablate solid tumors, major advantage could be that collateral damage to adjacent tendons or ligaments is minimized due to the unique ability of electroporation ablation to target the cell membrane. This advantage could have a significant impact on the field of tumor ablation near vital tendons or ligaments. PMID:26114962

  7. Bifurcated popliteus tendon: a descriptive arthroscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Ginés-Cespedosa, Albert; Monllau, Joan C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to confirm the presence and frequency of a bifurcation of the popliteus tendon. The popliteus tendon has received attention due to its important function as a knee stabiliser. Several anatomical variants have recently been reported, one of them being a bifurcated tendon. However, the actual frequency as well as the possible role of this particular variant is still unknown. We prospectively analysed a series of 1,569 arthroscopies between January 2005 to December 2007. Six asymptomatic bifurcated popliteus tendons were found. No alterations in the magnetic resonance imaging were seen and no clinical signs (related to the popliteus tendon) were observed in these patients before surgery. In all cases the morphological variant was found by chance. Our results suggest that the presence of a bifurcated popliteus tendon is a fact and that its frequency, not previously reported, should not be ignored. PMID:18998130

  8. Prestressed concrete using KEVLAR reinforced tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    KEVLAR is a high strength, high modulus synthetic fiber manufactured by the E.I. DuPont de Nemours Company. The fiber is resistant to chloride and alkali attack. The resistance is enhanced when the fibers are assembled into a resin matrix and fabricated as rods. These properties suggest that KEVLAR reinforced rods may be a substitute for high strength steel prestress tendons in certain applications such as bridge decks and parking structures. This dissertation presents the background, theoretical development, and experimental investigations of KEVLAR reinforced rod strength, anchorage, fabrication and performance in prestressed concrete structures. The study concludes that KEVLAR has significant potential for these prestressed concrete applications. However, the reliability of the long term anchorage of the KEVLAR reinforced rods must be improved before production applications are undertaken. KEVLAR has a low shear strength compared to its tensile capacity. The anchorage of KEVLAR reinforced rods is sensitive to the shear forces generated in the anchorage assembly. Finite element analyses, using interface elements to simulate the addition of a mold release agent in a conic anchor, predict the behavior of resin socketed anchors. Test results confirm that mold release agents reduce the anchor shear stresses and suggest that moderate strength resins may be used in the anchor. KEVLAR is nearly linearly elastic to failure, yet ductility of a structure is an important design concern. Prestressed concrete beam tests using both bonded and unbonded tendons demonstrated that ductile structural behavior is obtained. Methods of predicting the strength and deflection behavior of the prestressed beams are presented and the theoretical predictions are compared to the experimental results. The overall correlation between predicted and theoretical results is satisfactory.

  9. [Idiopathic bilateral patellar tendon rupture].

    PubMed

    Choufani, C; Barthélemy, R; Danis, J; Demoures, Th; Rigal, S

    2015-04-01

    In the absence of systemic disease, specific treatment or sport tendonitis, simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture is rare. Often missed on the first glance, it represents a diagnostic difficulty that should not be overlooked at the initial medical visit. The loss of active extension of the lower limb and a radiographic patella alta, even in a bilateral context, should raise suspicion of this diagnosis. It is then necessary to search for predisposing causes and to evoke the differential, or frequently associated, diagnoses. The present report illustrates these diagnostic difficulties and summarizes some clinical considerations that might help to avoid neglecting these different elements at the first medical visit (positive diagnosis, associated lesions, favouring factors). PMID:26054172

  10. Tendon transfers for the drop foot.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Karl M; Jones, Carroll P

    2014-03-01

    The paralytic drop foot represents a challenging problem for even the most experienced orthopedic surgeon. Careful patient selection, thorough preoperative examination and planning, and application of tendon transfer biomechanical and physiologic principles outlined in this article can lead to successful results, either through a posterior tibialis tendon transfer, Bridle transfer, or variations on these procedures. Achilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession may also be needed at the time of tendon transfer. PMID:24548510

  11. Lubricin Surface Modification Improves Tendon Gliding After Tendon Repair in a Canine Model in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Manabu; Sun, Yu-Long; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E.; Cha, Chung-Ja; Jay, Gregory D.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of lubricin on the gliding of repaired flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendons in vitro. Canine FDP tendons were completely lacerated, repaired with a modified Pennington technique, and treated with one of the following solutions: saline, carbodiimide derivatized gelatin/hyaluronic acid (cd-HA-gelatin), carbodiimide derivatized gelatin to which lubricin was added in a second step (cd-gelatin + lubricin), or carbodiimide derivatized gelatin/HA + lubricin (cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin). After treatment, gliding resistance was measured up to 1,000 cycles of simulated flexion/extension motion. The increase in average and peak gliding resistance in cd-HA-gelatin, cd-gelatin + lubricin, and cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin tendons was less than the control tendons after 1,000 cycles (p < 0.05). The increase in average gliding resistance of cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin treated tendons was also less than that of the cd-HA-gelatin treated tendons (p < 0.05). The surfaces of the repaired tendons and associated pulleys were assessed qualitatively with scanning electron microscopy and appeared smooth after 1,000 cycles of tendon motion for the cd-HA-gelatin, cd-gelatin + lubricin, and cd-HA-gelatin + lubricin treated tendons, while that of the saline control appeared roughened. These results suggest that tendon surface modification can improve tendon gliding ability, with a trend suggesting that lubricin fixed on the repaired tendon may provide additional improvement over that provided by HA and gelatin alone. PMID:18683890

  12. Arthroscopic double-bundled posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon–patellar bone autograft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hwa Chen; Wen-Jer Chen; Chun-Hsiung Shih

    2000-01-01

    Summary: An arthroscopic technique for double-bundled reconstruction for posterior cruciate ligament with quadriceps tendon–patellar bone autograft is presented. Anterolateral and posteromedial tunnels were created to simulate and reproduce the double-bundle structure of the posterior cruciate ligament. The bone plug is situated at the tibial tunnel and fixed by a titanium interference screw. Each of the bundles of tendon graft is

  13. Quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dennis; Stinner, Daniel; Mir, Hassan

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures requires a high index of suspicion and thorough history-taking to assess for medical comorbidities that may predispose patients to tendon degeneration. Radiographic assessment with plain films supplemented by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging when the work-up is equivocal further aids diagnosis; however, advanced imaging is often unnecessary in patients with functional extensor mechanism deficits. Acute repair is preferred, and transpatellar bone tunnels serve as the primary form of fixation when the tendon rupture occurs at the patellar insertion, with or without augmentation depending on surgeon preference. Chronic tears and disruptions following total knee arthroplasty are special cases requiring reconstructions with allograft, synthetic mesh, or autograft. Rehabilitation protocols generally allow immediate weight-bearing with the knee locked in extension and crutch support. Limited arc motion is started early with active flexion and passive extension and then advanced progressively, followed by full active range of motion and strengthening. Complications are few but include quadriceps atrophy, knee stiffness, and rerupture. Outcomes are excellent if repair is done acutely, with poorer outcomes associated with delayed repair. PMID:23955186

  14. Les plaies du tendon patellaire

    PubMed Central

    Mechchat, Atif; Elidrissi, Mohammed; Mardy, Abdelhak; Elayoubi, Abdelghni; Shimi, Mohammed; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Les plaies du tendon patellaire sont peu fréquentes et sont peu rapportés dans la littérature, contrairement aux ruptures sous cutanées. Les sections du tendon patellaire nécessitent une réparation immédiate afin de rétablir l'appareil extenseur et de permettre une récupération fonctionnelle précoce. A travers ce travail rétrospectif sur 13 cas, nous analysons les aspects épidémiologiques, thérapeutiques et pronostiques de ce type de pathologie en comparant différents scores. L’âge moyen est de 25 ans avec une prédominance masculine. Les étiologies sont dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (68%) et les agressions par agent tranchant (26%) et contendant (6 %). Tous nos patients ont bénéficié d'un parage chirurgical avec suture tendineuse direct protégée par un laçage au fils d'aciers en légère flexion. La rééducation est débutée après sédation des phénomènes inflammatoires. Au dernier recul les résultats sont excellents et bon à 92%. Nous n'avons pas noté de différence de force musculaire et d'amplitude articulaire entre le genou sain et le genou lésé. Les lésions ouvertes du tendon patellaire est relativement rare. La prise en charge chirurgicale rapide donne des résultats assez satisfaisants. La réparation est généralement renforcée par un semi-tendineux, synthétique ou métallique en forme de cadre de renfort pour faciliter la réadaptation et réduire le risque de récidive après la fin de l'immobilisation. PMID:25170379

  15. Self-monitoring surveillance system for prestressing tendons. Phase I small business innovation research

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabai, H.

    1995-12-01

    Assured safety and operational reliability of post-tensioned concrete components of nuclear power plants are of great significance to the public, electric utilities, and regulatory agencies. Prestressing tendons provide principal reinforcement for containment and other structures. In this phase of the research effort, the feasibility of developing a passive surveillance system for identification of ruptures in tendon wires was evaluated and verified. The concept offers high potential for greatly increasing effectiveness of presently-utilized periodic tendon condition surveillance programs. A one-tenth scale ring model of the Palo Verde nuclear containment structure was built inside the Structural Laboratory. Dynamic scaling (similitude) relationships were used to relate measured sensor responses recorded during controlled wire breakages to the expected prototype containment tendon response. Strong and recognizable signatures were detected by the accelerometers used. It was concluded that the unbonded prestressing tendons provide an excellent path for transmission of stress waves resulting from wire breaks. Accelerometers placed directly on the bearing plates at the ends of tendons recorded high-intensity waveforms. Accelerometers placed elsewhere on concrete surfaces of the containment model revealed substantial attenuation and reduced intensities of captured waveforms. Locations of wire breaks could be determined accurately through measurement of differences in arrival times of the signal at the sensors. Pattern recognition systems to be utilized in conjunction with the proposed concept will provide a basis for an integrated and automated tool for identification of wire breaks.

  16. The Incidence of Acute Traumatic Tendon Injuries in the Hand and Wrist: A 10-Year Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Johanna P.; Nguyen, Jesse T.; Sonnema, Anne J. M.; Nguyen, Emily C.; Amadio, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist are commonly encountered in the emergency department. Despite the frequency, few studies have examined the true incidence of acute traumatic tendon injuries in the hand and wrist or compared the incidences of both extensor and flexor tendon injuries. Methods We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of all acute traumatic tendon injuries of the hand and wrist in a mixed urban and rural Midwest county in the United States between 2001-2010. A regional epidemiologic database and medical codes were used to identify index cases. Epidemiologic information including occupation, year of injury, mechanism of injury and the injured tendon and zone were recorded. Results During the 10-year study period there was an incidence rate of 33.2 injuries per 100,000 person-years. There was a decreasing rate of injury during the study period. Highest incidence of injury occurred at 20-29 years of age. There was significant association between injury rate and age, and males had a higher incidence than females. The majority of cases involved a single tendon, with extensor tendon injuries occurring more frequently than flexor tendons. Typically, extensor tendon injuries involved zone three of the index finger, while flexor tendons involved zone two of the index finger. Work-related injuries accounted for 24.9% of acute traumatic tendon injuries. The occupations of work-related injuries were assigned to major groups defined by the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification structure. After assigning these patients' occupations to respective major groups, the most common groups work-related injuries occurred in construction and extraction occupations (44.2%), food preparation and serving related occupations (14.4%), and transportation and material moving occupations (12.5%). Conclusions Epidemiology data enhances our knowledge of injury patterns and may play a role in the prevention and treatment of future injuries, with an end result of reducing lost work time and economic burden. PMID:24900902

  17. Detection of partial-thickness tears in ligaments and tendons by Stokes-polarimetry imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; John, Raheel; Walsh, Joseph T.

    2008-02-01

    A Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system utilizes an algorithm developed to construct degree of polarization (DoP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination. Partial-thickness tears of turkey tendons were imaged by the SPI system in order to examine the feasibility of the system to detect partial-thickness rotator cuff tear or general tendon pathology. The rotating incident polarization angle (IPA) for the linearly polarized light provides a way to analyze different tissue types which may be sensitive to IPA variations. Degree of linear polarization (DoLP) images revealed collagen fiber structure, related to partial-thickness tears, better than standard intensity images. DoLP images also revealed structural changes in tears that are related to the tendon load. DoLP images with red-wavelength-filtered incident light may show tears and related organization of collagen fiber structure at a greater depth from the tendon surface. Degree of circular polarization (DoCP) images exhibited well the horizontal fiber orientation that is not parallel to the vertically aligned collagen fibers of the tendon. The SPI system's DOLP images reveal alterations in tendons and ligaments, which have a tissue matrix consisting largely of collagen, better than intensity images. All polarized images showed modulated intensity as the IPA was varied. The optimal detection of the partial-thickness tendon tears at a certain IPA was observed. The SPI system with varying IPA and spectral information can improve the detection of partial-thickness rotator cuff tears by higher visibility of fiber orientations and thereby improve diagnosis and treatment of tendon related injuries.

  18. The Mechanical Properties of Rat Tail Tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BERNARD J. RIGBY; OHN D. SPIKES; HENRY EYRING

    1959-01-01

    The load-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of wet rat tail tendon has been examined with respect to the parameters strain, rate of strain- ing, and temperature. It is found that this mechanical behavior is reproducible after resting tile tendon for a few minutes after each extension so long as the strain does not exceed about 4 per cent. If this strain

  19. Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendons rupture.

    PubMed

    Celik, Evrim Co?kun; Ozbaydar, Mehmet; Ofluoglu, Demet; Demircay, Emre

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury that is usually seen in association with multiple medical conditions and some medications. We report a case of simultaneous and spontaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture that may be related to the long-term use of a statin. PMID:22561379

  20. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Quadriceps Tendon Rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian G. LaRocco; George Zlupko; Paul Sierzenski

    2008-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon ruptures are an uncommon knee injury. The diagnosis is often complicated by a limited examination secondary to edema and pain, the insensitivity of radiographs, and the unavailability of non-emergent magnetic resonance imaging. A delay in diagnosis and treatment has been shown to cause significant morbidity. A case report of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is presented demonstrating the utility

  1. Augmentation of tendon-to-bone healing.

    PubMed

    Atesok, Kivanc; Fu, Freddie H; Wolf, Megan R; Ochi, Mitsuo; Jazrawi, Laith M; Doral, M Nedim; Lubowitz, James H; Rodeo, Scott A

    2014-03-19

    Tendon-to-bone healing is vital to the ultimate success of the various surgical procedures performed to repair injured tendons. Achieving tendon-to-bone healing that is functionally and biologically similar to native anatomy can be challenging because of the limited regeneration capacity of the tendon-bone interface. Orthopaedic basic-science research strategies aiming to augment tendon-to-bone healing include the use of osteoinductive growth factors, platelet-rich plasma, gene therapy, enveloping the grafts with periosteum, osteoconductive materials, cell-based therapies, biodegradable scaffolds, and biomimetic patches. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and extracorporeal shockwave treatment may affect tendon-to-bone healing by means of mechanical forces that stimulate biological cascades at the insertion site. Application of various loading methods and immobilization times influence the stress forces acting on the recently repaired tendon-to-bone attachment, which eventually may change the biological dynamics of the interface. Other approaches, such as the use of coated sutures and interference screws, aim to deliver biological factors while achieving mechanical stability by means of various fixators. Controlled Level-I human trials are required to confirm the promising results from in vitro or animal research studies elucidating the mechanisms underlying tendon-to-bone healing and to translate these results into clinical practice. PMID:24647509

  2. Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Thomas; A. Brown

    1997-01-01

    Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country`s infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams.Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one inch

  3. Ultrasonic evaluation of flood gate tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham H. Thomas; Albert E. Brown

    1998-01-01

    Our water resources infrastructure is susceptible to aging degradation just like the rest of this country's infrastructure. A critical component of the water supply system is the flood gate that controls the outflow from dams. Long steel rods called tendons attach these radial gates to the concrete in the dam. The tendons are typically forty feet long and over one

  4. Patterns of cellular activation after tendon injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Khan; J. C. W. Edwards; D. A. McGrouther

    1996-01-01

    Mechanisms which lead to disabling adhesions following flexor tendon surgery of the hand were investigated in a rabbit model which was used to assess the relative response of the cells of the synovial sheath, epitenon and the endotenon to injury. A transverse laceration, cutting through 50% of the tendon, was made just outside the synovial sheath on the flexor aspect

  5. Limit state formulations for TLP tendon and steel riser bodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Estefen; T. Moan; S. Sævik; R. A. Zimmer

    1995-01-01

    Existing limit state formulations for tendon and steel riser bodies used in tension leg platforms have been reviewed. These include API Bull. 5C3 (for casings), API RP 2A LRFD, BSI Sub-sea Pipeline, Danish Pipeline Code, DnV Submarine Pipeline Standard and NPD Offshore Structures Regulations, as well as formulations proposed by Johns and McConnell (Battelle), Jensen and Pedersen (Technical University of

  6. Two-portal repair of canine flexor tendon insertion site injuries: Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of healing during the early postoperative period

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin I. Boyer; Fred Harwood; Konstantinos Ditsios; David Amiel; Richard H. Gelberman; Matthew J. Silva

    2003-01-01

    Purpose:In vivo animal studies have indicated that the complex structure of the tendon-bone interface may not be restored after repair even under optimal conditions. Controversy exists about the histologic findings in the early postoperative period after tendon reattachment to bone; this may have impact on biomechanical properties. The objective was to study the histologic structure and immunohistochemical staining of the

  7. Subscapularis Tendon Repair Using Suture Bridge Technique

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong Bok; Park, Young Eun; Koh, Kyoung Hwan; Lim, Tae Kang; Shon, Min Soo; Yoo, Jae Chul

    2015-01-01

    The subscapularis tendon plays an essential role in shoulder function. Although subscapularis tendon tears are less common than other rotator cuff tears, tears of the subscapularis tendon have increasingly been recognized with the advent of magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. A suture bridge technique for the treatment of posterosuperior rotator cuff tears has provided the opportunity to improve the pressurized contact area and mean footprint pressure. However, suture bridge fixation of subscapularis tendon tears appears to be technically challenging. We describe an arthroscopic surgical technique for suture bridge repair of subscapularis tendon tears that obtains ideal cuff integrity and footprint restoration. Surgery using such a suture bridge technique is indicated for large tears, such as tears involving the entire first facet or more, tears with a disrupted lateral sling, and combined medium to large supraspinatus/infraspinatus tears. PMID:26052489

  8. Right ventricular false tendons, a cadaveric approach.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Wartmann, Christopher T; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Louis, Robert G; Black, Brandie; Jordan, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Left ventricular false tendons (LFTs) have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, there is very little information available regarding right ventricular false tendons (RFTs). The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography and morphometry of the RFTs, and provide a comprehensive picture of their anatomy across a broad range of specimens. We identified 35/100 heart specimens containing right ventricular RFTs and classified them into five types. In Type I (21, 47.7%) the RFTs, was located between the ventricular septum and the anterior papillary muscle; in Type II (11, 22.9%) between ventricular septum and the posterior papillary muscle; in Type III (7, 14.5%) between the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and the right ventricular free wall; in Type IV (5, 10.4%) between the posterior papillary muscle and the ventricular free wall; and lastly, in Type V (4, 8.3%) between the anterior papillary muscle and ventricular free wall. The mean length of the RFTs was 18 +/- 7 mm with a mean diameter of 1.4 +/- 05 mm. Histologic examination with Masson trichrome and PAS revealed that 20 (41.6%) of the 48 RFTs carried conduction tissue fibers. The presence of conduction tissue fibers within the RFTs was limited to Types I, III, and IV. In Types II and V the RFTs resembled fibrous structures in contrast with Type I, II and IV, which were composed more of muscular fibers, including conduction tissue fibers. RFTs containing conduction tissue fibers were identified, which may implicate them in the appearance of arrhythmias. PMID:18283389

  9. The impact of rotator cuff deficiency on structure, mechanical properties, and gene expression profiles of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT): Implications for management of the LHBT during primary shoulder arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kurdziel, Michael D; Moravek, James E; Wiater, Brett P; Davidson, Abigail; Seta, Joseph; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C; Wiater, J Michael

    2015-08-01

    The long head of the biceps tendon (LHBT) occupies a unique proximal intra-articular and distal extra-articular position within the human shoulder. In the presence of a rotator cuff (RC) tear, the LHBT is recruited into an accelerated role undergoing potential mechanical and biochemical degeneration. Intra-articular sections of the LHBT were harvested during primary shoulder arthroplasty from patients with an intact or deficient RC. LHBTs were stained (H&E, Alcian Blue) and subjected to histologic analysis using the semiquantitative Bonar scale and measurement of collagen orientation. LHBTs (n?=?12 per group) were also subjected to gene-expression analyses via an RT(2) -PCR Profiler Array quantifying 84 genes associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. LHBTs (n?=?18 per group) were biomechanically tested with both stress-relaxation and load-to-failure protocols and subsequently modeled with the Quasilinear Viscoelastic (QLV) and Structural-Based Elastic (SBE) models. While no histologic differences were observed, significant differences in mechanical testing, and viscoelastic modeling parameters were found. PCR arrays identified five genes that were differentially expressed between RC-intact and RC-deficient LHBT groups. LHBTs display signs of pathology regardless of RC status in the arthroplasty population, which may be secondary to both glenohumeral joint arthritis and the additional mechanical role of the LHBT in this population. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1158-1164, 2015. PMID:25877256

  10. A novel fibrocartilaginous tendon from an elasmobranch fish ( Rhinoptera bonasus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam P. Summers; Magdalena M. Koob-Emunds; Stephen M. Kajiura; Thomas J. Koob

    2003-01-01

    Tendons of the jaw adductor muscles of a hard prey crushing stingray exhibit similar adaptations to compressive and shear loads as those seen in mammalian tendons. Ventral intermandibular tendon from the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, has a prominent fibrocartilaginous pad that lies between a fibrous region of the tendon and the mineralized tissue of the jaw. Histologically the pad is

  11. Achilles tendon: US diagnosis of pathologic conditions. Work in progress

    SciTech Connect

    Blei, C.L.; Nirschl, R.P.; Grant, E.G.

    1986-06-01

    Twenty-three patients were prospectively examined with ultra-sound (US) for acute or recurrent Achilles tendon symptoms. Three types of pathologic conditions of the Achilles tendon were found: tendinitis/tenosynovitis, acute tendon trauma, and postoperative changes. US appears to enable differentiation of these conditions and to contribute to the diagnosis of a broad range of Achilles tendon disorders.

  12. Delayed Exercise Promotes Remodeling in Sub-Rupture Fatigue Damaged Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Bell, R.; Boniello, M.R.; Gendron, N.R.; Flatow, E.L.; Andarawis-Puri, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal injury whose treatment is limited by ineffective therapeutic interventions. Previously we have shown that tendons ineffectively repair early sub-rupture fatigue damage. In contrast, physiological exercise has been shown to promote remodeling of healthy tendons but its utility as a therapeutic to promote repair of fatigue damaged tendons remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the utility of exercise initiated 1 and 14 days after onset of fatigue damage to promote structural repair in fatigue damaged tendons. We hypothesized that exercise initiated 14 days after fatigue loading would promote remodeling as indicated by a decrease in area of collagen matrix damage, increased procollagen I and decorin, while decreasing proteins indicative of tendinopathy. Rats engaged in 6-week exercise for 30 min/day or 60 min/day starting 1 or 14 days after fatigue loading. Initiating exercise 1-day after onset of fatigue injury led to exacerbation of matrix damage, particularly at the tendon insertion. Initiating exercise 14 days after onset of fatigue injury led to remodeling of damaged regions in the midsubstance and collagen synthesis at the insertion. Physiological exercise applied after the initial biological response to injury has dampened can potentially promote remodeling of damaged tendons. PMID:25732052

  13. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effect on tendon properties.

    PubMed

    Kösters, A; Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Dorn, U; Hofstaedter, T; Fink, C; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alpine skiing on patellar tendon properties in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Thirty-one adults (70.4?±?4.7 years) with unilateral TKA were recruited 2.7?±?0.9 years after surgery and assigned to an intervention (IG) or a control group (CG). The IG underwent a 12-week guided skiing program. Tendon stiffness, Young's modulus, and cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured before and after the intervention. In both groups, mean tendon CSA was 28% (P?tendon properties. After training, stiffness increased in the IG by 5.8% and 15.8%, respectively, in the OP and NOP legs. Likewise, mean CSA increased in the IG by 2.9% in the OP and 3.8% in the NOP leg, whereas no significant changes were found for the Young's modulus. None of the tendon parameters changed in the CG. Results indicate that patellar tendon structure and/or loading pattern are altered following TKA, but this tissue seems to retain its adaptation capacity. Further, alpine skiing appears to offer a suitable rehabilitation strategy for TKA patients. PMID:26083704

  14. Osmotic pressure induced tensile forces in tendon collagen

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Admir; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Chang, Shu-Wei; Metzger, Till Hartmut; Buehler, Markus J.; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Water is an important component of collagen in tendons, but its role for the function of this load-carrying protein structure is poorly understood. Here we use a combination of multi-scale experimentation and computation to show that water is an integral part of the collagen molecule, which changes conformation upon water removal. The consequence is a shortening of the molecule that translates into tensile stresses in the range of several to almost 100?MPa, largely surpassing those of about 0.3?MPa generated by contractile muscles. Although a complete drying of collagen would be relevant for technical applications, such as the fabrication of leather or parchment, stresses comparable to muscle contraction already occur at small osmotic pressures common in biological environments. We suggest, therefore, that water-generated tensile stresses may play a role in living collagen-based materials such as tendon or bone. PMID:25608644

  15. [Effects of Gravity on Attachment of Tendon to Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Roger B.

    1997-01-01

    We have received and processed all samples for either light or scanning electron microscopic analysis and have completed the histomorphometric analysis. We have characterized the changes caused by spaceflight to tendon attachments to the calcaneus, tibia, fibula and femur and compared them to hindlimbs and forelimbs from NIH.RZ. Soleus muscle histomorphometry has also been completed. Our results suggest severe osteoporosis in the femur, fibula and tibia of animals coincident to spaceflight, which had not resolved after 4-5 days following return to earth. This was evident at all sites, including sites of tendon attachments. This atrophy was not evident in the calcaneus. No muscle atrophy was evident. Comparison of scanning photomicrographs of flight animals with other lactating animals demonstrated structural similarities and suggested that it might be worthwhile to assess whether lactation is a factor in development of the osteoporosis in the spaceflight animals. In addition, evaluation of total calcium utilization by spaceflight animals would be beneficial.

  16. Monitoring micrometer-scale collagen organization in rat-tail tendon upon mechanical strain using second harmonic microscopy

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Monitoring micrometer-scale collagen organization in rat-tail tendon upon mechanical strain using device enabled simultaneous visualization of the collagen crimp morphology at the micrometer scale macroscopic response and microscopic structure of tissues. Keywords: Second Harmonic Generation, collagen

  17. Infections and Patellar Tendon Ruptures After Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionA Comparison of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Patellar Tendon Autografts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodney W. Benner; K. Donald Shelbourne; Heather Freeman

    2011-01-01

    Background: No studies document the incidence or results of infections and patellar tendon ruptures after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a contralateral patellar tendon autograft.Purpose: To determine the results of patients who have infections and patellar tendon ruptures after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a patellar tendon autograft and compare the results between ipsilateral and contralateral grafts.Study Design: Cohort study;

  18. Transglutaminases expression in human supraspinatus tendon ruptures and in mouse tendons.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Francesco; Zocchi, Loredana; Codispoti, Andrea; Candi, Eleonora; Celi, Monica; Melino, Gerry; Maffulli, Nicola; Tarantino, Umberto

    2009-02-20

    The ethiopathogenesis of rotator cuff disease remains poorly understood. Many studies advocate the importance of extra cellular matrix for the homeostasis of connective tissue. Transglutaminase enzymes family has been studied in the context of connective tissue formation and stabilisation. Here, we investigated transglutaminases expression pattern in biopsies of normal and injured supraspinatus tendons of human shoulders and in the Achilles tendons of transglutaminase 2 knock-out and wild-type mice. Our results show that different transglutaminase family members are differentially expressed in human and mouse tendons, and that transglutaminase 2 is down-regulated at mRNA and protein levels upon human supraspinatus tendon ruptures. PMID:19146825

  19. Recapitulation of the Achilles tendon mechanical properties during neonatal development: a study of differential healing during two stages of development in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ansorge, Heather L; Hsu, Jason E; Edelstein, Lena; Adams, Sheila; Birk, David E; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2011-01-01

    During neonatal development, tendons undergo a well orchestrated process whereby extensive structural and compositional changes occur in synchrony to produce a normal tissue. Conversely, during the repair response to injury, structural and compositional changes occur, but a mechanically inferior tendon is produced. As a result, developmental processes have been postulated as a potential paradigm through which improved adult tissue healing may occur. By examining injury at distinctly different stages of development, vital information can be obtained into the structure-function relationships in tendon. The mouse is an intriguing developmental model due to the availability of assays and genetically altered animals. However, it has not previously been used for mechanical analysis of healing tendon due to the small size and fragile nature of neonatal tendons. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differential healing response in tendon at two distinct stages of development through mechanical, compositional, and structural properties. To accomplish this, a new in vivo surgical model and mechanical analysis method for the neonatal mouse Achilles tendons were developed. We demonstrated that injury during early development has an accelerated healing response when compared to injury during late development. This accelerated healing model can be used in future mechanistic studies to elucidate the method for improved adult tendon healing. PMID:22267191

  20. Position Control of Tendon-Driven Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E.; Platt, Robert, Jr.; Hargrave, B.; Pementer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Conventionally, tendon-driven manipulators implement some force control scheme based on tension feedback. This feedback allows the system to ensure that the tendons are maintained taut with proper levels of tensioning at all times. Occasionally, whether it is due to the lack of tension feedback or the inability to implement sufficiently high stiffnesses, a position control scheme is needed. This work compares three position controllers for tendon-driven manipulators. A new controller is introduced that achieves the best overall performance with regards to speed, accuracy, and transient behavior. To compensate for the lack of tension feedback, the controller nominally maintains the internal tension on the tendons by implementing a two-tier architecture with a range-space constraint. These control laws are validated experimentally on the Robonaut-2 humanoid hand. I

  1. Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture after Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung Joon; Pham, The Hien; Suh, Jeung Tak

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a catastrophic complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Though revision TKA has been suspected of being a predisposing factor for the occurrence of patellar tendon rupture, there are few reports on patellar tendon rupture after revision TKA. Here, we present a case of acute patellar tendon rupture that occurred after TKA revision. In the patient, the patellar tendon was so thin and could not be repaired, and accordingly was sutured end to end. We used the anterior tibialis tendon allograft to augment the poor quality patellar tendon tissue. Fixation of the allograft was done by using the bone tunnel created through tibial tuberosity and suturing the allograft to the patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon. The patient was instructed to wear a full extension knee splint and was kept non-weight bearing for 6 weeks after operation. Full knee extension could be achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26060612

  2. Flexor tendon ruptures secondary to hamate hook fractures.

    PubMed

    Milek, M A; Boulas, H J

    1990-09-01

    Four patients with flexor tendon ruptures secondary to hook of the hamate fracture are described. None of the patients had the diagnosis of fracture made before tendon rupture. All patients were treated with excision of the fractured hook and tendon repair. The tendon repair was usually an end-to-side (Y junction) of the profundus of the small to the profundus of the ring finger. After operation, all patients were free of pain and returned to their preinjury activity levels, but most had some limitation of motion in the digit with the tendon repair. The complication of tendon rupture not uncommonly follows basilar hook of the hamate fractures. Treatment by excision of the fracture and end-to-side tendon repair produces satisfactory results. Range of motion after tendon repair seems to depend more on the patient's age and the amount of inflammation at the site of repair rather than on the method of tendon repair. PMID:2229970

  3. Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture after Total Knee Arthroplasty Revision

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Seung Joon; Pham, The Hien

    2015-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a catastrophic complication following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Though revision TKA has been suspected of being a predisposing factor for the occurrence of patellar tendon rupture, there are few reports on patellar tendon rupture after revision TKA. Here, we present a case of acute patellar tendon rupture that occurred after TKA revision. In the patient, the patellar tendon was so thin and could not be repaired, and accordingly was sutured end to end. We used the anterior tibialis tendon allograft to augment the poor quality patellar tendon tissue. Fixation of the allograft was done by using the bone tunnel created through tibial tuberosity and suturing the allograft to the patellar tendon and quadriceps tendon. The patient was instructed to wear a full extension knee splint and was kept non-weight bearing for 6 weeks after operation. Full knee extension could be achieved 6 weeks postoperatively. PMID:26060612

  4. Bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture — A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. K. Kaar; M. O’Brien; P. Murray; G. B. Mullan

    1993-01-01

    Summary  The diagnosis of rupture of the quadriceps tendon is made relatively infrequently and bilateral simultaneous rupture is a\\u000a rarity. We report a case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with documented chronic renal\\u000a insufficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism. A predisposing cause to the condition as obtained in this case, has been\\u000a described in cases previously published

  5. Traumatic flexor tendon injuries in 27 cattle.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D E; St-Jean, G; Morin, D E; Ducharme, N G; Nelson, D R; Desrochers, A

    1996-01-01

    Information for all cattle with a diagnosis of tendon injury entered into the Veterinary Medical Data Base (VMDB) was retrieved and selected medical records reviewed. The proportional morbidity rate for tendon disruption was 0.89 cattle/1,000 cattle admissions and 95 of 99 cattle survived. Female and dairy cattle had a greater risk of tendon disruption than male or beef cattle, respectively. Also, cattle 6 months to 7 years old had a greater risk than cattle younger than 6 months old. Complete medical records were examined for 27 cattle. Affected cattle were 2.5 +/- 1.8 years old and weighed 593.6 +/- 315.6 kg. Injuries were most commonly caused by accidents involving farm machinery (72%). Unilateral superficial digital flexor tendon injury occurred in 8 cattle (30%); multiple tendon injury occurred in the other 19 cattle (70%). A single limb was involved in 25 cattle, a rear limb was involved in 24 cattle, and an open wound was associated with the injury in 26 cattle. Wounds were identified most commonly at the mid (13 cattle) and proximal metatarsus (4 cattle). Treatment of tendon disruption included tenorrhaphy and casting (9 cattle), external coaptation, alone, (14 cattle), stall confinement, alone, (1 cow), and euthanasia or salvage (3 cattle). External coaptation was maintained for 74.4 +/- 34.3 days, and total confinement period was 88.3 +/- 59.5 days. Short-term complications included severe tendon laxity (one cow) and fatal septic peritonitis (one bull). Twenty-two of 24 cattle treated for tendon disruption survived. Follow-up information was available for 16 cattle; 14 cattle (87%) returned to productivity and 11 of 15 cattle with long-term follow-up (73%) were considered productive. Long-term complications included persistent lameness (56%) and persistent hyperextension of the digits (19%). PMID:8810022

  6. In vivo identity of tendon stem cells and the roles of stem cells in tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qi; Lui, Pauline Po Yee; Lee, Yuk Wa

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the spatial distribution of stem cells in tendons and the roles of stem cells in early tendon repair. The relationship between tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) isolated in vitro and tendon stem cells in vivo was also explored. Iododeoxyuridine (IdU) label-retaining method was used for labeling stem cells in rat patellar tendons with and without injury. Co-localization of label-retaining cells (LRCs) with different markers was done by immunofluorescent staining. TDSCs were isolated from patellar tendon mid-substance after IdU pulsing, and the expression of different markers in fresh and expanded cells was done by immunofluorescent staining. More LRCs were found at the peritenon and tendon-bone junction compared with the mid-substance. Some LRCs at the peritenon were located at the perivascular niche. The LRC number and the expression of proliferative, tendon-related, pluripotency, and pericyte-related markers in LRCs in the window wound increased. Most of the freshly isolated TDSCs expressed IdU, and some TDSCs expressed pericyte-related markers, which were lost during expansion. Both freshly isolated and subcultured TDSCs expressed pluripotency markers, which were absent in LRCs in intact tendons. In conclusion, we identified LRCs at the peritenon, mid-substance, and tendon-bone junction. There were both vascular and non-vascular sources of LRCs at the peritenon, while the source of LRCs at the mid-substance was non-vascular. LRCs participated in tendon repair via migration, proliferation, activation for tenogenesis, and increased pluripotency. Some LRCs in the window wound were pericyte like. Most of the mid-substance TDSCs were LRCs. The pluripotency markers and pericyte-related marker in LRCs might be important for function after injury. PMID:23815595

  7. Low tendon stiffness and abnormal ultrastructure distinguish classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome from benign joint hypermobility syndrome in patients.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rie Harboe; Couppé, Christian; Jensen, Jacob Kildevang; Olsen, Morten Raun; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Malfait, Fransiska; Symoens, Sofie; De Paepe, Anne; Schjerling, Peter; Magnusson, Stig Peter; Remvig, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2014-11-01

    There is a clinical overlap between classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) and benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS), with hypermobility as the main symptom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of type V collagen mutations and tendon pathology in these 2 syndromes. In patients (cEDS, n=7; BJHS, n=8) and controls (Ctrl, n=8), we measured patellar tendon ultrastructure (transmission electron microscopy), dimensions (magnetic resonance imaging), and biomechanical properties (force and ultrasonographic measurements during a ramped isometric knee extension). Mutation analyses (COL5A1 and COL5A2) were performed in the patients. COL5A1 mutations were found in 3 of 4 of the patients with cEDS. Patellar tendon dimensions were similar between the groups, but large, irregular collagen fibrils were in 4 of 5 patients with cEDS. In the cEDS group, tendon stiffness and Young's modulus were reduced to ?50% of that in BJHS and Ctrl groups (P<0.05). The nonhypermobile, healthy controls were matched with the patients in age, sex, body weight, and physical activity, to compare outcomes. COL5A1 mutations led to structural tendon pathology and low tendon stiffness in cEDS, explaining the patients' hypermobility, whereas no tendon pathology was found that explained the hypermobility in BJHS. PMID:25122555

  8. Arthroscopic quadriceps tendon repair: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury. PMID:25815224

  9. Arthroscopic Quadriceps Tendon Repair: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Hidetomo; Shimada, Yoichi; Yamamura, Toshiaki; Yamada, Shin; Sato, Takahiro; Nozaka, Koji; Kijima, Hiroaki; Saito, Kimio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, although some studies of open repair of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris have been published, there have been no reports in the literature on primary arthroscopic repair. In our present study, we present two cases of quadriceps tendon injury arthroscopically repaired with excellent results. Case 1 involved a 68-year-old man who was injured while shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed complete rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using both suture anchor and pull-out suture fixation methods via bone tunnels (hereafter, pull-out fixation). Two years after surgery, retearing was not observed on MRI and both Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) Knee and Lysholm scores had recovered to 100. Case 2 involved a 50-year-old man who was also injured when shifting his weight to prevent a fall. MRI showed incomplete superficial rupture at the insertion of the patella of the quadriceps tendon. The rupture was arthroscopically repaired using pull-out fixation of six strand sutures. One year after surgery, MRI revealed a healed tendon and his JOA and Lysholm scores were 95 and 100, respectively. Thus, arthroscopic repair may be a useful surgical method for repairing quadriceps tendon injury. PMID:25815224

  10. Laser photoirradiation in digital flexor tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Burt, J D; Siddins, M; Morrison, W A

    2001-09-01

    This study evaluates tendon coaptation using Nd:YAG laser photoirradiation in an in vivo cockerel model. Using the intervinculum segments of the flexor profundus tendons, experimental transactions were performed. Tendon coaptation was then attempted using laser photoirradiation. Tendons were immediately examined for evidence of stable coaptation. After this assessment, specimens were excised and processed for electron microscopic examination and exposure to trypsin digestion. Despite varying multiple laser parameters, tissue welding was not observed. The subsequent functional and ultrastructural observations of irradiated tendon suggest that these changes are those of simple thermal denaturation. The results of this study suggest that when successful tissue welding has been observed in other tissue types, the mechanism is unlikely to be because of formation of intermolecular collagen bonds as hypothesized. An alternative hypothesis is that laser welding reflects photothermal coagulation of cytoplasmic peptides or nucleic acids liberated at the coaptation interface. This may explain the successful welding of cell-rich tissues such as bowel, vas deferens, and arteries and the observed failure of laser welding in collagen-rich but relatively hypocellular tendon. PMID:11698841

  11. Computer modeling of cathodic protection on risers/tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Osvoll, H.; Gartland, P.O. [CorrOcean AS, Trondheim (Norway); Thomason, W.H. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Computer modeling is gaining popularity in the design and verification of cathodic protection (CP) systems for offshore structures. The work presented in this article expands the use of CP simulation to consider the metallic electrical resistance of risers/tendons used with tension leg platforms where anodes are mounted on the hull or subsea structure. The SEACORR/CP computer system was used to perform a parametric study to identify the limitations of CP and coatings in providing corrosion protection. The effect of using a titanium riser instead of a steel riser was also considered.

  12. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon composite autograft.

