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1

Terahertz-pulsed imaging of cancers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade advances in laser and semiconductor technology has allowed the investigation of terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum as a potential tool for medical imaging. The terahertz frequency range covers the far infrared wavelengths and is sensitive to librational and vibrational modes of molecules. Terahertz radiation is non-ionizing and is not highly scattered like visible and near infrared light. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has already been demonstrated as an effective tool for differentiating between tissue types in particular normal skin and basal cell carcinoma in vitro. TPI may prove advantageous in distinguishing type, lateral spread and depth of tumors. Here we present recent ex vivo results obtained with a portable TPI system in a clinical setting. It is hoped that this technique could be applied to other epithelial tissues, which give rise to more than 80% of all adult cancers and include common cancers of the skin, oral cavity, breast, colon and prostate.

Wallace, Vincent P.; Woodward, Ruth M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Pickwell, E.; Pye, Richard J.; Arnone, Donald D.

2003-06-01

2

Wavelet compression in medical terahertz pulsed imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper concerns the robustness of discrete wavelet transform (DWT) compression in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). TPI datasets consist of terahertz time-domain series which are sampled at each 'pixel' of the image, leading to file sizes which are typically of the order of several megabytes (MB) per image. This makes efficient compression highly desirable for both transmission and storage. However, since the data may be required for diagnostic purposes it is essential that no relevant information is lost or artefacts introduced. We show that for a nylon step wedge the estimates of refractive index and absorption coefficients are not significantly altered when the terahertz data are reconstructed from only 20% of DWT coefficients.

Handley, J. W.; Fitzgerald, A. J.; Berry, E.; Boyle, R. D.

2002-11-01

3

Biomedical applications of terahertz pulse imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present Terahertz Pulse Imaging (TPI) results of different human tissue types. Our results are part of an initial study to explore the potential of TPI for biomedical applications. A survey of different tissue types has demonstrated the various contrast mechanisms that are available in TPI, allowing different tissue types to be readily identified. This encourages the pursuit of further studies of TPI for a variety of biomedical applications.

Ciesla, Craig M.; Arnone, Donald D.; Corchia, Alessandra; Crawley, David A.; Longbottom, Christopher; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pepper, Michael

2000-05-01

4

Tissue classification using terahertz pulsed imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry as a diagnostic aid for epithelial cancer, specifically basal cell carcinoma. Epithelial cancer, which includes skin, breast and colon cancer, accounts for about 85% of all cancers. The terahertz (THz) region is typically defined in the frequency range of 0.1-10 THz. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to water makes TPI an ideal technique for the study of skin, particularly as cancerous tissue has been shown to contain more water than normal tissue. Twenty-one ex vivo skin samples from a previous study, which successfully identified all 17 samples exhibiting basal cell carcinoma, were analysed in detail using time-domain algorithms to determine the role of TPI as a diagnostic aid. Eight parameters were assessed, four of which were identified as uncorrelated. The samples were classified into two groups: diseased tissue, and tissue without disease. A sensitivity and specificity greater than 80 % for six of the parameters was attained. These results demonstrate the potential of TPI as a diagnostic aid.

Woodward, Ruth M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Wallace, Vincent P.

2004-07-01

5

Three-dimensional terahertz pulse imaging of dental tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generating images of layered tissue structures can give valuable information to clinicians. However, the provision of accurate imaging of certain tissue structures, like teeth, in 3-dimensions is still a difficult problem. We present a method that relies on the use of pulsed Terahertz radiation to gain 3-dimensional information from teeth samples. The method makes use of Terahertz Pulse Imaging (TPI) to provide depth information. Example images are shown where structures in teeth at depth are rendered. We discuss issues that arise using this imaging method and propose ways in which it could be used in clinical practice.

Crawley, David A.; Longbottom, Christopher; Wallace, Vincent P.; Cole, Bryan E.; Arnone, Donald D.; Pepper, Michael

2002-04-01

6

Terahertz Pulse Imaging of ex vivo Basal Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz pulse imaging has been used for the first time to study basal cell carcinoma ex vivo, the most common form of skin cancer. This noninvasive technique uses part of the electromagnetic spectrum in the frequency range 0.1–2.7 THz. A total of 21 samples were imaged; the study was performed blind and results were compared to histology. Each image consisted

Ruth M Woodward; Vincent P Wallace; Richard J Pye; Bryan E Cole; Donald D Arnone; Edmund H Linfield; Michael Pepper

2003-01-01

7

Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Visualization' in imaging is the process of extracting useful information from raw data in such a way that meaningful physical contrasts are developed. 'Classification' is the subsequent process of defining parameter ranges which allow us to identify elements of images such as different tissues or different objects. In this paper, we explore techniques for visualization and classification in terahertz pulsed

Torsten Löffler; Karsten Siebert; Stephanie Czasch; Tobias Bauer; Hartmut G. Roskos

2002-01-01

8

Optical properties of tissue measured using terahertz-pulsed imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first demonstrations of terahertz imaging in biomedicine were made several years ago, but few data are available on the optical properties of human tissue at terahertz frequencies. A catalogue of these properties has been established to estimate variability and determine the practicality of proposed medical applications in terms of penetration depth, image contrast and reflection at boundaries. A pulsed terahertz imaging system with a useful bandwidth 0.5-2.5 THz was used. Local ethical committee approval was obtained. Transmission measurements were made through tissue slices of thickness 0.08 to 1 mm, including tooth enamel and dentine, cortical bone, skin, adipose tissue and striated muscle. The mean and standard deviation for refractive index and linear attenuation coefficient, both broadband and as a function of frequency, were calculated. The measurements were used in simple models of the transmission, reflection and propagation of terahertz radiation in potential medical applications. Refractive indices ranged from 1.5 +/- 0.5 for adipose tissue to 3.06 +/- 0.09 for tooth enamel. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found between the broadband refractive indices of a number of tissues. Terahertz radiation is strongly absorbed in tissue so reflection imaging, which has lower penetration requirements than transmission, shows promise for dental or dermatological applications.

Berry, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Zinov'ev, Nickolay N.; Walker, Gillian C.; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Sudworth, Caroline D.; Miles, Robert E.; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Smith, Michael A.

2003-06-01

9

Tissue characterization using terahertz pulsed imaging in reflection geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI™) is a non-ionizing and non-destructive imaging technique that has been recently used to study a wide range of biological materials. The severe attenuation of terahertz radiation in samples with high water content means that biological samples need to be very thin if they are to be measured in transmission geometry. To overcome this limitation, samples could be measured in reflection geometry and this is the most feasible way in which TPI could be performed in a clinical setting. In this study, we therefore used TPI in reflection geometry to characterize the terahertz properties of several organ samples freshly harvested from laboratory rats. We observed differences in the measured time domain responses and determined the frequency-dependent optical properties to characterize the samples further. We found statistically significant differences between the tissue types. These results show that TPI has the potential to accurately differentiate between tissue types non-invasively.