    PubMed

    Kim, D W; Kim, J O; You, J D; Kim, S J; Kim, H K

    2001-05-01

    At present, no single graft option clearly outperforms another. Autografts (patellar tendon, hamstring) and allografts (Achilles tendon, patellar tendon) are the grafts most often used. However, each grafts has advantages and disadvantages. Quadriceps tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is not new, but an alternative composite graft is introduced here that consists of quadriceps tendon-patellar bone and bone obtained from a coring reamer used to create the tibial tunnel. This composite graft retains reduced morbidity while allowing the secure bone-to-bone fixation associated with bone-patellar tendon-bone graft. PMID:11337727

  13. Advances in the healing of flexor tendon injuries.

    PubMed

    Sammer, Douglas M; Chung, Kevin C

    2014-05-01

    The intrasynovial flexor tendons of the hand are critical for normal hand function. Injury to these tendons can result in absent finger flexion, and a subsequent loss of overall hand function. The surgical techniques used to repair these tendons have improved in the past few decades, as have the postoperative rehabilitation protocols. In spite of these advances, intrasynovial flexor tendon repairs continue to be plagued by postoperative scar formation, which limits tendon gliding and prevents a full functional recovery. This paper describes the current challenges of flexor tendon repair, and evaluates the most recent advances and strategies for achieving an excellent functional outcome. PMID:24813361

  14. Region-specific tendon properties and patellar tendinopathy: a wider understanding.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Stephen John; Hussain, Syed Robiul

    2014-08-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is a common painful musculoskeletal disorder with a very high prevalence in the athletic population that can severely limit or even end an athletic career. To date, the underlying pathophysiology leading to the condition remains poorly understood, although reports suggesting that patellar tendinopathy most frequently concerns the proximal posterior region of the tendon has prompted some researchers to examine region-specific tendon properties for a better understanding of the etiology and potential risk factors associated with the condition. However, to date, research concerning the in vivo region-specific tendon properties in relation to patellar tendinopathy is very scarce, perhaps due to the lack of validated techniques that can determine such properties in vivo. In recent years, a technique has been developed involving an automated tendon-tracking program that appears to be very useful in the determination of region-specific tendon properties in vivo. In terms of regional variations in tendon properties, previous research has demonstrated differences in structural, mechanical, and biochemical properties between the discrete regions of the patellar tendon, but the extent to which these regional variations contribute to patellar tendinopathy remains elusive. In addition, with respect to treatment strategies for patellar tendinopathy, previous research has utilized a wide range of interventions, but the use of eccentric exercise (EE) and/or heavy-slow resistance (HSR) training appear to be most promising. However, the optimal program design variables of EE and HSR training that induce the most favorable effects are yet to be determined. This review article provides a detailed discussion of all of the above to allow a better understanding of the etiology and potential risk factors associated with the condition as well as the most effective treatment strategies. First, a comprehensive literature review is provided with respect to region-specific structural, mechanical, and biochemical properties, in association with patellar tendinopathy. Second, the automated tendon-tracking methodology is outlined to assist future researchers in the determination of region-specific tendon properties. Finally, potential treatment strategies are discussed, particularly with regards to the use of EE and HSR training for the management of patellar tendinopathy. PMID:24838651

  15. Following rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Stephanie M.; Getz, Charles L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study utilized an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks post-injury. Twenty-four animals served as uninjured controls, while seventy-two were divided among the tendon detachment groups (supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus+infraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus+subscapularis tendon detachment). We found the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons have decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. Remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional area increased, while tendon modulus decreased after both one and two tendon tears. Additionally, the remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time post-injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression. PMID:19095175

  16. Surgical treatment of ruptures of the Achilles tendon: a review of long-term results.

    PubMed

    Krueger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Scherzer, S

    1995-06-01

    The rupture of the Achilles tendon is frequently sports-related. In the time from 1 January, 1978 until 31 December, 1988, we treated 358 men and 54 women with such an injury at the Staatliche Orthopaedische Klinik in Munich. The average age of these patients was 43 years. The site of the rupture was generally located between 3-5 cm proximal of the distal insertion of the tendon. In the follow-up examination of 122 patients with surgical treatment of tendo calcaneus ruptures 85% showed 'good' to 'very good' subjective results. Of the operated patients 97% would choose the same treatment under similar circumstances. The isokinetic studies demonstrated a loss of static and dynamic strength in plantar flexion of the ankle joint of 9.1%, and 16.7% respectively, when compared to the healthy contralateral side. The ultrasound examination revealed a thickening of the tendon and of the dorsal paratenon with changes in the internal structure of the injured Achilles tendon. In spite of these favourable results, the high complication rate of 15.1% shows the need for new and extensive studies regarding the various alternative treatment forms, such as functional, non-operative options, to finally resolve the debate about the optimal treatment of Achilles tendon ruptures. PMID:7551757

  17. 21 CFR 888.3025 - Passive tendon prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Passive tendon prosthesis. (a) Identification. A passive tendon prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of silicon elastomer or a polyester reinforced medical grade silicone elastomer intended for use in the surgical...

  18. 21 CFR 888.3025 - Passive tendon prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Passive tendon prosthesis. (a) Identification. A passive tendon prosthesis is a device intended to be implanted made of silicon elastomer or a polyester reinforced medical grade silicone elastomer intended for use in the surgical...

  19. Biology and augmentation of tendon-bone insertion repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Po-Yee Lui; Peng Zhang; Kai-Ming Chan; Ling Qin

    2010-01-01

    Surgical reattachment of tendon and bone such as in rotator cuff repair, patellar-patella tendon repair and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction often fails due to the failure of regeneration of the specialized tissue (\\

  20. Robot Arm with Tendon Connector Plate and Linear Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Nguyen, Vienny (Inventor); Millerman, Alexander (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A robotic system includes a tendon-driven end effector, a linear actuator, a flexible tendon, and a plate assembly. The linear actuator assembly has a servo motor and a drive mechanism, the latter of which translates linearly with respect to a drive axis of the servo motor in response to output torque from the servo motor. The tendon connects to the end effector and drive mechanism. The plate assembly is disposed between the linear actuator assembly and the tendon-driven end effector and includes first and second plates. The first plate has a first side that defines a boss with a center opening. The second plate defines an accurate through-slot having tendon guide channels. The first plate defines a through passage for the tendon between the center opening and a second side of the first plate. A looped end of the flexible tendon is received within the tendon guide channels.

  1. Partial tear of the quadriceps tendon in a child

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geetika Khanna; George El-Khoury

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of partial rupture of the quadriceps tendon in an 8-year-old girl. This is one of the youngest patients\\u000a reported with a quadriceps tendon rupture, an entity seen predominantly in middle-aged people. The strength of the muscle\\u000a tendon unit in a child makes tendon injuries extremely unusual as compared to apophyseal avulsions. The MR imaging findings\\u000a of

  2. Supernumerary extensor tendon to the thumb: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B E; Haber, J L

    1996-01-01

    Anomalies of the dorsal tendons of the hand are not uncommon. Numerous variations in the tendons coursing through the fourth dorsal extensor compartment have been described. We report a rare case of a supernumerary tendon passing through the fourth dorsal compartment and inserting into the distal phalanx of the thumb. We also review the anomalous muscles and tendons that are found in this compartment. PMID:8722996

  3. Achilles allograft reconstruction of a chronic patellar tendon rupture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PD McNally; EA Marcelli

    1998-01-01

    Chronic ruptures of the patellar tendon are uncommon injuries. They are technically difficult to repair because of scar formation, poor quality of the remaining tendon, and quadriceps muscle atrophy and contracture. We report the reconstruction of a chronic patellar tendon rupture with an interesting complication, a tibial stress fracture. The reconstruction was performed 3 months after the injury using an

  4. Patellar and quadriceps tendon ru p tures— jumper's knee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas W. Kelly; Vincent S. Carter; Frank W. Jobe; Robert K. Kerlan

    1984-01-01

    We reviewed 13 patients with end stage jumper's knee, 10 with patellar tendon ruptures, and 3 with ruptures of the quadriceps tendon to evaluate our long-term results in treating these tendon ruptures in an athletic population. The focus was on the natural history, the time until return, and the level of return, to athletic activity. Jumper's knee affected all patients

  5. Repair of quadriceps tendon ruptures using suture anchors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David P. Richards; F. Alan Barber

    2002-01-01

    The repair of ruptured quadriceps tendon is commonly performed by weaving sutures through the ruptured tendon and then attaching the tendon to the bone by passing these sutures through tunnels in the superior patella. This technical note is the first report we are aware of in the English language literature of a technique that uses suture anchors to attach the

  6. The integrated function of muscles and tendons during locomotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Roberts

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical roles of tendon and muscle contractile elements during locomotion are often considered independently, but functionally they are tightly integrated. Tendons can enhance muscle performance for a wide range of locomotor activities because muscle–tendon units shorten and lengthen at velocities that would be mechanically unfavorable for muscle fibers functioning alone. During activities that require little net mechanical power output,

  7. Molecular regulation of tendon cell fate during development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Alice H; Lu, Helen H; Schweitzer, Ronen

    2015-06-01

    Although there have been several advances identifying novel mediators of tendon induction, differentiation, and patterning, much of the basic landscape of tendon biology from developmental stages onward remain almost completely undefined. During the New Frontiers in Tendon Research meeting, a group of developmental biologists with expertise across musculoskeletal disciplines identified key challenges for the tendon development field. The tools generated and the molecular regulators identified in developmental research have enhanced mechanistic studies in tendon injury and repair, both by defining benchmarks for success, as well as informing regenerative strategies. To address the needs of the orthopedic research community, this review will therefore focus on three key areas in tendon development that may have critical implications for the fields of tendon repair/regeneration and tendon tissue engineering, including functional markers of tendon cell identity, signaling regulators of tendon induction and differentiation, and in vitro culture models for tendon cell differentiation. Our goal is to provide a useful list of the currently known molecular players and their function in tendon differentiation within the context of development. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:800-812, 2015. PMID:25664867

  8. An Overview of the Management of Flexor Tendon Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries still remain a challenging condition to manage to ensure optimal outcome for the patient. Since the first flexor tendon repair was described by Kirchmayr in 1917, several approaches to flexor tendon injury have enabled successful repairs rates of 70-90%. Primary surgical repair results in better functional outcome compared to secondary repair or tendon graft surgery. Flexor tendon injury repair has been extensively researched and the literature demonstrates successful repair requires minimal gapping at the repair site or interference with tendon vascularity, secure suture knots, smooth junction of tendon end and having sufficient strength for healing. However, the exact surgical approach to achieve success being currently used among surgeons is still controversial. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the results of studies demonstrating the current knowledge regarding the optimal approach for flexor tendon repair. Post-operative rehabilitation for flexor tendon surgery is another area, which has caused extensive debate in hand surgery. The trend to more active mobilisation protocols seems to be favoured but further study in this area is needed to find the protocol, which achieves function and gliding but avoids rupture of the tendons. Lastly despite success following surgery complications commonly still occur post surgery, including adhesion formation, tendon rupture and stiffness of the joints. Therefore, this review aims to discuss the appropriate management of these difficulties post surgery. New techniques in management of flexor tendon will also be discussed including external laser devices, addition of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:22431948

  9. Platelet-rich plasma (prp) and tendon healing: animal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J F Kaux; P Drion; J Renouf; F Pascon; V Libertiaux; A Colige; C Le Goff; C Lambert; B Nusgens; A Gothot; S Cescotto; J O Defraigne; M Rickert; J M Crielaard

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionThe tendon is a tissue which does not heal easily. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the positive effects of platelets on the healing process of tendons. A local injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which releases in situ many growth factors, has the potentiality to enhance the tendon healing process. The aim of our experiment was to ascertain by an original

  10. Overuse tendon conditions: Time to change a confusing terminology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Maffulli

    1998-01-01

    In overuse clinical conditions in and around tendons, frank inflammation is infrequent, and is associated mostly with tendon ruptures. Tendinosis implies tendon degeneration without clinical or histological signs of intratendinous inflammation, and is not necessarily symptomatic. Patients undergoing an operation for Achilles tendinopathy show similar areas of degeneration. When the term tendinitis is used in a clinical context, it does

  11. Measurement of Health Outcomes Following Tendon and Nerve Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy C. MacDermid

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's model of health suggests that tendon and nerve injury outcomes can be assessed in terms of impairment, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. A tendon injury results in impairment of motion and strength of affected digits. Literature on outcome of tendon surgery has focused on active motion. Recently developed devices can be used to measure strength impairments

  12. Snapping knee: An unusual biceps femoris tendon injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeev Bansal; Chris Taylor; Ashvin L. Pimpalnerkar

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of acute post-traumatic snapping of the biceps femoris tendon following a soccer injury. Surgical stabilisation, achieved by re-routing the tendon insertion through a tunnel in the fibular head, resolved the symptoms after conservative management failed. We believe this is the first report of a ‘snapping knee’ resulting from direct injury to the biceps femoris tendon insertion.

  13. Tendon-Derived Stem Cells (TDSCs): From Basic Science to Potential Roles in Tendon Pathology and Tissue Engineering Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pauline Po Yee Lui; Kai Ming Chan

    Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair and remodeling\\u000a of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs), have recently been identified in tendons. This\\u000a review aims to summarize the current information about the in vitro characteristics of TDSCs, including issues related to TDSC isolation and culture, their cell morphology,

  14. Simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon with contralateral patellar tendon rupture: an unusual case and a review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jalgaonkar; A. Rafee; O. Haddo; S. Sarkar

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous rupture of quadriceps tendon with contralateral patellar tendon is very rare. There are only two case reports\\u000a in English literature. We report the case of a healthy 41-year-old female with simultaneous rupture of her left quadriceps\\u000a tendon and right patellar tendon. There were no known precipitating factors for this injury. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation\\u000a achieved satisfactory outcome.

  15. Proximal coracobrachialis tendon rupture, subscapularis tendon rupture, and medial dislocation of the long head of the biceps tendon in an adult after traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Bryan M.; Harris, Joshua D.; Forsythe, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rupture of the coracobrachialis is a rare entity, in isolation or in combination with other muscular or tendinous structures. When described, it is often a result of direct trauma to the anatomic area resulting in rupture of the muscle belly. The authors present a case of a 57-year-old female who suffered a proximal coracobrachialis tendon rupture from its origin at the coracoid process, with concomitant subscapularis tear and medial dislocation of the long head of biceps tendon after first time traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation. Two weeks after injury, magnetic resonance imaging suggested the diagnosis, which was confirmed during combined arthroscopic and open technique. Soft-tissue tenodesis of coracobrachialis to the intact short head of the biceps, tenodesis of the long head of biceps to the intertubercular groove, and double-row anatomic repair of the subscapularis were performed. The patient did well postoperatively, and ultimately at 6 months follow-up, she was without pain, and obtained 160° of active forward elevation, 45° of external rotation, internal rotation to T8, 5/5 subscapularis and biceps strength. Scoring scales had improved from the following preoperative to final follow-up: American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, 53.33-98.33; constant, 10-100; visual analogue scale-pain, 4-0. DASH score was 5. PMID:25937715

  16. Response of post-tensioned concrete beams with unbonded tendons including serviceability and ultimate state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Vu; A. Castel; R. François

    2010-01-01

    The model proposed in this paper calculates the structural response of post-tensioned prestressed beams with unbonded tendons, including both the deflections under service loading, before or after cracking, and the ultimate bearing capacity. Both monotonic and repeated load effects are considered. The originality of the model appears in the calculation of prestressed concrete serviceability after cracking, based on a non-linear

  17. [The Achilles tendon in sports].

    PubMed

    Segesser, B; Goesele, A; Renggli, P

    1995-06-01

    Achillodynia is a generic term for various types of ailments in the region of the Achilles tendon. For adequate therapy a specific diagnosis is absolutely necessary. Besides an accurate anamnesis and the right choice of terrain and shoes, as well as a clinical examination where one has to specifically keep an eye on muscular imbalance between the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle and disorders of the ligamentous control of the calcaneus caused by fibular ligament instabilities, a procedure such as radiology, ultrasound, and MR imaging is inevitable. From the differential diagnosis point of view a distinction between peritendinitis, mechanically triggered bursitis (calcaneal and subachilles), bony alterations of the calcaneus (calcaneus spur, Haglund exostosis persistent nucleus of the apophysis, fatigue fracture, etc) and a partial or total rupture (a one-time occurrence or multiple occurrences) has to be made. Occasionally, entrapment of the ramus calcaneus of the sural nerve causes calcaneal pain. If clinically not confirmed, lumbar pain ought to be taken into consideration (discopathy, Bechterew disease, etc). Metabolic disorders (especially uric acid) and underlying rheumatic diseases must be excluded. The therapy of achillodynia includes local and peroral antiphlogistic medication as a concomitant measure. More important is the causal influence of etiological factors, i.e., the correction of muscular imbalance, ensuring control of the calcaneus through bandages and adjustment of sport shoes, changes in training buildup and exercise intensity, just to mention a few. If necessary, surgically splitting the peritendineum, sanitation of a partial rupture, bursectomy and removal of mechanically obstructive exostosis must be done. PMID:7617382

  18. Simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon with contralateral rupture of the patellar tendon in an otherwise healthy athlete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N I Munshi; C E Mbubaegbu

    1996-01-01

    A case of a healthy athlete with simultaneous rupture of quadriceps tendon and rupture of the contralateral patella tendon is reported. Both tendons rupturing in the same patient is rare and this is the first reported case in a previously healthy person. Different mechanisms are implicated in the different ruptures. The rarity is because the simultaneous presence of contributory factors

  19. Lubricin in human achilles tendon: The evidence of intratendinous sliding motion and shear force in achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Long; Wei, Zhuang; Zhao, Chunfeng; Jay, Gregory D; Schmid, Thomas M; Amadio, Peter C; An, Kai-Nan

    2015-06-01

    Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly injured tendons. Mechanical force is regarded as a major causative factor. However, the biomechanics of Achilles tendon and mechanical mechanism of the injuries are unclear. Lubricin expresses at regions exposed to sliding motion and shear force in a number of tissues. This study investigated the distribution and concentration of lubricin in human Achilles tendons for better understanding the biomechanics of Achilles tendon. Achilles tendons were harvested from nine cadavers. Lubricin was extracted from various locations proximal to the calcaneal insertion and quantified with ELISA. The distribution of lubricin was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Lubricin was mainly identified at the interfaces of tendon fascicles, especially in the mid-portion of the tendon. The concentration of lubricin in Achilles tendons varied by individual and the distance from its calcaneal insertion. The distal portion of the tendon had a higher concentration of lubricin than the proximal regions of the tendon. This study suggests the presence of intratendinous sliding motion of fascicles and shear force at interfaces of fascicles in human Achilles tendon. Shear force could be an important mechanical factor for the development of Achilles tendinopathy and rupture. PMID:25864860

  20. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ellanti; N. Davarinos; S. Morris; J. Rice

    Background  Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes\\u000a of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in\\u000a patients of 40 years of age or older.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  We describe a case of a 67-year-old man with simultaneous rupture of both

  1. Human leg model predicts ankle muscle-tendon morphology, state, roles and energetics in walking.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Brown, Emery N; Herr, Hugh M

    2011-03-01

    A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a) corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b) gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c) causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks. PMID:21445231

  2. Human Leg Model Predicts Ankle Muscle-Tendon Morphology, State, Roles and Energetics in Walking

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Pavitra; Brown, Emery N.; Herr, Hugh M.

    2011-01-01

    A common feature in biological neuromuscular systems is the redundancy in joint actuation. Understanding how these redundancies are resolved in typical joint movements has been a long-standing problem in biomechanics, neuroscience and prosthetics. Many empirical studies have uncovered neural, mechanical and energetic aspects of how humans resolve these degrees of freedom to actuate leg joints for common tasks like walking. However, a unifying theoretical framework that explains the many independent empirical observations and predicts individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation is yet to be established. Here we develop a computational framework to address how the ankle joint actuation problem is resolved by the neuromuscular system in walking. Our framework is founded upon the proposal that a consideration of both neural control and leg muscle-tendon morphology is critical to obtain predictive, mechanistic insight into individual muscle and tendon contributions to joint actuation. We examine kinetic, kinematic and electromyographic data from healthy walking subjects to find that human leg muscle-tendon morphology and neural activations enable a metabolically optimal realization of biological ankle mechanics in walking. This optimal realization (a) corresponds to independent empirical observations of operation and performance of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, (b) gives rise to an efficient load-sharing amongst ankle muscle-tendon units and (c) causes soleus and gastrocnemius muscle fibers to take on distinct mechanical roles of force generation and power production at the end of stance phase in walking. The framework outlined here suggests that the dynamical interplay between leg structure and neural control may be key to the high walking economy of humans, and has implications as a means to obtain insight into empirically inaccessible features of individual muscle and tendons in biomechanical tasks. PMID:21445231

  3. Contribution of glycosaminoglycans to the microstructural integrity of fibrillar and fiber crimps in tendons and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; De Pasquale, Viviana; Martini, Désirée; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; Dionisi, Alessio; Ottani, Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    The biomechanical roles of both tendons and ligaments are fulfilled by the extracellular matrix of these tissues. In particular, tension is mainly transmitted and resisted by protein (collagen, elastin) fibers, whereas compression is opposed by water-soluble glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs spanning the interfibrillar spaces and interacting with fibrils through the interfibrillar proteoglycans also seem to play a part in transmitting and resisting tensile stresses. Both tendons and ligaments showing similar composition, but different functional roles and collagen array, exhibit periodic undulations of collagen fibers or crimps. Each crimp is composed of many knots of each single fibril or fibrillar crimps. Fibrillar and fiber crimps play a mechanical role in absorbing the initial loading during elongation of both tendons and ligaments, and in recoiling fibrils and fibers when tissues have to return to their original length. This study investigated whether GAGs covalently attached to proteoglycan core proteins directly affect the 3D microstructural integrity of fibrillar crimp regions and fiber crimps in both tendons and ligaments. Achilles tendons and medial collateral ligaments of the knee from eight female Sprague-Dawley rats (90 days old) incubated in a chondroitinase ABC solution to remove GAGs were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, isolated fibrils of these tissues obtained by mechanical disruption were analyzed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both Achilles tendons and medial collateral ligaments of the rats after chemical or mechanical removal of GAGs still showed crimps and fibrillar crimps comparable to tissues with a normal GAG content. All fibrils in the fibrillar crimp region always twisted leftwards, thus changing their running plane, and then sharply bent, changing their course on a new plane. These data suggest that GAGs do not affect structural integrity or fibrillar crimp functions that seem mainly related to the local fibril leftward twisting and the alternating handedness of collagen from a molecular to a supramolecular level. PMID:20890582

  4. Spondylodiscitis and Achilles tendonitis due to gout.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Matsumoto, Tatsuki; Tsugita, Makoto; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Terada, Yoshio

    2014-11-01

    The patient, a 62-year-old man with a 3-year history of hyperuricemia, presented with severe neck pain, Achilles enthesopathy and polyarthralgia. He consumed alcohol heavily. The biochemical profile was normal except for elevated levels of CRP (3.6 mg/dl; normal < 0.3), uric acid (UA) (10.9 mg/dl; normal 2.5-7.5) and creatinine (1.7 mg/dl; normal 0.5-1.0). Bone scintigraphy showed polyarthritis at the right elbow, wrist and bilateral first MTP joints. Notably, bone scintigraphy with computed tomography also revealed spondylodiscitis of C5-C6, which was confirmed by MRI, and left Achilles tendonitis. Moreover, left Achilles tendonitis was also confirmed by ultrasonography, indicating enthesitis with low-echoic lesion and calcification. Needle aspiration yielded a white viscous liquid, with numerous urate crystals identified on polarized light microscopy. He was diagnosed with gouty arthritis associated with spondylodiscitis and Achilles tendonitis. After the treatment with allopurinol, colchicine and predonisolone, his symptoms were improved, and serum CRP and UA levels were normalized. The cervical spine and Achilles tendon are rare and notable sites of involvements in gout, and differential diagnosis of gouty arthritis from spondyloarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, tumor, pseudogout, and infection is necessary. When the patient was noted to have neck pain and Achilles enthesopathy, we should always recognize gouty arthritis. PMID:24498865

  5. [The history of flexor tendon surgery].

    PubMed

    Chamay, A

    1997-01-01

    Flexor tendon injuries were already treated in antiquity by Hippocrates, Galien and Avicenne. Since the Renaissance, other surgeons have attempted to repair flexor tendon injuries, but without success due to problems related to unsuitable materials and ignorance of the basic rules of asepsis and the absence of antiseptics until the second half of the 19th century. The first successful flexor tendon grafts in man were performed by K. Biesalski in 1910, E. Lexer in 1912 and L. Mayer in 1916. These three authors published their series of grafts and described in detail the anatomical, physiological and technical principles to be respected. St. Bunnell, in 1918, developed various pull-out direct suture procedures, but faced with the problems of adhesions, he abandoned this technique and proposed not to repair flexors in the digital tunnels but to graft them. He defined the famous zone which he called No man's land, which subsequently became Claude Verdan's zone II, in 1959. In 1960, C. Verdan published his first series of sutures maintained by 2 pins in zone II with comparable results to those obtained after grafting. In 1967, H. Kleinert, with his mobile suture, became the leader of direct tendon repair in zone II. 2-stage grafts were introduced in 1965 under the impetus of J. Hunter, who revised and popularized the studies conducted by A. Bassett and R.E. Caroll in 1950. PMID:9131943

  6. Simultaneous traumatic rupture of the quadriceps tendons.

    PubMed Central

    Young, T B

    1985-01-01

    A case is reported of simultaneous traumatic rupture of quadriceps tendons diagnosed in the accident and emergency department within 2 hours of injury. This is an extremely rare injury and diagnosis is often missed. Possible mechanism of the injury, predisposing factors, guidelines for diagnosis and results of surgical treatment are discussed, and the literature is reviewed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:4015792

  7. Infliximab treatment for resistant Achilles tendonitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Asfar, Said M; Attar, Mohammad; Shacfeh, Hasan

    2009-09-01

    Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies USPA can sometimes be refractory to usual disease modifying agents. Anti-tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha agents have been shown to be effective in spondyloarthropathies. Few articles described the efficacy of TNF-alpha antagonists in USPA. Our patient had refractory Achilles tendonitis as an early manifestation of USPA which responded dramatically to infliximab treatment. PMID:19750273

  8. Regulation of Collagen Fibril Nucleation and Initial Fibril Assembly Involves Coordinate Interactions with Collagens V and XI in Developing Tendon*

    PubMed Central

    Wenstrup, Richard J.; Smith, Simone M.; Florer, Jane B.; Zhang, Guiyun; Beason, David P.; Seegmiller, Robert E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Birk, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Collagens V and XI comprise a single regulatory type of fibril-forming collagen with multiple isoforms. Both co-assemble with collagen I or II to form heterotypic fibrils and have been implicated in regulation of fibril assembly. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of collagens V and XI in the regulation of tendon fibrillogenesis. Flexor digitorum longus tendons from a haplo-insufficient collagen V mouse model of classic Ehlers Danlos syndrome (EDS) had decreased biomechanical stiffness compared with controls consistent with joint laxity in EDS patients. However, fibril structure was relatively normal, an unexpected finding given the altered fibrils observed in dermis and cornea from this model. This suggested roles for other related molecules, i.e. collagen XI, and compound Col5a1+/?,Col11a1+/? tendons had altered fibril structures, supporting a role for collagen XI. To further evaluate this, transcript expression was analyzed in wild type tendons. During development (E18-P10) both collagen V and XI were comparably expressed; however, collagen V predominated in mature (P30) tendons. The collagens had a similar expression pattern. Tendons with altered collagen V and/or XI expression (Col5a1+/?; Col11a1+/?; Col5a1+/?,Col11a1+/?; Col11a1?/?; Col5a1+/?,Col11a1?/?) were analyzed at E18. All genotypes demonstrated a reduced fibril number and altered structure. This phenotype was more severe with a reduction in collagen XI. However, the absence of collagen XI with a reduction in collagen V was associated with the most severe fibril phenotype. The data demonstrate coordinate roles for collagens V and XI in the regulation of fibril nucleation and assembly during tendon development. PMID:21467034

  9. Fascicles from energy-storing tendons show an age-specific response to cyclic fatigue loading

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Chavaunne T.; Riley, Graham P.; Birch, Helen L.; Clegg, Peter D.; Screen, Hazel R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Some tendons, such as the human Achilles and equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT), act as energy stores, stretching and recoiling to increase efficiency during locomotion. Our previous observations of rotation in response to applied strain in SDFT fascicles suggest a helical structure, which may provide energy-storing tendons with a greater ability to extend and recoil efficiently. Despite this specialization, energy-storing tendons are prone to age-related tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cyclic fatigue loading (FL) on the microstructural strain response of SDFT fascicles from young and old horses. The data demonstrate two independent age-related mechanisms of fatigue failure; in young horses, FL caused low levels of matrix damage and decreased rotation. This suggests that loading causes alterations to the helix substructure, which may reduce their ability to recoil and recover. By contrast, fascicles from old horses, in which the helix is already compromised, showed greater evidence of matrix damage and suffer increased fibre sliding after FL, which may partially explain the age-related increase in tendinopathy. Elucidation of helix structure and the precise alterations occurring owing to both ageing and FL will help to develop appropriate preventative and repair strategies for tendinopathy. PMID:24402919

  10. In vivo mechanical properties of the human Achilles tendon during one-legged hopping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Lichtwark; A. M. Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Compliant tendons act as energy stores, which benefit the energetics and power output of a muscle-tendon unit. However the compliance of tendon and the material properties may vary between individuals and hence alter the energy storing capacity of the tendon. We aimed to determine the in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) stress and strain during one-legged hopping and hence the contribution

  11. Collagenolytic activity is produced by rabbit ligaments and tendon

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.; Amiel, D.; Harper, E.

    1986-05-01

    The authors examined the patellar tendon (PT), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) from normal rabbits for collagenase activity. All three connective tissues contain large amounts of collagen and the catabolism of this structural protein is important to their integrity. The authors cultured each tissue in serum free medium for 14 days. Collagenase was produced by all three connective tissues after a lag period of up to 7 days, as detected by the /sup 14/C-glycine peptide-release assay. Culture media that did not express enzyme the authors found to contain inhibitory activity. The collagenases and inhibitors from each tissue have been quantitated and characterized. After 9 days the collagenase activity for the rabbit periarticular tissues was 6.1 (PT), 4.4 (MCL) and 8.6 (ACL) units per milligram of secreted protein. The cleavage site of all three collagenases was found to be similar to that observed for rabbit skin collagenase, and generation of reaction products TC/sup A/ and TC/sup B/ was demonstrated by collagenases from PT, MCL and ACL. These results suggest that the metabolism of ligaments and tendon is regulated by the production of zymogen, active collagenase and inhibitor, similar to other connective tissues. The role of these components in joint injury and joint diseases is currently being investigated.

  12. [Achilles tendon rupture. Anamnestic and morphologic studies and considerations on the etiology].

    PubMed

    Böhm, E; Thiel, A; Czieske, S

    1990-03-01

    From 1. October 1985 to 31. December 1987 93 patients (82 male, 11 female) with rupture of the achillestendon were investigated by means of a questionnaire, the specimens obtained at operation were examined histologically. In two cases the operation was for a rerupture of the tendon, 7 and 8 weeks respectively after the first operation. In 6 cases a rupture followed a so-called incomplete rupture on the same side. 9 patients had had a tendonrupture of the other side between 2.5 and 10 years previously. 85.4% of the ruptures took place during a sporting activity. Of the 93 patients 55 (59%) regularly took part in long term sporting activities. Symptoms in the area of one or both achilles tendons were experienced by 32% of the patients. 80 patients with an achilles tendon rupture who were operated within 10 days demonstrated structural degeneration of at least moderate proportions, mostly severe or very severe (there was no relationship between the degree of degeneration and the age of the rupture). The signs of repair were consistent with the age of the rupture. In 56% of the ruptures up to four days old the repair process was considerably more advanced than the age of the rupture would suggest. 6 of 10 patients with the so-called "Archillodynie" demonstrated minor changes although 3 had more severe degenerative changes. Our inquiry clearly demonstrates that structural changes in the tendon took place before the injury. In the cases of achilles tendon rupture the processes of repair are an-adequate to compensate for the degenerative changes. The etiology of the structural degenerations is dependent on many endogenous and exogenous factors particularly the inadequacy of the repair processes. PMID:2360170

  13. Chronic Achilles Tendon Rupture Reconstructed With Achilles Tendon Allograft and Xenograft Combination.

    PubMed

    Hollawell, Shane; Baione, William

    2014-12-01

    More than 20% of acute Achilles tendon injuries are misdiagnosed, leading to chronic or neglected ruptures. Some controversy exists regarding how to best manage an acute Achilles tendon rupture. However, a general consensus has been reached that chronic rupture with ?3 cm of separation is associated with functional morbidity and, therefore, should be managed operatively. It has been demonstrated that the functional outcomes of surgically treated Achilles ruptures are superior to the nonoperative outcomes in a chronic setting. In the present report, we reviewed 4 patients with chronic Achilles tendon ruptures that were successfully treated with an Achilles tendon interposition allograft and simultaneous augmentation with a xenograft. The median duration of rupture was 11 (range 8 to 16) weeks, the median gap between the proximal and distal segments of the tendon was 4.75 (range 3.5 to 6) cm, and the patients were able to return pain-free to all preinjury activities at a median of 14.5 (range 13.8 to 15.5) weeks, without the need for tendon transfer, lengthening, or additional intervention. The median duration of follow up was 37.25 (range 15.25 to 51.5) months, at which point the mean Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument core scale score was 97 ± 1 (mean normative score 53 ± 1), and the Foot and Ankle Outcomes Instrument shoe comfort core scale score was 100 ± 0 (mean normative score 59 ± 0). The combined Achilles allograft plus xenograft augmentation technique appears to be a reasonable option for the surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendon rupture. PMID:25488191

  14. Inducement of semitendinosus tendon regeneration to the pes anserinus after its harvest for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction-A new inducer grafting technique

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the usefulness of the “inducer grafting” technique for regeneration of the semitendinosus (ST) tendon after its harvest for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Methods Twenty knees of 20 patients (mean age at the time of surgery, 23.1?years) underwent ACL reconstruction with a double bundle autograft using the ST tendon (7 patients) and the ST + the gracilis (G) tendons (13 patients). “Inducer grafting” technique After harvesting the ST tendon, a passing pin with a loop thread is inserted along with the tendon stripper. The passing pin is pulled out from the medial thigh and the loop thread retained. As an inducer graft, the ST tendon branch is used. After the ACL graft has been secured, the inducer graft is sutured to the pes anserinus and the proximal end passed through by pulling the thread out. Then the inducer graft is placed within the tendon canal. The mean follow-up period was 15?months. The presence and morphology of the regenerated ST tendon were examined by MRI. And the isometric hamstring strength was examined at 45°, 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Results One month after the operation in all the patients, MRI demonstrated a low-intensity structure at the anatomical location of the ST, at the level of the superior pole of the patella and the joint line, apparently representing the regenerated ST tendon. Four months after the operation, the distal portion of the regenerated ST tendon had reached the pes anserinus in all patients. Twelve months after the operation, the regenerated ST tendon was hypertrophic in 19 of the 20 patients (95%). The isometric knee flexion torque of the ACL-reconstructed limb was significantly lower at 90° and 120° compared with the contralateral limb. Conclusion These results suggest that the “inducer grafting” technique is able to improve the regeneration rate of the harvested ST tendon and promote hypertrophy of the regenerated ST tendon, extending all the way to the pes anserinus. However, this technique couldn’t improve the deficits in knee flexion torque after ACL reconstruction. PMID:22607724

  15. Foot posture is associated with morphometry of the peroneus longus muscle, tibialis anterior tendon, and Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Murley, G S; Tan, J M; Edwards, R M; De Luca, J; Munteanu, S E; Cook, J L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between foot type and the morphometry of selected muscles and tendons of the lower limb. Sixty-one healthy participants (31 male, 30 female; aged 27.1 ± 8.8 years) underwent gray-scale musculoskeletal ultrasound examination to determine the anterior-posterior (AP) thickness of tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, and peroneus longus muscles and tendons as well as the Achilles tendon. Foot type was classified based on arch height and footprint measurements. Potentially confounding variables (height, weight, hip and waist circumference, rearfoot and ankle joint range of motion, and levels of physical activity) were also measured. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association between foot type with muscle and tendon morphometry accounting for potentially confounding variables. Foot type was significantly and independently associated with AP thickness of the tibialis anterior tendon, peroneus longus muscle, and Achilles tendon, accounting for approximately 7% to 16% of the variation. Flat-arched feet were associated with a thicker tibialis anterior tendon, a thicker peroneus longus muscle, and a thinner Achilles tendon. Foot type is associated with morphometry of tendons that control sagittal plane motion of the rearfoot; and the peroneus longus muscle that controls frontal plane motion of the rearfoot. These findings may be related to differences in tendon loading during gait. PMID:23301865

  16. Tendon fascicles exhibit a linear correlation between Poisson's ratio and force during uniaxial stress relaxation.

    PubMed

    Reese, Shawn P; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-03-01

    The underlying mechanisms for the viscoelastic behavior of tendon and ligament tissue are poorly understood. It has been suggested that both a flow-dependent and flow-independent mechanism may contribute at different structural levels. We hypothesized that the stress relaxation response of a single tendon fascicle is consistent with the flow-dependent mechanism described by the biphasic theory (Armstrong et al., 1984, "An Analysis of the Unconfined Compression of Articular Cartilage," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 106, pp. 165-173). To test this hypothesis, force, lateral strain, and Poisson's ratio were measured as a function of time during stress relaxation testing of six rat tail tendon fascicles from a Sprague Dawley rat. As predicted by biphasic theory, the lateral strain and Poisson's ratio were time dependent, a large estimated volume loss was seen at equilibrium and there was a linear correlation between the force and Poisson's ratio during stress relaxation. These results suggest that the fluid dependent mechanism described by biphasic theory may explain some or all of the apparent viscoelastic behavior of single tendon fascicles. PMID:24231817

  17. Mechanical overload decreases the thermal stability of collagen in an in vitro tensile overload tendon model.

    PubMed

    Willett, Thomas L; Labow, Rosalind S; Lee, J Michael

    2008-12-01

    Musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries are very common, yet poorly understood. We investigated molecular-level changes in collagen caused by tensile overload of bovine tail tendons in vitro. Previous investigators concluded that tensile tendon rupture resulted in collagen denaturation, but our study suggests otherwise. Based on contemporary collagen biophysics, we hypothesized that tensile overload would lead to reduced thermal stability without change in the nativity of the molecular conformation. The thermal behavior of collagen from tail tendons ruptured in vitro at two strain rates (0.01 s(-1) and 10 s(-1)) was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The 1,000-fold difference in strain rate was used since molecular mechanisms that determine mechanical behavior are thought to be strain rate-dependent. DSC revealed that the collagen in tensile overloaded tendons was less thermally stable by 3 degrees to 5 degrees C relative to undamaged controls and was not denatured since there was no change in enthalpy of denaturation. The decrease in thermal stability occurred throughout the overloaded regions, independent of rupture site, and was greater in specimens ruptured at the lower strain rate. The deformation mechanism apparently involves disruption of the lattice structure of the collagen fibrils and greatly increases the molecular freedom of the collagen molecules, leading to reduced thermal molecular stability and the previously reported increased proteolysis. This has important implications for understanding soft tissue injuries, disease etiology and treatment, and for developing tissue engineered products with improved durability. PMID:18524005

  18. Interfibrillar shear stress is the loading mechanism of collagen fibrils in tendon

    PubMed Central

    Szczesny, Spencer E.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role tendons play in transmitting loads throughout the musculoskeletal system, little is known about the microstructural mechanisms underlying their mechanical function. Of particular interest is whether collagen fibrils in tendon fascicles bear load independently or if load is transferred between fibrils through interfibrillar shear forces. We conducted multiscale experimental testing and developed a microstructural shear lag model to explicitly test whether interfibrillar shear load transfer is indeed the fibrillar loading mechanism in tendon. Experimental correlations between fascicle macroscale mechanics and microscale interfibrillar sliding suggest that fibrils are discontinuous and share load. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrate that a shear lag model can replicate the fascicle macroscale mechanics as well as predict the microscale fibrillar deformations. Since interfibrillar shear stress is the fundamental loading mechanism assumed in the model, this result provides strong evidence that load is transferred between fibrils in tendon and possibly other aligned collagenous tissues. Conclusively establishing this fibrillar loading mechanism and identifying the involved structural components should help develop repair strategies for tissue degeneration and guide the design of tissue engineered replacements. PMID:24530560

  19. Regional variation in human supraspinatus tendon proteoglycans: decorin, biglycan, and aggrecan.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Paul E; Chen, Yi-Ling; Szczesny, Spencer E; Lake, Spencer P; Elliott, Dawn M; Soslowsky, Louis J; Dodge, George R

    2012-01-01

    While tendons typically undergo primary tensile loading, the human supraspinatus tendon (SST) experiences substantial amounts of tension, compression, and shear in vivo. As a result, the functional roles of the extracellular matrix components, in particular the proteoglycans (PGs), are likely complex and important. The goal of this study was to determine the PG content in specific regions of the SST that exhibit differing mechanical function. The concentration of aggrecan, biglycan, and decorin was determined in six regions of the human SST using immunochemical techniques. We hypothesized that aggrecan concentrations would be highest in areas where the tendon likely experiences compression; biglycan levels would be highest in regions likely subjected to injury and/or active remodeling such as the anterior regions; decorin concentrations would be highest in regions of greatest tensile stiffness. Our results generally supported these hypotheses and demonstrated that aggrecan and biglycan share regional variability, with increased concentration in the anterior and posterior regions and smaller concentration in the medial regions. Decorin, however, was in high concentration throughout all regions. The data presented in this study represent the first regional measurements of PG in the SST. Together with our previous regional measurements of mechanical properties, these data can be used to evaluate SST structure-function relationships. With knowledge of the differences in specific PG content, their spatial variations in the SST, and their relationships to tendon mechanics, we can begin to associate defects in PG content with specific pathology, which may provide guidance for new therapeutic interventions. PMID:22329809

  20. Interfibrillar shear stress is the loading mechanism of collagen fibrils in tendon.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Elliott, Dawn M

    2014-06-01

    Despite the critical role tendons play in transmitting loads throughout the musculoskeletal system, little is known about the microstructural mechanisms underlying their mechanical function. Of particular interest is whether collagen fibrils in tendon fascicles bear load independently or if load is transferred between fibrils through interfibrillar shear forces. We conducted multiscale experimental testing and developed a microstructural shear lag model to explicitly test whether interfibrillar shear load transfer is indeed the fibrillar loading mechanism in tendon. Experimental correlations between fascicle macroscale mechanics and microscale interfibrillar sliding suggest that fibrils are discontinuous and share load. Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrate that a shear lag model can replicate the fascicle macroscale mechanics as well as predict the microscale fibrillar deformations. Since interfibrillar shear stress is the fundamental loading mechanism assumed in the model, this result provides strong evidence that load is transferred between fibrils in tendon and possibly other aligned collagenous tissues. Conclusively establishing this fibrillar loading mechanism and identifying the involved structural components should help develop repair strategies for tissue degeneration and guide the design of tissue engineered replacements. PMID:24530560

  1. Regional Variation in Human Supraspinatus Tendon Proteoglycans: Decorin, Biglycan, and Aggrecan

    PubMed Central

    Matuszewski, Paul E; Chen, Yi-Ling; Szczesny, Spencer E; Lake, Spencer; Elliott, Dawn M; Soslowsky, Louis J; Dodge, George R

    2012-01-01

    While tendons typically undergo primarily tensile loading, the human supraspinatus tendon (SST) experiences substantial amounts of tension, compression, and shear in vivo. As a result, the functional roles of the extracellular matrix components, in particular the proteoglycans (PGs), are likely complex and important. The goal of this study was to determine the PG content in specific regions of the SST that exhibit differing mechanical function. The concentration of aggrecan, biglycan, and decorin were determined in six regions of the human SST using immunochemical techniques. We hypothesized that: aggrecan concentrations would be highest in areas where the tendon likely experiences compression; biglycan levels would be highest in regions likely subjected to injury and/or active remodeling such as the anterior regions; decorin concentrations would be highest in regions of greatest tensile stiffness. Our results generally supported these hypotheses and demonstrated that aggrecan and biglycan share regional variability, with increased concentration in the anterior and posterior regions and smaller concentration in the medial regions. Decorin, however, was in high concentration throughout all regions. The data presented in this study represent the first regional measurements of PG in the SST. Together with our previous regional measurements of mechanical properties, these data can be used to evaluate SST structure-function relationships. With knowledge of the differences in specific PG content, their spatial variations in the SST, and their relationships to tendon mechanics, we can begin to associate defects in PG content with specific pathology, which may provide guidance for new therapeutic interventions. PMID:22329809

  2. Differential Expression of Lumican and Fibromodulin Regulate Collagen Fibrillogenesis in Developing Mouse Tendons

    PubMed Central

    Ezura, Yoichi; Chakravarti, Shukti; Oldberg, Åke; Chervoneva, Inna; Birk, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Collagen fibrillogenesis is finely regulated during development of tissue-specific extracellular matrices. The role(s) of a leucine-rich repeat protein subfamily in the regulation of fibrillogenesis during tendon development were defined. Lumican-, fibromodulin-, and double-deficient mice demonstrated disruptions in fibrillogenesis. With development, the amount of lumican decreases to barely detectable levels while fibromodulin increases significantly, and these changing patterns may regulate this process. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated structural abnormalities in the fibrils and alterations in the progression through different assembly steps. In lumican-deficient tendons, alterations were observed early and the mature tendon was nearly normal. Fibromodulin-deficient tendons were comparable with the lumican-null in early developmental periods and acquired a severe phenotype by maturation. The double-deficient mice had a phenotype that was additive early and comparable with the fibromodulin-deficient mice at maturation. Therefore, lumican and fibromodulin both influence initial assembly of intermediates and the entry into fibril growth, while fibromodulin facilitates the progression through growth steps leading to mature fibrils. The observed increased ratio of fibromodulin to lumican and a competition for the same binding site could mediate these transitions. These studies indicate that lumican and fibromodulin have different developmental stage and leucine-rich repeat protein specific functions in the regulation of fibrillogenesis. PMID:11076963

  3. Tissue engineering of cartilage, tendon and bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hengyun Sun; Wei Liu; Guangdong Zhou; Wenjie Zhang; Lei Cui; Yilin Cao

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering aims to produce a functional tissue replacement to repair defects. Tissue reconstruction is an essential\\u000a step toward the clinical application of engineered tissues. Significant progress has recently been achieved in this field.\\u000a In our laboratory, we focus on construction of cartilage, tendon and bone. The purpose of this review was to summarize the\\u000a advances in the engineering of

  4. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion.

    PubMed

    Balik, Mehmet Sabri; Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-06-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  5. Quadriceps Tendon Rupture due to Postepileptic Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Erkut, Adem; Guvercin, Yilmaz; Sahin, Rifat; Keskin, Davut

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of quadriceps tendon (QT) rupture. QT ruptures can occur in all ages. The cause is mostly traumatic in origin. Spontaneous ruptures that are thought to result from predisposing conditions are rare. Post-convulsion QT ruptures lacking traumas in their history can be overlooked in clinical examinations. This should be born in mind by the attending physician, as early diagnosis and treatment of the condition can lead to satisfactory outcomes. PMID:24944977

  6. Achilles tendon infection due to Mycobacterium chelonae.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing; Chan, Kwok Bill

    2014-01-01

    Atypical tuberculous tenosynovitis of the foot and ankle is extremely rare. The determination of the Mycobacterium species is essential because resistance of atypical mycobacterial strains to antituberculous drugs is often encountered. We report a case of Mycobacterium chelonae paratendinous and intratendinous infection involving the Achilles tendon. Repeat aggressive irrigation and debridement procedures, coupled with removal of foreign materials and the appropriate use of prolonged antibiotic therapy, can result in a successful long-term outcome. PMID:24529751

  7. Impact of oestrogen deficiency and aging on tendon: concise review

    PubMed Central

    Frizziero, Antonio; Vittadini, Filippo; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Masiero, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Summary The knowledge about tendons and tenocyte biological behaviour during aging and, especially, oestrogen deficiency is limited. Women differ from men with regard to muscle and tendon, most likely due to differences in sex hormones activity and tissue response. To-date the interest in metabolic factors that may induce tendon disorders is growing. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the current findings in the correlation between oestrogen deficiency, aging and tendon pathology and to encourage future researches to ameliorate assessment and management of tendinopathies in postmenopausal women. PMID:25489550

  8. Reconstruction of neglected patellar tendon ruptures using the quadriceps graft.

    PubMed

    Gomes, João Luiz Ellera; de Oliveira Alves, Jairo André; Zimmermann, José Mauro

    2014-08-01

    Several techniques using different grafts have been described for reconstruction of the patellar tendon after a neglected rupture. Retraction of the quadriceps tendon may compromise repair integrity due to progressive stretching of the graft. The authors present a surgical technique using the central one-third of the quadriceps tendon. This is supported by the fact that the resistance to traction of this segment of the quadriceps tendon equals that of a double-looped semitendinosus graft and that the harvesting of this specific graft promotes muscle inhibition, thus protecting the reconstruction during the recovery period. PMID:25102494

  9. A biomechanical assessment of tendon repair after radiofrequency treatment.

    PubMed

    Tibor, Lisa M; Leek, Bryan T; Chase, Derek C; Healey, Robert M; Linn, Michael S; Tasto, James P; Amiel, David

    2012-09-01

    After acute tendon injury, rapid mobilization prevents adhesions and improves the ultimate strength of the repair. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation is proposed to enhance angiogenesis in the early stages of healing. The mechanism and effect of RF have not yet been described in an animal model of tendon injury. To investigate the biomechanical effect of bipolar RF on acute injury in a rabbit model of partial Achilles tendon transection and suture repair, RF-treated tendon repairs were compared to untreated tendons. Cross-sectional area, Young's modulus, and ultimate tensile strength were determined. At 6 and 12 weeks after repair, RF-treated tendons had significant increases in cross-sectional area (P<.001; P< .0001) and ultimate tensile strength (P<.0001; P<.01). Young modulus of RF-treated tendons was increased at 6 weeks but not at 12 weeks (P<.01) Compared with untreated tendons, RF-treated tendons showed faster return to mechanical integrity. This may allow earlier rehabilitation. PMID:23365813

  10. Low level laser therapy in healing tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, P. T. C.; Batista, Cheila O. C.; Fabíola, C.

    2005-11-01

    This study aims to verify the effects of AsGa Laser in the scarring of tendon lesion in rats with low nourishment condition and to analyze the ideal light density by means of histopathologic findings highlighted by light microscopy. After the proposed nutritional condition was verified the animals were divided into 3 groups denominated as follows: GI control group, GII laser 1 J/sq.cm. and GIII laser 4 J/sq.cm. The lesions were induced by means of routine surgical process for tendon exposure: There was a crushing process with Allis pincers followed by saturated incision. The data obtained in relation to the amount of macrophage, leukocyte, fibroblast, vessel neoformation, fibrosis and collagen were submitted to parametric statistic procedures of variance analysis and "Tukey" Test and the result obtained was p < 0,05. According to the obtained results it can be concluded that low power laser therapy proved to be efficient in tendon repairing even though the animals suffered from malnutrition as well as the 1 J energy density proved to be more efficient in this case.

  11. Retropharyngeal Calcific Tendonitis Mimics a Retropharyngeal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis (RCT) is an uncommon, self-limiting condition that is often omitted in the differential diagnosis of a retropharyngeal fluid collection. This condition mimics a retropharyngeal abscess and should be considered when evaluating a fluid collection in the retropharyngeal space. Although calcific tendonitis at other sites has been well described in the medical literature, it appears that this entity has been underreported in the otolaryngology literature where only a few case reports have been identified. Presumably, the actual incidence is higher than the reported incidence, due to lack of familiarity with this disorder. As an otolaryngologist's scope of practice includes the managements of retropharyngeal lesions, it is important for the otolaryngologist to recognize the presentation of acute RCT and be familiar with appropriate treatment strategies. Retropharyngeal calcific tendonitis presents with neck pain, limitation of neck range of motion and includes inflammation, calcifications, and a sterile effusion within the longus colli muscle. Treatment is medical with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. RCT does not require surgical treatment, and an accurate diagnosis can prevent unnecessary attempts at operative drainage. In this study, we discuss two cases of RCT, summarize the salient features in diagnosis, including key radiologic features, discuss treatment options, and review the literature. PMID:23956905

  12. Spontaneous rupture of the patellar tendon and the contralateral quadriceps tendon, associated with lupus erythematosus: analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Karadimas, Efthimios J; Kotzamitelos, Dimitrios; Kakagia, Despoina D; Hatziyiannakis, Athanasios

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon is a rare injury. A case of a 67-year-old man with systemic lupus erythematosus under corticosteroid treatment for the last 10 years, who sustained spontaneous rupture of the patellar tendon and the contralateral quadriceps tendon, is herein presented. The patient was operated bilaterally, had an optimal outcome considering his age and the comorbidities, and was followed up for 24 months. PMID:23198218

  13. Multilayered Electrospun Scaffolds for Tendon Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chainani, Abby; Hippensteel, Kirk J.; Kishan, Alysha; Garrigues, N. William; Ruch, David S.; Guilak, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Full-thickness rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in people over the age of 65. High retear rates and poor functional outcomes are common after surgical repair, and currently available extracellular matrix scaffold patches have limited abilities to enhance new tendon formation. In this regard, tissue-engineered scaffolds may provide a means to improve repair of rotator cuff tears. Electrospinning provides a versatile method for creating nanofibrous scaffolds with controlled architectures, but several challenges remain in its application to tissue engineering, such as cell infiltration through the full thickness of the scaffold as well as control of cell growth and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that ligament-derived extracellular matrix may enhance differentiation toward a tendon or ligament phenotype by human adipose stem cells (hASCs). In this study, we investigated the use of tendon-derived extracellular matrix (TDM)-coated electrospun multilayered scaffolds compared to fibronectin (FN) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) coating for use in rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Multilayered poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds were prepared by sequentially collecting electrospun layers onto the surface of a grounded saline solution into a single scaffold. Scaffolds were then coated with TDM, FN, or PBS and seeded with hASCs. Scaffolds were maintained without exogenous growth factors for 28 days in culture and evaluated for protein content (by immunofluorescence and biochemical assay), markers of tendon differentiation, and tensile mechanical properties. The collagen content was greatest by day 28 in TDM-scaffolds. Gene expression of type I collagen, decorin, and tenascin C increased over time, with no effect of scaffold coating. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan and dsDNA contents increased over time in culture, but there was no effect of scaffold coating. The Young's modulus did not change over time, but yield strain increased with time in culture. Histology demonstrated cell infiltration through the full thickness of all scaffolds and immunofluorescence demonstrated greater expression of type I, but not type III collagen through the full thickness of the scaffold in TDM-scaffolds compared to other treatment groups. Together, these data suggest that nonaligned multilayered electrospun scaffolds permit tenogenic differentiation by hASCs and that TDM may promote some aspects of this differentiation. PMID:23808760

  14. Multilayered electrospun scaffolds for tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Chainani, Abby; Hippensteel, Kirk J; Kishan, Alysha; Garrigues, N William; Ruch, David S; Guilak, Farshid; Little, Dianne

    2013-12-01

    Full-thickness rotator cuff tears are one of the most common causes of shoulder pain in people over the age of 65. High retear rates and poor functional outcomes are common after surgical repair, and currently available extracellular matrix scaffold patches have limited abilities to enhance new tendon formation. In this regard, tissue-engineered scaffolds may provide a means to improve repair of rotator cuff tears. Electrospinning provides a versatile method for creating nanofibrous scaffolds with controlled architectures, but several challenges remain in its application to tissue engineering, such as cell infiltration through the full thickness of the scaffold as well as control of cell growth and differentiation. Previous studies have shown that ligament-derived extracellular matrix may enhance differentiation toward a tendon or ligament phenotype by human adipose stem cells (hASCs). In this study, we investigated the use of tendon-derived extracellular matrix (TDM)-coated electrospun multilayered scaffolds compared to fibronectin (FN) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) coating for use in rotator cuff tendon tissue engineering. Multilayered poly(?-caprolactone) scaffolds were prepared by sequentially collecting electrospun layers onto the surface of a grounded saline solution into a single scaffold. Scaffolds were then coated with TDM, FN, or PBS and seeded with hASCs. Scaffolds were maintained without exogenous growth factors for 28 days in culture and evaluated for protein content (by immunofluorescence and biochemical assay), markers of tendon differentiation, and tensile mechanical properties. The collagen content was greatest by day 28 in TDM-scaffolds. Gene expression of type I collagen, decorin, and tenascin C increased over time, with no effect of scaffold coating. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan and dsDNA contents increased over time in culture, but there was no effect of scaffold coating. The Young's modulus did not change over time, but yield strain increased with time in culture. Histology demonstrated cell infiltration through the full thickness of all scaffolds and immunofluorescence demonstrated greater expression of type I, but not type III collagen through the full thickness of the scaffold in TDM-scaffolds compared to other treatment groups. Together, these data suggest that nonaligned multilayered electrospun scaffolds permit tenogenic differentiation by hASCs and that TDM may promote some aspects of this differentiation. PMID:23808760

  15. Second Harmonic Generation Confocal Microscopy of Collagen Type I from Rat Tendon Cryosections

    PubMed Central

    Theodossiou, Theodossis A.; Thrasivoulou, Christopher; Ekwobi, Chidi; Becker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    We performed second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of collagen in rat-tendon cryosections, using femtosecond laser scanning confocal microscopy, both in backscattering and transmission geometries. SHG transmission images of collagen fibers were spatially resolved due to a coherent, directional SHG component. This effect was enhanced with the use of an index-matching fluid (ni = 1.52). The average SHG intensity oscillated with wavelength in the backscattered geometry (isotropic SHG component), whereas the spectral profile was consistent with quasi-phase-matching conditions in transmission geometry (forward propagating, coherent SHG component) around 440 nm (?p = 880 nm). Collagen type I from bovine Achilles tendon was imaged for SHG in the backscattered geometry and its first-order effective nonlinear coefficient was determined (\\documentclass[10pt]{article} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\pagestyle{empty} \\oddsidemargin -1.0in \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\vert}d_{{\\mathrm{eff}}}{\\vert}\\approx 0.085({\\pm}0.025){\\times}10^{-12}{\\mathrm{mV}}^{-1}\\end{equation*}\\end{document}) by comparison to samples of inorganic materials with known effective nonlinear coefficients (LiNbO3 and LiIO3). The SHG spectral response of collagen type I from bovine Achilles tendon matched that of the rat-tendon cryosections in backscattered geometry. Collagen types I, II, and VI powders (nonfibrous) did not show any detectable SHG, indicating a lack of noncentrosymmetric crystalline structure at the molecular level. The various stages of collagen thermal denaturation were investigated in rat-tendon cryosections using SHG and bright-field imaging. Thermal denaturation resulted in the gradual destruction of the SHG signal. PMID:17130233

  16. The Effect of Phospholipids (Surfactant) on Adhesion and Biomechanical Properties of Tendon: A Rat Achilles Tendon Repair Model

    PubMed Central

    Dabak, T. Kursat; Sertkaya, Omer; Acar, Nuray; Donmez, B. Ozgur; Ustunel, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of the tendon is a major challenge for the orthopedic surgeon during tendon repair. Manipulation of biological environment is one of the concepts to prevent adhesion. Lots of biochemicals have been studied for this purpose. We aimed to determine the effect of phospholipids on adhesion and biomechanical properties of tendon in an animal tendon repair model. Seventy-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Achilles tendons of rats were cut and repaired. Phospholipids were applied at two different dosages. Tendon adhesion was determined histopathologically and biomechanical test was performed. At macroscopic evaluation of adhesion, there are statistically significant differences between multiple-dose phospholipid injection group and Control group and also hyaluronic acid group and Control group (p < 0.008). At microscopic evaluation of adhesion, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.008). Ultimate strength was highest at hyaluronic acid injection group and lowest at multiple-dose phospholipid injection group. Single-dose phospholipids (surfactant) application may have a beneficial effect on the tendon adhesion. Although multiple applications of phospholipids seem the most effective regime to reduce the tendon adhesion among groups, it deteriorated the biomechanical properties of tendon.

  17. Endoscopic examination of the carpal flexor tendon sheath in horses.

    PubMed

    Cauvin, E R; Munroe, G A; Boyd, J S

    1997-11-01

    This study was undertaken to design a safe technique to examine the carpal flexor tendon sheath (carpal sheath) of horses endoscopically, using an arthroscope. The limbs from 15 horses were used to study the normal anatomy of the carpal sheath and related structures, establish a safe approach and endoscopic technique, and determine the normal endoscopic appearance of the sheath. Major arteries, veins and nerves, present within and around the sheath, left few 'safe' areas to insert the endoscope. Several portals were assessed and a distal lateral approach was found to be safest and to allow adequate visualisation of most of the sheath. The surgical technique and normal endoscopic findings are described in detail and discussed. PMID:9413719

  18. The effect of tendon excursion velocity on longitudinal median nerve displacement: differences between carpal tunnel syndrome patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Filius, Anika; Thoreson, Andrew R; Wang, Yuexiang; Passe, Sandra M; Zhao, Chunfeng; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C

    2015-04-01

    The subsynovial connective tissue (SSCT) is a viscoelastic structure connecting the median nerve (MN) and the flexor tendons in the carpal tunnel. Increased strain rates increases stiffness in viscoelastic tissues, and thereby its capacity to transfer shear load. Therefore, tendon excursion velocity may impact the MN displacement. In carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) the SSCT is fibrotic and may be ruptured, and this may affect MN motion. In this study, ultrasonography was performed on 14 wrists of healthy controls and 25 wrists of CTS patients during controlled finger motions performed at three different velocities. Longitudinal MN and tendon excursion were assessed using a custom speckle tracking algorithm and compared across the three different velocities. CTS patients exhibited significantly less MN motion than controls (p???0.002). While in general, MN displacement increased with increasing tendon excursion velocity (p???0.031). These findings are consistent with current knowledge of SSCT mechanics in CTS, in which in some patients the fibrotic SSCT appears to have ruptured from the tendon surface. PMID:25640903

  19. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture After Statin Use

    PubMed Central

    Nesselroade, Ryan D.; Nickels, Leslie Connor

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury. We report the case of bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture sustained with minimal force while refereeing a football game. The injury was suspected to be associated with statin use as the patient had no other identifiable risk factors. The diagnosis was confirmed using bedside ultrasound. PMID:21079697

  20. Bilateral synchronous quadriceps tendon rupture: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Varatharaj Mounasamy; Robert C. Chadderdon; Candice McDaniel; Mark C. Willis

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral spontaneous rupture of quadriceps tendons is rare and is usually associated with predisposing comorbid conditions.\\u000a We report an uncommon case of bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon after a ground level fall in a 51-year-old\\u000a male, 8 years after renal transplant.

  1. Rupture of the quadriceps tendon after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renato Viola; Nicola Marzano; Roberto Vianello

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of complete quadriceps tendon rupture that occured a few days after arthroscopic lateral meniscectomy. Complications following arthroscopy are rare; there have been many reports of quadriceps tendon rupture in the literature, but none by this kind of mechanism.

  2. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture while playing basketball

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Shah; N Jooma

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury in healthy people and only a few cases have been reported in athletes. This is the first report of a patient with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture incurred while playing basketball. The injury was surgically repaired and the patient had a good functional outcome.

  3. Diagnostic ultrasound: The appearance of the Achilles tendon following surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chapman-Jones

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the sonographic appearance of the Achilles tendon following surgery. The images presented are from a selection of patients screened for inclusion in a wider study undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of a micro-current treatment regime, contrasted with current conservative management, for the Achilles tendon presenting witj chronic pathology. Twenty per cent of the patients studied reported no

  4. Dorsal dislocation of the lunate with multiple extensor tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M G; Green, S M; Coville, F A

    1990-01-01

    An old dorsal lunate dislocation with associated multiple extensor tendon ruptures is described. Treatment consisted of proximal row carpectomy and transfer of the extensor indicis proprius to the distal stumps of the ruptured extensor tendons to the long, ring, and small fingers. PMID:2299153

  5. Harnessing endogenous stem/progenitor cells for tendon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang H; Lee, Francis Y; Tarafder, Solaiman; Kao, Kristy; Jun, Yena; Yang, Guodong; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-07-01

    Current stem cell-based strategies for tissue regeneration involve ex vivo manipulation of these cells to confer features of the desired progenitor population. Recently, the concept that endogenous stem/progenitor cells could be used for regenerating tissues has emerged as a promising approach that potentially overcomes the obstacles related to cell transplantation. Here we applied this strategy for the regeneration of injured tendons in a rat model. First, we identified a rare fraction of tendon cells that was positive for the known tendon stem cell marker CD146 and exhibited clonogenic capacity, as well as multilineage differentiation ability. These tendon-resident CD146+ stem/progenitor cells were selectively enriched by connective tissue growth factor delivery (CTGF delivery) in the early phase of tendon healing, followed by tenogenic differentiation in the later phase. The time-controlled proliferation and differentiation of CD146+ stem/progenitor cells by CTGF delivery successfully led to tendon regeneration with densely aligned collagen fibers, normal level of cellularity, and functional restoration. Using siRNA knockdown to evaluate factors involved in tendon generation, we demonstrated that the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates CTGF-induced proliferation and differentiation of CD146+ stem/progenitor cells. Together, our findings support the use of endogenous stem/progenitor cells as a strategy for tendon regeneration without cell transplantation and suggest this approach warrants exploration in other tissues. PMID:26053662

  6. Flexor Tendon Injuries: The Results of Primary Repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SINGER; S. MALOON

    1988-01-01

    This study is a critical analysis of results obtained following primary repair and post-operative controlled mobilisation of flexor tendon injuries which were treated by registrars with up to six months experience in hand surgery. 70 (55%) of 125 patients who underwent repair of a complete flexor digitorum profundus or flexor pollicis longus tendon injury during a 14-month period attended for

  7. New finding in the radiographic diagnosis of Achilles tendon rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, H.; Mellon, W.S. Jr.; Malhotra, A.K.; Olken, S.M.; Halls, J.

    1982-06-01

    The authors describe a new radiographic sign of rupture of the Achilles tendon system. It is a fracture, with separation through an osteophyte at the insertion of this tendon. Previously reported signs are also discussed as well as the present case report.

  8. Ultrasonography of chronic tendon injuries in the groin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kälebo; Jon Karlsson; Leif Sward; Lars Peterson

    1992-01-01

    Ultrasonography was used in the diagnosis of 36 pa tients with chronic groin pain localized to the tendons of the rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, adductor mus cles, hamstring muscles, and the gluteal muscles. Ab normal findings, such as focal sonolucent areas and discontinuity of tendon fibers, that are indicative of nonhealed partial ruptures were found in 28 patients. These findings

  9. Partial Flexor Tendon Injuries: To Repair or Not

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. MCGEORGE; J. H. STILWELL

    1992-01-01

    The correct management of partially divided flexor tendon injuries is still in dispute. This study compares the results of repair with non-repair in zone 2 injuries. We conclude that tendons divided by 60% or less in cross-sectional area should not be repaired.

  10. Delayed Rupture of Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon following Closed Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. SIMPSON

    1977-01-01

    Closed rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon is most often seen following lower radial fractures, but is uncommon in the absence of fracture. Redden has recently described rupture following rotational injury of the forearm.I wish to record three cases of closed delayed rupture following direct injury to the area of the tendon.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC FREQUENCIES ON CORE TENDON LESIONS OF THE THOROUGHBRED RACEHORSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. B. Bauer; K. Cooper; P. Jenks; A. H. J. Fleming

    bstract: The case study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an acoustic device on core tendon lesions of the thoroughbred race horse. Electromagnetic self-field theory (EMSFT) shows how the photon and the phonon have a similar sub-structure but an orthogonal orientation to each other. Hence sound, as well as EM exposure can interact to cause cellular effects within the cell-cycle

  12. The quadriceps tendon cyst: an uncommon cause of chronic anterior knee pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Siebert; A. Kaufmann; C. Niedhart; K.-D. Heller

    1999-01-01

    The causes of knee pain are manifold. One of the uncommon causes of chronic anterior knee pain are cysts and ganglia. Magnetic\\u000a resonance imaging not only reveals the intra-articular pathology but also accurately depicts such cystic structures about\\u000a the knee. As part of this case report, a cyst of the lateral border of the quadriceps tendon is presented as a

  13. Neuromuscular stochastic optimal control of a tendon driven index finger model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evangelos Theodorou; Emanuel Todorov; Francisco J. Valero-Cuevas

    2011-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to find control princi- ples to control robotic hands with dexterity and robustness comparable to that of the human hand. Here we explore a control strategy capable of accommodating the nonlinearities, high dimensionality and endogenous noise intrinsic to complex, tendon-driven biomechanical structures. We present the first stochastic optimal feedback controller (i.e., an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian

  14. Achilles tendon sports injuries: a review of classification and treatment.

    PubMed

    Werd, Matthew B

    2007-01-01

    Achilles tendon injuries are among the three most frequent sports-related injuries of the foot and ankle. Proper function of the Achilles tendon is critical to performance in sports. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanical function of this tendon is essential to the effective treatment of these injuries. Distinguishing among the various pathologies of the Achilles tendon is an important first step toward successful treatment and return of the athlete to sports activity. The term Achilles tendinitis is a nonspecific diagnosis that does not accurately describe an actual injury. This review is intended to provide the sports medicine physician with a means of classifying Achilles tendon injuries and, thus, arriving at an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan. PMID:17218624

  15. System and Method for Tensioning a Robotically Actuated Tendon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiland, Matthew J. (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A tendon tensioning system includes a tendon having a proximal end and a distal end, an actuator, and a motor controller. The actuator may include a drive screw and a motor, and may be coupled with the proximal end of the tendon and configured to apply a tension through the tendon in response to an electrical current. The motor controller may be electrically coupled with the actuator, and configured to provide an electrical current having a first amplitude to the actuator until a stall tension is achieved through the tendon; provide a pulse current to the actuator following the achievement of the stall tension, where the amplitude of the pulse current is greater than the first amplitude, and return the motor to a steady state holding current following the conclusion of the pulse current.

  16. Where tendons and ligaments meet bone: attachment sites ('entheses') in relation to exercise and\\/or mechanical load

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Benjamin; H. Toumi; J. R. Ralphs; G. Bydder; T. M. Best; S. Milz

    2006-01-01

    Entheses (insertion sites, osteotendinous junctions, osteoligamentous junctions) are sites of stress concentration at the region where tendons and ligaments attach to bone. Consequently, they are commonly subject to overuse injuries (enthesopathies) that are well documented in a number of sports. In this review, we focus on the structure- function correlations of entheses on both the hard and the soft tissue

  17. Use of a Turndown Quadriceps Tendon Flap for Rupture of the Patellar Tendon After Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Chun Lin; Jun-Wen Wang

    2007-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture is a devastating complication after total knee arthroplasty. The results of surgical treatment of this complication were discouraging in most of the reports. We describe a case of rupture of patellar tendon 7 weeks after total knee arthroplasty treated with a turndown quadriceps flap and circumferential wiring. Two years and 6 months after operation, the patient had

  18. Simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon and contralateral patellar tendon in a patient with chronic renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hasan Hilmi Muratli; Levent Çelebi; Onur Hapa; Ali Biçimo?lu

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture is rare. Mechanical factors and coexisting systemic and local factors are taken into consideration in the pathogenesis of these ruptures. In patients with some chronic systemic diseases, simultaneous rupture can occur spontaneously or with minor traumas. We present a case of simultaneous quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture in a 21-year-old man with chronic renal

  19. Recurrent patellar tendon rupture in a patient after intramedullary nailing of the tibia: reconstruction using an achilles tendon allograft.

    PubMed

    Jagow, Devin M; Garcia, Branden J; Yacoubian, Stephan V; Yacoubian, Shahan V

    2015-05-01

    Various complications after intramedullary (IM) nailing of the tibia have been reported, the most common of which are anterior knee pain and symptoms similar to patella tendonitis. Complete rupture of the patellar tendon after IM nailing of the tibia has been reported on 2 occasions, in conjunction with predisposing patient factors, such as systemic disease or a proud tibial nail. Patellar tendon ruptures are disabling injuries that can be technically difficult to repair because of the poor quality of remaining tendon tissue, quadriceps muscle atrophy and/or contracture, and scar-tissue formation. Many methods have described the surgical reconstruction of the knee extensor mechanism, which is most commonly performed after total knee arthroplasty. We report the successful surgical and clinical outcome of patellar tendon reconstruction using an Achilles tendon allograft in a patient subject to late and recurrent ruptures after IM nailing of the tibia through a mid-patellar tendon-splitting approach. Seven months after tendon reconstruction, the patient exhibited full knee flexion, an extension lag of 10º, 4/5 quadriceps strength, and return to her baseline ambulatory status. PMID:25950545

  20. Freehand resection of the patella in total knee arthroplasty referencing the attachments of the quadriceps tendon and patellar tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolph V. Lombardi; Thomas H. Mallory; Paul D. Maitino; Stephen M. Herrington; Cheryl A. Kefauver

    1998-01-01

    A freehand technique of patellar resurfacing using anatomic references was prospectively evaluated. This technique utilizes an osteotomy beginning at the inferior pole of the patella just posterior to the insertion of the patellar tendon and is carried proximally posterior to the insertion of the quadriceps tendon. Evaluation of 55 total knee arthroplasties in 41 patients showed an average restored patellar

  1. Biomechanical comparison of quadriceps tendon fixation with patellar tendon bone plug interference fixation in cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Brand; Doris Hamilton; Jeff Selby; David Pienkowski; David N. M. Caborn; Darren L. Johnson

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use current fixation techniques and compare the stiffness and ultimate tensile failure of the tendinous end of the quadriceps tendon (QT) with the bone plug end of the bone–patellar tendon–bone (BPTB) graft using current techniques of fixation. Type of Study: Randomized trial of elderly cadaver knees. Materials and Methods: Tibial and femoral

  2. Scx-Transduced Tendon-Derived Stem Cells (TDSCs) Promoted Better Tendon Repair Compared to Mock-Transduced Cells in a Rat Patellar Tendon Window Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yuk Wa; Wong, Yin Mei

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the transplantation of Scx-transduced tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) promoted better tendon repair compared to the transplantation of mock-transduced cells. This study thus aimed to investigate the effect of Scx transduction on the expression of lineage markers in TDSCs and the effect of the resulting cell line in the promotion of tendon repair. Rat non-GFP or GFP-TDSCs were transduced with Scx or empty lentiviral vector (Mock) and selected by blasticidin. The mRNA expressions of Scx and different lineage markers were examined by qRT-PCR. The effect of the transplantation of GFP-TDSC-Scx on tendon repair was then tested in a rat unilateral patellar tendon window injury model. The transplantation of GFP-TDSC-Mock and scaffold-only served as controls. At week 2, 4 and 8 post-transplantation, the repaired patellar tendon was harvested for ex vivo fluorescent imaging, vivaCT imaging, histology, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical test. GFP-TDSC-Scx consistently showed higher expressions of most of tendon- and cartilage- related markers compared to the GFP-TDSC-Mock. However, the effect of Scx transduction on the expressions of bone-related markers was inconclusive. The transplanted GFP-TDSCs could be detected in the window wound at week 2 but not at week 4. Ectopic mineralization was detected in some samples at week 8 but there was no difference among different groups. The GFP-TDSC-Scx group only statistically significantly improved tendon repair histologically and biomechanically compared to the Scaffold-only group and the GFP-TDSC-Mock group at the early stage of tendon repair. There was significant higher expression of collagen type I in the window wound in the GFP-TDSC-Scx group compared to the other two groups at week 2. The transplantation of GFP-TDSC-Scx promoted healing at the early stage of tendon repair in a rat patellar tendon window injury model. PMID:24831949

  3. Multiple tendon rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Potasman; H M Bassan

    1984-01-01

    Tendon rupture in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rare complication that appears to occur in patients receiving corticosteroid therapy. A case is presented with sequential bilateral rupture of Achilles tendon and unilateral rupture of a patellar tendon. Six more published cases are reviewed. Tendon rupture in SLE has affected both males and females between the ages of 24 and

  4. Reconstruction of a chronic quadriceps tendon tear in a body builder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Leopardi; Giovanni di Vico; Donato Rosa; Fabrizio Cigala; Nicola Maffulli

    2006-01-01

    Chronic quadriceps tendon tears are uncommon. We report about a body builder taking a cocktail of anabolic drugs for several years in whom reconstruction of a chronic quadriceps tendon tear was performed using ipsilateral hamstring tendons with good results despite the 7 month delay between injury and surgery. The use of hamstring tendons is a good option for the management of

  5. Fgf4 Positively Regulates scleraxis and Tenascin Expression in Chick Limb Tendons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frédérique Edom-Vovard; Bernadette Schuler; Marie-Ange Bonnin; Marie-Aimée Teillet; Delphine Duprez

    2002-01-01

    In vertebrates, tendons connect muscles to skeletal elements. Surgical experiments in the chick have underlined developmental interactions between tendons and muscles. Initial formation of tendons occurs autonomously with respect to muscle. However, further tendon development requires the presence of muscle. The molecular signals involved in these interactions remain unknown. In the chick limb, Fgf4 transcripts are located at the extremities

  6. Tissue engineering in flexor tendon surgery: current state and future advances.

    PubMed

    Galvez, M G; Crowe, C; Farnebo, S; Chang, J

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering of flexor tendons addresses a challenge often faced by hand surgeons: the restoration of function and improvement of healing with a limited supply of donor tendons. Creating an engineered tendon construct is dependent upon understanding the normal healing mechanisms of the tendon and tendon sheath. The production of a tendon construct includes: creating a three-dimensional scaffold; seeding cells within the scaffold; encouraging cellular growth within the scaffold while maintaining a gliding surface; and finally ensuring mechanical strength. An effective construct incorporates these factors in its design, with the ultimate goal of creating tendon substitutes that are readily available to the reconstructive hand surgeon. PMID:24262584

  7. Ablating hedgehog signaling in tenocytes during development impairs biomechanics and matrix organization of the adult murine patellar tendon enthesis.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Andrew P; Aschbacher-Smith, Lindsey; Lu, Yinhui; Dyment, Nathaniel A; Liu, Chia-Feng; Liu, Han; Wylie, Chris; Rao, Marepalli; Shearn, Jason T; Rowe, David W; Kadler, Karl E; Jiang, Rulang; Butler, David L

    2015-08-01

    Restoring the native structure of the tendon enthesis, where collagen fibers of the midsubstance are integrated within a fibrocartilaginous structure, is problematic following injury. As current surgical methods fail to restore this region adequately, engineers, biologists, and clinicians are working to understand how this structure forms as a prerequisite to improving repair outcomes. We recently reported on the role of Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a novel enthesis marker, in regulating early postnatal enthesis formation. Here, we investigate how inactivating the Hh pathway in tendon cells affects adult (12-week) murine patellar tendon (PT) enthesis mechanics, fibrocartilage morphology, and collagen fiber organization. We show that ablating Hh signaling resulted in greater than 100% increased failure insertion strain (0.10?v. 0.05?mm/mm, p<0.01) as well as sub-failure biomechanical deficiencies. Although collagen fiber orientation appears overtly normal in the midsubstance, ablating Hh signaling reduces mineralized fibrocartilage by 32%, leading to less collagen embedded within mineralized tissue. Ablating Hh signaling also caused collagen fibers to coalesce at the insertion, which may explain in part the increased strains. These results indicate that Ihh signaling plays a critical role in the mineralization process of fibrocartilaginous entheses and may be a novel therapeutic to promote tendon-to-bone healing. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1142-1151, 2015. PMID:25807894

  8. Incorporating plasticity of the interfibrillar matrix in shear lag models is necessary to replicate the multiscale mechanics of tendon fascicles.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Elliott, Dawn M

    2014-12-01

    Despite current knowledge of tendon structure, the fundamental deformation mechanisms underlying tendon mechanics and failure are unknown. We recently showed that a shear lag model, which explicitly assumed plastic interfibrillar load transfer between discontinuous fibrils, could explain the multiscale fascicle mechanics, suggesting that fascicle yielding is due to plastic deformation of the interfibrillar matrix. However, it is unclear whether alternative physical mechanisms, such as elastic interfibrillar deformation or fibril yielding, also contribute to fascicle mechanical behavior. The objective of the current work was to determine if plasticity of the interfibrillar matrix is uniquely capable of explaining the multiscale mechanics of tendon fascicles including the tissue post-yield behavior. This was examined by comparing the predictions of a continuous fibril model and three separate shear lag models incorporating an elastic, plastic, or elastoplastic interfibrillar matrix with multiscale experimental data. The predicted effects of fibril yielding on each of these models were also considered. The results demonstrated that neither the continuous fibril model nor the elastic shear lag model can successfully predict the experimental data, even if fibril yielding is included. Only the plastic or elastoplastic shear lag models were capable of reproducing the multiscale tendon fascicle mechanics. Differences between these two models were small, although the elastoplastic model did improve the fit of the experimental data at low applied tissue strains. These findings suggest that while interfibrillar elasticity contributes to the initial stress response, plastic deformation of the interfibrillar matrix is responsible for tendon fascicle post-yield behavior. This information sheds light on the physical processes underlying tendon failure, which is essential to improve our understanding of tissue pathology and guide the development of successful repair. PMID:25262202

  9. Deficits 10-years after Achilles tendon repair.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, T; Lukas, C; Merk, J; Brauner, T; Mündermann, A

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term impact of surgical repair and subsequent 6-week immobilization of an Achilles tendon rupture on muscle strength, muscle strength endurance and muscle activity. 63 patients participated in this study on average 10.8 ± 3.4 years after surgically repaired Achilles tendon rupture and short-term immobilization. Clinical function was assessed and muscle strength, strength endurance and muscle activity were measured using a dynamometer and electromyography. Ankle ROM, heel height during heel-raise tests and calf circumference were smaller on the injured than on the contralateral side. Ankle torques during the concentric dorsiflexion tasks at 60 °/sec and 180 °/sec and ankle torques during the eccentric plantarflexion task and during the concentric plantarflexion task at 60 °/sec for the injured leg were significantly lower than those for the contralateral leg. The total work during a plantarflexion exercise at 180 °/sec was 14.9% lower in the injured compared to the contralateral leg (p < 0.001). Muscle activity for the gastrocnemius muscle during dorsiflexion tasks was significantly higher in the injured than in the contralateral limb. Limited ankle joint ROM and increased muscle activity in the injured leg suggest compensatory mechanisms to account for differences in muscle morphology and physiology caused by the injury. PMID:22499571

  10. A new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Mahmoud Reda

    The objective of the work described in this thesis is to design, develop and test a new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons. The use of a non-metallic anchorage system should eliminate corrosion and deterioration concerns in the anchorage zone. The development of a reliable non-metallic anchorage would provide an important contribution to this field of knowledge. The idea of the new anchorage is to hold the tendon through mechanical gripping. The anchorage consists of a barrel with a conical housing and four wedges. The anchorage components are made of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) specially developed for the anchorage. Sixteen concrete mixtures with different casting and curing regimes were examined to develop four UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa. The UHPC mixtures showed very dense microstructures with some unique characteristics. To enhance the fracture toughness of the newly developed UHPC, analytical and experimental analyses were performed. Using 3 mm chopped carbon fibres, a significant increase in the fracture toughness of UHPC was achieved. The non-metallic anchorage was developed with the UHPC with enhanced fracture toughness. The barrel required careful wrapping with CFRP sheets to provide the confinement required to utilize the strength and toughness of the UHPC. Thirty-three anchorages were tested under both static and dynamic loading conditions. The non-metallic anchorage showed excellent mechanical performance and fulfilled the different requirements of a post-tensioning anchorage system. The development of the new non-metallic anchorage will widen the inclusion of CFRP tendons in post-tensioned concrete/masonry structures. The new system will offer the opportunity to exploit CFRP tendons effectively creating an innovative generation of corrosion-free, smart structures.