Huang, S. Y.; Wang, Y. X. J.; Yeung, D. K. W.; Ahuja, A. T.; Zhang, Y.-T.; Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

2009-01-01

10

Compression of Pulsed Terahertz Image Using Discrete Wavelet Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the result of data compression using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). A test object composed of dielectric materials is imaged by a fast oscillating delay line in reflection geometry. In general, because the size of the original image is from several megabytes (MB) to tens of MB, an adequate compression algorithm that prevents the loss of relevant information is indispensable. We analyze the image by multilevel DWT and obtain the wavelet coefficients of the levels. The images reconstructed from some of the coefficients are compared with the original image. The reconstructed pulse signals and their frequency-domain spectrums for each pixel are compared with the original signals to obtain the optimum decomposition level. The image could be compressed below 15% of its original size without loss of image quality and significant errors in the time and frequency domains.

Shon, Chae-Hwa; Chong, Won-Yong; Kim, Geun-Ju; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Jin, Yun-Sik

2007-12-01

11

Visualization and classification in biomedical terahertz pulsed imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Visualization' in imaging is the process of extracting useful information from raw data in such a way that meaningful physical contrasts are developed. 'Classification' is the subsequent process of defining parameter ranges which allow us to identify elements of images such as different tissues or different objects. In this paper, we explore techniques for visualization and classification in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) for biomedical applications. For archived (formalin-fixed, alcohol-dehydrated and paraffin-mounted) test samples, we investigate both time- and frequency-domain methods based on bright- and dark-field TPI. Successful tissue classification is demonstrated.

Löffler, Torsten; Siebert, Karsten; Czasch, Stephanie; Bauer, Tobias; Roskos, Hartmut G.

2002-11-01

12

A promising diagnostic method: Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

The terahertz band lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. It is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Unique absorption spectra due to intermolecular vibrations in this region have been found in different biological materials. These unique features make terahertz imaging very attractive for medical applications in order to provide complimentary information to existing imaging techniques. There has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy of biologically related applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques, and a number of applications such as molecular spectroscopy, tissue characterization and skin imaging are discussed. PMID:21512652

Sun, Yiwen; Sy, Ming Yiu; Wang, Yi-Xiang J; Ahuja, Anil T; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2011-01-01

13

Terahertz polarization imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new method to measure the polarization state of a terahertz pulse by using a modified electrooptic sampling setup. To illustrate the power of this method, we show two examples in which the knowledge of the polarization of the terahertz pulse is essential for interpreting the results: spectroscopy measurements on polystyrene foam and terahertz images of a plastic

Willemine A. M. van der Marel; Paul C. M. Planken

2005-01-01

14

Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the application of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers both in vitro and in vivo. The sensitivity of terahertz radiation to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the skin and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Basal cell carcinoma has shown a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. In vivo measurements on the stratum corneum have enabled visualization of the stratum corneum-epidermis interface and the study of skin hydration levels. These results demonstrate the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the study of skin tissue and its related disorders, both in vitro and in vivo.

Woodward, Ruth M.; Cole, Bryan E.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Pye, Richard J.; Arnone, Donald D.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pepper, Michael

2002-11-01

15

TOPICAL REVIEW: Pulsed terahertz tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is a coherent measurement technology. Using THz-TDS, the phase and amplitude of the THz pulse at each frequency can be determined. Like radar, THz-TDS also provides time information that allows us to develop various three-dimensional THz tomographic imaging modalities. The three-dimensional THz tomographic imagings we investigated are: terahertz diffraction tomography (THz DT), terahertz computed tomography (THz

S. Wang; X.-C. Zhang

2004-01-01

16

Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of skin tissue using time-domain analysis techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the application of Terahertz Pulse Imaging (TPI) in reflection geometry for the study of skin tissue and related cancers. The terahertz frequency regime of 0.1-100THz excites the vibrational modes of molecules, allowing for spectroscopic investigation. The sensitivity of terahertz to polar molecules, such as water, makes TPI suitable for studying the hydration levels in the stratum corneum and the determination of the lateral spread of skin cancer pre-operatively. By studying the terahertz pulse shape in the time domain we have been able to differentiate between diseased and normal tissue for the study of basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Measurements on scar tissue, which is known to contain less water than the surrounding skin, and on regions of inflammation, show a clear contrast in the THz image compared to normal skin. We discuss the time domain analysis techniques used to classify the different tissue types. Basal cell carcinoma shows a positive terahertz contrast, and inflammation and scar tissue shows a negative terahertz contrast compared to normal tissue. This demonstrates for the first time the potential of TPI both in the study of skin cancer and inflammatory related disorders.

Woodward, Ruth M.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Cole, Bryan E.; Pye, Richard J.; Arnone, Donald D.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Pepper, Michael

2002-06-01

17

Terahertz imaging for styrofoam inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of styrofoam with the help of ultrashort Terahertz pulses is investigated. With a combination of pulse amplitude and time delay imaging it is possible to speed up the measurement about two orders of magnitudes.

Pradarutti, B.; Riehemann, S.; Notni, G.; Tünnermann, A.

2007-09-01

18

High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the formation and enhancement of two dimensional pulsed terahertz (THz) images obtained in the reflection geometry with a high-speed optical delay line. Two test objects are imaged and analyzed with respect to material information and concealed structure. Clear THz images were obtained with various imaging modes and were compared with the X-ray images. The THz image of a sample revealed material features that the X-ray image cannot distinguish. We could enhance the THz image quality using various image processing techniques, such as edge detection, de-noising, high-pass filtering, and wavelet filtering.

Shon, Chae-Hwa; Chong, Won-Yong; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Geun-Ju; Kim, Jung-Il; Jin, Yun-Sik

2008-01-01

19

An efficient method-development strategy for quantitative chemical imaging using terahertz pulse spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our research was to investigate efficient procedures for generating multivariate prediction vectors for quantitative\\u000a chemical analysis of solid dosage forms using terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) reflection spectroscopy. A set of calibration\\u000a development and validation tablet samples was created following a ternary mixture of anhydrous theophylline, lactose monohydrate,\\u000a and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). Spectral images of one side of

Robert P. Cogdill; Steven M. Short; Ryanne Forcht; Zhenqi Shi; Yaochun Shen; Philip F. Taday; Carl A. Anderson; James K. Drennen

2006-01-01

20

Terahertz pulse imaging: a pilot study of potential applications in dentistry.  