  11. Femoral Press-Fit Fixation of the Hamstring Tendons for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jagodzinski; Vahid Behfar; Christof Hurschler; Knut Albrecht; Christian Krettek; Ulrich Bosch

    2004-01-01

    Background: Press-fit fixation of patellar tendon–bone anterior cruciate ligament autografts is an interesting technique because no hardware is necessary. For hamstring tendon grafts, no biomechanical data exist of a press-fit procedure.Hypothesis: Press-fit femoral fixation of hamstring tendons is mechanically equivalent to press-fit patellar tendon–bone fixation.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Patellar and hamstring tendons of 30 human cadavers (age, 53.8 ±

  12. Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon Tension during Finger Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Tatsuro; Amadio, Peter C.; Zhao, Chunfeng; Zobitz, Mark E.; An, Kai-Nan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tension in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon in zone II and the digit angle during joint manipulations that replicate rehabilitation protocols. Eight FDP tendons from eight human cadavers were used in this study. The dynamic tension in zone II of the tendon and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint angle were measured in various wrist and digit positions. Tension in the FDP tendon increased with MCP joint extension. There was no tension with the finger fully flexed and wrist extended (synergistic motion), but the tendon force reached 1.77 ± 0.43 N with the MCP joint hyperextended 45 degrees with the distal interphalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints flexed. The combination of wrist extension and MCP joint hyperextension with the distal interphalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints fully flexed, what the authors term ‘‘modified synergistic motion,’’ produced a modest tendon tension and may be a useful alternative configuration to normal synergistic motion in tendon rehabilitation. PMID:16059854

  13. Temporal Healing in Rat Achilles Tendon: Ultrasound Correlations

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Connie S.; Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah E.; Okotie, Gregory; Brounts, Sabrina H.; Baer, Geoffrey S.; Vanderby, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether a new ultrasound-based technique correlates with mechanical and biological metrics that describe the tendon healing. Achilles tendons in 32 rats were unilaterally transected and allowed to heal without repair. At 7, 9, 14, or 29 days post-injury, tendons were collected and examined for healing via ultrasound image analysis, mechanical testing, and immunohistochemistry. Consistent with previous studies, we observe that the healing tendons are mechanically inferior (ultimate stress, ultimate load, and normalized stiffness) and biologically altered (cellular and ECM factors) compared to contralateral controls with an incomplete recovery over healing time. Unique to this study, we report: 1) Echo intensity (defined by gray-scale brightness in the ultrasound image) in the healing tissue is related to stress and normalized stiffness. 2) Elongation to failure is relatively constant so that tissue normalized stiffness is linearly correlated with ultimate stress. Together, 1 and 2 suggest a method to quantify mechanical compromise in healing tendons. 3) The amount and type of collagen in healing tendons associates with their strength and normalized stiffness as well as their ultrasound echo intensity. 4) A significant increase of periostin in the healing tissues suggests an important but unexplored role for this ECM protein in tendon healing. PMID:23149902

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of mouse limb tendon cells during development.

    PubMed

    Havis, Emmanuelle; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Olivera-Martinez, Isabel; Nazaret, Nicolas; Ruggiu, Mathilde; Weibel, Jennifer; Durand, Charles; Guerquin, Marie-Justine; Bonod-Bidaud, Christelle; Ruggiero, Florence; Schweitzer, Ronen; Duprez, Delphine

    2014-10-01

    The molecular signals driving tendon development are not fully identified. We have undertaken a transcriptome analysis of mouse limb tendon cells that were isolated at different stages of development based on scleraxis (Scx) expression. Microarray comparisons allowed us to establish a list of genes regulated in tendon cells during mouse limb development. Bioinformatics analysis of the tendon transcriptome showed that the two most strongly modified signalling pathways were TGF-? and MAPK. TGF-?/SMAD2/3 gain- and loss-of-function experiments in mouse limb explants and mesenchymal stem cells showed that TGF-? signalling was sufficient and required via SMAD2/3 to drive mouse mesodermal stem cells towards the tendon lineage ex vivo and in vitro. TGF-? was also sufficient for tendon gene expression in late limb explants during tendon differentiation. FGF does not have a tenogenic effect and the inhibition of the ERK MAPK signalling pathway was sufficient to activate Scx in mouse limb mesodermal progenitors and mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:25249460

  15. Preferential tendon stem cell response to growth factor supplementation.

    PubMed

    Holladay, Carolyn; Abbah, Sunny-Akogwu; O'Dowd, Colm; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2014-01-29

    Tendon injuries are increasingly prevalent around the world, accounting for more than 100 000 new clinical cases/year in the USA alone. Cell-based therapies have been proposed as a therapeutic strategy, with recent data advocating the use of tendon stem cells (TSCs) as a potential cell source with clinical relevance for tendon regeneration. However, their in vitro expansion is problematic, as they lose their multipotency and change their protein expression profile in culture. Herein, we ventured to assess the influence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF?1) supplementation in TSC culture. IGF-1 preserved multipotency for up to 28?days. Upregulation of decorin and scleraxis expression was observed as compared to freshly isolated cells. GDF-5 treated cells exhibited reduced differentiation along adipogenic and chondrogenic pathways after 28?days, and decorin, scleraxis and collagen type I expression was increased. After 28?days, TGF?1 supplementation led to increased scleraxis, osteonectin and collagen type II expression. The varied responses to each growth factor may reflect their role in tendon repair, suggesting that: GDF-5 promotes the transition of tendon stem cells towards tenocytes; TGF?1 induces differentiation along several pathways, including a phenotype indicative of fibrocartilage or calcified tendon, common problems in tendon healing; and IGF-1 promotes proliferation and maintenance of TSC phenotypes, thereby creating a population sufficient to have a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24474722

  16. Current Concepts in Examination and Treatment of Elbow Tendon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ellenbecker, Todd S.; Nirschl, Robert; Renstrom, Per

    2013-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the tendons of the elbow occur frequently in the overhead athlete, creating a significant loss of function and dilemma to sports medicine professionals. A detailed review of the anatomy, etiology, and pathophysiology of tendon injury coupled with comprehensive evaluation and treatment information is needed for clinicians to optimally design treatment programs for rehabilitation and prevention. Evidence Acquisitions: The PubMed database was searched in January 2012 for English-language articles pertaining to elbow tendon injury. Results: Detailed information on tendon pathophysiology was found along with incidence of elbow injury in overhead athletes. Several evidence-based reviews were identified, providing a thorough review of the recommended rehabilitation for elbow tendon injury. Conclusions: Humeral epicondylitis is an extra-articular tendon injury that is common in athletes subjected to repetitive upper extremity loading. Research is limited on the identification of treatment modalities that can reduce pain and restore function to the elbow. Eccentric exercise has been studied in several investigations and, when coupled with a complete upper extremity strengthening program, can produce positive results in patients with elbow tendon injury. Further research is needed in high-level study to delineate optimal treatment methods. PMID:24427389

  17. Tendon Basic Science: Development, Repair, Regeneration, and Healing

    PubMed Central

    Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Flatow, Evan L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Tendinopathy and tendon rupture are common and disabling musculoskeletal conditions. Despite the prevalence of these injuries, a limited number of investigators are conducting fundamental, basic science studies focused on understanding processes governing tendinopathies and tendon healing. Development of effective therapeutics is hindered by the lack of fundamental guiding data on the biology of tendon development, signal transduction, mechanotransduction, and basic mechanisms underlying tendon pathogenesis and healing. To propel much needed progress, the New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference, co-sponsored by NIAMS/NIH, the Orthopaedic Research Society, and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, was held to promote exchange of ideas between tendon researchers and basic science experts from outside the tendon field. Discussed research areas that are underdeveloped and represent major hurdles to the progress of the field will be presented in this review. To address some of these outstanding questions, conference discussions and breakout sessions focused on six topic areas (Cell Biology and Mechanics, Functional Extracellular Matrix, Development, Mechano-biology, Scarless Healing, and Mechanisms of Injury and Repair), which are reviewed in this special issue and briefly presented in this review. Review articles in this special issue summarize the progress in the field and identify essential new research directions. PMID:25764524

  18. Endoscopic Resection of Lipoma of the Patellar Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing; Lee, Man Wai

    2015-01-01

    Synovial lipoma of the patellar tendon is a very rare entity. It can be associated with rupture of the patellar tendon. We present a case of synovial lipoma that was successfully resected endoscopically. The other indications for patellar tendoscopy include chronic patellar tendinitis and tendinosis, recalcitrant bursitis around the tendon, Osgood-Schlatter disease, and jumper's knee. The major potential danger of this endoscopic procedure is iatrogenic damage to the patellar insertion during endoscopic debridement in patients with jumper's knee or the tibial insertion during endoscopic debridement in patients with Osgood-Schlatter disease. PMID:25973368

  19. Tendon transfers in the treatment of the adult flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Backus, Jonathon D; McCormick, Jeremy J

    2014-03-01

    Tendon transfers are critical to successful surgical correction of adult flexible flatfoot deformity and may be beneficial in correcting rigid deformities as well. Patients with refractory stage I and II deformities often require selective osteotomies in addition to tendon transfer. Patients with stage III and IV deformities typically require hindfoot arthrodesis. One of several tendons can be used for transfer based on surgeon's preference. Flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and flexor hallucis longus (FHL) transfers have been shown to have good results. A peroneus brevis transfer is typically used to supplement small FDL or FHL transfer donors or in revision cases. PMID:24548507

  20. Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction in the adult: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Stein, Benjamin E; Schon, Lew C

    2015-01-01

    The management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction in adults has evolved substantially, and controversy persists regarding a specific recommended algorithm for treatment. The current focus is on early diagnosis and treatment of this disorder with joint-sparing surgeries, such as corrective osteotomies and tendon transfers, when nonsurgical modalities have been exhausted. It is helpful to be familiar with the pertinent pathophysiology and diagnostic pearls associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, its treatment options, pertinent literature, and technique tips for the procedures currently being used. PMID:25745927

  1. Low-Magnitude, High-Frequency Vibration Fails to Accelerate Ligament Healing but Stimulates Collagen Synthesis in the Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, William R.; Keller, Benjamin V.; Davis, Matthew L.; Dahners, Laurence E.; Weinhold, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration accelerates fracture and wound healing and prevents disuse atrophy in musculoskeletal tissues. Purpose To investigate the role of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration as a treatment to accelerate healing of an acute ligament injury and to examine gene expression in the intact Achilles tendon of the injured limb after low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Complete surgical transection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) was performed in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into control and low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration groups. Low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration started on postoperative day 2, and rats received vibration for 30 minutes a day for 12 days. All rats were sacrificed 2 weeks after the operation, and their intact and injured MCLs were biomechanically tested or used for histological analysis. Intact Achilles tendons from the injured limb were evaluated for differences in gene expression. Results Mechanical testing revealed no differences in the ultimate tensile load or the structural stiffness between the control and vibration groups for either the injured or intact MCL. Vibration exposure increased gene expression of collagen 1 alpha (3-fold), interleukin 6 (7-fold), cyclooxygenase 2 (5-fold), and bone morphogenetic protein 12 (4-fold) in the intact Achilles tendon when compared with control tendons (P < .05). Conclusion While no differences were observed in the mechanical or histological properties of the fully transected MCL after low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration treatment, significant enhancements in gene expression were observed in the intact Achilles tendon. These included collagen, several inflammatory cytokines, and growth factors critical for tendons. Clinical Relevance As low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration had no negative effects on ligament healing, vibration therapy may be a useful tool to accelerate healing of other tissues (bone) in multitrauma injuries without inhibiting ligament healing. Additionally, the enhanced gene expression in response to low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration in the intact Achilles tendon suggests the need to further study its potential to accelerate tendon healing in partial injury or repair models. PMID:26086026

  2. The long head of the biceps tendon is a suitable cell source for tendon tissue regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Pietschmann, Matthias F.; Gülecyüz, Mehmet F.; Ficklscherer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Müller, Peter E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tendon tissue engineering (TTE) tries to produce tendinous tissue of high quality to replace dysfunctional tissue. One possible application of TTE might be the replacement of ruptured tissue of the rotator cuff. Autologous tenocytes seem to be most suitable as no differentiation in vitro is necessary. Today it is still uncertain if there is a difference between tendon-derived cells (TDC) of different native tissues. Moreover, the search for suitable scaffolds is another important issue in TTE. Material and methods This study compared TDC of the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB), the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the tendon of the musculus semitendinosus (TMS). The TDC were isolated using the cell migration method. Cell morphology was assessed using light microscopy and gene expression was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Afterwards, cell seeding efficiency and proliferation were tested on a collagen I scaffold using the WST-1 assay. Results were confirmed using H + E staining. Results The TDC of the LHB showed higher expression levels of collagen type I and decorin (p < 0.01) compared to TDC of other origin. Results showed efficient cell seeding and proliferation within the scaffold. Proliferation within the scaffold was not as high as when cells were cultivated without a scaffold. Conclusions The TDC of the LHB seems to be the most suitable cell source. Further research is necessary to find out if the results can be transferred to an in vivo model. The new collagen I scaffold seems to offer an opportunity to combine good biocompatibility and mechanical strength. PMID:25097592

  3. Technical tips: reconstruction of deep and superficial deltoid ligaments by peroneus longus tendon in stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lui, T H

    2014-12-01

    The deltoid ligament is composed of the superficial and deep layers. Disruption of the deltoid ligament can occur in rotational ankle fracture, chronic ankle instability, or stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Correcting valgus tilt at the time of flatfoot reconstruction in case of stage 4 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction may prevent future collapse and the need for ankle arthrodesis or possibly ankle arthroplasty. We describe a technique of reconstruction of both the superficial and deep deltoid ligaments by peroneus longus tendon. PMID:25457670

  4. Human multipotent mesenchymal stem cells improve healing after collagenase tendon injury in the rat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells attract much interest in tissue regeneration because of their capacity to differentiate into mesodermal origin cells, their paracrine properties and their possible use in autologous transplantations. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and reparative potential of implanted human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), prepared under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions utilizing human mixed platelet lysate as a culture supplement, in a collagenase Achilles tendon injury model in rats. Methods Eighty-one rats with collagenase-induced injury were divided into two groups. The first group received human mesenchymal stromal cells injected into the site of injury 3 days after lesion induction, while the second group received saline. Biomechanical testing, morphometry and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry of collagens I, II and III, versican and aggrecan, neovascularization, and hMSC survival were performed 2, 4, and 6 weeks after injury. Results Human mesenchymal stromal cell-treated rats had a significantly better extracellular matrix structure and a larger amount of collagen I and collagen III. Neovascularization was also increased in hMSC-treated rats 2 and 4 weeks after tendon injury. MTCO2 (Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II) positivity confirmed the presence of hMSCs 2, 4 and 6 weeks after transplantation. Collagen II deposits and alizarin red staining for bone were found in 6 hMSC- and 2 saline-treated tendons 6 weeks after injury. The intensity of anti-versican and anti-aggrecan staining did not differ between the groups. Conclusions hMSCs can support tendon healing through better vascularization as well as through larger deposits and better organization of the extracellular matrix. The treatment procedure was found to be safe; however, cartilage and bone formation at the implantation site should be taken into account when planning subsequent in vivo and clinical trials on tendinopathy as an expected adverse event. PMID:24712305

  5. Effects of different duration isometric contractions on tendon elasticity in human quadriceps muscles

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2001-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of isometric training protocols with long- and short-duration contractions on the elasticity of human tendon structures in vivo. The elasticity was assessed through in vivo determination of the elongation (L) of the tendons and aponeuroses using ultrasonography, while the subjects performed ramp isometric exercise up to maximum voluntary contraction (MVC).Eight young males completed 12 weeks (4 days per week) of a unilateral isometric training programme on knee extensors, which consisted of two different combinations of contraction and relaxation times at 70 % MVC: one leg was trained using a short-duration protocol (3 sets of 50 repetitions of contraction for 1 s and relaxation for 2 s), and the other leg was trained using a long-duration protocol (4 sets of a combination of contraction for 20 s and relaxation for 1 min). The training volume per session, expressed as the integrated torque, was the same for the two protocols.Both protocols resulted in a significant increase in MVC: 31.8 ± 17.2 % for the short-duration protocol and 33.9 ± 14.4 % for the long-duration protocol. Moreover, the training produced significant increases in the muscle volume of the constituents of the quadriceps femoris, with similar relative gains for the two protocols: 7.4 ± 3.9 % for the short-duration protocol and 7.6 ± 4.3 % for the long-duration protocol.The short-duration protocol produced no significant change in L values at any of the force production levels. For the long-duration protocol, however, the L values above 550 N were significantly shorter after training. Analysis revealed that the group × test time interaction effect on tendon stiffness was significant. Stiffness increased significantly for the long-duration protocol, but not for the short-duration protocol.The present study demonstrates a greater increase in stiffness of human tendon structures following isometric training using longer duration contractions compared to shorter contractions. This suggests that the changes in the elasticity of the tendon structures after resistance training may be affected by the duration of muscle contraction. PMID:11600697

  6. The effect of flexor tendon repair bulk on tendon gliding during simulated active motion: An in vitro comparison of two-strand and six-strand techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W Sanders; Andrew D Milne; James A Johnson; Cynthia E Dunning; Robert S Richards; Graham J. W King

    2001-01-01

    The gliding function of 2-strand (Tajima) and 6-strand (Savage) techniques of flexor tendon repair were compared in an in vitro biomechanical model. Stainless steel beads were inserted directly into the metacarpals, phalanges, and flexor digitorum profundus tendons of 22 human cadaver specimens. The FDP tendons were loaded from 5 to 25 N using a pneumatic actuator. The angular rotation and

  7. [Neglected ipsilateral simultaneous ruptures of patellar and quadriceps tendon].

    PubMed

    Karahasano?lu, ?lker; Yolo?lu, Osman; Kerimo?lu, Servet; Turhan, Ahmet U?ur

    2015-01-01

    Neglected patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare injury, but ipsilateral simultaneous patellar and quadriceps tendon rupture was not described in the literature to our knowledge. In this article, we report a 40-year-old healthy male patient with neglected ipsilateral patellar and quadriceps tendon ruptures treated by peroneus longus tendon autograft. Patient had received some conservative and surgical treatments for patellar fracture before applying to our clinic. After our treatment using peroneus longus autograft and interference nails, patient was immobilized for six weeks in cylindrical cast. Flexion exercises and full weight bearing were started after cast removal. Patient had no complaint at postoperative second year. Patient was a neglected case. Surgical repair and early rehabilitation enabled us to achieve a satisfactory outcome. PMID:25741921

  8. Editorial Commentary: Hamstring Tendon Regeneration After Autograft Harvest.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-06-01

    While radiographic and histologic data show features of hamstring tendon regeneration after harvest for ligament reconstruction, we remain skeptical that hamstring regeneration is clinically meaningful. We cannot recommend reharvest for revision surgery. PMID:26048767

  9. Open repair of retracted latissimus dorsi tendon avulsion.

    PubMed

    Ellman, Michael B; Yanke, Adam; Juhan, Tristan; Verma, Nikhil N; Nicholson, Gregory P; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Romeo, Anthony A

    2013-06-01

    Latissimus dorsi avulsion injuries are rarely reported in the literature and are managed with a variety of strategies. Primary anatomical repair of tendon to bone may offer athletes the best chance for successful return to sports. In this article, we describe a surgical technique for safely repairing an acute or chronic, retracted, avulsed latissimus tendon back to its insertion on the medial aspect of the bicipital groove of the proximal humerus. Using 1 low anterior axillary incision and 1 posterior axillary incision for tendon retrieval when retraction is more than 5 cm, this technique allows for direct anatomical repair of a retracted tendon to bone using 3 points of bony fixation supplemented by soft-tissue repair. The technique also minimizes the risks for neurovascular compromise and cosmetic deformity, while decreasing the risk for postinjury strength deficits. PMID:23805423

  10. Management of chronic ruptures of the Achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Maffulli, Nicola; Ajis, Adam

    2008-06-01

    Chronic ruptures of Achilles tendons are those that present four to six weeks after the original injury. They have become more common as acute Achilles tendon injuries have become more frequent, and they are associated with considerable functional morbidity. Most surgeons agree that chronic ruptures should be managed operatively. Diagnosis is based predominantly on history and clinical examination. Real-time, high-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful in preoperative planning or as a diagnostic aid. Local tissue, local tendons, and allografts can be used to reconstruct the tendon, and end-to-end repair is possible if the gap is <2.5 cm. Compared with acute injuries, chronic injuries are associated with a higher rate of postoperative infection and more prolonged recovery. PMID:18519331

  11. Nonlinear optical imaging characteristics in rat tail tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N. R.; Zhang, X. Z.; Qiu, Y. S.; Chen, R.

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of skeletal muscle fibers in tail tendons, explore the content of intrinsic components at different depths and ascertain the optimum excitation wavelength, which will help to establish a relationship between diagnosis and therapy and the tendon injury. A multiphoton microscopic imaging system was used to achieve the images and spectra via an imaging mode and a Lambda mode, respectively. This work demonstrates that the skeletal muscle fibers of the tail tendon are in good order. Second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signals originating from certain intrinsic components are varied with depth, and the SHG/TPEF intensity ratios are varied at different excitation wavelengths. Below 800 nm is the optimum for cell TPEF, while above 800 nm is the optimum for SHG. With the development of imaging techniques, a nonlinear optical imaging system will be helpful to represent the functional behaviors of tissue related to tendon injury.

  12. Direct Repair without Augmentation of Patellar Tendon Avulsion following TKA

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nishikant; Yadav, Chandrashekhar; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Complications involving the extensor mechanism after TKA are potentially disastrous. We are reporting a case of patellar tendon rupture from tibial tuberosity following total knee arthroplasty. We managed it by direct repair with fiberwire using Krackow suture technique without augmentation. Our long term result has been very encouraging. Our method is a safe and better method of management of patellar tendon avulsion following TKA when it happens without any tissue loss. PMID:25632362

  13. Fibrocartilage in tendons and ligaments — an adaptation to compressive load

    PubMed Central

    BENJAMIN, M.; RALPHS, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Where tendons and ligaments are subject to compression, they are frequently fibrocartilaginous. This occurs at 2 principal sites: where tendons (and sometimes ligaments) wrap around bony or fibrous pulleys, and in the region where they attach to bone, i.e. at their entheses. Wrap-around tendons are most characteristic of the limbs and are commonly wider at their point of bony contact so that the pressure is reduced. The most fibrocartilaginous tendons are heavily loaded and permanently bent around their pulleys. There is often pronounced interweaving of collagen fibres that prevents the tendons from splaying apart under compression. The fibrocartilage can be located within fascicles, or in endo- or epitenon (where it may protect blood vessels from compression or allow fascicles to slide). Fibrocartilage cells are commonly packed with intermediate filaments which could be involved in transducing mechanical load. The ECM often contains aggrecan which allows the tendon to imbibe water and withstand compression. Type II collagen may also be present, particularly in tendons that are heavily loaded. Fibrocartilage is a dynamic tissue that disappears when the tendons are rerouted surgically and can be maintained in vitro when discs of tendon are compressed. Finite element analyses provide a good correlation between its distribution and levels of compressive stress, but at some locations fibrocartilage is a sign of pathology. Enthesis fibrocartilage is most typical of tendons or ligaments that attach to the epiphyses of long bones where it may also be accompanied by sesamoid and periosteal fibrocartilages. It is characteristic of sites where the angle of attachment changes throughout the range of joint movement and it reduces wear and tear by dissipating stress concentration at the bony interface. There is a good correlation between the distribution of fibrocartilage within an enthesis and the levels of compressive stress. The complex interlocking between calcified fibrocartilage and bone contributes to the mechanical strength of the enthesis and cartilage-like molecules (e.g. aggrecan and type II collagen) in the ECM contribute to its ability to withstand compression. Pathological changes are common and are known as enthesopathies. PMID:10029181

  14. Actin cytoskeleton contributes to the elastic modulus of embryonic tendon during early development.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Nathan R; von Flotow, Friedrich; Tochka, Zachary L; Hockaday, Laura A; Marturano, Joseph E; Thibodeau, Jeffrey J; Kuo, Catherine K

    2015-06-01

    Tendon injuries are common and heal poorly. Strategies to regenerate or replace injured tendons are challenged by an incomplete understanding of normal tendon development. Our previous study showed that embryonic tendon elastic modulus increases as a function of developmental stage. Inhibition of enzymatic collagen crosslink formation abrogated increases in tendon elastic modulus at late developmental stages, but did not affect increases in elastic modulus of early stage embryonic tendons. Here, we aimed to identify potential contributors to the mechanical properties of these early stage embryonic tendons. We characterized tendon progenitor cells in early stage embryonic tendons, and the influence of actin cytoskeleton disruption on tissue elastic modulus. Cells were closely packed in embryonic tendons, and did not change in density during early development. We observed an organized network of actin filaments that seemed contiguous between adjacent cells. The actin filaments exhibited a crimp pattern with a period and amplitude that matched the crimp of collagen fibers at each developmental stage. Chemical disruption of the actin cytoskeleton decreased tendon tissue elastic modulus, measured by atomic force microscopy. Our results demonstrate that early developmental stage embryonic tendons possess a well organized actin cytoskeleton network that contributes significantly to tendon tissue mechanical properties. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:874-881, 2015. PMID:25721681

  15. Repopulation of Intrasynovial Flexor Tendon Allograft with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: An Ex Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Amadio, Peter C.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Delayed healing is a common problem whenever tendon allografts are used for tendon or ligament reconstruction. Repopulating the allograft with host cells may accelerate tendon regeneration, but cell penetration into the allograft tendon is limited. Processing the tendon surface with slits that guide cells into the allograft substrate may improve healing. The purpose of this study was to describe a surface modification of allograft tendon that includes slits to aid cell repopulation and lubrication to enhance tendon gliding. Methods: Canine flexor digitorum profundus tendons were used for this study. Cyclic gliding resistance was measured over 1000 cycles. Tensile stiffness was assessed for normal tendon, tendon decellularized with trypsin and Triton X-100 (decellularized group), tendon decellularized and perforated with multiple slits (MS group) and tendon decellularized, perforated with slits and treated with a carbodiimide-derivatized hyaluronic acid and gelatin (cd-HA-gelatin) surface modification (MS-SM group). To assess tendon repopulation, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used in the decellularized and MS groups. DNA concentration and histology were evaluated and compared to normal tendons and nonseeded decellularized tendons. Results: The gliding resistance of the decellularized and MS groups was significantly higher compared with the normal group. There was no significant difference in gliding resistance between the decellularized and MS group. Gliding resistance of the normal group and MS-SM group was not significantly different. The Young's modulus was not significantly different among the four groups. The DNA concentration in the MS group was significantly lower than in normal tendons, but significantly higher than in decellularized tendons, with or without BMSCs. Viable BMSCs were found in the slits after 2 weeks in tissue culture. Conclusions: Tendon slits can successfully harbor BMSCs without compromising their survival and without changing tendon stiffness. Surface modification restores normal gliding function to the slit tendon. Clinical Relevance: A multislit tendon reseeded with BMSCs, with a surface treatment applied to restore gliding properties, may potentially promote tendon revitalization and accelerate healing for tendon or ligament reconstruction applications. PMID:24024566

  16. Effects of Therapeutic Physical Agents on Achilles Tendon Microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Ping; Chiang, Hongsen; Shih, Kao-Shang; Ma, Hsiao-Li; Lin, Leou-Chyr; Hsu, Wei-Li; Huang, Yung-Cheng; Wang, Hsing-Kuo

    2015-07-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives To measure Achilles tendon microcirculation (total hemoglobin [THb] and oxygen saturation [StO2]) before and after the application of a physical agent in asymptomatic participants, and to compare differences between application location and physical agent dosage. Background Tendon microcirculation can be altered by superficial heating or cryotherapy. Methods Fifty-one healthy adults (median age, 22 years; range, 20-34 years) were recruited and randomly assigned into 1 of 4 groups. Participants in each group received an intervention consisting of 1 of the following 4 physical agents: ultrasound (n = 12), interferential current (n = 14), low-level laser (n = 11), or vibration massage (n = 14). In each group, the selected intervention was applied at 2 different doses (ultrasound, 0.8 or 1.2 W/cm(2); laser, 5.4 or 18 J) or target locations (vibration and electrostimulation, calf muscle or Achilles tendon). For each participant, each dose or target location was randomly applied to 1 randomly selected lower leg (each leg receiving only 1 of the 2 options). Results The StO2 values significantly increased after ultrasound at both doses (P<.008), and the THb value significantly increased for the higher dose only (P<.008). Both THb and StO2 values also significantly increased in response to vibration massage targeting the Achilles tendon (P<.008), and these values were greater than those resulting from the vibration massage applied to the calf muscle (P = .003 and .002, respectively). No significant THb and StO2 differences were found after the application of interferential current or low-level laser. Conclusion Tendon microcirculation increases after ultrasound and vibration massage intervention concentrated on the Achilles tendon. These modalities may be considered for the purpose of temporarily increasing microcirculation in the tendon. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(7):563-569. Epub 3 Jun 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5681. PMID:26039223

  17. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessment of tissue properties for Achilles tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Chen, Pei-Jarn; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chen, Tainsong; Lin, Chii-Jeng

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) techniques have recently been widely applied for the characterization of tissues. For example, they can be used for the quantification of Achilles tendon properties based on the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and the speed of sound (SOS) when the ultrasound wave passes through the tissues. This study is to develop an integrated system to investigate the properties of Achilles tendons using QUS images from UBIS 5000 (DMS, Montpellier, France) and B-mode ultrasound images from HDI 5000 (ATL, Ultramark, USA). Subjects including young (32 females and 17 males; mean age: 23.7 ± 2.0) and middle-aged groups (8 female and 8 males; mean age: 47.3 ± 8.5 s) were recruited and tested for this study. Only subjects who did not exercise regularly and had no record of tendon injury were studied. The results show that the BUA is significantly higher for the young group (45.2 ± 1.6 dB MHz-1) than the middle-age group (40.5 ± 1.9 dB MHz-1), while the SOS is significantly lower for the young (1601.9 ± 11.2 ms-1) compared to the middle-aged (1624.1 ± 8.7 m s-1). On the other hand, the thicknesses of Achilles tendons for both groups (young: 4.31 ± 0.23 mm; middle age: 4.24 ± 0.23 mm) are very similar. For one patient who had an Achilles tendon lengthening (ATL) surgery, the thickness of the Achilles tendon increased from 4 mm to 4.33 mm after the surgery. In addition, the BUA increased by about 7.2% while the SOS decreased by about 0.6%. In conclusion, noninvasive ultrasonic assessment of Achilles tendons is useful for assisting clinical diagnosis and for the evaluation of a therapeutic regimen.

  18. Insidious bilateral infrapatellar tendon rupture in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L M Cooney; J M Aversa; J H Newman

    1980-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus developed insidious bilateral infrapatellar tendon rupture initially diagnosed as steroid myopathy. Simultaneous loss of extension at the knee due to quadriceps or infrapatellar tendon ruptures is reviewed.

  19. Insidious bilateral infrapatellar tendon rupture in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, L M; Aversa, J M; Newman, J H

    1980-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus developed insidious bilateral infrapatellar tendon rupture initially diagnosed as steroid myopathy. Simultaneous loss of extension at the knee due to quadriceps or infrapatellar tendon ruptures is reviewed. Images PMID:7458438

  20. Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Tendonitis or Bursitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-08-05

    Rotator Cuff Tendonitis; Bicipital Tendonitis; Subdeltoid Bursitis of the Shoulder; Subacromial Bursitis of the Shoulder; Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow; Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow; DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis of the Wrist

  1. Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Jan Paul; Becker, Stéphanie JE; Oosterhoff, Thijs CH; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS) is often thought of as a volar finger mass. We hypothesized that GCTTS are equally common on the dorsal and volar aspects of the hand. In addition, we hypothesized that there are no factors associated with the location (volar versus dorsal) and largest measured dimension of a GCTTS. Methods: A total of 126 patients with a pathological diagnosis of a GCTTS of the hand or finger were reviewed. Basic demographic and GCTTS specific information was obtained. Bivariable analyses were used to assess predicting factors for location (volar or dorsal side) and largest measured diameter of a GCTTS. Results: Seventy-two tumors (57%) were on the volar side of the hand, 47 (37%) were dorsal, 6 (4.8%) were both dorsal and volar, and one was midaxial (0.79%). The most common site of a GCTTS was the index finger (30%). There were no factors significantly associated with the location (volar or dorsal, n=119) of the GCTTS. There were also no factors significantly associated with a larger diameter of a GCTTS. Conclusions: A GCTTS was more frequently seen on the volar aspect of the hand. No significant factors associated with the location or an increased size of a GCTTS were found in this study. PMID:25692164

  2. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligaments with bone-patellar tendon-bone and achilles tendon allografts.

    PubMed

    Levitt, R L; Malinin, T; Posada, A; Michalow, A

    1994-06-01

    Two hundred fourteen patients had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions performed with banked freeze-dried or frozen allografts using an arthroscopic-assisted technique. Of these, 181 patients were available for follow-up testing and examination. Minimum follow-up time was four years (average, 57 months). All patients were evaluated by using KT-1000 arthrometer and Biodex testing as well as by physical examination. Final results were rated as satisfactory or unsatisfactory by using a modified Feagin knee scoring scale. Patients who were classified as good or excellent were considered to have satisfactory results. Those who were classified as fair or poor were considered to have unsatisfactory results. During the course of the study, 79% of the patients had satisfactory results. The percentage of patients with satisfactory results increased as the study progressed. The surgical technique was modified as new biomechanical principles were applied to ACL reconstruction. Rehabilitation of the patients was also progressively changed from conservative to aggressive. The authors attribute the improvement from 67% of patients with satisfactory results in 1984 to 85% in 1988 at least partially to these modifications. It was concluded that either frozen or freeze-dried aseptically excised and processed bone-patellar tendon-bone and Achilles tendon allografts can serve adequately for the reconstruction of ACLs. Complications may be reduced and clinical end results improved by adherence to an exact, reproducible surgical technique and an aggressive rehabilitation regimen. PMID:8194256

  3. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age.

  4. A novel fibrocartilaginous tendon from an elasmobranch fish ( Rhinoptera bonasus).

    PubMed

    Summers, Adam P; Koob-Emunds, Magdalena M; Kajiura, Stephen M; Koob, Thomas J

    2003-05-01

    Tendons of the jaw adductor muscles of a hard prey crushing stingray exhibit similar adaptations to compressive and shear loads as those seen in mammalian tendons. Ventral intermandibular tendon from the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, has a prominent fibrocartilaginous pad that lies between a fibrous region of the tendon and the mineralized tissue of the jaw. Histologically the pad is similar to the fibrocartilaginous meniscus of mammals, and these tissues also share some biochemical traits. Proteoglycan (PG) content in the fibrocartilaginous pad is nearly four times higher than in the linearly arrayed tendinous tissue. The predominant PGs appear to be an aggrecan-like molecule and a decorin-like molecule. The decorin-like molecule is quite small when compared to mammalian decorin (20-80 kDa vs. 100-200 kDa). This study is the first to document adaptations to compressive/shear loading in tendon from a cartilaginous fish, and the similarities to the mammalian condition argue for the early evolution of this reactive ability of tendinous tissue. PMID:12712326

  5. Cell therapies for tendons: old cell choice for modern innovation.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Ilias G; Grognuz, Anthony; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Raffoul, Wassim; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    Although tissue engineering and cell therapies are becoming realistic approaches for medical therapeutics, it is likely that musculoskeletal applications will be among the first to benefit on a large scale. Cell sources for tissue engineering and cell therapies for tendon pathologies are reviewed with an emphasis on small defect tendon injuries as seen in the hand which could adapt well to injectable cell administration. Specifically, cell sources including tenocytes, tendon sheath fibroblasts, bone marrow or adipose-derived stem cells, amniotic cells, placenta cells and platelet-derivatives have been proposed to enhance tendon regeneration. The associated advantages and disadvantages for these different strategies will be discussed and evolving regulatory requirements for cellular therapies will also be addressed. Human progenitor tenocytes, along with their clinical cell banking potential, will be presented as an alternative cell source solution. Similar cell banking techniques have already been described with other progenitor cell types in the 1950's for vaccine production, and these "old" cell types incite potentially interesting therapeutic options that could be improved with modern innovation for tendon regeneration and repair. PMID:25102358

  6. New perspectives in rotator cuff tendon regeneration: review of tissue engineered therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Rotini; Milena Fini; Gianluca Giavaresi; Alessandro Marinelli; Enrico Guerra; Diego Antonioli; Alessandro Castagna; Roberto Giardino

    2008-01-01

    Tissue engineering may play a major role in the treatment of rotator cuff tendon lesions through replacement of an injured\\u000a tendon segment. Tendons have very poor spontaneous regenerative capabilities, and despite intensive remodelling, complete\\u000a regeneration is never achieved and the strength of tendon and ligaments remains as much as 30% lower than normal even months\\u000a or years following an acute

  7. Reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon rupture with contralateral BTB autograft: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Z. Milankov; Natasa Miljkovic; Milan Stankovic

    2007-01-01

    Chronic patellar tendon rupture is a rare disabling injury that is technically difficult to repair. Many different surgical\\u000a methods have been reported for the reconstruction of chronic patellar tendon ruptures. We are reporting the use of contralateral\\u000a bone-tendon-bone (BTB) autograft for chronic patellar tendon rupture reconstruction followed by double-wire loop reinforcement\\u000a and without postoperative immobilization. One year after the operation,

  8. Double-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps and semitendinosus tendon grafts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hwa Chen; Wen-Jer Chen; Chun-Hsiung Shih

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a novel arthroscopic technique for double-bundle reconstruction of the posterior cruciate ligament. A quadriceps tendon-patellar bone autograft is used to reconstruct the major anterolateral bundle. An additional double-stranded semitendinosus tendon is used to reconstruct the posteromedial bundle. In 70° of flexion and full extension with anterior drawer force, the quadriceps tendon graft and semitendinosus tendon graft are

  9. Reconstruction of patellar tendon rupture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milankov Ziva Miroslav; Semnic Robert; Miljkovi? Natasa; Harhaji Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Patellar tendon rupture following use of its central third for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a rare disabling injury that is technically difficult to repair. We report one case of patellar tendon rupture after harvesting the mid-third for ACL reconstruction. A number of different surgical methods exist for reconstructing patellar tendon ruptures. Here we report a case using a

  10. Simultaneous complete bilateral patellar tendon ruptures: two cases and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayan Hulse; N. Tellisi

    2004-01-01

    Infra-patellar tendon is the least common site for the disruption of extensor mechanism of knee joint. Bilateral simultaneous patellar tendon ruptures are very rare and extremely uncommon in healthy individuals. We report two cases of simultaneous complete bilateral patellar tendon ruptures, one in a healthy adult male and the second in a patient suffering from chronic rheumatoid arthritis. To the

  11. Evolution of the digital tendon locking mechanism in bats and dermopterans: A phylogenetic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy B. Simmons; Thomas H. Quinn

    1994-01-01

    A tendon locking mechanism (TLM) in the digits of the feet has been described previously only in bats and birds. In bats, this mechanism typically consists of a patch of tuberculated fibrocartilage cells on the plantar surface of the proximal flexor tendons, and a corresponding plicated portion of the adjacent flexor tendon sheath. The two components mesh together like parts

  12. Continuous Shear Wave Elastography: A New Method to Measure Viscoelastic Properties of Tendons in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Daniel H; Suydam, Stephen M; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare; Buchanan, Thomas S; Elliott, Dawn M

    2015-06-01

    Viscoelastic mechanical properties are frequently altered after tendon injuries and during recovery. Therefore, non-invasive measurements of shear viscoelastic properties may help evaluate tendon recovery and compare the effectiveness of different therapies. The objectives of this study were to describe an elastography method for measuring localized viscoelastic properties of tendons and to discuss the initial results in healthy and injured human Achilles and semitendinosus tendons. The technique used an external actuator to generate the shear waves in the tendon at different frequencies and plane wave imaging to measure shear wave displacements. For each of the excitation frequencies, maps of direction-specific wave speeds were calculated using local frequency estimation. Maps of viscoelastic properties were obtained using a pixel-wise curve fit of wave speed and frequency. The method was validated by comparing measurements of wave speed in agarose gels with those obtained using magnetic resonance elastography. Measurements in human healthy Achilles tendons revealed a pronounced increase in wave speed as a function of frequency, which highlights the importance of tendon viscoelasticity. Additionally, the viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon were larger than those reported for other tissues. Measurements in a tendinopathic Achilles tendon indicated that it is feasible to quantify local viscoelastic properties. Similarly, measurement in the semitendinosus tendon revealed substantial differences in viscoelastic properties between the healthy and contralateral tendons. Consequently, this technique has the potential to evaluate localized changes in tendon viscoelastic properties caused by injury and during recovery in a clinical setting. PMID:25796414

  13. The wrinkled patellar tendon: an indication of abnormality in the extensor mechanism of the knee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Berlin; E. Mark Levinsohn; Howard Chrisman

    1991-01-01

    Rupture of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon condition which requires early diagnosis and treatment to avert prolonged disability. In four patients who had surgically confirmed quadriceps tendon rupture, lateral radiographs of the knee and\\/or sagittal magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a corrugated appearance to the patellar tendon. Sagittal MR images of the knee following patellectomy in one patient and

  14. Technical Note: Double tibial tunnel using quadriceps tendon in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Pederzini; Ezio Adriani; Carolina Botticella; Massimo Tosi

    2000-01-01

    Summary: To avoid complications related to the use of patellar tendon and hamstring (semitendinosus and gracilis) tendon and to create a more anatomic reconstruction, we present a new technique based on the use of quadriceps tendon placed in a single half femoral tunnel and double tibial tunnels. The graft, harvested by a central longitudinal incision, possesses the following characteristics: (1)

  15. Viscoelastic properties of muscle-tendon unitsThe biomechanical effects of stretching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean C. Taylor; James D. Dalton; Anthony V. Seaber; William E. Garrett

    1990-01-01

    Most muscle stretching studies have focused on defin ing the biomechanical properties of isolated elements of the muscle-tendon unit or on comparing different stretching techniques. We developed an experimental model that was designed to evaluate clinically relevant biomechanical stretching properties in an entire muscle- tendon unit. Our objectives were to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of the muscle-tendon unit and to

  16. Tendon-to-Bone Attachment: From Development to Maturity Elazar Zelzer*1

    E-print Network

    injuries. Unfortunately, the specialized tissue that forms at the attachment of tendon to bone during fetal; Thomopou- los et al., 2002, 2003b). Two examples of tendon­bone junc- tions prone to injury are the rotatorTendon-to-Bone Attachment: From Development to Maturity Elazar Zelzer*1 , Einat Blitz1 , Megan L

  17. SYMPOSIUM: NEW APPROACHES TO ALLOGRAFT TRANSPLANTATION Mechanoactive Scaffold Induces Tendon Remodeling

    E-print Network

    Lu, Helen H.

    SYMPOSIUM: NEW APPROACHES TO ALLOGRAFT TRANSPLANTATION Mechanoactive Scaffold Induces Tendon the scaffold to test the hypothesis that scaffold-induced compression of tendon grafts would result in matrix microscopy and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the effects of scaffold-induced compression on tendon

  18. Patellar tendon reconstruction with semitendinosus-gracilis autograft.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Fazalare, Joseph J; Phieffer, Laura S; Flanigan, David C

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of a 24-year-old, otherwise healthy, man who sustained a right knee injury after a fall. A small, comminuted inferior pole patella fracture with medial and lateral retinacular tears was encountered that required a small, nonarticular partial patellectomy and patellar tendon repair. An uneventful postoperative course was complicated by a fall onto a flexed knee and rerupture of the patellar tendon at 3 months following surgery. Intraoperatively, a significant tissue void was seen in the area of the prior repair. The patellar tendon was reconstructed with semitendinosus and gracilis autograft. At 1 year follow-up, the patient had regained a normal gait, had no pain, and had full range-of-motion without extensor lag. PMID:23288729

  19. Patellar Tendon Reconstruction in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A New Technique.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Ashok; Vasdev, Attique; Dahiya, Vivek

    2014-09-24

    Patellar tendon disruption is one of the most dreaded complications following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impacting both implant function and implant longevity. To overcome the concerns regarding allografts and improve outcomes with augmentation techniques, we describe a technique, which we have successfully used over the past 4 years with good results. Seven patients underwent reconstruction for patellar tendon disruption using our technique from a cohort of eight patients. Extensor lag improved from a mean of 40 degrees to less than 5 degrees postoperatively. Range of motion improved from a mean of 105 degrees to 115 degrees of flexion. There was improvement in Knee Society Functional Score from a preoperative mean of 30 to 75 points. The Knee Society Pain Score, however, did not show much improvement. We believe our technique to be a solution to the difficult problem of patellar tendon ruptures after TKA and we continue to perform this procedure. PMID:25251879

  20. Subcoracoid impingement and subscapularis tendon: is there any truth?

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Massari, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Subcoracoid impingement and stenosis have been described related to anterior shoulder pain and subscapularis tendon tears, but the pathogenesis and related treatment of this condition has still not been explained properly. Variability of coracoid morphology has been described and both traumatic and iatrogenic factors can modify it. Some authors referred this to a primary narrow coracohumeral distance with different threshold values defined as increased risk factor for subscapularis and antero-superior RC tear; opposite theories stated that the stenosis is secondary to an anterosuperior translation of the humeral head toward the coracoid due to degenerative changes of the rotator cuff tendons. Limited coracoplasty can be performed when related risk factors are identified; however no clear consensus arises from specific literature review and extensive clinical and instrumental examination of the patient should be performed in order to identify specific risk factors for subscapularis tendon pathology and, subsequently, tailor the proper approach. PMID:23888292

  1. Subcoracoid impingement and subscapularis tendon: is there any truth?

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Massari, Leo

    2013-04-01

    Subcoracoid impingement and stenosis have been described related to anterior shoulder pain and subscapularis tendon tears, but the pathogenesis and related treatment of this condition has still not been explained properly. Variability of coracoid morphology has been described and both traumatic and iatrogenic factors can modify it. Some authors referred this to a primary narrow coracohumeral distance with different threshold values defined as increased risk factor for subscapularis and antero-superior RC tear; opposite theories stated that the stenosis is secondary to an anterosuperior translation of the humeral head toward the coracoid due to degenerative changes of the rotator cuff tendons. Limited coracoplasty can be performed when related risk factors are identified; however no clear consensus arises from specific literature review and extensive clinical and instrumental examination of the patient should be performed in order to identify specific risk factors for subscapularis tendon pathology and, subsequently, tailor the proper approach. PMID:23888292

  2. No man's land revisited: the primary flexor tendon repair controversy.

    PubMed

    Newmeyer, William L; Manske, Paul R

    2004-01-01

    New surgical procedures, novel concepts, and/or the presentation of very good results with an apparently discredited technique meet varying degrees of resistance among the establishment of any profession. In hand surgery this phenomenon was exemplified in a striking fashion with the presentation of a controversial report entitled, "Primary repair of flexor tendons in no man's land" by Kleinert, Kutz, Ashbell, and Martinez of Louisville, KY, at the 1967 American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) annual meeting. The discussant, Joseph Boyes, expressed such skepticism that a special ASSH committee was appointed to go to Louisville and review the results to determine if they were as good as claimed. They were, and today primary flexor tendon repair is the procedure of choice for most flexor tendon lacerations. PMID:14751095

  3. Stem cell research and clinical development in tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Filomeno, Paola; Dayan, Victor; Touriño, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Summary Stem cells are one of the most fascinating areas in regenerative medicine today. They play a crucial role in development and regeneration and are defined as cells that continuously reproduce themselves while maintaining the ability to differentiate into various cell types. Stem cells are found at all developmental stages, from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) which differentiate into all cell types, to adult stem cells (ASCs) which are responsible for tissue regeneration. Studies using animal models have shown promising results following cell therapy for induced injury in musculoskeletal system, including tendon healing, but the results can be variable. Alternative sources for cell therapy in tendon pathology may include ESCs, ASCs (bone marrow, adipose tissue or tendon derived stem cells) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). While ethical and safety concerns currently forbid clinical application of ESCs and iPSCs, initial clinical trials with ASCs are promising. PMID:23738298

  4. An Investigation of Tendon Corrosion-Inhibitor Leakage into Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1999-07-05

    During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of the core samples indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the surface was due to leakage of the filler from the conduits and its subsequent migration to the concrete surface through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks with no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength tests indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased relative to the strength at 28 days age.

  5. Prediction of the elastic strain limit of tendons.

    PubMed

    Reyes, A M; Jahr, H; van Schie, H T M; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-02-01

    The elastic strain limit (ESL) of tendons is the point where maximum elastic modulus is reached, after which micro-damage starts. Study of damage progression in tendons under repetitive (fatigue) loading requires a priori knowledge about ESL. In this study, we propose three different approaches for predicting ESL. First, one single value is assumed to represent the ESL of all tendon specimens. Second, different extrapolation curves are used for extrapolating the initial part of the stress-strain curve. Third, a method based on comparing the shape of the initial part of the stress-strain curve of specimens with a database of stress-strain curves is used. A large number of porcine tendon explants (97) were tested to examine the above-mentioned approaches. The variants of the third approach yielded significantly (p<0.05) smaller error values as compared to the other approaches. The mean absolute percentage error of the best-performing variant of the shape-based comparison was between 8.14±6.44% and 9.96±9.99% depending on the size of the initial part of the stress-strain curves. Interspecies generalizability of the best performing method was also studied by applying it for prediction of the ESL of horse tendons. The ESL of horse tendons was predicted with mean absolute percentage errors ranging between 10.53±7.6% and 19.16±14.31% depending on the size of the initial part of the stress-strain curves and the type of normalization. The results of this study suggest that both ESL and the shape of stress-strain curves may be highly different between different individuals and different anatomical locations. PMID:24362243

  6. Ultrasound diagnosis of quadriceps tendon tear in an uncooperative patient.

    PubMed

    Secko, Michael; Diaz, Michelle; Paladino, Lorenzo

    2011-10-01

    A 38-year-old intoxicated man presented to the emergency department with a painful, swollen left knee and inability to ambulate after being tackled to the ground. The patient was uncooperative, and physical examination of the lower extremities was limited by his intoxication. Radiographic examination of the knee was unremarkable. Ultrasound of the knee revealed a quadriceps tendon rupture. The sonographic features of quadriceps tendon rupture are described, as is the role ultrasound plays in the assessment of a swollen, painful knee. PMID:22090751

  7. Nonoperative management of a partial patellar tendon rupture after bone-patellar tendon-bone graft harvest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Benner, Rodney W; Shelbourne, K Donald; Freeman, Heather

    2013-12-01

    This is a case report of a young athlete who sustained a partial tear of the patellar tendon after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft. The injury, diagnostic workup, and decision-making process that lead to the choice of nonsurgical treatment are described. Furthermore, the rehabilitation process is described in detail. The patient returned to his previous level of sports activity and had a good clinical outcome as measured by range of motion, isokinetic quadriceps muscle strength testing, single leg hop testing, and the modified Noyes survey. In the absence of extensor mechanism incompetence or radiographic evidence of significant patella alta, partial ruptures of the patella tendon after ACL reconstruction using a BPTB autograft may be treated nonoperatively. PMID:23288745

  8. DNA fragmentation and nuclear phenotype in tendons exposed to low-intensity infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Flavia; Ramos Cerqueira, Larissa; Martins Ramos, Mayara; Campos, Vera M.; Ferreira-Machado, Samara C.; Geller, Mauro; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson

    2015-03-01

    Clinical protocols are recommended in device guidelines outlined for treating many diseases on empirical basis. However, effects of low-intensity infrared lasers at fluences used in clinical protocols on DNA are controversial. Excitation of endogenous chromophores in tissues and free radicals generation could be described as a consequence of laser used. DNA lesions induced by free radicals cause changes in DNA structure, chromatin organization, ploidy degrees and cell death. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could alter the fibroblasts nuclei characteristics and induce DNA fragmentation. Tendons of Wistar rats were exposed to low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), at different fluences (1, 5 and 10 J/cm2), in continuous wave (power output of 10mW, power density of 79.6 mW/cm2). Different frequencies were analyzed for the higher fluence (10 J/cm2), at pulsed emission mode (2.5, 250 and 2500 Hz), with the laser source at surface of skin. Geometric, densitometric and textural parameters obtained for Feulgen-stained nuclei by image analysis were used to define nuclear phenotypes. Significant differences were observed on the nuclear phenotype of tendons after exposure to laser, as well as, high cell death percentages was observed for all fluences and frequencies analyzed here, exception 1 J/cm2 fluence. Our results indicate that low-intensity infrared laser can alter geometric, densitometric and textural parameters in tendon fibroblasts nuclei. Laser can also induce DNA fragmentation, chromatin lost and consequently cell death, using fluences, frequencies and emission modes took out from clinical protocols.

  9. High strain mechanical loading rapidly induces tendon apoptosis: an ex vivo rat tibialis anterior model

    PubMed Central

    Scott, A; Khan, K; Heer, J; Cook, J; Lian, O; Duronio, V

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the development of apoptosis after high strain loading of rat tendon. Methods: The right tibialis anterior tendons of three rats were prepared for mechanical loading, and left tendons were prepared identically as non-loaded controls. Tendon was loaded with 20% strain for six hours using a 1 Hz longitudinal sine wave signal. The following were used to assess apoptosis: (a) a monoclonal mouse antibody (F7-26) to label single stranded DNA breaks; (b) a rabbit polyclonal antibody that specifically recognises the cleaved form of caspase-3. Results: Light microscopy confirmed that the high strain protocol induced a stretch overload injury. Control tendons showed little or no staining with the F7-26 antibody, but the loaded tendons displayed numerous apoptotic cells. The percentage of apoptotic cells (20%) in the loaded tendon was significantly greater than in the control tendon (1%) (p = 0.000). The labelled cells colocalised with abnormal nuclear morphology, including nuclear fragmentation. The staining against cleaved caspase-3 was positive in loaded tendons only, and localised both to nucleus and cytoplasm. Conclusion: This experiment extends knowledge of human tendon apoptosis by showing that apoptosis can occur in response to short term, high strain mechanical loading. This is the first report of mechanical loading of intact tendon causing excessive apoptosis. PMID:15849278

  10. US appearance of partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears: Application of the string theory. Pictorial essay

    PubMed Central

    Guerini, H.; Fermand, M.; Godefroy, D.; Feydy, A.; Chevrot, A.; Morvan, G.; Gault, N.; Drapé, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The supraspinatus tendon is composed of 5 different layers consisting of intertwining bundles. On a front portion of the tendon, the layers become coated bundles which insert on the trochanter. At the insertion, the superficial or bursal surface of the tendon corresponding to the tendon fibers in contact with the subacromial bursa can be distinguished from the deep surface corresponding to the fibers in contact with the glenohumeral joint. A tendon tear may involve partial or total disruption of the tendon fibers and is called full-thickness tear if it affects the entire tendon, and partial-thickness tear if it involves only part of the tendon. Partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon include lesions of the superficial, deep and central surface or tendon delamination. A contrast enhanced examination requires injection of contrast agent into the joint (arthrography followed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to study the deep surface, and injection into the subacromial bursa (bursography followed by CT) to study the superficial surface. MRI and ultrasound (US) examination allow the study of these different tendon layers without the use of contrast agent (which is not possible at CT). PMID:23396264

  11. US appearance of partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears: Application of the string theory. Pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Guerini, H; Fermand, M; Godefroy, D; Feydy, A; Chevrot, A; Morvan, G; Gault, N; Drapé, J L

    2012-02-01

    The supraspinatus tendon is composed of 5 different layers consisting of intertwining bundles. On a front portion of the tendon, the layers become coated bundles which insert on the trochanter. At the insertion, the superficial or bursal surface of the tendon corresponding to the tendon fibers in contact with the subacromial bursa can be distinguished from the deep surface corresponding to the fibers in contact with the glenohumeral joint. A tendon tear may involve partial or total disruption of the tendon fibers and is called full-thickness tear if it affects the entire tendon, and partial-thickness tear if it involves only part of the tendon. Partial-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon include lesions of the superficial, deep and central surface or tendon delamination.A contrast enhanced examination requires injection of contrast agent into the joint (arthrography followed by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) to study the deep surface, and injection into the subacromial bursa (bursography followed by CT) to study the superficial surface. MRI and ultrasound (US) examination allow the study of these different tendon layers without the use of contrast agent (which is not possible at CT). PMID:23396264

  12. Huge tophaceous pseudogout associated with tenosynovial chondromatosis arising from flexor digitorum tendon sheaths of the foot: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Won-Jong; Chang, Eun-Deok; Lee, An-Hi; Kang, Yong-Koo; Park, Jung-Mi; Chung, Yang-Guk

    2013-12-01

    Synovial chondromatosis (SC) is a benign proliferative process of synovial tissue creating multiple cartilaginous nodules in joints. It most commonly occurs in the large joints of the knee, hip, and shoulder, uncommonly in the small joints of the hand and foot, and only rarely in the tenosynovial membrane of tendon sheath, termed tenosynovial chondromatosis (TC). Unlike SC, TC predisposes to the foot or hand. The rarity and unfamiliarity of imagers with TC, as well as the variability of its histologic features often lead to an erroneous diagnosis of extraskeletal chondroma or even chondrosarcoma as in the present case. Calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD) crystals are usually deposited in the articular cartilage or periarticular structures such as synovium and capsule, and rarely in other soft tissue structures including bursa, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and dura mater. CPPD crystals may also be deposited in extraskeletal chondroma and SC. We present an exceptionally rare case of huge tophaceous pseudogout associated with TC that is considered to arise from the flexor digitorum longus tendon sheaths of the foot, initially mistaken for a chondrosarcoma. PMID:23828620

  13. A finite dissipative theory of temporary interfibrillar bridges in the extracellular matrix of ligaments and tendons

    PubMed Central

    Ciarletta, P.; Ben Amar, M.

    2009-01-01

    The structural integrity and the biomechanical characteristics of ligaments and tendons result from the interactions between collagenous and non-collagenous proteins (e.g. proteoglycans, PGs) in the extracellular matrix. In this paper, a dissipative theory of temporary interfibrillar bridges in the anisotropic network of collagen type I, embedded in a ground substance, is derived. The glycosaminoglycan chains of decorin are assumed to mediate interactions between fibrils, behaving as viscous structures that transmit deformations outside the collagen molecules. This approach takes into account the dissipative effects of the unfolding preceding fibrillar elongation, together with the slippage of entire fibrils and the strain-rate-dependent damage evolution of the interfibrillar bridges. Thermodynamic consistency is used to derive the constitutive equations, and the transition state theory is applied to model the rearranging properties of the interfibrillar bridges. The constitutive theory is applied to reproduce the hysteretic spectrum of the tissues, demonstrating how PGs determine damage evolution, softening and non-recoverable strains in their cyclic mechanical response. The theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental response of ligaments and tendons from referenced studies. The relevance of the proposed model in mechanobiology research is discussed, together with several applications from medical practice to bioengineering science. PMID:19106068

  14. Effects of spaceflight on the attachment of tendons to bone in the hindlimb of the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Roger B; Tsao, Audrey K; St John, Kenneth R; Betcher, Russel A; Tucci, Michelle A; Benghuzzi, Hamed A

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on the structure of the tendon-bone junction (TBJ). Pregnant rats either flew in the space shuttle Atlantis (flight group; F) or were exposed to simulated launch and landing protocols (synchronous control group; SC) during days 9-19 of pregnancy. Following birth of their pups, maternal hindlimbs were studied using scanning electron and light microscopic histomophometric techniques. The tibial and calcaneal tuberosities, the fibular head, and the tibia-fibula junction were studied. Myofiber density and cross-sectional area of the quadratus femoris and soleus muscles and diameters of the calcaneal and patellar tendons were also evaluated. Cortical erosion was significantly greater at the tibial tuberosity and the fibular head in F animals compared to SC animals (P < 0.001). Sharpey fiber density was significantly less at the tibial tuberosity and fibular head in F animals compared to SC animals (P < 0.001). The myofiber area of both the soleus and quadratus femoris muscles and the diameters of both calcaneal and patellar tendons were significantly less in F compared to SC rats (P < 0.05). Our data illustrate that the TBJ morphology is affected by spaceflight at the attachment sites of the soleus and quadratus femoris muscles in pregnant animals, which could adversely affect their physical properties. These atrophic TBJ changes could have resulted from atrophy of the adjacent muscles and their tendons. Atrophic changes in the structure of the TBJ could predispose an animal to injury following spaceflight, when normal gravity conditions are reestablished. PMID:15627985

  15. Effect of cyclic tension on lacerated flexor tendons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Manske, P R; Pruitt, D L; Larson, B J

    1995-05-01

    The effect of tension on tendon healing was evaluated in vitro using cyclic tension and no tension groups of chicken flexor digitorum profundus tendons and histologic and immunohistologic techniques. A Vitrodyne force-loading machine was used for application of cyclic tension on partially lacerated chicken flexor tendons in culture media. Laceration sites under cyclic tension after 14 days were covered by newly proliferated fibroblasts, aligned in the direction of tension. This new growth was much thicker than that seen in the no tension group at the same time interval. Procollagen synthetic activity began at 3 days of culture in both groups. At 21 days, newly formed fibroblasts in the cyclic tension group were stained positive more strongly at the surface layer than in the deeper layers. In the no tension group, the staining was primarily in the surface layer. Cyclic tension stimulated the intrinsic response of lacerated flexor tendons significantly more than no tension did by enhancing proliferation and migration of fibroblasts, as well as stimulating collagen synthesis. PMID:7642929

  16. FUNCTIONAL RESULTS AFTER SURGICAL REPAIR OF QUADRICEPS TENDON RUPTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. DE BAERE; B. GEULETTE; L. BARRAS

    2002-01-01

    We present the long-term results of surgical repair of a traumatic rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a group of 24 patients with a mean age of 58 years. There were 21 male and 3 female patients. Fifteen patients were seen for clinical control after a mean follow-up of 75 months and they all presented with some quadriceps muscle atrophy.

  17. Diagnosis of Tears of the Quadriceps Tendon of the Knee

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim F. Abdelwahab; Antonio Banderali

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of sonography in diagnosing traumatic tears of the quadriceps tendon. More specifically, it was intended to determine the value of sonography in differentiating complete from par- tial tears and thus in directing therapy. Knees of asymptomatic volunteers and patients' contralateral knees were used as normal standards. SUBJECTS AND METHODS.

  18. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in a uremic patient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Cheng Pei; Po-Ching Hsieh; Li-Zen Huang; Cheng-Kuen Chiang

    2011-01-01

    Quadriceps is a part of extensor mechanism, and it is a strong muscle bundle for knee joint movement. It rarely ruptures in the general population. We present a case with simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture and discuss the causes. A 45-year-old man had a history of end stage renal disease and received regular hemodialysis treatment for more than 12 years.

  19. Laser tissue welding and repair of digital flexor tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, P. J.; Kiernan, Michael N.; MacGregor, A. D.; Clement, Marc

    1996-01-01

    Injuries involving division of the flexor tendons of the hand are a common surgical problem. Sutured repairs must be strong enough to withstand early active movement. Experiments were designed to assess the strength of bonds formed between tendon sections as a result of heating (1) under controlled conditions in a water bath and (2) using a carbon dioxide laser (laser tissue welding). The load (N) and stress (N/cm2) required to disrupt thermal bonds between bovine tendon sections heated for 4 minutes in water peaked at 62 degrees Celsius (13N, 11.3N/cm2). Further experiments revealed the optimal time period for heating to be 9 minutes (21.5N, 20.6N/cm2). A threshold effect was apparent at these parameters. The in vitro strength of sutured, laser welded and sutured and laser welded tendon repairs was compared in a rabbit model. Laser welding alone did not produce repairs as strong as sutured repairs. It did, however, augment the strength of sutured repair. This effect was maximal at a power of 0.1 W.

  20. BME 315 Biomechanics Experiment 4. Fall 2006. Deformation of tendon

    E-print Network

    Lakes, Roderic

    be easily damaged by even the most superficial cuts. To remove the skin, make an incision longitudinally will have the skin attached; skin must be removed before the tendons can be dissected out. Measure the tail are just below the skin but spaced evenly around the outer circumference of the tail. Therefore they can

  1. Repair of distal biceps tendon ruptures in athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald F. DAlessandro; Clarence L. Shields; James E. Tibone; Robert W. Chandler

    1993-01-01

    Ten athletes with distal biceps tendon ruptures that had been anatomically repaired with a double-incision technique were reviewed to determine their functional recovery. All of the patients were men, with an average age of 40 years (range, 25 to 49). Eight of the 10 patients were weight lifters or body builders, and 7 had participated on a competitive level at

  2. An Investigation of Tendon Corrosion-Inhibitor Leakage into Concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Costello; D. J. Naus; C. B. Oland

    1999-01-01

    During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of

  3. Delayed repair in Achilles tendon rupture. A case report.

    PubMed

    Beckett, D E

    1990-05-01

    Rupture of the Achilles tendon is a significant injury. The management of this problem can be greatly complicated if there is a time delay between the injury and the patient seeking professional care. The author presents such a case and looks at the various philosophies relative to therapy. PMID:2366171

  4. Accelerated corrosion testing, evaluation and durability design of bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas Pereira, Ruben Mario

    2003-06-01

    In the last few years, the effectiveness of cement grout in galvanized or polyethylene ducts, the most widely used corrosion protection system for multistrand bonded post-tensioned concrete tendons, has been under debate, due to significant tendon corrosion damage, several reported failures of individual tendons as well as a few collapses of non-typical structures. While experience in the USA has been generally good, some foreign experience has been less than satisfactory. This dissertation is part of a comprehensive research program started in 1993, which has the objectives to examine the use of post-tensioning in bridge substructures, identify durability concerns and existing technology, develop and carry out an experimental testing program, and conclude with durability design guidelines. Three experimental programs were developed: A long term macrocell corrosion test series, to investigate corrosion protection for internal tendons in precast segmental construction; a long term beam corrosion test series, to examine the effects of post-tensioning on corrosion protection as affected by crack width; and, a long term column corrosion test series, to examine corrosion protection in vertical elements. Preliminary design guidelines were developed previously in the overall study by the initial researchers, after an extensive literature review. This dissertation scope includes continuation of exposure testing of the macrocell, beam and column specimens, performing comprehensive autopsies of selected specimens and updating the durability design guidelines based on the exposure testing and autopsy results. After autopsies were performed, overall findings indicate negative durability effects due to the use of mixed reinforcement, small concrete covers, galvanized steel ducts, and industry standard or heat-shrink galvanized duct splices. The width of cracks was shown to have a direct negative effect on specimen performance. Grout voids were found to be detrimental to the durability of both galvanized ducts and strand. Relying on epoxy and galvanized bar coatings was also found inappropriate because of local attack. On the other hand, very positive effects were found with the use of high performance concrete, high post-tensioning levels, plastic ducts, and sound epoxy filling at the joints.

  5. Novel treatment of a failed quadriceps tendon repair in a diabetic patient using a patella-quadriceps tendon allograft.

    PubMed

    Druskin, Sasha C; Rodeo, Scott A

    2013-07-01

    Recurrent quadriceps tendon rupture is a debilitating condition that may be challenging to treat, especially in the presence of systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus (Bedi et al., J Shoulder Elbow Surg 19:978-988, 2010; Chbnou and Frenette, Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 5:R952-R957, 2004; Chen et al., J Shoulder Elbow Surg 5:416-421, 2003). Many surgical treatment protocols have been proposed (Azar, in Canale and Beatty, eds., Campbell's Operative Orthopedics, Mosby/Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA, 2008; Ilan et al., J Am Acad Orthop Surg 3:192-200, 2003; Rodeo and Izawa, in Garrett et al., eds., Principles and Practice of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA, 2000). We report the case of a diabetic male with multiple treatment failures. He ultimately sustained a good outcome following treatment with a novel surgical technique that utilized a patella quadriceps tendon allograft. Tendon allograft-to-native bone healing had previously failed in this patient, so we used a bone-tendon construct allograft to provide an allograft bone-to-native bone healing site. Now, 13 months postoperative, the patient has increased strength, minimal pain, 20 ° of extensor lag and 130 ° of flexion. PMID:24426867

  6. Motor unit properties in the soleus muscle after its distal tendon transfer to the plantaris muscle tendon in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Giroux-Metges, Marie-Agnès; Pennec, Jean-Pierre; Petit, Julien; Goanvec, Christelle; Dorange, Germaine; Gioux, Maxime

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how a modification in the mechanical conditions under which a muscle is used could induce changes in the characteristics and the spinal drive of its motor units (MU). The distal tendon of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats was transferred to the distal stump of the plantaris muscle tendon. The EMG activity of the soleus was chronically recorded for 8 weeks, every other day, during a 1-min treadmill walk. After spinal ventral root splitting, individual MU contractile properties were measured in control soleus (102 MUs) or in transposed soleus muscles after 4 weeks (41 MUs) or 8 weeks (28 MUs). Muscle/body weight ratio did not vary after transposition, nor did MU tetanic forces. A decrease in MU twitch contraction times and in their half relaxation times was observed at weeks 4 and 8. MU tension-frequency curves varied significantly after tendon transfer, becoming closer to the curves of the fast MUs of the control group. During locomotion, we observed no change in the amplitude of rectified-filtered electromyographic activity, but a significant decrease in mean burst duration and an increase in the median frequency of the power density spectrum. Tendon transposition of the soleus muscle brought about adaptations in MU contractile properties and soleus spinal control. PMID:12972623

  7. THE EFFECT OF BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 2 ON TENDON-TO-BONE HEALING IN A CANINE FLEXOR TENDON MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Thomopoulos, S; Kim, HM; Silva, MJ; Ntouvali, E; Manning, CN; Potter, R; Seeherman, H; Gelberman, RH

    2012-01-01

    Tendon-to-bone healing is typically poor, with a high rate of repair-site rupture. Bone loss after tendon-to-bone repair may contribute to poor outcomes. Therefore, we hypothesized that the local application of the osteogenic growth factor BMP-2 would promote bone formation, leading to improved repair site mechanical properties. Intrasynovial canine flexor tendons were injured in Zone 1 and repaired into bone tunnels in the distal phalanx. BMP-2 was delivered to the repair site using either a calcium phosphate matrix (CPM) or a collagen sponge (COL) carrier. Each animal also received carrier alone in an adjacent repair to serve as an internal control. Repairs were evaluated at 21 days using biomechanical, radiographic, and histologic assays. Although an increase in osteoid formation was noted histologically, no significant increases in bone mineral density occurred. When excluding functional failures (i.e., ruptured and gapped repairs), mechanical properties were not different when comparing BMP-2/CPM groups with carrier controls. A significantly higher percentage of BMP-2 treated specimens were functional failures (maximum force < 20 N) compared to carrier controls. While tendon-to-bone healing can be enhanced by addressing the bone loss that typically occurs after surgical repair, the delivery of BMP-2 using the concentrations and methods of the current study did not improve mechanical properties over carrier alone. The anticipated anabolic effect of BMP-2 was insufficient in the short time frame of this study to counter the post-repair loss of bone. PMID:22618762

  8. Botulinum Neurotoxin A Injections Influence Stretching of the Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Unit in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Haubruck, Patrick; Mannava, Sandeep; Plate, Johannes F.; Callahan, Michael F.; Wiggins, Walter F.; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Tuohy, Christopher J.; Saul, Katherine R.; Smith, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum Neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections have been used for the treatment of muscle contractures and spasticity. This study assessed the influence of (BoNT-A) injections on passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Mousegastrocnemius muscle (GC) was injected with BoNT-A (n = 18) or normal saline (n = 18) and passive, non-destructive, in vivo load relaxation experimentation was performed to examine how the muscle-tendon unit behaves after chemical denervation with BoNT-A. Injection of BoNT-A impaired passive muscle recovery (15% vs. 35% recovery to pre-stretching baseline, p < 0.05) and decreased GC stiffness (0.531 ± 0.061 N/mm vs. 0.780 ± 0.037 N/mm, p < 0.05) compared to saline controls. The successful use of BoNT-A injections as an adjunct to physical therapy may be in part attributed to the disruption of the stretch reflex; thereby modulating in vivo passive muscle properties. However, it is also possible that BoNT-A injection may alter the structure of skeletal muscle; thus modulating the in vivo passive biomechanical properties of the muscle-tendon unit. PMID:23012650

  9. Quantitative evaluation of degenerated tendon model using combined optical coherence elastography and acoustic radiation force method.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guangying; Li, Chunhui; Ling, Yuting; Yang, Ying; Vorstius, Jan B; Keatch, Robert P; Wang, Ruikang K; Huang, Zhihong

    2013-11-01

    Damage of collagen fibers in tendons is often directly related to changes in a tendon's mechanical properties. Direct quantitative elasticity measurement of tendons will provide important information in tendon dysfunction diagnosis and treatment assessment. A feasibility study of quantifying the mechanical properties of a degenerated tendon model by a nondestructive imaging modality, which combines optical coherence elastography and acoustic radiation force (ARF) method, is presented. The degenerated tendon model was produced by the partial degradation of chicken tendons through incubation with collagenase at different concentrations and incubation times. A 30-kHz longitudinal ultrasound transducer was used to provide an ARF signal, which was detected by an ultra-high sensitive phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the combination of ARF method and PhS-OCT can measure the elasticity of tendon quantitatively. The corresponding changes in tendon elasticity due to the application of collagenase have been revealed by this new imaging modality. This method can potentially be used in the assessment of tissue engineering products and in the diagnosis and treatment progression of tendon diseases. PMID:24193945

  10. Identity of tendon stem cells--how much do we know?

    PubMed

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2013-01-01

    Tendon stem cells are multi-potent adult stem cells with broad differentiation plasticity that render them of great importance in cell-based therapies for the repair of tendons. We called them tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) to indicate the tissue origin from which the stem cells were isolated in vitro. Based on the work of other sources of MSCs and specific work on TDSCs, some properties of TDSCs have been characterized / implicated in vitro. Despite these findings, tendon stem cells remained controversial cells. This was because MSCs residing in different organs, although very similar, were not identical cells. There is evidence of differences in stem cell-related properties and functions related to tissue origins. Similar to other stem cells, tendon stem cells were identified and characterized in vitro. Their in vivo identities, niche (both anatomical locations and regulators) and roles in tendons were less understood. This review aims to summarize the current evidence of the possible anatomical locations and niche signals regulating the functions of tendon stem cells in vivo. The possible roles of tendon stem cells in tendon healing and non-healing are presented. Finally, the potential strategies for understanding the in vivo identity of tendon stem cells are discussed. PMID:23279609

  11. The manipulation of strain, when stress is controlled, modulates in vivo tendon mechanical properties but not systemic TGF-?1 levels

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Gerard E; Morse, Christopher I; Burden, Adrian; Winwood, Keith; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys L

    2013-01-01

    Modulators of loading-induced in vivo adaptations in muscle–tendon complex (MTC) mechanical properties remain unclear. Similarly contentious, is whether changes in MTC characteristics are associated with growth factor levels. Four groups were subjected to varying magnitudes of stress/strain: Group 1 trained with the MTC at a shortened position (MTCS; n = 10); Group 2 at a lengthened position (MTCL; n = 11; stress levels matched to MTCS); Group 3 over a wide range of motion (MTCX; n = 11); and Group 4 (n = 10) was the control population (no training). Patella tendon Stiffness (P < 0.001), Young's modulus, and quadriceps torque (P < 0.05) increments (only seen in the training groups), showed MTCL and MTCX groups responses to be superior to those of MTCS (P < 0.05). In addition, MTCL and MTCX better maintained adaptations compared to MTCS (P < 0.05) following detraining, with a pattern of slower loss of improvements at the early phase of detraining in all training groups. There were no significant changes (P > 0.05) in antagonist cocontraction, patella tendon dimensions or circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?1) levels following training or detraining in any of the groups. We conclude that chronically loading the MTC in a relatively lengthened position (which involves greater strains) enhances its mechanical properties, more so than loading in a shortened position. This is true even after normalizing for internal stress. The underlying endocrine mechanisms do not appear to be mediated via TGF-?1, at least not at the systemic level. Our findings have implications with regard to the effectiveness of eccentric loading on improved tendon structural and mechanical properties. PMID:24303165

  12. Functionally distinct tendon fascicles exhibit different creep and stress relaxation behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Legerlotz, Kirsten; Demirci, Taylan; Klemt, Christian; Riley, Graham P; Screen, Hazel RC

    2014-01-01

    Most overuse tendinopathies are thought to be associated with repeated microstrain below the failure threshold, analogous to the fatigue failure that affects materials placed under repetitive loading. Investigating the progression of fatigue damage within tendons is therefore of critical importance. There are obvious challenges associated with the sourcing of human tendon samples for in vitro analysis so animal models are regularly adopted. However, data indicates that fatigue life varies significantly between tendons of different species and with different stresses in life. Positional tendons such as rat tail tendon or the bovine digital extensor are commonly applied in in vitro studies of tendon overuse, but there is no evidence to suggest their behaviour is indicative of the types of human tendon particularly prone to overuse injuries. In this study, the fatigue response of the largely positional digital extensor and the more energy storing deep digital flexor tendon of the bovine hoof were compared to the semitendinosus tendon of the human hamstring. Fascicles from each tendon type were subjected to either stress or strain controlled fatigue loading (cyclic creep or cyclic stress relaxation respectively). Gross fascicle mechanics were monitored after cyclic stress relaxation and the mean number of cycles to failure investigated with creep loading. Bovine extensor fascicles demonstrated the poorest fatigue response, while the energy storing human semitendinosus was the most fatigue resistant. Despite the superior fatigue response of the energy storing tendons, confocal imaging suggested a similar degree of damage in all three tendon types; it appears the more energy storing tendons are better able to withstand damage without detriment to mechanics. PMID:24285289

  13. Fetal Development of the Human Obturator Internus Muscle With Special Reference to the Tendon and Pulley.

    PubMed

    Naito, Michiko; Suzuki, Ryoji; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Aizawa, Shin

    2015-07-01

    To examine the development of the tendon pulley of the obturator internus muscle (OI), we observed paraffin sections of 26 human embryos and fetuses (?6-15 weeks of gestation). The OI was characterized by early maturation of the proximal tendon in contrast to the delayed development of the distal tendon. At 6 weeks, the ischium corresponded to a simple round mass similar to the tuberosity in adults. At 8 weeks, before development of the definite lesser notch of the ischium, initial muscle fibers of the OI, running along the antero-posterior axis, converged onto a thick and tight but short tendon running along the left-right axis. Thus, at the beginning of development, the OI muscle belly and tendon met almost at a right angle. At 10 weeks, the OI tendon extended inferiorly along the sciatic nerve, but the distal part remained thin and loose and it was embedded in the gluteus medius tendon. At 15 weeks, in association with the gemellus muscles, the distal OI tendon was established. The mechanically strong sciatic nerve was first likely to catch the OI muscle fibers to provide a temporary insertion. Next, the ischium developing upward seemed to push the tendon to make the turn more acute along the cartilaginous ridge. Finally, the gemellus muscle appeared to provide inferior traction to the OI tendon for separation from the gluteus medius to create the final, independent insertion. Without such guidance, the piriformis tendon first attached to the OI tendon and then merged with the gluteus medius tendon. Anat Rec, 298:1282-1293, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25683268

  14. Reconstruction of neglected Achilles' tendon defect with peroneus brevis tendon allograft: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, Yavuz; Nyland, John; Nawab, Akbar; Caborn, David

    2006-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a peroneus brevis allograft to reconstruct a neglected Achilles' tendon injury in a 75-year-old woman. She had difficulty walking, had stiffness, and was unable to perform a heel raise from a single-leg standing position. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed a 6.8-cm wide defect 13 months after the initial injury. Surgical repair of the neglected rupture was performed using 4 strands of peroneus brevis allograft to bridge the defect. Early weight bearing and rehabilitation was allowed. At follow-up clinical examination 14 months postoperation, the patient could perform 15 full-range standing heel raises on the involved side versus 22 on the noninvolved side. Maximum calf circumference was 30.7 cm in the operated leg versus 33 cm at the noninvolved side. At 24 months postoperation the patient could perform 16 full-range standing heel raises on the injured leg versus 24 on the normal leg (33% deficit). The maximum calf circumference improved to 31 cm on the injured side compared with 34 cm on the noninvolved side (9% deficit). The AOFAS Ankle-Hindfoot Clinical Rating System score improved from 55 just before operation to 96 at 14 months postoperatively. The score further improved to 100 at the 2-year follow-up examination. The patient was playing recreational doubles tennis 1 to 2 times per week without symptoms. PMID:16399559

  15. Simultaneous rupture of the patellar tendon and the anterior cruciate ligament: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Pier Paolo; Cerullo, Guglielmo; Iannella, Germano

    2013-12-01

    This study describes three cases of simultaneous ruptures of the patellar tendon (PT) and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The treatment and the pathogenesis of this rare lesion are discussed. All three cases demonstrated lesions of all structures at the medial compartment. Unlike other reported cases, where an eccentric contraction of the quadriceps was present, the patients of the present study had sustained a forceful valgus injury with external rotation. We detected no displacements of the patella in any patients. All cases underwent a staged surgical procedure. Repair of the PT and of medial peripheral structures was performed immediately after injury; then, once the patients regained a full range of motion (ROM), they underwent an arthroscopic reconstruction of the ACL with ipsilateral hamstrings. At the follow-up stage, all cases showed a stable knee without restricted ROM. PMID:23288778

  16. Tensile properties and fiber alignment of human supraspinatus tendon in the transverse direction demonstrate inhomogeneity, nonlinearity and regional isotropy

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Spencer P.; Miller, Kristin S.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study (Lake et al. 2009) reported the properties of human supraspinatus tendon (SST) tested along the predominant fiber direction. The SST was found to have a relatively disperse distribution of collagen fibers, which may represent an adaptation to multiaxial loads imposed by the complex loading environment of the rotator cuff. However, the multiaxial mechanical properties of human SST remain unknown. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the mechanical properties, fiber alignment, change in alignment with applied load, and structure-function relationships of SST in transverse testing. Samples from six SST locations were tested in uniaxial tension with samples oriented transverse to the tendon long-axis. Polarized light imaging was used to quantify collagen fiber alignment and change in alignment under applied load. The mechanical properties of samples taken near the tendon-bone insertion were much greater on the bursal surface compared to the joint surface (e.g., bursal moduli 15–30 times greater than joint; p<0.001). In fact, the transverse moduli values of the bursal samples were very similar to values obtained from samples tested along the tendon long-axis (Lake et al., In press, JOR). This key and unexpected finding suggests planar mechanical isotropy for bursal surface samples near the insertion, which may be due to complex in vivo loading. Organizationally, fiber distributions became less aligned along the tendon long-axis in the toe-region of the stress-strain response. Alignment changes occurred to a slightly lesser degree in the linear-region, suggesting that movement of collagen fibers may play a role in mechanical nonlinearity. Transverse mechanical properties were significantly correlated with fiber alignment (e.g., for linear-region modulus rs=0.74, p<0.0001), demonstrating strong structure-function relationships. These results greatly enhance current understanding of the properties of human SST and provide clinicians and scientists with vital information in attempting to treat or replace this complex tissue. PMID:19900677