PubMed

The improvement in the detection of caries offers the possibility for dramatic improvement in dental healthcare. Current caries detection rates suggest that there may be scope for improvement. This paper describes a preliminary study to examine applications of terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) to caries detection. We present results for the detection of early stage caries in the occlusal enamel layer of a range of human tooth cross sections using TPI. Higher attenuation of terahertz radiation was observed in carious enamel as compared with healthy enamel. Hypomineralised enamel had different absorption spectra and contrast compared to carious enamel in TPI images. These results have important implications for extending TPI to other medical imaging applications where both early diagnosis and safety issues are important. PMID:12925826

Crawley, David A; Longbottom, Christopher; Cole, Bryan E; Ciesla, Craig M; Arnone, Don; Wallace, Vincent P; Pepper, Michael

2003-01-01

21

Terahertz Pulsed Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Tools to Probe Formulation Stability  

PubMed Central

Dissolution stability over the entire shelf life duration is of critical importance to ensure the quality of solid dosage forms. Changes in the drug release profile during storage may affect the bioavailability of drug products. This study investigated the stability of a commercial tablet (Lescol® XL) when stored under accelerated conditions (40 °C/75% r.h.). Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was used to investigate the structure of the tablet coating before and after the accelerated aging process. The results indicate that the coating was reduced in thickness and exhibited a higher density after being stored under accelerated conditions for four weeks. In situ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the water penetration processes during tablet dissolution in a USP-IV dissolution cell equipped with an in-line UV-vis analyzer was carried out to study local differences in water uptake into the tablet matrix between the stressed and unstressed state. The drug release profiles of the Lescol® XL tablet before and after the accelerated storage stability testing were compared using a “difference” factor f1 and a “similarity” factor f2. The results reveal that even though the physical properties of the coating layers changed significantly during the stress testing, the coating protected the tablet matrix and the densification of the coating polymer had no adverse effect on the drug release performance. PMID:24300564

Zhang, Qilei; Gladden, Lynn F.; Avalle, Paolo; Zeitler, J. Axel; Mantle, Michael D.

2013-01-01

22

Terahertz pulsed imaging and magnetic resonance imaging as tools to probe formulation stability.  

PubMed

Dissolution stability over the entire shelf life duration is of critical importance to ensure the quality of solid dosage forms. Changes in the drug release profile during storage may affect the bioavailability of drug products. This study investigated the stability of a commercial tablet (Lescolr XL) when stored under accelerated conditions (40 oC/75% r.h.). Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was used to investigate the structure of the tablet coating before and after the accelerated aging process. The results indicate that the coating was reduced in thickness and exhibited a higher density after being stored under accelerated conditions for four weeks. In situ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the water penetration processes during tablet dissolution in a USP-IV dissolution cell equipped with an in-line UV-vis analyzer was carried out to study local differences in water uptake into the tablet matrix between the stressed and unstressed state. The drug release profiles of the Lescolr XL tablet before and after the accelerated storage stability testing were compared using a "difference" factor ?1 and a "similarity" factor ?2. The results reveal that even though the physical properties of the coating layers changed significantly during the stress testing, the coating protected the tablet matrix and the densification of the coating polymer had no adverse effect on the drug release performance. PMID:24300564

Zhang, Qilei; Gladden, Lynn F; Avalle, Paolo; Zeitler, J Axel; Mantle, Michael D

2013-01-01

23

Terahertz pulsed imaging study to assess remineralization of artificial caries lesions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare terahertz-pulsed imaging (TPI) with transverse microradiography (TMR) and microindentation to measure remineralization of artificial caries lesions. Lesions are formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid/0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite adjusted to pH 5.0. The 20-day experimental protocol consists of four 1 min treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385, and 2700 ppm fluoride, a 4-h/day acid challenge, and, for the remaining time, specimens are stored in a 50:50 pooled human/artificial saliva mixture. Each specimen is imaged at the focal point of the terahertz beam (data-point spacing = 50 ?m). The time-domain data are used to calculate the refractive index volume percent profile throughout the lesion, and the differences in the integrated areas between the baseline and post-treatment profiles are used to calculate ??Z(THz). In addition, the change from baseline in both the lesion depth and the intensity of the reflected pulse from the air/enamel interface is determined. Statistically significant Pearson correlation coefficients are observed between TPI and TMR/microindentation (P < 0.05). We demonstrate that TPI has potential as a research tool for hard tissue imaging.

Churchley, David; Lynch, Richard J. M.; Lippert, Frank; O'Bryan Eder, Jennifer Susan; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos

2011-02-01

24

Non-destructive quantification of pharmaceutical tablet coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging and optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) are two powerful techniques allowing high quality cross-sectional images from within scattering media to be obtained non-destructively. In this paper, we report experimental results of using OCT and TPI for quantitatively characterizing pharmaceutical tablet coatings in the thickness range of 10-140 ?m. We found that the spectral OCT system developed in-house has an axial resolution of 0.9 ?m, and is capable of quantifying very thin coatings in the range of 10-60 ?m. The upper limit of 60 ?m within the tablet coating and core is owed to the strong scattering of OCT light, which has relatively short wavelengths in the range of 0.5-1.0 ?m. On the other hand, TPI utilizes terahertz radiation that has substantially long wavelengths in the range of hundreds of microns, and thus is less prone to the scattering problem. Consequently TPI has been demonstrated to be able to quantify thicker coatings in the range of 40-140 ?m and beyond. We concluded that OCT and TPI are two complementary analytical techniques for non-destructive and quantitative characterization of pharmaceutical tablet coatings.

Zhong, Shuncong; Shen, Yao-Chun; Ho, Louise; May, Robert K.; Zeitler, J. Axel; Evans, Mike; Taday, Philip F.; Pepper, Michael; Rades, Thomas; Gordon, Keith C.; Müller, Ronny; Kleinebudde, Peter

2011-03-01

25

Terahertz pulsed imaging as an advanced characterisation tool for film coatings--a review.  

PubMed

Solid dosage forms are the pharmaceutical drug delivery systems of choice for oral drug delivery. These solid dosage forms are often coated to modify the physico-chemical properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), in particular to alter release kinetics. Since the product performance of coated dosage forms is a function of their critical coating attributes, including coating thickness, uniformity, and density, more advanced quality control techniques than weight gain are required. A recently introduced non-destructive method to quantitatively characterise coating quality is terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). The ability of terahertz radiation to penetrate many pharmaceutical materials enables structural features of coated solid dosage forms to be probed at depth, which is not readily achievable with other established imaging techniques, e.g. near-infrared (NIR) and Raman spectroscopy. In this review TPI is introduced and various applications of the technique in pharmaceutical coating analysis are discussed. These include evaluation of coating thickness, uniformity, surface morphology, density, defects and buried structures as well as correlation between TPI measurements and drug release performance, coating process monitoring and scale up. Furthermore, challenges and limitations of the technique are discussed. PMID:23570960

Haaser, Miriam; Gordon, Keith C; Strachan, Clare J; Rades, Thomas

2013-12-01

26

Application of terahertz pulsed imaging to analyse film coating characteristics of sustained-release coated pellets.  

PubMed

Terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to explore its suitability for detecting differences in the film coating thickness and drug layer uniformity of multilayered, sustained-release coated, standard size pellets (approximately 1mm in diameter). Pellets consisting of a sugar starter core and a metoprolol succinate layer were coated with a Kollicoat(®) SR:Kollicoat(®) IR polymer blend for different times giving three groups of pellets (batches I, II and III), each with a different coating thickness according to weight gain. Ten pellets from each batch were mapped individually to evaluate the coating thickness and drug layer thickness between batches, between pellets within each batch, and across individual pellets (uniformity). From the terahertz waveform the terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) was used to define a circular area (approximately 0.13 mm(2)) in the TPI maps, where no signal distortion was found due to pellet curvature in the measurement set-up used. The average coating thicknesses were 46 ?m, 71 ?m and 114 ?m, for batches I, II and III respectively, whilst no drug layer thickness difference between batches was observed. No statistically significant differences in the average coating thickness and drug layer thickness within batches (between pellets) but high thickness variability across individual pellets was observed. These results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The coating thickness results correlated with the subsequent drug release behaviour. The fastest drug release was obtained from batch I with the lowest coating thickness and the slowest from batch III with the highest coating thickness. In conclusion, TPI is suitable for detailed, non-destructive evaluation of film coating and drug layer thicknesses in multilayered standard size pellets. PMID:23721891

Haaser, M; Karrout, Y; Velghe, C; Cuppok, Y; Gordon, K C; Pepper, M; Siepmann, J; Rades, T; Taday, P F; Strachan, C J

2013-12-01

27

Terahertz pulse imaging of stratified architectural materials for cultural heritage studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz pulse imaging (TPI) is a novel noncontact, nondestructive technique for the examination of cultural heritage artifacts. It has the advantage of broadband spectral range, time-of-flight depth resolution, and penetration through optically opaque materials. Fiber-coupled, portable, time-domain terahertz systems have enabled this technique to move out of the laboratory and into the field. Much like the rings of a tree, stratified architectural materials give the chronology of their environmental and aesthetic history. This work concentrates on laboratory models of stratified mosaics and fresco paintings, specimens extracted from a neolithic excavation site in Catalhoyuk, Turkey, and specimens measured at the medieval Eglise de Saint Jean-Baptiste in Vif, France. Preparatory spectroscopic studies of various composite materials, including lime, gypsum and clay plasters are presented to enhance the interpretation of results and with the intent to aid future computer simulations of the TPI of stratified architectural material. The breadth of the sample range is a demonstration of the cultural demand and public interest in the life history of buildings. The results are an illustration of the potential role of TPI in providing both a chronological history of buildings and in the visualization of obscured wall paintings and mosaics.

Jackson, J. Bianca; Labaune, Julien; Mourou, Gérard; Duling, Irl N.; Walker, Gillian; Bowen, John; Menu, Michel

2011-06-01

28

Quantitative analysis of the layer separation risk in bilayer tablets using terahertz pulsed imaging.  

PubMed

Layer separation is a critical defect in many bilayer tablets. Despite its importance for product quality, few studies have investigated its root cause. We evaluated bilayer tablets with varying layer separation tendencies using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) in comparison with other analytical methods such as tensile strength measurements, friability testing, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT). The layer separation risk was determined by friability testing and shown to be correlated with the final compression pressure used for bilayer tablet fabrication. TPI could nondestructively detect cracks between the component layers that lead to layer separation. The adhesion integrity of the interface was quantified by the interface index, a unique value derived from the time-domain terahertz waveform. The interface index showed good correlation to the layer separation tendency and could distinguish interface quality among seven batches of bilayer tablets. In contrast, SEM and XRCT detected structural defects but could not distinguish batches with high or low layer separation risk. TPI revealed the relationship between compression pressure and interface quality. Thus, TPI can aid in quality control by providing a precise estimate of the layer separation risk and robust quality of bilayer tablet development with better understanding of layer separation. PMID:23680735

Niwa, Masahiro; Hiraishi, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Norio; Terada, Katsuhide

2013-08-16

29

Quantitative analysis of visible surface defect risk in tablets during film coating using terahertz pulsed imaging.  

PubMed

Tablets are the most common form of solid oral dosage produced by pharmaceutical industries. There are several challenges to successful and consistent tablet manufacturing. One well-known quality issue is visible surface defects, which generally occur due to insufficient physical strength, causing breakage or abrasion during processing, packaging, or shipping. Techniques that allow quantitative evaluation of surface strength and the risk of surface defect would greatly aid in quality control. Here terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to evaluate the surface properties of core tablets with visible surface defects of varying severity after film coating. Other analytical methods, such as tensile strength measurements, friability testing, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), were used to validate TPI results. Tensile strength and friability provided no information on visible surface defect risk, whereas the TPI-derived unique parameter terahertz electric field peak strength (TEFPS) provided spatial distribution of surface density/roughness information on core tablets, which helped in estimating tablet abrasion risk prior to film coating and predicting the location of the defects. TPI also revealed the relationship between surface strength and blending condition and is a nondestructive, quantitative approach to aid formulation development and quality control that can reduce visible surface defect risk in tablets. PMID:24300215

Niwa, Masahiro; Hiraishi, Yasuhiro

2014-01-30

30

Hardness and density distributions of pharmaceutical tablets measured by terahertz pulsed imaging.  

PubMed

We present terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) as a novel tool to quantify the hardness and surface density distribution of pharmaceutical tablets. Good agreement between the surface refractive index (SRI) measured by TPI and the crushing force measured from diametral compression tests was found using a set of tablets that were compacted at various compression forces. We also found a strong correlation between TPI results and tablet bulk density, and how these relate to tablet hardness. Numerical simulations of tablet surface density distribution by finite element analysis exhibit excellent agreement with the TPI measured SRI maps. These results show that TPI has an advantage over traditional diametral compression and is more suitable for nondestructive hardness and density distribution monitoring and control of pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. PMID:23609052

May, Robert K; Su, Ke; Han, Lianghao; Zhong, Shuncong; Elliott, James A; Gladden, Lynn F; Evans, Mike; Shen, Yaochun; Zeitler, J Axel

2013-07-01

31

Potential uses of terahertz pulse imaging in dentistry: caries and erosion detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TeraHertz Pulse Imaging (TPI) is a relatively new imaging modality for medical and dental imaging. The aim of the present study was to make a preliminary assessment of the potential uses of TPI in clinical dentistry, particularly in relation to caries detection and the detection and monitoring of erosion. Images were obtained in vitro using a new TPI system developed by TeraView Ltd. We present data showing that TPI in vitro images of approximal surfaces of whole teeth demonstrate a distinctive shadowing in the presence of natural carious lesions in enamel. The thickness of this enamel shadowing appears to be related to lesion depth. The use of non-ionizing radiation to image such lesions non-destructively in vitro represents a significant step towards such measurements in vivo. In addition, data is presented which indicates that TPI may have a potential role in the detection and monitoring of enamel erosion. In vitro experiments on whole incisor teeth show that TPI is capable of detecting relatively small artificially induced changes in the buccal or palatal surface of the enamel of these teeth. Imaging of enamel thickness at such a resolution without ionizing radiation would represent a significant breakthrough if applicable in vivo.