  17. Micromechanical poroelastic finite element and shear-lag models of tendon predict large strain dependent Poisson's ratios and fluid expulsion under tensile loading.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Freedman, Benjamin R; Connizzo, Brianne K; Soslowsky, Louis J; Shenoy, Vivek B

    2015-08-01

    As tendons are loaded, they reduce in volume and exude fluid to the surrounding medium. Experimental studies have shown that tendon stretching results in a Poisson's ratio greater than 0.5, with a maximum value at small strains followed by a nonlinear decay. Here we present a computational model that attributes this macroscopic observation to the microscopic mechanism of the load transfer between fibrils under stretch. We develop a finite element model based on the mechanical role of the interfibrillar-linking elements, such as thin fibrils that bridge the aligned fibrils or macromolecules such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interfibrillar sliding and verify it with a theoretical shear-lag model. We showed the existence of a previously unappreciated structure-function mechanism whereby the Poisson's ratio in tendon is affected by the strain applied and interfibrillar-linker properties, and together these features predict tendon volume shrinkage under tensile loading. During loading, the interfibrillar-linkers pulled fibrils toward each other and squeezed the matrix, leading to the Poisson's ratio larger than 0.5 and fluid expulsion. In addition, the rotation of the interfibrillar-linkers with respect to the fibrils at large strains caused a reduction in the volume shrinkage and eventual nonlinear decay in Poisson's ratio at large strains. Our model also predicts a fluid flow that has a radial pattern toward the surrounding medium, with the larger fluid velocities in proportion to the interfibrillar sliding. PMID:25934322

  18. Effect of fiber distribution and realignment on the nonlinear and inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon under longitudinal tensile loading

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Spencer P.; Miller, Kristin S.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Tendon exhibits nonlinear stress-strain behavior that may be due, in part, to movement of collagen fibers through the extracellular matrix. While a few techniques have been developed to evaluate the fiber architecture of other soft tissues, the organizational behavior of tendon under load has not been determined. The supraspinatus tendon (SST) of the rotator cuff is of particular interest for investigation due to its complex mechanical environment and corresponding inhomogeneity. In addition, SST injury occurs frequently with limited success in treatment strategies, illustrating the need for a better understanding of SST properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the inhomogeneous tensile mechanical properties, fiber organization and fiber realignment under load of human SST utilizing a novel polarized light technique. Fiber distributions were found to become more aligned under load, particularly during the low stiffness toe-region, suggesting that fiber realignment may be partly responsible for observed nonlinear behavior. Fiber alignment was found to correlate significantly with mechanical parameters, providing evidence for strong structure-function relationships in tendon. Human SST exhibits complex, inhomogeneous mechanical properties and fiber distributions, perhaps due to its complex loading environment. Surprisingly, histological grade of degeneration did not correlate with mechanical properties. PMID:19544524

  19. An experimental flexor tendon repair in zone II that allows immediate postoperative mobilization.

    PubMed

    MacMillan, M; Sheppard, J E; Dell, P C

    1987-07-01

    An experimental method of approximating severed flexor tendons in zone II that allows immediate postoperative mobilization is described. The repair uses a nonabsorbable suture anchored into the severed tendon in zone III. This experimental repair was performed on one foot in each of 18 adult, white Leghorn chickens. The control side used the modified Kessler technique to repair the zone II laceration. The animals were prevented from weight-bearing activities but were allowed active motion of the foot for 5 to 6 weeks postoperatively. The results demonstrated a marked diminution in flexor tendon adhesions, with intrinsic tendon collagen formation serving to reconstitute tendon continuity on the experimental side. The breaking strengths of the two repair methods were equivalent. These results suggest that this method may allow primary repair of tendon injuries in zone II, with minimal formation of adhesions. PMID:3301998

  20. Might the Masson trichrome stain be considered a useful method for categorizing experimental tendon lesions?

    PubMed

    Martinello, Tiziana; Pascoli, Francesco; Caporale, Giovanni; Perazzi, Anna; Iacopetti, Ilaria; Patruno, Marco

    2015-08-01

    Strain injuries of tendons are the most common orthopedic injuries in athletic subjects, be they equine or human. When the tendon is suddenly damaged, an acute inflammatory phase occurs whereas its repetitive overloading may cause chronic injuries. Currently the criteria used for grading injuries are general and subjective, and therefore a reliable grading method would be an improvement. The main purpose of this study was to assess qualitatively the histological pattern of Masson trichrome stain in healthy and injured tendons; indeed, the known "paradox" of Masson staining was used to create an evaluation for the matrix of tendons, following experimental lesions and natural repair processes. A statistically significant difference of aniline-staining between healthy and lesioned tendons was observed. Overall, we think that the Masson staining might be regarded as an informative tool in discerning the collagen spatial arrangement and therefore the histological characteristics of tendons. PMID:25733060

  1. The musculoskeletal loading profile of the thumb during pipetting based on tendon displacement.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Sinsel, Erik W; Shroyer, Justin F; Welcome, Daniel E; Zhao, Kristin D; An, Kai-Nan; Buczek, Frank L

    2013-12-01

    Strong evidence indicates that highly repetitive manual work is associated with the development of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). One of the occupational activities that involves highly repetitive and forceful hand work is manual pipetting in chemical or biological laboratories. In the current study, we quantified tendon displacement as a parameter to assess the cumulative loading exposure of the musculoskeletal system in the thumb during pipetting. The maximal tendon displacement was found in the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) tendon. Assuming that subjects' pipetting rates were maintained constant during a period of 1 h, the average accumulated tendon displacement in the FPL reached 29 m, which is in the lower range of those observed in other occupational activities, such as typing and nail gun operations. Our results showed that tendon displacement data contain relatively small standard deviations, despite high variances in thumb kinematics, suggesting that the tendon displacements may be useful in evaluating the musculoskeletal loading profile. PMID:24018066

  2. Applied Joint-Space Torque and Stiffness Control of Tendon-Driven Fingers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdallah, Muhammad E.; Platt, Robert, Jr.; Wampler, Charles W.; Hargrave, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Existing tendon-driven fingers have applied force control through independent tension controllers on each tendon, i.e. in the tendon-space. The coupled kinematics of the tendons, however, cause such controllers to exhibit a transient coupling in their response. This problem can be resolved by alternatively framing the controllers in the joint-space of the manipulator. This work presents a joint-space torque control law that demonstrates both a decoupled and significantly faster response than an equivalent tendon-space formulation. The law also demonstrates greater speed and robustness than comparable PI controllers. In addition, a tension distribution algorithm is presented here to allocate forces from the joints to the tendons. It allocates the tensions so that they satisfy both an upper and lower bound, and it does so without requiring linear programming or open-ended iterations. The control law and tension distribution algorithm are implemented on the robotic hand of Robonaut-2.

  3. Differential scanning calorimetric studies of superficial digital flexor tendon degeneration in the horse.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A; Wardale, R J; Birch, H L; Bailey, A J

    1994-07-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of equine superficial digital flexor tendons revealed the presence of a small exothermic peak at 23 degrees C of unknown origin, and a large endothermic peak at 70 degrees C due to denaturation of cross-linked collagen fibres. In the central degenerated core of damaged tendons the denaturation temperature remained at 70 degrees C but the enthalpy decreased in relation to the extent of degeneration of the tendon. We suggest that this reduction in enthalpy is due to depolymerisation and denaturation of the collagen fibres. This contention is supported by the observed increased activity of the degradative enzyme cathepsin B secreted by the fibroblasts. DSC analysis of cultured porcine tendon fibroblasts revealed a multicomponent endotherm, denaturation beginning at 46 degrees C, a temperature capable of being achieved within the tendon during intensive exercise. DSC clearly has considerable potential in complementing morphological and biochemical studies to determine the aetiology and progress of equine tendon degeneration. PMID:8575396

  4. Flexor tendon repair after rupture caused by volar plate fixation of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Rubensson, Carin C; Ydreborg, Karin; Boren, Linda; Karlander, Lars-Erik

    2015-04-01

    Volar plate fixation of unstable fractures of the distal radius is preferred by a majority of surgeons today. One known complication is the rupture of flexor tendons. The aim of this paper is to present flexor tendon ruptures after volar plate fixation analysing the clinical outcome after tendon surgery, aetiology, and methods of prevention. Seventeen consecutive ruptures in 14 patients were included. The incidence was 1.4%. Three patients declined tendon surgery. Eleven patients were treated with a free tendon graft. Only two patients showed excellent results regarding mobility in the thumb and/or fingers. Analysis of radiographs demonstrated sub-optimal placement of plate or screws in all cases. Rupture of a flexor tendon is a serious complication where the functional outcome after surgical reconstruction is uncertain. Early removal of the plate when the placement is sub-optimal or when local volar tenderness appears would probably prevent many ruptures. PMID:25162925

  5. Effects of mechanical vibration of the foot sole and ankle tendons on cutaneomuscular responses in man.

    PubMed

    Smith, Andrew C; Mummidisetty, Chaithanya K; Rymer, William Zev; Knikou, Maria

    2013-06-17

    The modulation of cutaneomuscular responses in response to mechanical vibration applied to the foot sole and to the ankle tendons was established in ten healthy subjects. The effects of mechanical vibration applied to the skin adjacent to the tibialis anterior (TA) and Achilles tendons were examined in two subjects. With the subjects seated, mechanical vibration applied to the TA and/or Achilles tendons significantly depressed the cutaneomuscular responses in all subjects, regardless of the frequency (50, 150, 250 Hz) of vibration. Mechanical vibration applied either to the foot sole or to the skin adjacent to the tendons induced no significant effects. The demonstration that mechanical vibration applied to muscle tendons exerts an inhibitory effect on cutaneomuscular responses supports the hypothesis that receptors that mediate body kinesthesia can be used as a vehicle to alter the spinal excitability state. The data suggests that tendon vibration could be utilized in neurological disorders to induce exogenous-mediated potentiation of presynaptic inhibition. PMID:23643990

  6. Effect of flexor sheath integrity on nutrient uptake by chicken flexor tendons

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.W.; Manske, P.R.; Lesker, P.A.

    1985-12-01

    The effect of varying degrees of flexor sheath integrity (sheath excised, incised, or incised and repaired) on the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by chicken flexor tendons in Zone II was studied. The tendons were either: normal and uninjured, lacerated and repaired, or uninjured except for vinculum longum ligation. Different degrees of sheath integrity did not influence the uptake of /sub 2/H-proline by the tendons. The tendon does not appear to be dependent on a synovial environment for nutrients and is capable of obtaining these nutrients by diffusion from the surrounding extracellular tissue fluid. Diffusion is the primary nutrient pathway to the flexor tendon in this area, because removing its major vascular attachment (i.e., the vinculum longum) did not effect proline uptake. Careful closure of the sheath with restoration of a synovial environment does not appear to be necessary for tendon nutrition.

  7. Allograft reconstruction of peroneus longus and brevis tendons tears arising from a single muscular belly. Case report and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuel J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-03-01

    Anatomic variants of the peroneal tendons may cause tendon disorders. Moreover, there is a lack of evidence on how to address chronic tendon pathology when a variant of the peroneal tendons is causing the patient's symptoms. We present a patient with an uncommon peroneal muscle presentation: a single muscular belly dividing into both the peroneus longus and brevis tendons. After extensive debridement of tendinopathic tissue, primary repair or tenodesis was not possible; therefore a unique solution for this problem was performed, reconstructing both peroneal tendons using a semitendinosus allograft. PMID:25682415

  8. Tendon cell outgrowth rates and morphology associated with kevlar-49.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Gordon, K E

    1988-12-01

    A rat tendon cell model was used to evaluate the in vitro biocompatibility of kevlar-49. The cell response to kevlar was compared to carbon AS-4 and nylon sutures. Three trials were run and cell growth rates were statistically similar for all the materials tested. A separate experiment was conducted in which the same fiber materials were placed in the same Petri dish. Again, the rates were similar for each material. Finally, the cells were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the three classic cell morphologies associated with this tendon cell model were observed. Also, cellular attachment to the fiber and cellular encapsulation of the fiber were identical for the three materials tested. Kevlar-49 proved to be comparable to carbon AS4 and nylon sutures in terms of cellular response and cell outgrowth rates. PMID:3235468

  9. Double tendon transfer for correction of drop-foot.

    PubMed

    Grauwin, M-Y; Wavreille, G; Fontaine, C

    2015-02-01

    Many conditions can cause foot drop, which makes walking difficult because the foot easily bumps into obstacles, or the knee must be kept more flexed than usual during the swing phase of gait, especially when going up stairs. Several techniques that have been described to correct foot drop rely on bone procedures or tendon transfer, with or without bone fixation. In this article, we describe a simple technique that is heavily used in leprosy-endemic countries and provides long-lasting results. It requires a double tendon transfer through the interosseous membrane of leg; the tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus are sutured to the tibialis anterior, and extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus, respectively, proximally to the extensor retinaculum. PMID:25623271

  10. Second-order wave effects on TLP tendon tension responses

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, H.; Mercier, R.S. [Shell E and P Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States). Offshore Structures

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a general procedure for analyzing the second-order wave effects on the tendon tension responses of a TLP. The approach solves both first- and second-order equation of motions for a TLP system in frequency domain. Viscous effects are included in the form of statistically linearized damping coefficients. An efficient algorithm has been devised for reducing the burden of second-order wave diffraction analysis, which selects the interacting frequency pairs according to springing frequency of interest to minimize the cost of computing quadratic transfer functions (QTFs) and allow accurate interpolation of QTFs. Moment statistics of the tension process are computed through an eigenvalue analysis. The developed method is applied to analyze the tendon tension responses of a TLP design in water depth of 3,000 ft.

  11. Avoidance of unfavourable results following primary flexor tendon surgery

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, D.; Giesen, T.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the biological problems faced by those managing primary flexor tendon injuries and explains why these problems still thwart attempts to achieve normal, or near normal, function after this injury, despite a century of surgical effort. It considers the historical background of the early 20th century attempts to improve the results and analyses the clinical usefulness of more recent research into tendon core and circumferential suture modification, including the authors’ work in this field, and changes in post-operative mobilisation over the last 50 years. More recent manipulation of the sheath to improve results and the future possibility of manipulation of adhesions are discussed. It also discusses other factors, e.g., the patient, the experience of the surgeon, the use of therapists, the timing of repair, complex injuries, injuries in zones other than zone 2, which can have a bearing on the results and considers how these can be modified to avoid an unfavourable outcome. PMID:24501468

  12. Biomechanical properties after pre-twist of canine patellar tendon.

    PubMed

    Kyung, H S; Ihn, J C; Kim, D H

    2001-01-01

    We studied what effect a rotational pre-twist of the patellar tendon had on its mechanical properties. We used the central strip of canine patellar tendons. The length, width and thickness of each specimen were measured and the specimens were mounted in custom-made aluminum pots. Five groups of 10 specimens each were measured with neutral rotation, 90 degrees external rotation, 180 degrees external rotation, 270 degrees external rotation and 360 degrees external rotation. The ultimate stress, ultimate strain, average elastic modulus, and strain energy density were measured. There were no statistically significant differences among the five groups. Twisting the graft up to 360 degrees did not decrease the biomechanical properties of the graft. PMID:11409445

  13. Acute Simultaneous Ruptures of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Patellar Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gwang Chul; Park, Sung-Hae

    2014-01-01

    Acute simultaneous rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and patellar tendon is a rare injury. We present a case report of a 32-year-old male patient with ruptured ACL and ipsilateral patellar tendon rupture sustained while playing baseball. Surgery was performed on the patellar tendon and the ACL simultaneously. The clinical and radiological outcomes of the treatment were successful. We present this case with a review of the literatures. PMID:24639949

  14. Incidence of Major Tendon Ruptures and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears in US Army Soldiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel W. White; Joseph C. Wenke; Dan S. Mosely; Sally B. Mountcastle; Carl J. Basamania

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although a rare event, the prevalence of major tendon rupture has increased in recent decades. Identification of risk factors is important for prevention purposes.Hypothesis: Race is a risk factor for major tendon ruptures.Study Design: Cohort study (prevalence); Level of evidence, 2.Methods: All patients admitted for surgical management of a rupture of a major tendon at Womack Army Medical Center,

  15. Neglected patellar tendon rupture: a case of reconstruction without quadriceps lengthening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bek; B. Demiralp; M. Kömürcü; A. ?ehirlio?lu

    2008-01-01

    Neglected rupture of the patellar tendon is a rare, can be easily missed in a group of patients. We present a 24 year old,\\u000a male patient who sustained right femoral diaphyseal and tibial plateau fractures and a patellar tendon rupture following a\\u000a motor vehicle accident. The fractures were treated by open reduction internal fixation but the patellar tendon rupture was

  16. Dose-related effects of extracorporeal shock waves on rabbit quadriceps tendon integrity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Maier; Thomas Tischer; Stefan Milz; Christoph Weiler; Andreas Nerlich; Christoph Pellengahr; Christoph Schmitz; Hans Jürgen Refior

    2002-01-01

    Background. Recently, morphological signs of damage were reported in rabbit Achilles tendon following extracorporeal shock wave application (ESWA) with an energy flux density (EFD) of 0.6 mJ\\/mm2. However, it is unknown whether or not the same can be found after ESWA to other tendons such as the quadriceps tendon. Methods. We investigated the effects of ESWA in vivo on rabbit

  17. Repair of ruptured quadriceps tendon with Leeds–Keio ligament following revision knee surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Rust; N. Tanna; D. D. M. Spicer

    2008-01-01

    We describe the use of the Leeds–Keio ligament to reconstruct a neglected quadriceps tendon rupture following revision knee\\u000a arthroplasty. The Leeds–Keio ligament has been used in the treatment of patellar tendon ruptures complicating primary knee\\u000a arthroplasty with good result—but may, as this report shows, also be successfully applied to address deficiencies of the quadriceps\\u000a tendon in the revision setting, with

  18. Spontaneous Tendon Ruptures in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivana Juric; Sanjin Racki; Petar Kes

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous tendon ruptures in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have been occasionally reported. We describe the largest group of patients with spontaneous rupture of major tendons so far reported. Rupture of 16 tendons occurred in 9 patients. The mean patient age was 52.78 years; 77.7% were male. Four patients were treated with hemodialysis, 4 received a renal transplant and

  19. Arthroscopic repair of the subscapularis tendon: indications, limits and technical features.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Buono, Angelo Del; Buda, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The rationale to anatomically repair this tendon is to restore the functional biomechanics of the shoulder. Clinical and imaging assessment are required before undertaking arthroscopy. In this way, associated pathologies of the biceps and labrum may be successfully addressed. The arthroscopic repair of the tendon implies to use suture anchors and reinsert the tendon itself over the footprint. Results after arthroscopy are comparable to those observed after open procedures. PMID:24367783

  20. An in-vivo experimental evaluation of He-Ne laser photostimulation in healing Achilles tendons.

    PubMed

    Elwakil, Tarek F

    2007-03-01

    There is no method of treatment that has been proven to accelerate the rate of tendon healing or to improve the quality of the regenerating tendon. Low level laser photostimulation has gained a considerable attention for enhancing tissue repair in a wide spectrum of applications. However, there is controversy regarding the effectiveness of laser photostimulation for improvement of the healing process of surgically repaired tendons. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate the role of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser photostimulation on the process of healing of surgically repaired Achilles tendons. Thirty unilateral Achilles tendons of 30 Raex rabbits were transected and immediately repaired. Operated Achilles tendons were randomly divided into two equal groups. Tendons at group A were subjected to He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) photostimulation, while tendons at group B served as a control group. Two weeks later, the repaired Achilles tendons were histopathologically and biomechanically evaluated. The histopathological findings suggest the favorable qualitative pattern of the newly synthesized collagen of the regenerating tendons after He-Ne laser photostimulation. The biomechanical results support the same favorable findings from the functional point of view as denoted by the better biomechanical properties of the regenerating tendons after He-Ne laser photostimulation with statistical significance (p tendons for a better functional outcome. It could be applied safely and effectively in humans, especially with respect to the proposed long-term clinical outcome. PMID:17160585

  1. Early Motion After Quadriceps and Patellar Tendon RepairsOutcomes With Single-Suture Augmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse L. West; James S. Keene; Lee D. Kaplan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Complications of immobilization after quadriceps and patellar tendon repairs include decreased patellar mobility, limited flexion, persistent pain, muscle weakness, and patella baja. In contrast, early motion limits muscle atrophy, accelerates tendon healing, and prevents joint stiffness.Hypothesis: Quadriceps and patellar tendon repairs protected with a “relaxing suture” are strong enough to safely permit early motion, full weightbearing, and brace-free ambulation.Study

  2. Arthroscopic repair of the subscapularis tendon: indications, limits and technical features

    PubMed Central

    Osti, Leonardo; Soldati, Francesco; Del Buono, Angelo; Buda, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Summary The rationale to anatomically repair this tendon is to restore the functional biomechanics of the shoulder. Clinical and imaging assessment are required before undertaking arthroscopy. In this way, associated pathologies of the biceps and labrum may be successfully addressed. The arthroscopic repair of the tendon implies to use suture anchors and reinsert the tendon itself over the footprint. Results after arthroscopy are comparable to those observed after open procedures. PMID:24367783

  3. Time–Dependent Conditioning Effects Are Important When Evaluating the Gliding Resistance of Flexor Tendon Repairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Zetlitz; A. M. Hart; A. C. Nicol; S. C. Wearing

    \\u000a Tensile strength and gliding resistance are key factors influencing the outcome of flexor tendon repairs. In contrast to estimates\\u000a of tensile strength, little is known about the effect of cyclic conditioning on the gliding resistance of tendon. This study\\u000a evaluated the effect of pre-conditioning on the internal-work-of-flexion (WOF), a measure of gliding resistance, of Flexor\\u000a Digitorum Profundus (FDP) tendons when

  4. The effect of antiseptic solution lavage on the palmar digital tendon sheath 

    E-print Network

    Baird, Aubrey Nicholas

    1989-01-01

    State University; D. V. M. , Auburn University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Jeffrey P. Watkins Wounds entering a tendon sheath often become a very serious problem in the equine. Infection of the tendon sheath frequently causes inflammation... VITA . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Page ~ 111 vr 1 2 7 16 53 60 63 V11') LIST OF TABLES Table Page Histologic inflammation scoring for each tendon sheath was based on a composite of the following parameters (scored by normal = 0, minimal = 1, mild...

  5. Giant cell tumor of the flexor hallucis longus tendon sheath: a case study.

    PubMed

    Findling, Jeff; Lascola, Natalie K; Groner, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath is infrequently documented in the foot and even less near the ankle. This case report involves such a tumor of the flexor hallucis longus tendon presenting at the posterior ankle. Diagnosis was aided by magnetic resonance imaging, and treatment consisted of complete surgical excision. Pathologic examination verified the diagnosis of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed no remnants or recurrence of tumor 1 year after surgery. PMID:21406703

  6. Is There Any Correlation Between Patient Height and Patellar Tendon Length?

    PubMed Central

    Navali, Amir M; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari

    2015-01-01

    Background: A potential specific problem of patellar tendon graft in ACL reconstruction is the possibility of graft-tunnel mismatch which could be more problematic with anatomic ACL reconstruction where the femoral tunnel is placed low on the lateral wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The occasional occurrence of this mismatch raises the question that whether a correlation exists between patient height and patellar tendon length. The purpose of the present study was to measure patellar tendon length as an anthropometric finding and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between patient height and patellar tendon length. Methods: Intra-operative measurement of patellar tendon length was carried out in 267 consecutive patients during bone-patellar tendon-bone (BTB) graft ACL reconstruction. Patient age, gender, height were recorded. The patellar tendon measurements were done independently by two surgeons and the possible inter-observer errors were checked. The data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean length of the patellar tendon was 46.4 ± 4.8 mm (Mean ± SD) with a range of 32–61 mm. The mean patient height was 177 ± 7 cm (Mean ± SD) with a range of 159–197 cm. A weak positive correlations were found between patient height and patellar tendon length (Pearson r = 0.24, P< 0.001). The linear regression equation for patellar tendon length (y, in millimeters) as a function of patient height (x, in centimeters) can be expressed as y=16.54 + 0.17x. Conclusions: Our study showed a weak correlation between patellar tendon length and patient height. This finding is in contrast to the usual measurements in human anthropometry in which taller individuals have normally longer tendons and ligaments. The graft-tunnel mismatch may be the result of this variation.

  7. Quadriceps tendon ruptures—is there a complete functional restitution?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Wenzl; R. Kirchner; K. Seide; S. Strametz; C. Jürgens

    2004-01-01

    From January 1986 to November 1999, 35 patients with 36 traumatic ruptures of the quadriceps tendon, all without medical risk factors, were treated (33 men, 2 women; mean age 55 years). Thirty patients were operated within 14 days after trauma. With an average follow up of 55.4 months (7–168) 29 of 30 still living patients (96.7%) were studied retrospectively. Questionnaire

  8. Bilateral, simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon: a diagnostic pitfall?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Neubauer; M. Wagner; T. Potschka; M. Riedl

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral, simultaneous quadriceps tendon rupture (QTR) represents a rare entity and delay in establishing the correct diagnosis\\u000a is not uncommon. Another three cases are reported here and in all the correct diagnosis was missed initially. A review of\\u000a the English and German literature retrieved 105 cases of bilateral, simultaneous QTR and in 32 patients (30.5%) the correct\\u000a diagnosis was established

  9. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quadriceps tendon autograft.

    PubMed

    Rabuck, Stephen J; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H; West, Robin V

    2013-01-01

    A multitude of graft options exist including both allograft and autograft sources for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. With recent concerns regarding the early graft failure and cost-effectiveness of allograft sources, more attention has been directed toward autograft options. However, autograft harvest has been associated with specific morbidity that can result in suboptimal outcomes. The quadriceps tendon is an excellent biomechanical and biologic option. PMID:23177469

  10. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. PMID:25266273

  11. Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with quadriceps tendon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Carlos Noronha

    2002-01-01

    The author describes the technique he uses to reconstruct the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) arthroscopically with autologous bone–quadriceps tendon (BQT) graft. The patellar bone is fixed in a femoral tunnel about 2.5 cm long, in a position that allows the tendinous extremity of the graft to appear on the extra-articular exit of the tibial tunnel. The tibial tunnel is filled,

  12. Muscle fiber type, Achilles tendon length, potentiation, and running economy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; McCarthy, John P; Carter, Stephen J; Bamman, Marcas M; Gaddy, Emily S; Fisher, Gordon; Katsoulis, Kostantina; Plaisance, Eric P; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a potential model for how muscle fiber type, Achilles tendon length, stretch-shortening cycle potentiation (SSCP), and leg strength interact with running economy. Twenty trained male distance runners 24-40 years of age served as subjects. Running economy (net oxygen uptake) was measured while running on a treadmill. Leg press SSCP(force) and SSCP(velocity) were determined by measuring the difference in velocity between a static leg press throw and a countermovement leg press throw. Vertical jump SSCP was determined by measuring the difference in jump height between a static jump and a drop jump from a 20.3-cm bench. Tendon length was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and muscle fiber type was made from a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy. Type IIx muscle fiber percent (r = 0.70, p < 0.001) and leg strength (r = 0.95, p < 0.001) were positively and independently related to late eccentric force development. Achilles tendon length (r = 0.42, p ? 0.05) and late eccentric force during stretch-shortening cycle (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) were independently related to SSCP(force). SSCP(force) was related to SSCP(velocity), which in turn was related to running economy (r = 0.61, p < 0.01). These results suggest that longer Achilles tendon length, type II fiber, and muscular leg strength may enhance the potential for SSCP, running economy, and physiological effort while running. PMID:25719915

  13. Flexor tendon injuries in children: Rehabilitative options and confounding factors.

    PubMed

    von der Heyde, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Research pertaining to the rehabilitation of children with flexor tendon injuries is less prevalent than that in the adult population, and most authors agree that immobilization protocols comprise a safe and efficacious choice. This article presents suggested protocols and correlated literature regarding the outcomes of immobilization, early passive motion, and early active motion in the pediatric population. Confounding factors which influence rehabilitative choices, both personal and environmental, are also presented. PMID:25840491

  14. Clinical allograft of a calcaneal tendon in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lemoy, Marie-Josee; Summers, Laura; Colagross-Schouten, Angela

    2014-09-01

    A 5.5-y-old male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) housed in an outdoor field cage presented for severe trauma involving the left calcaneal tendon. Part of the management of this wound included an allograft of the calcaneal tendon from an animal that was euthanized for medical reasons. This case report describes the successful medical and surgical management of a macaque with a significant void of the calcaneal tendon. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of a successful tendon allograft in a rhesus macaque for clinical purposes. PMID:25255076

  15. Prospective study of change in patellar tendon abnormality on imaging and pain over a volleyball season

    PubMed Central

    Malliaras, P; Cook, J; Ptasznik, R; Thomas, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective Patellar tendon injury, defined by tendon abnormality (TA) on imaging and by pain, is common among volleyball players, but little is known about change in this injury over a volleyball season. Increased activity in the season compared with the off season may result in the development of TA and/or pain. This study investigated the behaviour of TA and pain over a competitive volleyball season. Methods Tendon abnormality and pain were measured in 101 volleyball players at the beginning and end of a season. Pain was measured with the single leg decline squat test, which loads the patellar tendon, and TA was detected with ultrasound imaging. Hours of weekly activity were measured and compared during the season and the off season. The proportion of tendons that underwent development and resolution in TA and/or pain over the season was investigated. Results Hours of weekly activity was greater during the season than in the off season. Most of the tendons investigated (66.3%) did not undergo a change in TA or pain over the season. Tendon abnormality and/or pain developed in 16.6% of tendons and resolved in 11.2%. Conclusions The tendons of volleyball players respond variably to the increased load over the season. Change in TA and pain does not appear to be entirely dependent upon load. PMID:16505088

  16. The impact of Smad3 loss of function on scarring and adhesion formation during tendon healing

    PubMed Central

    Katzel, Evan B.; Wolenski, Matthew; Loiselle, Alayna E.; Basile, Patrick; Flick, Lisa M.; Langstein, Howard N.; Hilton, Matthew J.; Awad, Hani A.; Hammert, Warren C.; O’Keefe, Regis J.

    2011-01-01

    Studies were performed evaluating the role of Smad3, a transcription factor mediating canonical TGF-? signaling, on scarring and adhesion formation using an established flexor digitorum longus (FDL) tendon repair model. In unoperated animals the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) range of motion (ROM) was similar in Smad3?/? and wild type (WT) mice while the basal tensile strength of Smad3?/? tendons was significantly (39%) lower than in WT controls. At 14 and 21 days following repair Smad3?/? MTP ROM reached approximately 50% of the level of the basal level and was twice that observed in WT tendon repairs, consistent with reduced adhesion formation. Smad3?/? and WT maximal tensile repair strength on post-operative day 14 was similar. However, Smad3?/? tendon repairs maximal tensile strength on day 21 was 42% lower than observed in matched WT mice, mimicking the relative decrease in strength observed in Smad3?/? FDL tendons under basal conditions. Histology showed reduced "healing callus" in Smad3?/? tendons while quantitative PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry showed decreased col3a1 and col1a1 and increased MMP9 gene and protein expression in repaired Smad3?/? tendons. Thus, Smad3?/? mice have reduced collagen and increased MMP9 gene and protein expression and decreased scarring following tendon FDL tendon repair. PMID:20842701

  17. Heterotopic mineralization (ossification or calcification) in tendinopathy or following surgical tendon trauma

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Etienne J O; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Hart, David A

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic tendon mineralization (ossification or calcification), which may be a feature of tendinopathy or which may develop following surgical trauma (repair or graft harvest), has not received much attention. The purpose of this article is to review the prevalence, mechanisms and consequences of heterotopic tendon mineralization and to identify the gaps in our current understanding. We focus on endochondral heterotopic ossification and draw on knowledge of the mechanisms of this process in other tissues and conditions. Finally, we introduce a novel murine Achilles tendon needle injury model, which will enable us to further study the mechanisms and biomechanical consequences of tendon mineralization. PMID:22974213

  18. Fiberoptic measurement of tendon forces is influenced by skin movement artifact.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Hamel, Andrew J; Piazza, Stephen J; Sharkey, Neil A

    2003-03-01

    Fiberoptic cables have previously been used for tendon force measurements in vivo. To measure forces in the Achilles tendon, a cable is passed mediolaterally through the skin and tendon, transverse to the loading axis. As the tendon is loaded, its fibers compress the cable and modulate the intensity of transmitted light, which can be related to tendon force by an in situ calibration. The relative movement between skin and tendon at the cable entry and exit sites may cause error by bending the cable and thus altering transducer output. Cadaver simulations of walking were conducted to compare fiberoptic measurements of Achilles tendon forces to known loads applied to the tendon by actuators attached in series. Force measurement errors, which were high when the skin was intact (RMS errors 24-81% peak forces), decreased considerably after skin removal (RMS errors 10-33% peak forces). The fiberoptic transducer is a useful tool for measurement of tendon forces in situ under natural loading conditions when skin can be removed, but caution should be exercised during in vivo use of this technique or under circumstances where skin is in contact with the fiberoptic cable at the insertion and exit sites. PMID:12594993

  19. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chung-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2014-01-01

    BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon. PMID:25415472

  20. BILATERAL PATELLAR TENDON RUPTURE AT DIFFERENT SITES WITHOUT PREDISPOSING SYSTEMIC DISEASE OR STEROID USE

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Benjamin C.; Tancev, Alex; Fowler, Ty

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures are extremely rare, and even more rare in patients without systemic disease. We describe bilateral simultaneous patellar tendon disruptions in the absence of systemic disease or steroid usage, with one tendon disruption at the inferior pole and the other an intrasubstance tear. The different locations of the ruptures are also exceedingly rare, as only two cases of non-identical ruptures have ever been reported. We also review all bilateral patellar tendon rupture case reports from English and German literature. PMID:19742095

  1. Tibialis Anterior Tendon Lengthening: Adjunctive Treatment of Plantar Lateral Column Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S; Kikuchi, Mamoru; Attinger, Christopher E

    2015-01-01

    Tendon lengthening and rebalancing are adjunctive procedures for the treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot. For example, the equinus deformity has been implicated as a major deforming force and is surgically treated by lengthening the Achilles tendon. A contracted tibialis anterior tendon can also play a role by potentiating a varus rotational force, increasing the pressures along the lateral column of the forefoot, and resulting in the development or chronicity of an ulceration. We present a novel application of tibialis anterior tendon lengthening for the adjunctive treatment of chronic ulcerations in the diabetic foot. PMID:25977151

  2. [Repair of Achilles tendon rupture and early rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Brambila, H A; Cristiani, D G; Tinajero, E C; Burgos-Elías, V

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of Achilles tendon tear has increased worldwide. Several factors have been described that help explain the mechanism of injury. The treatment of choice continues to be surgery; conservative treatment is reserved for patients with a high morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment consists of an open or percutaneous technique. In both modalities we try to achieve prompt mobilization of the operated tendon to obtain better and quicker healing. This prospective study describes our experience with 35 patients enrolled from February 2004 to August 2010. They were treated with open repair, physical rehabilitation and active ankle mobilization before the second postoperative week, and with colchicine. We obtained satisfactory results. Patients recovered complete mobility approximately at postoperative week 6, and from weeks 8 to 10 they could resume their daily work activities and participate in sports and recreational activities. Patients were assessed according to the ATRS classification to measure their clinical results. We had no infections or other major complications. We conclude that the open surgical repair of Achilles tendon tear, prompt mobility, and colchicine provide good results. PMID:23323299

  3. Overload and neovascularization of shoulder tendons in volleyball players

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In overhead sports like volleyball, the onset of a rotator cuff tendinopathy due to functional overload is a common observation. An angiofibroblastic etiopathogenesis has been hypothesized, whereby a greater anaerobic metabolism occurs in critical zones of the tendon with a lower degree of vascularization; this would induce collagen and extracellular matrix degradation, that could then trigger a compensatory neovascularization response. We performed a clinical observational study of 80 elite volleyball players, monitoring the perfusion values of the supraspinatus tendons by oximetry. Results No statistically significant differences were found between the oximetry data and age, sex or years of sports activity, nor when comparing the right and left arm or the dominant and non-dominant arm. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominant arm values in relation to the competitive role, higher values being obtained in outside hitters (62.7%) than middle hitters (53.7%) (p?=?0.01), opposite hitters (55.5%) (p?=?0.02) and libero players (54.4%) (p?=?0.008), whereas there were no differences in setters (56.2%) (p?>?0.05). Conclusions The different tendon vascularization values found in players with different roles in the team may be attributed to a response to the specific biomechanical demands posed by the different overhead throwing roles. PMID:22853746

  4. [Proximal and distal ruptures of the biceps brachii tendon].