Longbottom, Christopher; Crawley, David A.; Cole, Bryan E.; Arnone, Donald D.; Wallace, Vincent P.; Pepper, Michael

2002-06-01

32

High-resolution reconstruction for terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

We present a high-resolution (HR) reconstruction model and algorithms for terahertz imaging, taking advantage of super-resolution methodology and algorithms. The algorithms used include projection onto a convex sets approach, iterative backprojection approach, Lucy-Richardson iteration, and 2D wavelet decomposition reconstruction. Using the first two HR reconstruction methods, we successfully obtain HR terahertz images with improved definition and lower noise from four low-resolution (LR) 22×24 terahertz images taken from our homemade THz-TDS system at the same experimental conditions with 1.0 mm pixel. Using the last two HR reconstruction methods, we transform one relatively LR terahertz image to a HR terahertz image with decreased noise. This indicates potential application of HR reconstruction methods in terahertz imaging with pulsed and continuous wave terahertz sources. PMID:25607865

Xu, Li-Min; Fan, Wen-Hui; Liu, Jia

2014-11-20

33

Terahertz pulsed imaging as an analytical tool for sustained-release tablet film coating.  

PubMed

The ability of terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) to be employed as an analytical tool for monitoring a film coating unit operation and to assess the success of a subsequent process scale-up was explored in this study. As part of a process scale-up development, a total of 190 sustained-release tablets were sampled at 10% increments of the amount of polymer applied, from a lab-scale and a pilot-scale coating run. These tablets were subjected to TPI analysis, followed by dissolution testing. Information on tablet film coating layer thickness and variations in coating density were extracted using TPI. It was found that both terahertz parameters were more sensitive and informative to product quality when compared with measuring the amount of polymer applied. For monitoring the film coating unit operation, coating layer thickness showed a strong influence on the dissolution behaviour for both the lab-scale and the pilot-scale batches. An R(2) of 0.89, root mean square error (RMSE)=0.22 h (MDT range=3.21-5.48 h) and an R(2) of 0.92, RMSE=0.23 h (MDT range=5.43-8.12 h) were derived from the lab-scale and pilot-scale, respectively. The scale-up process led to significant changes in MDT between the lab-scale and pilot-scale. These changes in MDT could be explained by the differences observed in the film coating density on samples with similar amount of polymer applied between the lab and the pilot-scale. Overall, TPI demonstrated potential to be employed as an analytical tool to help refine the coating unit operation and the scale-up procedure. PMID:18647650

Ho, Louise; Müller, Ronny; Gordon, Keith C; Kleinebudde, Peter; Pepper, Michael; Rades, Thomas; Shen, Yaochun; Taday, Philip F; Zeitler, J Axel

2009-01-01

34

Critical factors in the measurement of tablet film coatings using terahertz pulsed imaging.  

PubMed

The present work gives an insight into some key measurement and signal processing considerations in terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). TPI is increasingly used for the measurement of the spatial variation of coating thickness on coated solid dosage forms. The potential of TPI for the assessment of coating thickness distributions and the use in process development is described in recent literature. However, some critical factors need to be taken into account when working with this technique. These are (1) the signal processing of the raw data, (2) the influence of the composition of the sample matrix on the TPI signals and subsequent coating analysis, (3) signal distortions that can occur at tablet edges or areas with defects, and (4) the refractive index as a key parameter in the quantification of layer thickness. In this paper, we will highlight to what extent these factors impact on the qualitative and quantitative analysis of TPI data and how artifacts and misinterpretation of data can be avoided to ensure fully quantitative and robust measurements. PMID:23681565

Brock, Daniela; Zeitler, J Axel; Funke, Adrian; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

2013-06-01

35

Evaluating the effect of coating equipment on tablet film quality using terahertz pulsed imaging.  

PubMed

In this study, terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) was employed to investigate the effect of the coating equipment (fluid bed and drum coater) on the structure of the applied film coating and subsequent dissolution behaviour. Six tablets from every batch coated with the same delayed release coating formulation under recommended process conditions (provided by the coating polymer supplier) were mapped individually to evaluate the effect of coating device on critical coating characteristics (coating thickness, surface morphology and density). Although the traditional coating quality parameter (weight gain) indicated no differences between both batches, TPI analysis revealed a lower mean coating thickness (CT) for tablets coated in the drum coater compared to fluid bed coated tablets (p<0.05). Moreover, drum coated tablets showed a more pronounced CT variation between the two sides and the centre band of the biconvex tablets, with the CT around the centre band being 22.5% thinner than the top and bottom sides for the drum coated tablets and 12.5% thinner for fluid bed coated tablets. The TPI analysis suggested a denser coating for the drum coated tablets. Dissolution testing confirmed that the film coating density was the drug release governing factor, with faster drug release for tablets coated in the fluid bed coater (98 ± 4% after 6h) compared to drum coated tablets (72 ± 6% after 6h). Overall, TPI investigation revealed substantial differences in the applied film coating quality between tablets coated in the two coaters, which in turn correlated with the subsequent dissolution performance. PMID:23563103

Haaser, Miriam; Naelapää, Kaisa; Gordon, Keith C; Pepper, Michael; Rantanen, Jukka; Strachan, Clare J; Taday, Philip F; Zeitler, J Axel; Rades, Thomas

2013-11-01

36

Evaluation of critical process parameters for intra-tablet coating uniformity using terahertz pulsed imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-tablet coating uniformity and the identification of critical process parameters in an active pan coating process using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). A design of experiments (DoE) was performed with drum load, drum speed, spray rate, run duration and spray pressure as factors. Different measures of intra-tablet uniformity were investigated: the average thickness on the individual tablet faces, spatial variation in layer thickness over the tablet surface, and the coefficient of variation (CV(intra)). Data analysis revealed that the process parameters in the investigated parameter space had hardly any influence on the difference in layer thickness of the tablet faces and centre band. No increase or decrease in layer thickness--as described in the literature--was found towards the edges of the tablet face. In overwetted process conditions a higher layer thickness at the centre band edges could be observed. Still, the highest variability in coating thickness was found along the circumference of the centre band rather than the height. In general, higher CV(intra) of layer thickness were found on the centre bands in comparison with the tablet faces. The analysis of the DoE model revealed that the run duration had the highest influence on the CV(intra) on the tablet faces. TPI showed high potential in the assessment of intra-tablet uniformity and layer thickness distributions over the whole tablet surface. It was successfully used to identify critical process parameters regarding intra-tablet coating uniformity. PMID:23872179

Brock, Daniela; Zeitler, J Axel; Funke, Adrian; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

2013-11-01

37

Relatively inexpensive terahertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of imaging at terahertz [THz] frequencies are well known for homeland security applications. It is possible to image through non-highly conducting media, and there is no known biological hazard. Thus, it is possible to image concealed weapons and explosives. There are also many biomedical applications of THz radiation. One problem limiting widespread use is the expense of such

N. S. Kopeika; A. Abramovich; O. Yadid-Pecht; Y. Yitzhaky; A. Belenky; S. Lineykin; D. Rozban

2008-01-01

38

Spectrum to space transformed fast terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

We present an imaging technique in which the broadband frequency information of terahertz (THz) pulses is transformed into spatial resolution. Efficient blazed diffractive gratings spread the individual frequency components over a wide and defined spatial range and f-theta optics are employed to focus the individual components onto a one-dimensional image-line. Measuring the time domain waveform of the THz waves allows therefore for a direct reconstruction of spatial sample characteristics as the spatial domain information is encoded in the terahertz spectrum. We will demonstrate terahertz imaging on selected samples with an improvement in acquisition speed up to two orders of magnitude. PMID:23038561

Schumann, Steffen; Jansen, Christian; Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Busch, Stefan; Peters, Ole; Scheller, Maik; Koch, Martin

2012-08-13

39

Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of

Don D. Arnone; Craig M. Ciesla; Alessandra Corchia; S. Egusa; M. Pepper; J. Martyn Chamberlain; C. Bezant; E. H. Linfield; R. Clothier; N. Khammo

1999-01-01

40

Investigating the use of terahertz pulsed time domain reflection imaging for the study of fabric layers of an Egyptian mummy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the first use of terahertz time domain reflection imaging involving textiles on part of a complete human mummy, still in original wrapping. X-ray technique has been used extensively to investigate anatomical features, since X-ray pass through the wrapping. Terahertz waves, on the other hand, can penetrate into non-metallic materials and its reflection depends on the refractive index of materials at the interface, such as textiles and the air. The mummy of Kharushere (ca. 945-712 B.C.) was examined by using Terahertz time domain reflection imaging in the Egyptian galleries of The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Experimental results suggest that the Terahetz imaging is a promising technique for probing the fabric layers surrounding Egyptian mummies, although it is still very limited in its current state. In the future it could become a useful complement to CT scanning when materials with low radiographic density and contrast are being investigated

Fukunaga, K.; Cortes, E.; Cosentino, A.; Stã¼nkel, I.; Leona, M.; Duling, N.; Mininberg, D. T.

2011-08-01

41

Ultrafast semiconductor spectroscopy using terahertz electromagnetic pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz electromagnetic pulses can serve as a new and unique tool for various types of spectroscopy. We first characterized the temporal and spatial properties of THz pulses generated from a large-aperture photoconductive antena, and then used them for the study of the ultrafast dynamics of electrons in semiconductros. We studied the dynamics of electrons generated by femtosecond optical pulses with

Toshiaki Hattori; Satoshi Arai; Keisuke Ohta; Aya Mochiduki; Shin-ichi Ookuma; Keiji Tukamoto; Rakchanok Rungsawang

2005-01-01

42

Evaluation of critical process parameters for inter-tablet coating uniformity of active-coated GITS using Terahertz Pulsed Imaging.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was the evaluation of critical process parameters (CPP) for inter-tablet coating uniformity in an active pan coating process using nondestructive Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI). Coating uniformity was assessed by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV) of coating thickness measured by TPI, and the CV of API content measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A design of experiments (DoE) was performed at pilot scale with drum load, drum speed, spray rate, run duration and spray pressure as factors. Good agreement in the CV of both analytical techniques was shown. The DoE models both revealed the same CPP: a low drum load, high drum speed, low spray rate and high run duration were beneficial for coating uniformity. The spray pressure was only significant in one of the DoE models. It was further shown that the negative impact of a high drum load on the CV cannot only be compensated by high drum speed, but also be compensated by a low spray rate and long run duration. It was demonstrated that TPI is a feasible tool for the measurement of inter-tablet coating uniformity and for the evaluation of CPP in an active pan coating process. PMID:25034044

Brock, Daniela; Axel Zeitler, J; Funke, Adrian; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

2014-10-01

43

Imaging with Terahertz Pulses Timothy Dorney, Jon Johnson, Daniel Mittleman, Richard Baraniuk  

E-print Network

pulses of near-visible laser light to opto-electronically generate a coherent THz wave. The resulting requires the simultaneous arrival of a delayed femtosecond laser pulse and the generated THz wave. Through this arrangement, the laser pulse acts as a gating signal to control sampling. The result is a system that provides

44

Industrial Applications of Terahertz Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter gives a concise overview of potential industrial applications for terahertz imaging that have been reported over the past decade with a discussion of the major advantages and limitations of each approach. In the second half of the chapter we discuss in more detail how terahertz imaging can be used to investigate the microstructure of pharmaceutical dosage forms. A particular focus in this context is the nondestructive measurement of the coating thickness of polymer coated tablets, both by means of high resolution offline imaging in research and development as well as for in-line quality control during production.

Zeitler, J. Axel; Shen, Yao-Chun

45

Principle and applications of terahertz molecular imaging.  

PubMed

The principle, characteristics and applications of molecular imaging with terahertz electromagnetic waves are reviewed herein. The terahertz molecular imaging (TMI) technique uses nanoparticle probes to achieve dramatically enhanced sensitivity compared with that of conventional terahertz imaging. Surface plasmons, induced around the nanoparticles, raise the temperature of water in biological cells, and the temperature-dependent changes in the optical properties of water, which are large in the terahertz range, are measured differentially by terahertz waves. TMI has been applied to cancer diagnosis and nanoparticle drug delivery imaging. The technique is also compared with magnetic resonance imaging by using a dual-modality nanoparticle probe. PMID:23618745

Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-05-31

46

Generation and detection of terahertz pulses from biased semiconductor antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple model based on the Drude-Lorentz theory of carrier transport to account for the details of the ultrashort terahertz pulses radiated from small photoconductive semiconductor antennas. The dynamics of the bias field under the influence of the space-charge field from the accelerated carriers is included in the model. We consider in detail the optical system used to image the terahertz radiation onto the terahertz detector, and we calculate the frequency-dependent response of the detector. The proposed model is compared with several different experiments, each focusing on different parameters of the model. Agreement between experiment and model is found in all cases, supporting the validity of this simple and appropriate model. .

Jepsen, P. Uhd; Jacobsen, R. H.; Keiding, S. R.

1996-11-01

47

Components and Metrology for Terahertz Imaging  

E-print Network

Components and Metrology for Terahertz Imaging by Charles Robert Dietlein B.S., Seattle Pacific, Charles Robert All rights reserved #12;This thesis entitled: Components and Metrology for Terahertz Engineering) Components and Metrology for Terahertz Imaging Thesis directed by Professor Zoya Popovi

Popovic, Zoya

48

Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

2007-01-01

49

Compressed sensing pulse-echo mode terahertz reflectance tomography  

E-print Network

terahertz (THz) reflectance tomography, where scattered THz waveforms are measured using a high in AOS THz-TDS. © 2009 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: 110.6795, 110.3010. In classical terahertzCompressed sensing pulse-echo mode terahertz reflectance tomography Kyung Hwan Jin,1 Youngchan Kim

50

Terahertz interferometric imaging of RDX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results of homodyne terahertz interferometric 2-D imaging of RDX are presented. Continuous waves at 0.25-0.6 THz are used to obtain images of a C-4 sample at several THz frequencies. The performance of an N element detector array is imitated by only one detector placed at N positions. The distance between the C-4 sample and the detector array is ~30 cm. By taking interferometric images at several THz frequencies RDX can be recognized by the spectral peak at 0.82 THz. Simulations of interferometric images of two point sources of spherical waves are presented. The terahertz interferometric imaging method can be used in defense and security applications to detect concealed weapons, explosives as well as chemical and biological agents.