    PubMed

    Klonz, A; Loitz, D; Reilmann, H

    2003-09-01

    Proximal ruptures. Ruptures of the long head of the M. biceps humeri are commonly caused by degenerative changes within the tendon. Non-operative treatment gives good results, the loss of power regarding elbow flexion and supination amounts to only 8-21%. Refixation may be indicated for cosmetic reasons and offers a small but evident improvement of flexion and supination power. Deformity of the slipped muscle can be corrected effectively. Residual complaints after conservative treatment often result from associated subacromial problems. Distal ruptures. Ruptures of the distal tendon should be treated operatively. The loss of power after conservative treatment is evident (30-40% for flexion, >50% for supination). Extra-anatomical tenodesis to the brachialis muscle or anatomical fixation to the radial tuberosity can be applied. Flexion power and cosmesis can be addressed by both techniques. If supination strength is to be restored, the tendon has to be fixed anatomically. Preparation of the tuberosity bears the risk of heterotopic ossification or nerve damage. Mini-open techniques, using only a limited anterior approach, may decrease risks. PMID:14959750

  5. Outcome of early active mobilization after extensor tendon repair

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Narender; Sharma, Mohan; Sharma, VD; Patni, Purnima

    2008-01-01

    Background: Traditionally the repaired extensor tendons have been treated postoperatively in static splints for several weeks, leading to formation of adhesions and prolonged rehabilitation. Early mobilization using dynamic splints is common, but associated with many shortcomings. We attempted to study the results of early active mobilization, using a simple static splint, and easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study 26 cases of cut extensor tendons in Zone V to VIII were treated with primary or delayed primary repair. Following this, early active mobilization was undertaken, using an easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. The results were assessed according to the criteria of Dargan at six weeks and one year. Results: All the 26 patients were followed up for one year. 20 out of 26 patients were below 30 years of age, involving the dominant hand more commonly (16 patients, 62%). Agriculture instruments were the most common mode of injury (13 patients, 50%). The common site for injury was extensor zone VI (42%, n = 11). Conclusion: Rehabilitation done for repaired extensor tendon injuries by active mobilization plan using a simple static splint has shown good results. PMID:19753162

  6. Influence of Age on Patellar Tendon Reflex Response

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, Annapoorna; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan; Tham, Lai Kuan; Lim, Kheng Seang; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar

    2013-01-01

    Background A clinical parameter commonly used to assess the neurological status of an individual is the tendon reflex response. However, the clinical method of evaluation often leads to subjective conclusions that may differ between examiners. Moreover, attempts to quantify the reflex response, especially in older age groups, have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to examine the influence of age on the magnitude of the patellar tendon reflex response. Methodology/Principal Findings This study was conducted using the motion analysis technique with the reflex responses measured in terms of knee angles. Forty healthy subjects were selected and categorized into three different age groups. Patellar reflexes were elicited from both the left and right patellar tendons of each subject at three different tapping angles and using the Jendrassik maneuver. The findings suggested that age has a significant effect on the magnitude of the reflex response. An angle of 45° may be the ideal tapping angle at which the reflex can be elicited to detect age-related differences in reflex response. The reflex responses were also not influenced by gender and were observed to be fairly symmetrical. Conclusions/Significance Neurologically normal individuals will experience an age-dependent decline in patellar reflex response. PMID:24260483

  7. Management of achilles tendon injury: A current concepts systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Vivek; Jaggard, Matthew; Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Uzoigwe, Chika; Gulati, Pooja; Ismail, Nizar; Gibbons, Charles; Gupte, Chinmay

    2015-05-18

    Achilles tendon rupture has been on the rise over recent years due to a variety of reasons. It is a debilitating injury with a protracted and sometimes incomplete recovery. Management strategy is a controversial topic and evidence supporting a definite approach is limited. Opinion is divided between surgical repair and conservative immobilisation in conjunction with functional orthoses. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Pubmed, Medline and EmBase databases were searched for Achilles tendon and a variety of synonymous terms. A recent wealth of reporting suggests that conservative regimens with early weight bearing or mobilisation have equivalent or improved rates of re-rupture to operative regimes. The application of dynamic ultrasound assessment of tendon gap may prove crucial in minimising re-rupture and improving outcomes. Studies employing functional assessments have found equivalent function between operative and conservative treatments. However, no specific tests in peak power, push off strength or athletic performance have been reported and whether an advantage in operative treatment exists remains undetermined. PMID:25992315

  8. Management of achilles tendon injury: A current concepts systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Vivek; Jaggard, Matthew; Al-Nammari, Shafic Said; Uzoigwe, Chika; Gulati, Pooja; Ismail, Nizar; Gibbons, Charles; Gupte, Chinmay

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendon rupture has been on the rise over recent years due to a variety of reasons. It is a debilitating injury with a protracted and sometimes incomplete recovery. Management strategy is a controversial topic and evidence supporting a definite approach is limited. Opinion is divided between surgical repair and conservative immobilisation in conjunction with functional orthoses. A systematic search of the literature was performed. Pubmed, Medline and EmBase databases were searched for Achilles tendon and a variety of synonymous terms. A recent wealth of reporting suggests that conservative regimens with early weight bearing or mobilisation have equivalent or improved rates of re-rupture to operative regimes. The application of dynamic ultrasound assessment of tendon gap may prove crucial in minimising re-rupture and improving outcomes. Studies employing functional assessments have found equivalent function between operative and conservative treatments. However, no specific tests in peak power, push off strength or athletic performance have been reported and whether an advantage in operative treatment exists remains undetermined. PMID:25992315

  9. Subject-specific finite element analysis to characterize the influence of geometry and material properties in Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Shim, Vickie B; Fernandez, Justin W; Gamage, Prasad B; Regnery, Camille; Smith, David W; Gardiner, Bruce S; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F

    2014-11-28

    Achilles tendon injuries including rupture are one of the most frequent musculoskeletal injuries, but the mechanisms for these injuries are still not fully understood. Previous in vivo and experimental studies suggest that tendon rupture mainly occurs in the tendon mid-section and predominantly more in men than women due to reasons yet to be identified. Therefore we aimed to investigate possible mechanisms for tendon rupture using finite element (FE) analysis. Specifically, we have developed a framework for generating subject-specific FE models of human Achilles tendon. A total of ten 3D FE models of human Achilles tendon were generated. Subject-specific geometries were obtained using ultrasound images and a mesh morphing technique called Free Form Deformation. Tendon material properties were obtained by performing material optimization that compared and minimized difference in uniaxial tension experimental results with model predictions. Our results showed that both tendon geometry and material properties are highly subject-specific. This subject-specificity was also evident in our rupture predictions as the locations and loads of tendon ruptures were different in all specimens tested. A parametric study was performed to characterize the influence of geometries and material properties on tendon rupture. Our results showed that tendon rupture locations were dependent largely on geometry while rupture loads were more influenced by tendon material properties. Future work will investigate the role of microstructural properties of the tissue on tendon rupture and degeneration by using advanced material descriptions. PMID:25458149

  10. Simultaneous chronic rupture of quadriceps tendon and contra-lateral patellar tendon in a patient affected by tertiary hyperparatiroidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Grecomoro; Lawrence Camarda; Umberto Martorana

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the extensor mechanism of the knee are very rare. They tend to increase considerably in patients with\\u000a metabolic diseases such as chronic renal failure, hyperparathyroidism, diabetes, gout, and systemic lupus erythematosus. The\\u000a reported case regards a 48-year-old man with chronic, spontaneous and simultaneous quadriceps, and contra-lateral patellar\\u000a tendon rupture. The patient suffered from chronic renal failure and

  11. Arthroscopic Augmentation With Subscapularis Tendon in Anterior Shoulder Instability With Capsulolabral Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Maiotti, Marco; Massoni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of chronic shoulder instability with poor quality of the anterior capsulolabral tissue is still controversial. In these cases the Latarjet procedure is certainly more effective in preventing recurrence than an arthroscopic capsular repair. However, several studies have reported a variety of severe complications related to the Latarjet procedure because of the use of bone augmentation and hardware implantation; moreover, the arthroscopic version of the Latarjet procedure is technically difficult and potentially dangerous because of the proximity of neurovascular structures. The aim of this report is to describe an innovative arthroscopic technique consisting of an augmentation of the anterior capsulolabral tissue using the articular portion of the subscapularis tendon and knotless suture anchors paired with high-strength tape for its fixation to the anterior glenoid edge. In the absence of severe bone deficiency of the anterior glenoid edge, this procedure can minimize arthroscopic technique failures, restoring the anterior capsulolabral wall without any significant reduction of shoulder functionality. PMID:24266004

  12. Decreased loading following rotator cuff tears leads to improved biceps tendon properties in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Peltz, Cathryn D.; Hsu, Jason E.; Zgonis, Miltiadis H.; Trasolini, Nicholas A.; Glaser, David L.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of biceps tendon changes following rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that increased loading on the biceps tendon following rotator cuff tears will result in further detrimental changes while decreased loading will result in increased organization and more normal tendon composition. Additionally, we hypothesized that changes with altered loading will begin at the proximal insertion into bone and progress along the tendon length at later time points. Materials and methods Supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon detachments in rats were followed by various loading protocols at various time points. Regional changes in cellularity, cell shape, collagen organization, and matrix proteins of the long head of the biceps tendon were determined by histologic measures and immunohistochemistry. Results Increased loading following detachments resulted in more disorganized collagen after only 1 week and compositional changes by 4 weeks. By 8 weeks, decreased loading resulted in increased organization, decreased cellularity, more elongated cell shape and more normal tendon composition. Organizational changes with increased loading began in the intra-articular space and progressed along the tendon length with time. Conclusions Combined with previous findings of decreased mechanics with increased loading, these results indicate increased compressive loading away from the proximal insertion into bone as a mechanism for biceps tendon pathology in the presence of rotator cuff tears. The striking improvements with decreased loading further support increased loading as a mechanism for biceps tendon pathology as removal of this load led to improvements in tendon histology, organization and composition. Level of evidence Basic Science Study PMID:21393021

  13. Effects of Stress Deprivation on Lubricin Synthesis and Gliding of Flexor Tendons in a Canine Model in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Long; Zhao, Chunfeng; Jay, Gregory D.; Schmid, Thomas M.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lubricin facilitates boundary lubrication of cartilage. The synthesis of lubricin in cartilage is regulated by mechanical stimuli, especially shear force. Lubricin is also found in flexor tendons. However, little is known about the effect of mechanical loading on lubricin synthesis in tendons or about the function of lubricin in flexor tendons. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of mechanical loading to lubricin expression and gliding resistance of flexor tendons. Methods: Flexor tendons were harvested from canine forepaws that had been suspended without weight-bearing for twenty-one days and from the contralateral forepaws that had been allowed free motion. Lubricin expression in each flexor tendon was investigated with real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and immunohistochemistry. Lubricin in the flexor tendon was extracted and quantified with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The friction between the flexor tendon and the proximal pulley was measured. Results: The non-weight-bearing flexor tendons had a 40% reduction of lubricin expression (p < 0.01) and content (p < 0.01) compared with the flexor tendons in the contralateral limb. However, the gliding resistance of the tendons in the non-weight-bearing limb was the same as that of the tendons on the contralateral, weight-bearing side. Conclusions: Mechanical loading affected lubricin expression in flexor tendons, resulting in a 40% reduction of lubricin content, but these changes did not affect the gliding resistance of the flexor tendons. Clinical Relevance: The gliding resistance of flexor tendons was not affected after a period of limited motion. This suggests that physical activity after a short period of limited motion does not lead to wear of intact tendons and their surrounding tissue. PMID:23389791

  14. Complete avulsion of the hamstring tendons from the ischial tuberosity. A report of two cases sustained in judo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Kurosawa; K Nakasita; H Nakasita; S Sasaki; S Takeda

    1996-01-01

    Rupture of the hamstring tendon is a rare injury. Two cases of complete rupture of the hamstring tendons sustained while playing judo are reported. The diagnosis of a rupture of the hamstring tendons was difficult from physical examination because of severe pain on knee or hip joint movement. Magnetic resonance imaging was non-invasive and showed the lesion clearly. In one

  15. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon as an initial presentation of alkaptonuria—a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo Yong Chua; Haw-Chong Chang

    2006-01-01

    Unilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon is not uncommon, but bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture is a rare occurrence and is usually associated with some underlying predisposing condition. We describe a case of a previously healthy patient who presents with bilateral spontaneous rupture of both quadriceps tendon. Investigations revealed that he had underlying alkaptonuria which was previously undiagnosed. Alkaptonuria is

  16. Effects of plantar cutaneo-muscular and tendon vibration on posture and balance during quiet and perturbed stance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Thompson; Marc Bélanger; Joyce Fung

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of lower limb somatosensory information by tendon or plantar vibration produces directionally specific, vibration-induced falling reactions that depend on the tendon or the region of the sole that is vibrated. This study characterized the effects of different patterns of plantar cutaneo-muscular vibration and bilateral Achilles tendon vibration (ATV) on the postural strategies observed during quiet and perturbed stance. Twelve

  17. The role of recreational sport activity in Achilles tendon ruptureA clinical, pathoanatomical, and sociological study of 292 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Jozsa; M. Kvist; B. J. Balint; A. Reffy; M. Jarvinen; M. Lehto; M. Barzo

    1989-01-01

    During the last few decades, the incidence of tendon ruptures has increased in civilized countries. Our ma terial comprises 749 patients who had 832 tendon ruptures treated surgically between 1972 and 1985. There were no competitive athletes among the patients studied. There were 292 single ruptures of the Achilles tendon, 274 of the proximal biceps brachii, 113 of the extensor

  18. Analysis of the gliding pattern of the canine flexor digitorum profundus tendon through the A2 pulley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeharu Uchiyama; Peter C. Amadio; Lawrence J. Berglund; Kai-Nan An

    2008-01-01

    Friction between a tendon and its pulley was first quantified using the concept of the arc of contact. Studies of human tendons conformed closely to a theoretical nylon cable\\/nylon rod model. However, we observed differences in measured friction that depended on the direction of motion in the canine model. We hypothesized that fibrocartilaginous nodules in the tendon affected the measurements

  19. Spatial variations in Achilles tendon shear wave speed Ryan J. DeWall a,b,n

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    . Introduction Achilles tendon injury, e.g. tendinopathy, can lead to chronic pain and impairment. The choice of injury can be challenging, in part due to the complexity of Achilles tendon anatomy and mechanics into the location and presentation of tendon injury in an indivi- dual. Hence, there is a need for an improved

  20. Inuence of bone mineral density, age, and strain rate on the failure mode of human Achilles tendons

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    tuberosity of the calcaneus where the tendon inserts. Both types of injuries can be caused by similar loading types of injuries, what determines whether the tendon or the bone will fail ®rst? Previous studies have tendons Tishya A.L. Wren a,b,*, Scott A. Yerby a,b , Gary S. Beaupre a,b , Dennis R. Carter a

  1. Neovascularisation in chronic tendon injuries detected with colour Doppler ultrasound in horse and man: implications for research and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mads Kristoffersen; Lars Öhberg; Christopher Johnston; Håkan Alfredson

    2005-01-01

    Recent research on chronic painful Achilles tendons in humans using ultrasonography and immunohistochemistry, has demonstrated an association between neurovascular ingrowth and tendon pain. In horses, chronic debilitating tendon conditions are well-known to be very difficult to treat, and the background to impaired function and pain is not scientifically clarified. In a collaborative research project between the Sports Medicine Unit in

  2. Is ultrasound diagnosis reliable in acute extensor tendon injuries of the knee?

    PubMed

    Swamy, Girish N; Nanjayan, Shashi K; Yallappa, Sachin; Bishnoi, Amit; Pickering, Simon A W

    2012-12-01

    Ruptures of the patellar and quadriceps tendon are rare injuries requiring immediate repair to re-establish knee extensor continuity and allow early motion. Ultrasound is extensively used as a diagnostic tool before surgery on acute traumatic tears of the patellar tendon and quadriceps tendons. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of sonography in diagnosing quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture and in differentiating partial from complete tears. We conducted a retrospective review of 51 consecutive patients who had a surgical intervention for suspected acute quadriceps and patellar tendon rupture over a 5-year period. Intra-operative findings were compared with pre-operative clinical examination. Radiographs, ultrasound and MRI reports were reviewed. On clinical examination, 22 patients had a suspected patellar tendon rupture and 29 patients had a suspected quadriceps tendon rupture. Diagnosis was confirmed by clinical examination and plain radiographs alone in 13 patients, with additional ultrasound performed in 24 patients and MRI scan performed in 14 patients. There were 8 false positives out of 24 [33.3%] in the ultrasound proven group and 1 false positive out of 13 [7.69%] in the clinical examination and radiographs only group. MRI was 100% accurate. We conclude that ultrasonography is not a reliable method in establishing the diagnosis of acute injuries to the extensor mechanism of the knee, particularly the quadriceps tendon ruptures in the obese and the very muscular patients. If there is clinical ambiguity, MRI scan is a better investigation tool before undertaking surgical treatment. PMID:23409573

  3. Spontaneous and simultaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Figueroa; Rafael Calvo; Alex Vaisman

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon is an uncommon and serious injury that usually occurs in middle aged to elderly patients. It is frequently associated with chronic metabolic disorders like diabetes, hiperparathyroidism, gout, chronic renal failure or the chronic use of steroids.We report a case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with osteogenesis imperfecta.

  4. Ultrasonographic Tendon Alteration in Relation to Parathyroid Dysfunction in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Dahlia A; El-Azizi, Noran O; Abdel Meged, Ali H; Al-Hoseiny, Sameh A; Hamada, Abdelhady M; Sabry, Moshira H

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To find the nature of tendon involvement in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on regular hemodialysis (RD), and its relationship to parathyroid hormone (PTH) level using ultrasonography (US). METHOD A total of 50 CKD patients on RD subjected to musculoskeletal examination of knee and ankle, laboratory evaluation, and US of quadriceps tendon and Achilles tendon were involved. RESULTS Ankle joint tenderness was the most frequent sign on examination. US of the Achilles tendons showed tenderness during probing in 44% patients, calcific deposition in 24% patients, abnormal peritendon tissue in 20% patients, and abnormal anteroposterior (A-P) middle and distal one-third thicknesses of the Achilles tendon in 20% and 18% patients, respectively. PTH positively correlated with the duration of dialysis, serum phosphorus level, presence of calcific deposit, and increased thickness of the Achilles tendon. CONCLUSION The most common ultrasonographic finding in CKD patients on RD was Achilles tendon tenderness during probing. PTH level positively correlated with the duration of dialysis, presence of calcific deposit, and increased thickness of Achilles tendon. PMID:25674023

  5. Ultrasonography as a reliable diagnostic tool in old quadriceps tendon ruptures: a prospective multicentre study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-E. Heyde; K. Mahlfeld; P. F. Stahel; R. Kayser

    2005-01-01

    Quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon injury. In the majority of cases, predispositions as recurrent microtrauma or degenerative changes are present. The diagnosis of acute quadriceps tendon ruptures can usually be made by clinical examination. Ultrasonography has been shown as a reliable, inexpensive and easily available diagnostic tool to confirm the diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated the clinical value

  6. Simultaneous rupture of bilateral quadriceps tendon and rotator cuff tear: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, H T

    2012-03-01

    This is a case report of a patient who sustained both a bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture and a complete rotator cuff tear. Overuse is a known risk factor for rotator cuff tears, but this case suggests that it can also be a risk factor for quadriceps tendon rupture. PMID:23155972

  7. Traumatic rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a 16-year-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Adolphson

    1992-01-01

    Traumatic rupture of the quadriceps tendon is well known to occur in middle-aged men [3, 5], in patients on hemodialysis for renal failure [2, 9, 12], and in patients with diabetes [1], but only very rarely in young and healthy women. We report a case of traumatic rupture of the quadriceps tendon of a girl without any of the predisposing

  8. Spontaneous and simultaneous rupture of both quadriceps tendons in a patient with chronic renal failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Hwan Kim; Mohamed Shafi; Yeon Soo Lee; Jin Young Kim; Weon Yoo Kim; Chang Whan Han

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous bilateral rupture of the quadriceps tendons without a significant history of trauma is an uncommon disease. It is generally associated with chronic metabolic disorders such as chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Here, we report a case of spontaneous bilateral tendon rupture in a patient on chronic hemodialysis for the past 5 years. We performed a preoperative MRI to confirm

  9. Posterior tibial tendon entrapment within an intact ankle mortise: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Allison M; Bowlin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The present case report demonstrates a rare finding associated with irreducible ankle fracture dislocations. To our knowledge, posterior tibial tendon entrapment with an intact ankle mortise has not yet been documented in published studies. In the case of our patient, a high-energy, 12-ft fall resulted in a comminuted intra-articular fracture of the medial malleolus, confirmed by the initial radiographs. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging showed the Achilles tendon to be ruptured and the posterior tibial tendon to be both displaced and entrapped between the medial malleolar fracture fragments, preventing initial closed reduction. At operative repair for the ruptured Achilles tendon and the medial malleolus fracture, the posterior tibial tendon was removed from the fracture site and was found to be intact with no evidence of laceration or rupture. The tendon was returned back to its anatomic position, and the tendon sheath was reapproximated. Although uncommon, it is important that entrapment of the posterior tibial tendon be considered in cases of irreducible ankle fracture. This injury type can be addressed during open reduction internal fixation to achieve reduction. PMID:25441277

  10. Comparative biomechanical analysis of a new circumferential flexor tendon repair and a modified Kessler repair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Ion; P. J. Sykes; O. C. S. Cassell; D. M. O'Doherty; A. M. Roberts

    1997-01-01

    We present the technical details and the results of a biomechanical analysis of a new type of circumferential flexor tendon repair, designed with the more stringent requirements of zone II injuries in mind. Apart from good initial strength we aimed for a design with little bulk at the repair site and good control of the tendon edges.The new repair is

  11. Positioning Techniques to Reduce the Occurrence of DeQuervain's Tendonitis in Nursing Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virzi, Alison

    2010-01-01

    DeQuervain's tendonitis is an inflammation of two tendons: the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus as they cross in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Symptoms include pain, swelling along the radial aspect of the wrist, and a decrease in thumb motion. A positive Finkelstein's test at examination is seen. Frequently…

  12. INTRODUCTION Tendons transmit force between muscles and the skeleton, but they

    E-print Network

    Konow, Nicolai

    1 INTRODUCTION Tendons transmit force between muscles and the skeleton, but they also play them to store potential energy, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power and recoil of tendons improves locomotor economy by reducing muscle work and allowing muscles to operate

  13. Central Quadriceps Tendon for Anterior Cruciate Ligament ReconstructionPart I: Morphometric and Biomechanical Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Lindsay Harris; David A. B. Smith; Lisa Lamoreaux; Mark Purnell

    1997-01-01

    We examined the anatomic and biomechanical adequacy of the central quadriceps tendon as an al ternative graft source for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Morphometry was performed on 15 preserved and 6 fresh-frozen specimens. Biomechani cal testing was performed on the six fresh-frozen spec imens. We initially used a triple suture through the tendon construction, and then clamping directly on the

  14. Lateral collateral ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon–patellar bone autograft with bioscrew fixation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Hwa Chen; Wen-Jer Chen; Chun-Hsiung Shih

    2001-01-01

    The lateral collateral ligament is the primary stabilizer against varus stress and is also an important contributor in maintaining posterolateral knee stability. Quadriceps tendon–patellar bone autograft has been used for anterior or posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We introduce a reconstructive procedure to restore the lateral collateral ligament using a quadriceps tendon–patellar bone autograft. The procedure is designed for unstable knees

  15. An Evaluation of the Ratio between the Tensions along the Quadriceps Tendon and the Patellar Ligament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M I Ellis; B B Seedhom; V Wright; D Dowson

    1980-01-01

    An experiment was devised whereby physiological loads could be applied to the quadriceps tendon of cadaveric knee joints so that the ratio of tensions in the quadriceps tendon and the patellar ligament could be determined. On two knee joints, radiographs were taken before testing, so that the theoretical ratio of the tensions could be evaluated and compared with the experimental

  16. Long-lasting conditioning of the human soleus H reflex following quadriceps tendon tap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianguo Cheng; John D. Brooke; William R. Staines; John E. Misiaszek; Jim Hoare

    1995-01-01

    Percussion of the quadriceps tendon was used to test the hypothesis that knee extensor muscle spindle discharge initiates down-regulation of the gain of the soleus H reflex. Seven subjects participated. Soleus H reflex magnitude was observed for up to 15 s, following conditioning tendon taps of 60 N or 80 N force and 10 ms or 100 ms duration, with

  17. Efficacy of a mesenchymal stem cell loaded surgical mesh for tendon repair in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a composite surgical mesh for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tendon repair. Methods The MSC-loaded mesh composed of a piece of conventional surgical mesh and a layer of scaffold, which supported MSC-embedded alginate gel. A 3-mm defect was surgically created at the Achilles tendon-gastrocnemius/soleus junction in 30 rats. The tendon defects were repaired with either 1) MSC-loaded mesh; or 2) surgical mesh only; or 3) routine surgical suture. Repaired tendons were harvested at days 6 and 14 for histology, which was scored on the bases of collagen organization, vascularity and cellularity, and immunohistochemisty of types I and III collagen. Results In comparison with the other two repair types, at day 6, the MSC-loaded mesh significantly improved the quality of the repaired tendons with dense and parallel collagen bundles, reduced vascularity and increased type I collagen. At day 14, the MSC-loaded mesh repaired tendons had better collagen formation and organization. Conclusion The MSC-loaded mesh enhanced early tendon healing, particularly the quality of collagen bundles. Application of the MSC-loaded mesh, as a new device and MSC delivery vehicle, may benefit to early functional recovery of the ruptured tendon. PMID:24884819

  18. Distinction between supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis tendon tears with ultrasound in 332 surgically confirmed cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Zehetgruber; Thomas Lang; Christian Wurnig

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the diagnostic value of preoperative ultrasonography for the characterisation of size and location of the involved tendons. in 332 consecutive patients who underwent surgery, all preoperative ultrasonographic reports were reviewed and ultrasound (US) and surgical findings were compared. Ultrasound criteria for cuff tears were complete nonvisualisation of the cuff tendons or

  19. Gliding resistance after repair of partially lacerated human flexor digitorum profundus tendon in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunfeng Zhao; Peter C. Amadio; Mark E. Zobitz; Toshimitsu Momose; Paulus Couvreur; Kai-Nan An

    2001-01-01

    Objective. This study reports the gliding resistance between repaired, partially lacerated tendon and pulley in human cadaver digits, using several commonly employed repair techniques.Background. Suture techniques with multi-strands and locking loops have been recommended to reduce the risk of rupture of the repair tendon with early active motion. Such sutures may increase the gliding resistance, and the gliding resistance after

  20. Gliding characteristics between flexor tendons and surrounding tissues in the carpal tunnel: a biomechanical cadaver study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunfeng Zhao; Anke M. Ettema; Naoki Osamura; Lawrence J. Berglund; Kai-Nan An; Peter C. Amadio

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel with varied wrist positions and tendon motion styles, which may help us to understand the relationship between carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and repetitive hand motion. Eight fresh human cadaveric wrists and hands were used. The peak (PGR) and mean (MGR) gliding resistance

  1. Gliding resistance of flexor tendon associated with carpal tunnel pressure: a biomechanical cadaver study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Zhao; A. M. Ettema; L. J. Berglund; K. N. An; P. C. Amadio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of carpal tunnel pressure on the gliding characteristics of flexor tendons within the carpal tunnel. Eight fresh human cadaver wrists and hands were used. A balloon was inserted into the carpal tunnel to elevate the pressure. The mean gliding resistance of the middle finger flexor digitorum superficialis tendon was measured

  2. Chronic Achilles tendon pain treated with eccentric calf-muscle training

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Fahlström; Per Jonsson; Ronny Lorentzon; Håkan Alfredson

    2003-01-01

    Injuries involving the Achilles tendon and manifested as chronic tendon pain are common, especially among recreational athletes. In a pilot study on a small group of patients with chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinosis, eccentric calf-muscle training was shown to give good clinical results. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate if the previously achieved good clinical results could

  3. Freeze-Dried Tendon Allografts as Tissue Engineering Scaffolds for Gdf5 Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Patrick; Dadali, Tulin; Jacobson, Justin; Hasslund, Sys; Ulrich-Vinther, Michael; Søballe, Kjeld; Nishio, Yasuhiko; Drissi, M Hicham; Langstein, Howard N; Mitten, David J; O’Keefe, Regis J; Schwarz, Edward M; Awad, Hani A

    2009-01-01

    Tendon reconstruction using grafts often results in adhesions that limit joint flexion. These adhesions are precipitated by inflammation, fibrosis, and paucity of tendon differentiation signals during healing. To study this problem, we developed a mouse model in which the FDL tendon is reconstructed using a live autograft or a freeze-dried allograft and identified Gdf5 as a therapeutic target. Here we investigate the potential of rAAV-Gdf5 coated freeze-dried tendon allografts as “therapeutically-endowed” tissue engineering scaffolds to reduce adhesions. In reporter gene studies we demonstrate that rAAV-coated tendon allografts mediate efficient transduction of adjacent soft tissues, with expression peaking at 7-days. We also demonstrate that rAAV-Gdf5 vector significantly accelerates wound healing in an in vitro fibroblast scratch model, and when loaded onto freeze-dried FDL tendon allografts significantly improves the metatarsophalangeal joint flexion compared to rAAV-lacZ controls. Collectively, our data demonstrate the feasibility and efficacy of therapeutic tendon allograft processing as a novel paradigm in tissue engineering to address difficult clinical problems such as tendon adhesions. PMID:18180771

  4. Muscle spindles,Golgi tendon organs,and the neural control of skeletal muscle

    E-print Network

    Loeb, Gerald E.

    Muscle spindles,Golgi tendon organs,and the neural control of skeletal muscle JOHN N. HOWELL, Ph was then knowh about the physiology of theproprioceptiveorgans within skeletal muscle. Specifically, he by virtue of contraction of adjacent muscle fibers. Each tendon organ appears to provide insertion for fi

  5. Delayed repair of tendon to bone injuries leads to decreased biomechanical properties and bone loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Galatz; S. Y. Rothermich; M. Zaegel; M. J. Silva; N. Havlioglu; S. Thomopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Repair of the torn rotator cuff tendon is a common procedure performed in the shoulder. In the clinical setting, a significant delay between rotator cuff tear and subsequent repair often exists. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical properties and bone density of the tendon to bone repair site after acute and delayed repair.Methods. The supraspinatus

  6. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath extending around the patellar tendon and invading the knee joint and tibia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    AKAHANE, TSUTOMU; MORI, NAOYA; YOSHIDA, KAZUSHIGE

    2014-01-01

    The current report presents the case of a 41-year-old male exhibiting a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) arising from the patellar tendon sheath. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-localized mass that wrapped around the patellar tendon, and extended from the subcutis into the infrapatellar fat pad and tibia. Following histopathological determination of the diagnosis, a piecemeal resection was performed. Nodular-type GCT-TS occurs less frequently in large joints compared with the small joints of the fingers and toes. The current report presents the unique features of a case of GCT-TS extending around the patellar tendon, and invading into the knee joint and proximal tibia bone. PMID:25360180

  7. Medial Versus Lateral Supraspinatus Tendon Properties: Implications for Double-Row Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Vincent M.; Wang, FanChia; McNickle, Allison G.; Friel, Nicole A.; Yanke, Adam B.; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Cole, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rotator cuff repair re-tear rates range from 25-90% necessitating methods to improve repair strength. While numerous laboratory studies have compared single to double row fixation properties, little is known regarding regional (i.e., medial versus lateral) suture retention properties in both intact and torn tendons. Hypothesis A torn supraspinatus tendon will have reduced suture retention properties on the lateral aspect of the tendon compared to the more medial musculotendinous junction. Study Design Controlled Laboratory Study Methods Human supraspinatus tendons (torn and intact) were randomly assigned for suture retention mechanical testing, ultrastructural collagen fibril analysis, or histology following suture pullout testing. For biomechanical evaluation, sutures were placed either at the musculotendinous junction (medial) or 10 mm from the free margin (lateral), and tendons were elongated to failure. Collagen fibril assessments were performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results Intact tendons showed no regional differences with respect to suture retention properties. In contrast, among torn tendons the medial region exhibited significantly higher stiffness and work values relative to the lateral region. For the lateral region, work to 10 mm displacement (1592±261 N-mm) and maximum load (265±44 N) for intact tendons were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of torn tendons (1086±388 N-mm and 177±71 N, respectively). For medial suture placement, maximum load, stiffness and work of intact and torn tendons were similar (p>0.05). Regression analyses for the intact and torn groups revealed generally low correlations between donor age and the three biomechanical indices. For both intact and torn tendons, the mean fibril diameter and area density were greater in the medial region relative to the lateral (p?0.05). In the lateral tendon, but not the medial region, torn specimens showed a significantly lower fibril area fraction (48.3±3.8%) than intact specimens (56.7±3.6%, p<0.05). Conclusions Superior pullout resistance of medial placed sutures may provide a strain shielding effect for the lateral row following double row repair. Larger diameter collagen fibrils as well as greater fibril area fraction in the medial supraspinatus tendon may provide greater resistance to suture migration. Clinical Relevance While clinical factors such as musculotendinous integrity warrant strong consideration for surgical decision making, the present ultrastructural and biomechanical results appear to provide a scientific rationale for double-row rotator cuff repair where sutures are placed more medial at the muscle tendon junction. PMID:20929937

  8. Acute rupture of the tibialis posterior tendon without fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Nicolò; Bonifacini, Carlo; Bianchi, Alberto; Moneghini, Laura; Scotto, Gennaro; Sartorelli, Elena

    2014-05-01

    The acute rupture of the tibialis posterior (TP) tendon, compared to an acute rupture of the Achilles tendon, is a quite uncommon disease to be diagnosed in the emergency department setting. In most cases symptoms related to a TP dysfunction, like weakness, pain along the course of the tendon, swelling in the region of the medial malleolus, and the partial or complete loss of the medial arch with a flatfoot deformity precede the complete rupture of the tendon. In this case report, we describe an acute rupture of the TP tendon following a pronation-external rotation injury of the ankle with no association of a medial malleolus fracture and with no history of a prior flatfoot deformity or symptoms. PMID:24901592

  9. Variability in Hoffmann and tendon reflexes in healthy male subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, E.; Do, S.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    There is a time dependent decrease in amplitude of H- and T-reflexes during Zero-G exposure and subsequently an increase in the amplitude of the H-reflex 2-4 hours after return to a 1-G environment. These alterations have been attributed to the adaptation of the human neurosensory system to gravity. The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is an acknowledged method to determine the integrity of the monosynaptic reflex arc. However deep tendon reflexes (DTR's or T-reflexes), elicited by striking the tendon also utilize the entire reflex arc. The objective of this study was to compare the variability in latency and amplitude of the two reflexes in healthy subjects. Methods: Nine healthy male subjects, 27-43 years in age, 161-175 cm in height plus 60-86 Kg in weight, underwent weekly testing for four weeks with a Dan-Tec EMG counterpoint EMG system. Subjects were studied prone and surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left soleus muscles. The H-reflex was obtained by stimulating the tibial nerve in the politeal fossa with a 0.2 msec square wave pulse delivered at 2 Hz until the maximum H-reflex was obtained. The T-reflex was invoked by tapping the achilles tendon with a self triggering reflex hammer connected to the EMG system. The latencies and amplitudes for the H- and T-reflexes were measured. Results: These data indicate that the amplitudes of these reflexes varied considerably. However, latencies to invoked responses were consistent. The latency of the T-reflex was approximately 3-5 msec longer than the H-reflex. Conclusion: The T-reflex is easily obtained, requires less time, and is more comfortable to perform. Qualitative data can be obtained by deploying self triggering, force plated reflex hammers both in the 1-G and Zero-G environment.

  10. Lovastatin-Mediated Changes in Human Tendon Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuzma-Kuzniarska, Maria; Cornell, Hannah R; Moneke, Michael C; Carr, Andrew J; Hulley, Philippa A

    2015-10-01

    Statins are among the most widely prescribed drugs worldwide. Numerous studies have shown their beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular disease through cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Although some statin patients may experience muscle-related symptoms, severe side effects of statin therapy are rare, primarily due to extensive first-pass metabolism in the liver. Skeletal muscles appear to be the main site of side effects; however, recently some statin-related adverse effects have been described in tendon. The mechanism behind these side effects remains unknown. This is the first study that explores tendon-specific effects of statins in human primary tenocytes. The cells were cultured with different concentrations of lovastatin for up to 1 week. No changes in cell viability or morphology were observed in tenocytes incubated with therapeutic doses. Short-term exposure to lovastatin concentrations outside the therapeutic range had no effect on tenocyte viability; however, cell migration was reduced. Simvastatin and atorvastatin, two other drug family members, also reduced the migratory properties of the cells. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of lovastatin induced changes in cytoskeleton leading to cell rounding and decreased levels of mRNA for matrix proteins, but increased BMP-2 expression. Gap junctional communication was impaired but due to cell shape change and separation rather than direct gap junction inhibition. These effects were accompanied by inhibition of prenylation of Rap1a small GTPase. Collectively, we showed that statins in a dose-dependent manner decrease migration of human tendon cells, alter their expression profile and impair the functional network, but do not inhibit gap junction function. J. Cell. Physiol. 230: 2543-2551, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25846724

  11. Multi-view second-harmonic generation imaging of mouse tail tendon via reflective micro-prisms.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bruce; Campbell, Kirby R; Cox, Benjamin L; Eliceiri, Kevin W; Superfine, Richard; Campagnola, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Here we experimentally show that second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging is not sensitive to collagen fibers oriented parallel to the direction of laser propagation and, as a consequence, can potentially miss important structural information. As an alternative approach, we demonstrate the use of reflective micro-prisms to enable multi-view SHG imaging of mouse tail tendon by redirecting the focused excitation and collection of subsequent emission. Our approach data corroborates the theoretical treatment on vanishing and nonvanishing orientations, where fibers along the laser direction are largely transparent by SHG. In strong contrast, the two-photon excited fluorescence of dye-labeled collagen fibers is isotropic and is not subject to this constraint. We utilized Pearson correlation to quantify differences in fluorescent and backward detected SHG images of the tendon fiber structure, where the SHG and TPEF were highly statistically correlated (0.6-0.8) for perpendicular excitation but were uncorrelated for excitation parallel to the fiber axis. The results suggest that improved imaging of 3D collagen structure is possible with multi-view SHG microscopy. PMID:26125402

  12. Endoscopic examination of the tarsal sheath of the lateral digital flexor tendon in horses.

    PubMed

    Cauvin, E R; Tapprest, J; Munroe, G A; May, S A; Schramme, M C

    1999-05-01

    This study was designed to develop a reliable technique for endoscopic examination of the tarsal sheath of the lateral digital flexor tendon of horses. The anatomy of the tendon sheath and associated structures was studied in detail in cadavers before determining portals for the insertion of an arthroscope into the sheath. Approaches into the sheath through the proximal pouch and through the flexor retinaculum, at the level of the sustentaculum tali, were performed and compared in cadavers. The proximal pouch portal permitted visualisation only of the proximal half of the sheath, while the approach through the retinaculum allowed examination of the entire sheath. The normal endoscopic appearance of the tarsal sheath was studied. The endoscopic approach was subsequently used to examine and treat 5 horses with tarsal sheath tenosynovitis, including 2 cases of chronic, traumatic tenosynovitis and 3 of subacute septic tenosynovitis. Four of these horses had fragmentation of the sustentaculum tali. The technique allowed adequate examination of the sheath and debridement of adhesions and lesions within the lumen of the sheath. Fragments dorsal to the medioplantar edge of the sustentaculum tali could not be visualised endoscopically and had to be removed after widening of the wound. All 5 horses survived. Follow-up enquiries (8-31 months) revealed that the horses were all reported to be sound. Four were performing at their previous level of activity, 1 was used for hacking. The 2 cases presented with chronic tenosynovitis had residual sheath distension with no associated loss of function. A prospective study, including longer term follow-up investigation, is currently being performed. PMID:10402135

  13. Comparison of CO2 laser welding with suture technique for repair of tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Neven A.; Johnstone, Frederic L.; Kilkelly, Francis X.; McKinney, LuAnn; Van De Merwe, Willem P.; Smith, Allan C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, histology, and strength of laser welding in repair of sharply transected rat Achilles tendons. In 26 adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats, the severed tendons were repaired with a 7-0 nylon, modified Kessler core suture followed by either a running 9-0 nylon epitendinous suture or a circumferential CO2 laser epidendinous weld using 25% human albumin as a solder. All repairs were timed and post- operative tensile strength was analyzed with material testing equipment. In addition, histologic testing was performed on both types of repairs. The mean time to complete the epitendinous repair in the laser group was 3.5 minutes and in the suture group, 8 minutes. The mean ultimate tensile strength in 6 normal tendons was 40.9 Newtons (N) with group standard deviation of 5.2 N. When compared with normal controls, post-operatively both types of tendon repairs resulted in tensile failure at lower forces. The ultimate tensile strength for the epitendinous suture repair and the laser welds were 13% and 6% of normal controls, respectively. Twenty tendons with epidendinous suture repair had mean ultimate tensile strength of 5.4 (+/- 1.2) N, while the 17 tendons with laser wends failed at 2.6 (+/- 0.9) N. Histologic evaluation of tendons repaired with CO2 laser revealed areas of coagulation and edema on the surface of tendon edges. Post-operatively, greater tissue changes were noted in laser treated tendons than those repaired with sutures. Laser welding of epitenon is possible and can be completed faster than the suture repair. The repaired tendon surface appears smoother and less bulky after laser treatment. However, significantly decreased immediate post-operative strength was demonstrated by the use of Kruskal-Wallis one way analysis of variance and Turkey's pairwise comparison.

  14. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (?29% and ?25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ?13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These findings are of importance within the context of the efficiency and execution of movement. PMID:24903920

  15. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Using a Quadriceps Tendon Graft

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael G.; Shneider, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Medial patellar subluxation (MPS) is normally described after a lateral retinacular release. However, isolated MPS in the absence of a previous lateral release does occur. This type of patellar instability is often overlooked, and a high index of suspicion is needed for appropriate diagnosis and treatment. This report describes a technique developed in response to episodes of isolated MPS. The technique uses a partial-thickness graft from the quadriceps tendon to reconstruct the lateral patellofemoral ligament and provide stability to the lateral side of the patella. PMID:25264506

  16. Effects of fluoride on in vitro calcification of tendon matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Wadkins; R. A. Luben

    1978-01-01

    Summary Ca2+ and Pi uptake induced in vitro by a collagenous matrix derived from bovine tendon is inhibited by 1×10?6 to 2×10?5M NaF and stimulated by 2×10?5 to 2×10?3M NaF. Fluoride uptake occurs only over the latter concentrtion range. The uptake of Ca2+, Pi, and F?1 progresses toward a limiting extent at which the molar Ca\\/P and Ca\\/F values are

  17. Differences between the Cell Populations from the Peritenon and the Tendon Core with Regard to Their Potential Implication in Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cadby, Jennifer A.; Buehler, Evelyne; Godbout, Charles; van Weeren, P. René; Snedeker, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    The role of intrinsic and extrinsic healing in injured tendons is still debated. In this study, we characterized cell plasticity, proliferative capacity, and migration characteristics as proxy measures of healing potential in cells derived from the peritenon (extrinsic healing) and compared these to cells from the tendon core (intrinsic healing). Both cell populations were extracted from horse superficial digital flexor tendon and characterized for tenogenic and matrix remodeling markers as well as for rates of migration and replication. Furthermore, colony-forming unit assays, multipotency assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of markers of osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation after culture in induction media were performed. Finally, cellular capacity for differentiation towards a myofibroblastic phenotype was assessed. Our results demonstrate that both tendon- and peritenon-derived cell populations are capable of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, with higher expression of progenitor cell markers in peritenon cells. Cells from the peritenon also migrated faster, replicate more quickly, and show higher differentiation potential toward a myofibroblastic phenotype when compared to cells from the tendon core. Based on these data, we suggest that cells from the peritenon have substantial potential to influence tendon-healing outcome, warranting further scrutiny of their role. PMID:24651449

  18. In-depth imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles ruptured tendons by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. O. Bagnaninchi; Y. Yang; M. Bonesi; G. Maffulli; C. Phelan; I. Meglinski; A. El Haj; N. Maffulli

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method based on polarization-sensitive optical coherent tomography (PSOCT) for the imaging and quantification of degenerative changes associated with Achilles tendon rupture. Ex vivo PSOCT examinations were performed in 24 patients. The study involved samples from 14 ruptured Achilles tendons, 4 tendinopathic Achilles tendons and 6 patellar tendons (collected during total knee

  19. [Problems of the two-stage restoration of flexor tendon injuries. I. Current results. Biological and functional factors affecting healing].