Sinyukov, Alexander M.; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Zorych, Ivan; Zimdars, David; Federici, John F.

2007-04-01

51

An introduction to medical imaging with coherent terahertz frequency radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods have recently been developed that make use of electromagnetic radiation at terahertz (THz) frequencies, the region of the spectrum between millimetre wavelengths and the infrared, for imaging purposes. Radiation at these wavelengths is non-ionizing and subject to far less Rayleigh scatter than visible or infrared wavelengths, making it suitable for medical applications. This paper introduces THz pulsed imaging and

A J Fitzgerald; E Berry; N N Zinovev; G C Walker; M A Smith; J M Chamberlain

2002-01-01

52

Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The refractive indices, absorption coefficients, and complex dielectric constants of paraffin-embedded brain glioma and normal brain tissues have been measured by a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the 0.2- to 2.0-THz range. The spectral differences between gliomas and normal brain tissues were obtained. Compared with normal brain tissue, our results indicate that paraffin-embedded brain gliomas have a higher refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant. Based on these results, the best THz frequencies for different methods of paraffin-embedded brain glioma imaging, such as intensity imaging, coherent imaging with continuum THz sources, and THz pulsed imaging with short-pulsed THz sources, are analyzed.

Meng, Kun; Chen, Tu-nan; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Li-guo; Liu, Qiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Fei; Zhong, Sen-cheng; Li, Ze-ren; Feng, Hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

2014-07-01

53

Terahertz pulsed spectroscopy of paraffin-embedded brain glioma.  

PubMed

The refractive indices, absorption coefficients, and complex dielectric constants of paraffin-embedded brain glioma and normal brain tissues have been measured by a terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the 0.2- to 2.0-THz range. The spectral differences between gliomas and normal brain tissues were obtained. Compared with normal brain tissue, our results indicate that paraffin-embedded brain gliomas have a higher refractive index, absorption coefficient, and dielectric constant. Based on these results, the best THz frequencies for different methods of paraffin-embedded brain glioma imaging, such as intensity imaging, coherent imaging with continuum THz sources, and THz pulsed imaging with short-pulsed THz sources, are analyzed. PMID:25003757

Meng, Kun; Chen, Tu-nan; Chen, Tao; Zhu, Li-guo; Liu, Qiao; Li, Zhao; Li, Fei; Zhong, Sen-cheng; Li, Ze-ren; Feng, Hua; Zhao, Jian-heng

2014-07-01

54

A comparison of terahertz-pulsed imaging with transverse microradiography and microhardness to measure mineral changes in enamel after treatment with fluoride dentifrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to determine the ability of Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) to measure mineral changes in enamel lesions during de/remineralisation studies. A comparison was made between transverse microradiography (TMR) and microhardness measurements. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine enamel using a solution of 0.1 M lactic acid (pH 5.0) containing 0.2% Carbopol C907 and 50% saturated with hydroxyapatite. The 20 day experimental protocol consisted of four, one-minute treatment periods with dentifrices containing 10, 675, 1385 and 2700ppm fluoride, a 4 h/day acid challenge, and for the remaining time specimens were stored in a 50:50 pooled human / artificial saliva mixture. Terahertz images were generated by positioning the specimens at the focus of the beam and raster scanning the optics to collect the reflections from the air / enamel (AEI) and lesion / enamel (LEI) interface. Significant differences were observed in the intensity change from baseline of the AEI and LEI reflections upon treatment with the four dentifrices. A linear correlation was observed between ?AEI vs ?VHN (r2 = 0.997), ?AEI vs ?KHN (r2 =0.964), ?II (ratio of LEI to AEI) vs ??Z (r2 =0.875) and ?LEI vs ??Z (r2 =0.870). Statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 Pearson correlation coefficient) were also found between the TPI and microhardness / microradiography data. This study has demonstrated that TPI is a useful technology to measure in vitro (and possibly in situ) mineral changes in enamel and is sufficiently sensitive to discriminate between the levels of remineralization produced by the different dentifrices.

Churchley, David; Lippert, Frank; Lynch, Richard; Alton, Jesse; Gonzalez-Cabezas, C.; Eder, J.

2009-02-01

55

Terahertz imaging and international safety guidelines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) radiation has a frequency of the order of 101212 Hz. This lies between the infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum; a section labeled the 'THz gap'. Infrared and microwave radiation is used in the medical field; research is underway for an application for THz radiation. At present no formal safety analysis of a THz pulsed imaging (TPI) system has been performed. This will be necessary for future in vivo studies. The radiation is delivered in a train of femtosecond pulses. International guidelines on exposure to non-ionizing radiation, and supporting literature, were reviewed to determine the Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) for radiation of this range of wavelengths, both for a single pulse and continuous wave exposure. Two methods of deriving the MPE were identified. Current guidelines for infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum incorporate the THz region. Using conservative parameter estimation an MPE per pulse, over the area of the beam, of 94 W was calculated. At present THz pulsed imaging systems produce pulses of power approximately 1 mW; this lies within the limit calculated using the published guidelines. There are, however, areas requiring further investigation before the technique becomes routine in clinical practice.

Walker, Gillian C.; Berry, Elizabeth; Zinov'ev, Nick N.; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Miles, Robert E.; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Smith, Michael A.

2002-05-01

56

Achromatic prism-type wave plate for broadband terahertz pulses.  

PubMed

We demonstrated achromatic half- and quarter-wave plates for broadband terahertz pulses using phase retardation by internal total reflection. Prism-type wave plates realized ultra-broadband retardation stability up to 2.5 THz, which was the limitation of our experimental setup. Novel aspects of our work were use of a 3?/4 plate as a quarter-wave plate and a multistacked prism-type (MSP) wave plate for a large-aperture THz beam. Real-time polarization imaging of two crossed bunches of hairs was performed to show the efficiency of the MSP wave plate. We clearly observed polarization dependence of the hair direction. PMID:24784105

Kawada, Yoichi; Yasuda, Takashi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Akiyama, Koichiro; Hakamata, Kento; Takahashi, Hironori

2014-05-01

57

New terahertz dispersive device for single-shot spectral measurements of terahertz pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new terahertz dispersive device designed for single-shot spectral measurements of broadband terahertz pulses is proposed. With two-dimensional quasi-randomly distributed element design, the device exhibits approximately the dispersive property of single-order diffraction in far field. Its far-field diffraction pattern is experimentally verified employing a continuous terahertz source centered at 2.52 THz and a pyroelectric focal-plane-array camera, which is in good agreement with the numerical result. The device provides a new approach for direct single-shot spectral measurements of broadband terahertz waves.