    PubMed

    Salamon, A; Biró, V; Vámhidy, L

    1989-01-01

    After describing the morphological and biological relations in the intact human flexor tendon and tendon sheat unit authors deal in details with the severe injuries of the flexor tendons inside the tendon sheat, having a bad prognosis. The results of the previous experimental investigations, and among them their own results, are reviewed. The success of the two-phase tendon transplantations in this kind of injury is determined, according to their opinion, beside the known clinically related factors, by biological and functional factors. Further examination of the complicated reparative processes with the use of modern methods of investigation is planned. The present work is ment for introduction of these experiments. PMID:2571745

  20. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation of ex vivo bovine achilles tendon.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Robert; Akabas, Tal; Muratore, Isabella B

    2008-12-01

    Small tears in tendons are a common occurrence in athletes and others involved in strenuous physical activity. Natural healing in damaged tendons can result in disordered regrowth of the underlying collagen matrix of the tendon. These disordered regions are weaker than surrounding ordered regions of normal tendon and are prone to re-injury. Multiple cycles of injury and repair can lead to chronic tendinosis. Current treatment options either are invasive or are relatively ineffective in tendinosis without calcifications. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has the potential to treat tendinosis noninvasively. HIFU ablation of tendons is based on a currently-used surgical analog, viz., needle tenotomy. This study tested the ability of HIFU beams to ablate bovine tendons ex vivo. Two ex vivo animal models were employed: a bare bovine Achilles tendon (deep digital flexor) on an acoustically absorbent rubber pad, and a layered model (chicken breast proximal, bovine Achilles tendon central and a glass plate distal to the transducer). The bare-tendon model enables examination of lesion formation under simple, ideal conditions; the layered model enables detection of possible damage to intervening soft tissue and consideration of the possibly confounding effects of distal bone. In both models, the tissues were degassed in normal phosphate-buffered saline. The bare tendon was brought to 23 degrees C or 37 degrees C before insonification; the layered model was brought to 37 degrees C before insonification. The annular array therapy transducer had an outer diameter of 33 mm, a focal length of 35 mm and a 14-mm diameter central hole to admit a confocal diagnostic transducer. The therapy transducer was excited with a continuous sinusoidal wave at 5.25 MHz to produce nominal in situ intensities from 0.23-2.6 kW/cm(2). Insonification times varied from 2-10 s. The focus was set over the range from the proximal tendon surface to 7 mm deep. The angle of incidence ranged from 0 degrees (normal to the tissue surface) to 15 degrees . After insonification, tendons were dissected and photographed, and the dimensions of the lesions were measured. Transmission electron micrographs were obtained from treated and untreated tissue regions. Insonification produced lesions that mimicked the shape of the focal region. When lesions were produced below the proximal tendon surface, no apparent damage to overlying soft tissue was apparent. The low intensities and short durations required for consistent lesion formation, and the relative insensitivity of ablation to small variations in the angle of incidence, highlight the potential of HIFU as a noninvasive treatment option for chronic tendinosis. PMID:18692293

  1. Evolution of Skin Temperature after the Application of Compressive Forces on Tendon, Muscle and Myofascial Trigger Point

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Figueiredo; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira Guirro, Elaine Caldeira; Girasol, Carlos Eduardo; de Oliveira, Alessandra Kelly; Dias, Fabiana Rodrigues Cancio; Guirro, Rinaldo Roberto de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Some assessment and diagnosis methods require palpation or the application of certain forces on the skin, which affects the structures beneath, we highlight the importance of defining possible influences on skin temperature as a result of this physical contact. Thus, the aim of the present study is to determine the ideal time for performing thermographic examination after palpation based on the assessment of skin temperature evolution. Randomized and crossover study carried out with 15 computer-user volunteers of both genders, between 18 and 45 years of age, who were submitted to compressive forces of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kg/cm2 for 30 seconds with a washout period of 48 hours using a portable digital dynamometer. Compressive forces were applied on the following spots on the dominant upper limb: myofascial trigger point in the levator scapulae, biceps brachii muscle and palmaris longus tendon. Volunteers were examined by means of infrared thermography before and after the application of compressive forces (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes). In most comparisons made over time, a significant decrease was observed 30, 45 and 60 minutes after the application of compressive forces (p < 0.05) on the palmaris longus tendon and biceps brachii muscle. However, no difference was observed when comparing the different compressive forces (p > 0.05). In conclusion, infrared thermography can be used after assessment or diagnosis methods focused on the application of forces on tendons and muscles, provided the procedure is performed 15 minutes after contact with the skin. Regarding to the myofascial trigger point, the thermographic examination can be performed within 60 minutes after the contact with the skin. PMID:26070073

  2. IL-1? irreversibly inhibits tenogenic differentiation and alters metabolism in injured tendon-derived progenitor cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kairui; Asai, Shuji; Yu, Bin; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2015-08-01

    Tendon injuries are common, and the damaged tendon often turns into scar tissue and never completely regains the original biomechanical properties. Previous studies have reported that the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1? are remarkably up-regulated in injured tendons. To examine how IL-1? impacts tendon repair process, we isolated the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) from mouse injured Achilles tendons and studied the effects of IL-1? on the inTPCs in vitro. IL-1? treatment strongly reduced expression of tendon cell markers such as scleraxis and tenomodulin, and also down-regulated gene expression of collagen 1, collagen 3, biglycan and fibromodulin in inTPCs. Interestingly, IL-1? stimulated lactate production with increases in hexokinase II and lactate dehydrogenase expression and a decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase. Inhibition of lactate production restored IL-1?-induced down-regulation of collagen1 and scleraxis expression. Furthermore, IL-1? significantly inhibited adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of inTPCs. Interestingly, inhibition of tenogenic and adipogenic differentiation was not recovered after removal of IL-1? while chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation abilities were not affected. These findings indicate that IL-1? strongly and irreversibly impairs tenogenic potential and alters glucose metabolism in tendon progenitors appearing in injured tendons. Inhibition of IL-1? may be beneficial for maintaining function of tendon progenitor cells during the tendon repair process. PMID:26051275

  3. Fiber optic micro sensor for the measurement of tendon forces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor developed for the measurement of tendon forces was designed, numerically modeled, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated. The sensor incorporated fiber Bragg gratings and micro-fabricated stainless steel housings. A fiber Bragg grating is an optical device that is spectrally sensitive to axial strain. Stainless steel housings were designed to convert radial forces applied to the housing into axial forces that could be sensed by the fiber Bragg grating. The metal housings were fabricated by several methods including laser micromachining, swaging, and hydroforming. Designs are presented that allow for simultaneous temperature and force measurements as well as for simultaneous resolution of multi-axis forces. The sensor was experimentally evaluated by hydrostatic loading and in vitro testing. A commercial hydraulic burst tester was used to provide uniform pressures on the sensor in order to establish the linearity, repeatability, and accuracy characteristics of the sensor. The in vitro experiments were performed in excised tendon and in a dynamic gait simulator to simulate biological conditions. In both experimental conditions, the sensor was found to be a sensitive and reliable method for acquiring minimally invasive measurements of soft tissue forces. Our results suggest that this sensor will prove useful in a variety of biomechanical measurements. PMID:23033868

  4. The series elastic shock absorber: tendon elasticity modulates energy dissipation by muscle during burst deceleration.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Roberts, Thomas J

    2015-04-01

    During downhill running, manoeuvring, negotiation of obstacles and landings from a jump, mechanical energy is dissipated via active lengthening of limb muscles. Tendon compliance provides a 'shock-absorber' mechanism that rapidly absorbs mechanical energy and releases it more slowly as the recoil of the tendon does work to stretch muscle fascicles. By lowering the rate of muscular energy dissipation, tendon compliance likely reduces the risk of muscle injury that can result from rapid and forceful muscle lengthening. Here, we examine how muscle-tendon mechanics are modulated in response to changes in demand for energy dissipation. We measured lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscle activity, force and fascicle length, as well as leg joint kinematics and ground-reaction force, as turkeys performed drop-landings from three heights (0.5-1.5 m centre-of-mass elevation). Negative work by the LG muscle-tendon unit during landing increased with drop height, mainly owing to greater muscle recruitment and force as drop height increased. Although muscle strain did not increase with landing height, ankle flexion increased owing to increased tendon strain at higher muscle forces. Measurements of the length-tension relationship of the muscle indicated that the muscle reached peak force at shorter and likely safer operating lengths as drop height increased. Our results indicate that tendon compliance is important to the modulation of energy dissipation by active muscle with changes in demand and may provide a mechanism for rapid adjustment of function during deceleration tasks of unpredictable intensity. PMID:25716796

  5. Resurfacing with Chemically Modified Hyaluronic Acid and Lubricin for Flexor Tendon Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunfeng; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Kirk, Ramona L.; Thoreson, Andrew R.; Jay, Gregory D.; Moran, Steven L.; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed surface coating with carbodiimide derivatized hyaluronic acid combined with lubricin (cd-HA-Lubricin) as a way to improve extrasynovial tendon surface quality and, consequently, the functional results in flexor tendon reconstruction, using a canine in vivo model. The second and fifth flexor digitorum profundus tendons from 14 dogs were reconstructed with autologs peroneus longus (PL) tendons 6 weeks after a failed primary repair. One digit was treated with cd-HA-Lubricin, and the other was treated with saline as the control. Six weeks following grafting, the digits and graft tendons were functionally and histologically evaluated. Adhesion score, normalized work of flexion, graft friction in zone II, and adhesion breaking strength at the proximal repair site in zone III were all lower in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated group compared to the control group. The strength at the distal tendon/bone interface was decreased in the cd-HA-Lubricin treated grafts compared to the control grafts. Histology showed inferior healing in the cd-HA-Lubricin group at both proximal and distal repair sites. However, cd-HA-Lubricin treatment did not result in any gap or rupture at either the proximal or distal repair sites. These results demonstrate that cd-HA-Lubricin can eliminate graft adhesions and improve digit function, but that treatment may have an adverse effect on tendon healing. PMID:23335124

  6. Biology and mechano-response of tendon cells: progress overview and perspectives†

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui B.; Schaniel, Christoph; Leong, Daniel J.; Wang, James H-C.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the group discussions on Cell Biology & Mechanics from the 2014 ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. The major discussion topics included: 1) the biology of tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) and the potential of stem cell-based tendon therapy using TSPCs and other types of stem cells, namely, embryonic and/or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), 2) the biological concept and potential impact of cellular senescence on tendon aging, tendon injury repair and the development of degenerative disease, and 3) the effects of tendon cells’ mechano-response on tendon cell fate and metabolism. For each topic, a brief overview is presented which summarizes the major points discussed by the group participants. The focus of the discussions ranged from current research progress, challenges and opportunities, to future directions on these topics. In the preparation of this manuscript, authors consulted relevant references as a part of their efforts to present an accurate view on the topics discussed. PMID:25728946

  7. Loss of Homeostatic Tension Induces Apoptosis in Tendon Cells: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Egerbacher, Monika; Caballero, Oscar; Lavagnino, Michael; Gardner, Keri L.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis (programmed cell death) has been identified as a histopathologic feature of tendinopathy. While the precise mechanism(s) that triggers the apoptotic cascade in tendon cells has not been identified, it has been theorized that loss of cellular homeostatic tension following microscopic damage to individual tendon fibrils could be the stimulus for initiating the pathologic events associated with tendinopathy. To determine if loss of homeostatic tension following stress deprivation could induce apoptosis in tendon cells, rat tail tendons were stress-deprived or cyclically loaded (3% strain at 0.17 Hz) for 24 hours under tissue culture conditions. Caspase-3 (an upstream mediator of apoptosis) mRNA expression was evaluated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and caspase-3 protein synthesis was identified using immunohistochemistry. Apoptotic cells were identified histologically using an antibody for single-stranded DNA. Stress deprivation for 24 hours resulted in an increase in caspase-3 mRNA expression when compared to fresh controls or cyclically loaded tendons. Stress deprivation also increased the percentage of apoptotic cells (10.59% ± 2.80) compared to controls (1.87% ± 1.07) or cyclically loaded tendons (3.73% ± 0.87). These data suggest loss of homeostatic tension following stress deprivation induces apoptosis in rat tail tendon cells. PMID:18459026

  8. Avulsion Injuries of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon: An Unclassified Pattern of Injury.

    PubMed

    Abdul Azeem, Mokhtar; Marwan, Yousef; Esmaeel, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Closed avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon is classified based on the impact of injury on the management plan. In this report, we present a case with unclassified pattern of FDP tendon avulsion. The injury involves an intra-articular fracture of the volar part of distal phalanx of the little finger resulting into two bony fragments, one attached to the retracted avulsed tendon and another separated and incarcerated at A4 pulley, and an intact dorsal cortex of the phalanx. Based on that, we recommend the development of a new classification scheme for this condition. PMID:26051779

  9. Simultaneous bilateral quadriceps tendon rupture in patient with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunseok; Kim, Byounggook; Chung, Ju-Hwan; Dan, Jinmyoung

    2011-12-01

    Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a very rare condition and only a few cases have been reported in the literature. The etiology is not clear yet. But it occurs infrequently in patients with chronic metabolic disorders. A 30-year-old female patient with simultaneous bilateral spontaneous quadriceps tendon rupture visited our hospital. She had chronic renal failure and her parathyroid hormone level was elevated due to parathyroid adenoma. We report a surgical repair of both quadriceps tendons of a patient with chronic renal failure as well as management of hyperparathyroidism. PMID:22570843

  10. Patellar tendon rupture and marked joint instability after total knee arthroplasty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takatomo Mine; Hiroshi Tanaka; Tosihiko Taguchi; Koichiro Ihara; Tohru Moriwaki; Shinya Kawai

    2004-01-01

    Background  Patellar tendon rupture is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Multiple repair methods have been described\\u000a in the literature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A 66-year-old woman suffered a patellar tendon re-rupture and marked joint instability within 6 months after revision TKA.\\u000a She underwent re-revision TKA and extensor mechanism reconstruction with femoral quadriceps tendon and augmentation by a Leeds-Keio\\u000a ligament.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Result  It was fairly difficult

  11. Medial Biceps Sling Takedown May Be Necessary to Expose an Occult Subscapularis Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Robert U.; Burkhart, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    With a systematic approach to diagnosis, including a thorough history, physical examination, advanced imaging, and arthroscopic evaluation, most subscapularis tendon tears may be readily discovered. Occult tears, on the other hand, may escape arthroscopic detection if a high index of suspicion and certain intraoperative examination steps are lacking. We describe an occult tear pattern in which a subscapularis tendon tear was completely hidden by an intact medial biceps tendon sling. Takedown of the sling, which was expendable because a tenodesis was planned, was required to expose this occult tear. Awareness of occult subscapularis tear patterns makes diagnosis and repair possible. PMID:25685681

  12. Etude sur les tendons en materiaux composites et leur application aux ancrages postcontraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennouf, Adil

    L'objectif general de la presente these est d'evaluer le comportement a l'arrachement et au fluage d'ancrages injectes constitues de tendons en materiaux composites afin d'etablir des recommandations plus appropriees et realistes pour le dimensionnement et la conception. Quatre types de tendons en materiaux composites, deux a base de fibres d'aramide et deux a base de fibres de carbone, ont ete utilises dans l'etude. Les travaux de recherche de cette these ont porte notamment sur: (I) Une caracterisation physique et mecanique des tendons en materiaux composites utilises dans l'etude. (II) Une etude en laboratoire sur les coulis de scellement. La premiere etape de cette etude a concerne le developpement d'un coulis de scellement performant adapte aux tendons en materiaux composites et a differentes situations d'injection. La seconde etape a traite des essais de caracterisations physique et mecanique du coulis de scellement developpe comparativement a trois coulis de scellement usuels d'un meme rapport E/L de 0,4. (III) Une etude sur des modeles reduits d'ancrages injectes. (IV) Une etude sur des modeles d'ancrages a grande echelle. La synthese de ces etudes a permis d'enoncer les principales conclusions suivantes: (1) Les valeurs moyennes des charges de rupture des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete de 1% a 29% superieures a celles specifiees par les manufacturiers. (2) L'etude sur les coulis de scellement a permis le developpement de coulis de ciment repondant aux criteres fixes, soient une grande stabilite, une bonne fluidite, une legere expansion et de bonnes caracteristiques mecaniques. (3) Les tendons en materiaux composites ont montre des contraintes d'adherence maximum superieures a celles des tendons en acier. (4) Le type de fibre, la configuration et le fini de surface des tendons en materiaux composites gouvernent leur resistance a l'adherence. (5) L'introduction de sable et d'autres ajouts comme les fines de silice et la poudre d'aluminium au coulis de ciment a permis d'ameliorer la resistance a l'adherence. (6) Il existe une relation lineaire entre la charge maximum et la longueur ancree des tendons. Des equations sont proposees. (7) La capacite a l'arrachement des ancrages injectes augmente avec l'augmentation du module d'elasticite du milieu encaissant. (8) Les mono-tendons et multi-tendons en materiaux composites injectes sur 1000 mm ont montre des comportements a l'arrachement acceptables conformement aux codes. (9) Les rigidites apparentes des tendons a base de fibres d'aramide sont de trois a cinq fois inferieures a celles des tendons a base de fibres de carbone. (10) L'amorce de la decohesion en haut de la zone ancree ne semble se produire qu'au-dela d'une charge de 0,35 fpu pour les tendons a base de fibres de carbone alors qu'elle prend naissance des l'application de la charge pour les tendons a base de fibres d'aramide. (11) Le taux de fluage depend du niveau de chargement ainsi que des caracteristiques geometriques et mecaniques de l'ancrage (type de fibres, fini de surface, nombre de tendons, etc.). (12) Des equations regissant le comportement au fluage des tendons en materiaux composites ont ete etablies pour une periode d'essai de 60 mn. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Extracellular vesicles of calcifying turkey leg tendon characterized by immunocytochemistry and high voltage electron microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; McKee, M. D.; Nanci, A.; Song, M. J.; Kiyonaga, S.; Arena, J.; McEwen, B.

    1992-01-01

    To gain insight into the structure and possible function of extracellular vesicles in certain calcifying vertebrate tissues, normally mineralizing leg tendons from the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, have been studied in two separate investigations, one concerning the electron microscopic immunolocalization of the 66 kDa phosphoprotein, osteopontin, and the other detailing the organization and distribution of mineral crystals associated with the vesicles as determined by high voltage microscopic tomography and 3-D graphic image reconstruction. Immunolabeling shows that osteopontin is related to extracellular vesicles of the tendon in the sense that its initial presence appears coincident with the development of mineral associated with the vesicle loci. By high voltage electron microscopy and 3-D imaging techniques, mineral crystals are found to consist of small irregularly shaped particles somewhat randomly oriented throughout individual vesicles sites. Their appearance is different from that found for the mineral observed within calcifying tendon collagen, and their 3-D disposition is not regularly ordered. Possible spatial and temporal relationships of vesicles, osteopontin, mineral, and collagen are being examined further by these approaches.

  14. Increased C-telopeptide Cross-linking of Tendon Type I Collagen in Fibromodulin-deficient Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Kalamajski, Sebastian; Liu, Cuiping; Tillgren, Viveka; Rubin, Kristofer; Oldberg, ?ke; Rai, Jyoti; Weis, MaryAnn; Eyre, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The controlled assembly of collagen monomers into fibrils, with accompanying intermolecular cross-linking by lysyl oxidase-mediated bonds, is vital to the structural and mechanical integrity of connective tissues. This process is influenced by collagen-associated proteins, including small leucine-rich proteins (SLRPs), but the regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. Deficiency in fibromodulin, an SLRP, causes abnormal collagen fibril ultrastructure and decreased mechanical strength in mouse tendons. In this study, fibromodulin deficiency rendered tendon collagen more resistant to nonproteolytic extraction. The collagen had an increased and altered cross-linking pattern at an early stage of fibril formation. Collagen extracts contained a higher proportion of stably cross-linked ?1(I) chains as a result of their C-telopeptide lysines being more completely oxidized to aldehydes. The findings suggest that fibromodulin selectively affects the extent and pattern of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen cross-linking by sterically hindering access of the enzyme to telopeptides, presumably through binding to the collagen. Such activity implies a broader role for SLRP family members in regulating collagen cross-linking placement and quantity. PMID:24849606

  15. In vivo evaluation of the elastic anisotropy of the human Achilles tendon using shear wave dispersion analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brum, J.; Bernal, M.; Gennisson, J. L.; Tanter, M.

    2014-02-01

    Non-invasive evaluation of the Achilles tendon elastic properties may enhance diagnosis of tendon injury and the assessment of recovery treatments. Shear wave elastography has shown to be a powerful tool to estimate tissue mechanical properties. However, its applicability to quantitatively evaluate tendon stiffness is limited by the understanding of the physics on the shear wave propagation in such a complex medium. First, tendon tissue is transverse isotropic. Second, tendons are characterized by a marked stiffness in the 400 to 1300 kPa range (i.e. fast shear waves). Hence, the shear wavelengths are greater than the tendon thickness leading to guided wave propagation. Thus, to better understand shear wave propagation in tendons and consequently to properly estimate its mechanical properties, a dispersion analysis is required. In this study, shear wave velocity dispersion was measured in vivo in ten Achilles tendons parallel and perpendicular to the tendon fibre orientation. By modelling the tendon as a transverse isotropic viscoelastic plate immersed in fluid it was possible to fully describe the experimental data (deviation<1.4%). We show that parallel to fibres the shear wave velocity dispersion is not influenced by viscosity, while it is perpendicularly to fibres. Elasticity (found to be in the range from 473 to 1537 kPa) and viscosity (found to be in the range from 1.7 to 4 Pa.s) values were retrieved from the model in good agreement with reported results.

  16. All-inside patellar tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bradley, James P; Tejwani, Samir G

    2009-12-01

    In the continued evolution of arthroscopic surgery for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the "All-Inside" technique has been developed in an attempt to further decrease surgical trauma. By replicating standard anatomic ACL reconstruction techniques, the RetroConstruction System (Arthrex, Naples, FL) eliminates tibial tunnels by creating "Retrodrilled" sockets. This All-Inside technique reduces the size and number of incisions and associated soft-tissue trauma, while eliminating the violation of distal cortices, thereby potentially decreasing patient morbidity, facilitating rehabilitation, and improving cosmesis. The technique is suitable for numerous graft options and can be used either in primary, revision augmentation, or multiligament reconstructions. The rationale and technique for All-Inside bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft or allograft single-bundle ACL reconstruction is presented. PMID:19910784

  17. Arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using allograft tendon.

    PubMed

    Wainer, R A; Clarke, T J; Poehling, G G

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee using an arthroscopic technique and freeze-dried allograft tendons in 23 patients was studied prospectively. Accurate placement of drill holes and anchoring positions for the allografts was effected through a standard arthroscopic approach combined with a 3 cm incision on the medial tibial flare. Candidates for reconstruction were those who were unable to tolerate brace therapy and who had no degenerative arthritis. The 23 patients were drawn from a group of 60 treated patients because their follow-up had been greater than or equal to 1 year. Their knees were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively with a Lysholm knee rating scale, Lachman test with KT-1000 arthrometric quantitation, pivot shift, Biodex test, and radiographs. Knee rating values improved in all knees, and only one patient had a significant deterioration in the KT-1000 reading. All patients with at least 20 months follow-up have resumed their preinjury activity levels. PMID:3166660

  18. Determining flexor-tendon repair techniques via soft computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M.; Firoozbakhsh, K.; Moniem, M.; Jamshidi, M.

    2001-01-01

    An SC-based multi-objective decision-making method for determining the optimal flexor-tendon repair technique from experimental and clinical survey data, and with variable circumstances, was presented. Results were compared with those from the Taguchi method. Using the Taguchi method results in the need to perform ad-hoc decisions when the outcomes for individual objectives are contradictory to a particular preference or circumstance, whereas the SC-based multi-objective technique provides a rigorous straightforward computational process in which changing preferences and importance of differing objectives are easily accommodated. Also, adding more objectives is straightforward and easily accomplished. The use of fuzzy-set representations of information categories provides insight into their performance throughout the range of their universe of discourse. The ability of the technique to provide a "best" medical decision given a particular physician, hospital, patient, situation, and other criteria was also demonstrated.

  19. Low-power-laser therapy used in tendon damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strupinska, Ewa

    1996-03-01

    The following paper covers evaluation of low-power laser therapy results in chronic Achilles tendon damage and external Epicondylalia (tennis elbow). Fifty patients with Achilles damage (18 women and 32 men, age average 30, 24 plus or minus 10, 39 years) and fifty patients having external Epicondyalgiae (31 women and 19 men, age average 44, 36 plus or minus 10, 88 years) have been examined. The patients were irradiated by semiconductor infrared laser wavelength 904 nm separately or together with helium-neon laser wavelength 632.8 nm. The results of therapy have been based on the patient's interviews and examinations of patients as well as on the Laitinen pain questionnaire. The results prove analgesic effects in usage of low- power laser radiation therapy can be obtained.

  20. Peroneal tendon tears, surgical management and its complications.

    PubMed

    Cerrato, Rebecca A; Myerson, Mark S

    2009-06-01

    Peroneal tendon injuries in the athlete are recognized with increasing frequency as a pathologic entity. Once considered uncommon, they have been attributed to many cases of persistent lateral ankle symptoms after a "typical" ankle sprain. Acute tears of the peroneus brevis, and less commonly the peroneus longus, have been implicated in sport activities and are often coexistent with peroneal instability. Subluxation typically occurs when the foot is in a dorsiflexed position and the peroneal muscles strongly contract, causing an eversion force simultaneously. Peroneal instability, as well as tearing, has been linked to ballet dancing, skiing, soccer, tennis, American football, running, basketball, and ice skating. This article discusses the mechanism of injury, methods of patient evaluation and management, complications, and outcomes. PMID:19501808

  1. Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction and Flatfoot: Analysis with Simulated Walking

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kota; Kitaoka, Harold B.; Fujii, Tadashi; Crevoisier, Xavier M.; Berglund, Lawrence J.; Zhao, Kristin D.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; An, Kai-Nan

    2012-01-01

    Many biomechanical studies investigated pathology of flatfoot and effects of operations on flatfoot. The majority of cadaveric studies are limited to the quasistatic response to static joint loads. This study examined the unconstrained joint motion of the foot and ankle during stance phase utilizing a dynamic foot-ankle simulator in simulated stage 2 posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD). Muscle forces were applied on the extrinsic tendons of the foot using six servo-pneumatic cylinders to simulate their action. Vertical and fore-aft shear forces were applied and tibial advancement was performed with the servomotors. Three-dimensional movements of multiple bones of the foot were monitored with a magnetic tracking system. Twenty-two fresh-frozen lower extremities were studied in the intact condition, then following sectioning peritalar constraints to create a flatfoot and unloading the posterior tibial muscle force. Kinematics in the intact condition were consistent with gait analysis data for normals. There were altered kinematics in the flatfoot condition, particularly in coronal and transverse planes. Calcaneal eversion relative to the tibia averaged 11.1±2.8° compared to 5.8±2.3° in the normal condition. Calcaneal-tibial external rotation was significantly increased in flatfeet from mean of 2.3±1.7° to 8.1±4.0°. There were also significant changes in metatarsal-tibial eversion and external rotation in the flatfoot condition. The simulated PTTD with flatfoot was consistent with previous data obtained in patients with PTTD. The use of a flatfoot model will enable more detailed study on the flatfoot condition and/or effect of surgical treatment. PMID:22939754

  2. An Unusual Knee Trauma: Combined Rupture of Medial Collateral Ligament and Patellar Tendon

    PubMed Central

    De Baere, T.; De Muylder, J.; Deltour, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a combined lesion of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and patellar tendon of the knee in a 45-year-old man, after a fall while skiing. Although there are numerous publications concerning associated tears of MCL and other knee ligaments, a combination of MCL tear with a rupture of the patellar tendon is very rare. After a review of the literature and treatment guidelines about these lesions, the clinical case is described and discussed. This knee trauma was treated with a transosseous reinsertion of the patellar tendon, which was reinforced by an allograft of fascia lata, followed by a direct suture of the MCL, which was reinforced with the lateral semitendinosus tendon. PMID:25202463

  3. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture without predisposing systemic disease or steroid use: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Ding; Cai, Dao-Zhang; Wang, Kun; Zeng, Chun

    2012-01-01

    There is a dearth of case reports describing simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon ruptures in the medical literature. These ruptures are often associated with systemic disorders such as lupus erythematosus or chronic steroid use. The author describes a case of a 24-year-old man who sustained traumatic bilateral patellar tendon ruptures without any history of systemic disease or steroidal medication. We repaired and reattached the ruptured tendons to the patella and augmented our procedure with allogeneic tendon followed by wire loop reinforcement. One year after operation, the patient regained a satisfactory range of motion of both knees with good quadriceps strength and no extensor lag. The recurrent microtrauma from a history of intense sports activity and a high body mass index may have played an important role in this trauma event. PMID:22300921

  4. The Effects of Scaffold Architecture and Fibrin Gel Addition on Tendon Cell Phenotype

    E-print Network

    Pawelec, K. M.; Wardale, R. J.; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    . Arciero, “In vitro changes in human tenocyte cultures obtained from proximal biceps tendon: multiple passages result in changes in routine cell markers,” Knee Surgery Sports Traumatology Arthroscopy 20(9), pp. 1666–1672, 2012. [36] R. Schweitzer, J. H...

  5. An important cause of pes planus: the posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Erol, Kemal; Karahan, Ali Yavuz; Kerimo?lu, Ülkü; Ordahan, Banu; Tekin, Levent; ?ahin, Muhammed; Kaydok, Ercan

    2015-01-28

    Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is an important cause of acquired pes planus that frequently observed in adults. Factors that play a role in the development of PTTD such as age-related tendon degeneration, inflammatory arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, peritendinous injections and more rarely acute traumatic rupture of the tendon. PTT is the primary dynamic stabilizer of medial arch of the foot. Plantar flexion and inversion of the foot occurs with contraction of tibialis posterior tendon, and arch of the foot becomes elaveted while midtarsal joints are locked and midfoot-hindfoot sets as rigid. Thus, during the walk gastrocnemius muscle works more efficiently. If the PTT does not work in the order, other foot ligaments and joint capsule would be increasingly weak and than pes planus occurs. We present a 10-year-old female patient diagnosed as PTTD and conservative treatment with review of the current literature. PMID:25918629

  6. A review on the use of cell therapy in the treatment of tendon disease and injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sawadkar, Prasad; Mudera, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Tendon disease and injuries carry significant morbidity worldwide in both athletic and non-athletic populations. It is estimated that tendon injuries account for 30%?50% of all musculoskeletal injuries globally. Current treatments have been inadequate in providing an accelerated process of repair resulting in high relapse rates. Modern concepts in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have led to increasing interest in the application of cell therapy for the treatment of tendon disease. This review will explore the use of cell therapy, by bringing together up-to-date evidence from in vivo human and animal studies, and discuss the issues surrounding the safety and efficacy of its use in the treatment of tendon disease.

  7. Transient high-pressure stress relaxation of prestressing tendons in unbonded construction 

    E-print Network

    Gales, John; Bisby, Luke; MacDougall, Colin; MacLean, Kevin

    to the prestressed reinforcement, and ratio of heated length to overall tendon length are varied to investigate the potential implications for prestress loss, and subsequently for flexural and punching shear capacity. The results highlight the need for particular...

  8. Expansive cement couplers: A means of pre-tensioning fibre-reinforced plastic tendons

    E-print Network

    Lees, Janet M.; Gruffydd-Jones, B.; Burgoyne, C.J.

    as concrete reinforcement and the high strength of the materials is conducive to prestressed applications. However, finding a suitable method of anchoring the tendons without inducing stress concentrations in the fibres has been identified as a problem...

  9. [Tendon areflexia in congenital myopathies accompanied by atrophy of type I fibers. Electrophysiologic study].

    PubMed

    Pouget, J; Gastaut, J L; Pellissier, J F; Cros, D; Serratrice, G

    1984-04-01

    A predominance and/or an atrophy of type I fibers and a loss of deep tendon reflexes are often observed in different types of congenital myopathy. Various data indicate that both findings can be linked: dysfunction of the myotatic reflex can induce predominant involvement of type I fibers. In order to specify the mechanism of the loss of tendon reflex, an investigation of the Hoffmann reflex (H reflex) was performed in one case of centronuclear myopathy and in one case of congenital type fiber disproportion with type I hypertrophy. The Achilles tendon reflex was absent but the H reflex showed normal recruitment amplitude and latency. The Jendrassik maneuver reinforced the H reflex. These results indicate the involvement of muscle spindles or impairment of the fusimotor system. Nuclear bag intrafusal fibers have common characteristics with type I extrafusal fibers. Both types of fibers could be involved simultaneously in congenital myopathies, thus explaining the loss of tendon reflex. PMID:6463300

  10. Adaptation of bone and tendon to prolonged hindlimb suspension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailas, Arthur C.; Deluna, Diane M.; Lewis, Lisa L.; Curwin, Sandra L.; Roy, Roland R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a sustained deprivation of ground reaction forces on mineralized and soft connective tissues was investigated in rats subjected to 28-d-long hind-limb suspension. The results of morphological and biochemical studies carried out on femurs and patellar tendons obtained from suspended and nonsuspended 110-d-old rats showed that prolonged suspension led to an increase of the minimum diameter of the femur middiaphysis (by 12 percent), without any significant alterations in cortical area, density, mineral and collagen concentrations, femur wet weight, length, and DNA and uronic acid concentrations. However, in the patellar tendons of suspended rats, the collagen and proteoglycan concentrations were 28 percent lower than in tendons obtained from nonsuspended animals. These results suggest that ground reaction forces are important for the maintenance of cortical bone and patellar tendon homeostasis during weight-bearing conditions.

  11. Differential expression of type XII collagen in developing chicken metatarsal tendons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guiyun; Young, Blanche B; Birk, David E

    2003-05-01

    Type XII collagen is a fibril-associated collagen with multiple functional domains. The purpose of this work was to determine its role in regulating tendon matrix assembly. The temporal and spatial expression patterns of both collagen and mRNA were analysed in developing chicken metatarsal tendons using immunofluorescence microscopy, in situ hybridization and real-time quantitative PCR. Temporally, type XII collagen was present during all stages of development (day 14-hatch). However, spatially, type XII collagen expression shifted from the entire tendon at day 14, when the tendon is immature and fascicles are not well developed, to the interfacial matrix (endotendinium) associated with developing fascicles. This shift was obvious beginning at day 17, becoming prominent at day 19. Associated with this shift was a gradual decrease in type XII collagen reactivity in the tendon proper (non-sheath). By hatching, the reactivity was sequestered almost exclusively to the sheaths with some reactivity remaining at the fibroblast-matrix interface within the fascicle. In situ hybridization indicated that fibroblasts in the tendon expressed type XII collagen mRNA homogeneously at day 14. However, by hatching, when the tendon matures, type XII collagen is restricted primarily to the sheath cells. Quantitative PCR analyses, of NC3 splice variants, demonstrated highest expression levels for the short splice variant mRNA at days 14-17, followed by a significant decrease at day 19 with levels remaining constant to adult. Long variant mRNA expression was highest at day 14 then decreased and was constant from day 17 to adult. These changing patterns may be related to the spatial shift in type XII collagen expression to the sheaths. Differential temporal and spatial expression patterns indicate that type XII collagen functions to integrate the developing tendon matrices and fascicles into a functional unit. PMID:12739618

  12. Pulsed magnetic and electromagnetic fields in experimental achilles tendonitis in the rat: A prospective randomized study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edwin Wai Chi Lee; Nicola Maffulli; Chi Kei Li; Kai Ming Chan

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on healing in experimental Achilles tendon inflammation in the rat.Design: Prospective randomized trial.Setting: University medical school.Methods: Exposure of the Achilles tendon and injury by a weight of 98.24g falling from a height of 35cm in 180 male Sprague-Dawley rats.Intervention: A daily 15-minute session with PMF

  13. Reduced effects of tendon vibration with increased task demand during active, cyclical ankle movements.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Lisa M; Holmes, Taylor C; Dean, Jesse C

    2014-01-01

    Tendon vibration can alter proprioceptive feedback, one source of sensory information which humans can use to produce accurate movements. However, the effects of tendon vibration during functional movement vary depending on the task. For example, ankle tendon vibration has considerably smaller effects during walking than standing posture. The purpose of this study was to test whether the effects of ankle tendon vibration are predictably influenced by the mechanical demands of a task, as quantified by peak velocity. Twelve participants performed symmetric, cyclical ankle plantar flexion/dorsiflexion movements while lying prone with their ankle motion unconstrained. The prescribed movement period (1, 3 s) and peak-to-peak amplitude (10°, 15°, 20°) were varied across trials; shorter movement periods or larger amplitudes increased the peak velocity. In some trials, vibration was continuously and simultaneously applied to the right ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor tendons, while the left ankle tendons were never vibrated. The vibration frequency (40, 80, 120, 160 Hz) was varied across trials. During trials without vibration, participants accurately matched the movement of their ankles. The application of 80 Hz vibration to the right ankle tendons significantly reduced the amplitude of right ankle movement. However, the effect of vibration was smaller during more mechanically demanding (i.e., higher peak velocity) movements. Higher vibration frequencies had larger effects on movement accuracy, possibly due to parallel increases in vibration amplitude. These results demonstrate that the effects of ankle tendon vibration are dependent on the mechanical demand of the task being performed, but cannot definitively identify the underlying physiological mechanism. PMID:24136344

  14. Distribution of the elastic fiber and associated proteins in flexor tendon reflects function.

    PubMed

    Ritty, Timothy M; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Starcher, Barry C

    2002-12-01

    The elastic fiber is known to be an important component of skin, lung, and vasculature. Much less is known about the distribution of elastin and elastic fiber-related proteins in connective tissues, yet genetic defects of elastic fiber constituents can lead to deficiencies in these tissues. For the first time, we determine the distribution of elastin, fibrillins 1 and 2, and microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs) 1 and 2 in the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon. Three functionally distinct regions of the FDP tendon, the fibrocartilagenous (FC) region, avascular/tensional (AV/T) region, and insertion region, were evaluated by immunohistochemical methods for these five proteins. Biochemical analysis of desmosine content, an elastin-specific cross-link, demonstrated the presence of elastin in each region, and this was verified histochemically. The fibrillins were found with elastin and also pericellularly with internal fibroblasts where elastin was not detected. Although there was overlapping distribution, fibrillin 2 was more prominent in the interior of the tendon while fibrillin 1 was prominent in outer cell layers that contained elastic fibers. Both MAGP-1 and -2 were found throughout the tendon, although the greatest abundance was near the tendon insertion to bone. Surprisingly, MAGP-1 demonstrated a filamentous appearance within the fibrocartilage that did not correspond to the fibrillin 1 or 2 or MAGP-2 staining pattern. Lastly, we have shown that a vincular membrane located along the dorsal surface of the tendon near the insertion has a very high elastin content and a unique interface with the tendon that consists of an elastic anchor within the tendon body. PMID:12420291

  15. [Allogeneic implantation of the tendon tissue sterilized with gaseous ethylene oxide in experiment].

    PubMed

    Savel'ev, V I; Kuznetsov, I A; Solodov, I A; Kormil'chenko, V V

    2003-01-01

    The implantation of the allo-tendon tissue sterilized with gaseous ethylene oxide was carried out in 51 while rats. Results of histological investigations are described and a comparative estimation is given of durability of the properties of ethyleneoxide sterilized allotendons of the human with the anterior cruciate ligament and dermal tissue. A conclusion is made that it is possible to use the tendon allotransplants in clinical practice. PMID:12942612

  16. Bilateral, simultaneous, spontaneous rupture of quadriceps tendons without trauma in an obese patient: A case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Kelly; Noel Rao; Steven S. Louis; Brett T. Kostes; Richard M. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Kelly BM, Rao N, Louis SS, Kostes BT, Smith RM. Bilateral, simultaneous, spontaneous rupture of quadriceps tendons without trauma in an obese patient: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:415-8. This is a single case report of bilateral, simultaneous, spontaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon caused by obesity without trauma. The patient was a 52-year-old, 350-pound, morbidly obese man

  17. Fetal derived embryonic-like stem cells improve healing in a large animal flexor tendonitis model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashlee E Watts; Amy E Yeager; Oleg V Kopyov; Alan J Nixon

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Tendon injury is a common problem in athletes, with poor tissue regeneration and a high rate of re-injury. Stem cell therapy\\u000a is an attractive treatment modality as it may induce tissue regeneration rather than tissue repair. Currently, there are no\\u000a reports on the use of pluripotent cells in a large animal tendon model in vivo. We report the use of

  18. Sensitivity of muscle force estimates to variations in muscle–tendon properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Redl; Margit Gfoehler; Marcus G. Pandy

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of muscle force estimates to changes in some of the parameters which are commonly used to describe models of muscle–tendon actuation. The sensitivity analysis was performed on three parameters: optimal muscle-fiber length, muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), and tendon rest length. The muscles selected for the analysis were posterior gluteus

  19. Unrecognized pediatric partial Achilles tendon injury followed by traumatic completion: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Vasileff, William Kelton; Moutzouros, Vasilios

    2014-01-01

    Achilles tendon ruptures are a relatively common athletic injury but are exceedingly rare in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 10-year-old ice hockey player who experienced an Achilles tendon injury from a laceration to the posterior leg from a skate blade that led to a partial tendon laceration. This tendon injury was initially unrecognized despite an emergency department evaluation. The patient continued to complain of weakness and paresthesia after the skin laceration had healed. A traumatic dorsiflexion injury while running several weeks later led to a traumatic complete tendon rupture. The clinical, operative, and physical therapy records were reviewed to complete the history, treatment, and rehabilitation progress. The initial laceration injury had occurred 6 weeks before presentation, and the traumatic dorsiflexion injury had occurred 2 days before referral to an acute orthopedics clinic. Open repair was performed several days after the traumatic completion of the laceration, and the patient was immobilized in a cast for 5 weeks. The patient had weaned off crutches by 10 weeks postoperatively and had returned to some activities and light skating at 5.5 months. A full return to running and ice hockey had been achieved by 8 months postoperatively. The optimal repair for this injury has not been well established in published studies. We have concluded that laceration injuries have the potential to mask tendon injuries and that prolonged symptoms after a laceration should suggest occult pathologic features. Open tendon repair is a viable treatment option in the pediatric patient with Achilles tendon ruptures. A return to activities within a reasonable period can be expected with robust physical therapy. PMID:24713492

  20. Differential scanning calorimetric examination of ruptured lower limb tendons in human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Wiegand; L. Vámhidy; D. L?rinczy

    2010-01-01

    The tendon ruptures are serious injuries of the lover limb in middle age and physically active population. While the Achilles\\u000a tendon rupture is common, the patellar ligament and quadriceps ligament ruptures are an absolutely rare injury. Usually there\\u000a is no correlation between the velocity of the trauma and the supervening of the rupture. The aetiology of the degenerative\\u000a changes in