Wu, Yin-Zhong; Zhao, Zong-Qing; Gu, Yu-Qiu; Wei, Lai; Cao, Lei-Feng

2014-12-01

58

Terahertz time-lapse imaging of hydration in physiological tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes terahertz (THz) imaging of hydration changes in physiological tissues with high water concentration sensitivity. A fast-scanning, pulsed THz imaging system (centered at 525 GHz; 125 GHz bandwidth) was utilized to acquire a 35 mm x 35 mm field-of-view with 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm pixels in less than two minutes. THz time-lapsed images were taken on three

David B. Bennett; Zachary D. Taylor; Neha Bajwa; Priyamvada Tewari; Ashkan Maccabi; Shijun Sung; Rahul S. Singh; Martin O. Culjat; Warren S. Grundfest; Elliott R. Brown

2011-01-01

59

Development of Fiber-Coupled Compact Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Imaging Head  

E-print Network

. Introduction Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) utilizing THz pulses is a well-established technique, however, it is indispensable to realize fast scanning of a large area with a compact and costDevelopment of Fiber-Coupled Compact Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy Imaging Head Ryotaro INOUE

Tonouchi, Masayoshi

60

Uncooled photomechanical terahertz imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed, built, and tested an uncooled THz imager based on optical readout photomechanical imaging technology, in which a MEMS-based sensor chip transduces the THz scene into a visible signal that is captured by a CCD imager. The performance of the 130x90 resolution, 100 ?m pitch, 30 fps uncooled THz imager was measured using the ? = 119 ?m (2.52 THz) emission line of a CO2-pumped methanol gas laser. Excellent linearity of the responsivity was observed over a wide range of laser power. The noise equivalent power (NEP), limited by shot noise from the optical readout, was 76 pW/Hz1/2. Switching to a high-capacity CCD imager to reduce shot noise and tailoring the photomechanical pixel structure for THz absorption will yield an NEP of less than 1 pW/Hz1/2. In addition, the uncooled THz imager successfully profiled the output beam of a ?=134 um (2.24 THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) in real time, with performance far superior to a commercial pyroelectric array camera.

Erdtmann, Matthew; Zhang, Lei; Radhakrishnan, Shankar; Wu, Shuyun; Goyette, Thomas M.; Gatesman, Andrew J.

2012-05-01

61

Imaging with a Terahertz quantum cascade laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate bio-medical imaging using a Terahertz quantum cascade laser. This new optoelectronic source of coherent Terahertz radiation allows building a compact imaging system with a large dynamic range and high spatial resolution. We obtain images of a rat brain section at 3.4 THz. Distinct regions of brain tissue rich in fat, proteins, and fluid-filled cavities are resolved showing the

Juraj Darmo; Vincas Tamosiunas; Gernot Fasching; Josef Kröll; Karl Unterrainer; Mattias Beck; Marcella Giovannini; Jerome Faist; Christian Kremser; Paul Debbage

2004-01-01

62

Tailored terahertz pulses from a laser-modulated electron beam.  

PubMed

We present a new method to generate steady and tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. We have demonstrated this in the electron storage ring at the Advanced Light Source. Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse copropagating through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration of the laser pulse. The bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to the dispersion of electron trajectories, and the resulting hole emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. We present measurements of the intensity and spectra of these pulses. This technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulse by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse. PMID:16712239

Byrd, J M; Hao, Z; Martin, M C; Robin, D S; Sannibale, F; Schoenlein, R W; Zholents, A A; Zolotorev, M S

2006-04-28

63

Exploring conductivity in nanomaterials with terahertz pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast carrier transport in nanomaterials is explored using terahertz (THz) pulses. Conventional time-resolved THz spectroscopy is used to study two systems of significant general interest: silicon nanocrystals and vanadium dioxide. Transient percolative dynamics is observed in silicon nanocrystals embedded in an SiO2 matrix, while a phase diagram is made for the ultrafast photoinduced insulator-metal phase transition in a nanogranular vanadium dioxide film. A complementary theoretical study provides insight into how carrier localization is manifested in the THz conductivity of nanomaterials. In our final study, we develop a new technique that weds the strengths of ultrafast THz spectroscopy to a scanning tunneling microscope to directly probe carrier dynamics on the nanoscale. We demonstrate unprecedented simultaneous spatial and temporal resolutions and measure the ultrafast, subpicosecond excitation and picosecond decay of a single nanoparticle for the first time ever.

Cocker, Tyler L.

64

Terahertz Tools Advance Imaging for Security, Industry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Picometrix, a wholly owned subsidiary of Advanced Photonix Inc. (API), of Ann Arbor, Michigan, invented the world s first commercial terahertz system. The company improved the portability and capabilities of their systems through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements with Langley Research Center to provide terahertz imaging capabilities for inspecting the space shuttle external tanks and orbiters. Now API s systems make use of the unique imaging capacity of terahertz radiation on manufacturing floors, for thickness measurements of coatings, pharmaceutical tablet production, and even art conservation.

2010-01-01

65

Imaging of ex vivo nonmelanoma skin cancers in the optical and terahertz spectral regions optical and terahertz skin cancers imaging.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that polarization sensitive optical and terahertz imaging may be combined for accurate nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) delineation. Nine NMSC specimens were imaged. 513 ?m and 440 nm wavelengths were used for terahertz and optical imaging, respectively. Histopathology was processed for evaluation. Terahertz reflectance of NMSC was quantified. Our results demonstrate that cross-polarized terahertz images correctly identified location of the tumours, whereas cross-polarized and polarization difference optical images accurately presented morphological features. Cross-polarized terahertz images exhibited lower reflectivity values in cancer as compared to normal tissue. Combination of optical and terahertz imaging shows promise for intraoperative delineation of NMSC. PMID:22987857

Joseph, Cecil S; Patel, Rakesh; Neel, Victor A; Giles, Robert H; Yaroslavsky, Anna N

2014-05-01

66

Terahertz interferometric imaging of a concealed object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results of two-dimensional homodyne terahertz interferometric imaging are presented. The performance of an N element detector array is imitated by only one detector placed at N positions. Continuous waves at 0.25-0.3 THz are used to detect concealed objects: a metal object and an RDX sample. The terahertz interferometric imaging method can be used in defense and security applications to detect concealed weapons, explosives as well as chemical and biological agents.

Sinyukov, Alexander M.; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Sengupta, Amartya; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Zimdars, David; Federici, John F.

2006-10-01

67

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow discharge detector is approximately 0.2-0.5 per lamp, and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. The detection mechanism of the glow discharge detector is found to be the enhanced diffusion current, which causes the glow discharge detector bias current to decrease when exposed to THz radiation.

Abramovich, A.; Kopeika, N. S.; Rozban, D.; Farber, E.

2007-10-01

68

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow discharge detector is approximately $0.2-$0.5 per lamp, and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. The detection mechanism of the glow discharge detector is found to be the enhanced diffusion current, which causes the glow discharge detector bias current to decrease when exposed to THz radiation. PMID:17932531

Abramovich, A; Kopeika, N S; Rozban, D; Farber, E

2007-10-10

69

Processing and Probability Analysis of Pulsed Terahertz NDE of Corrosion under Shuttle Tile Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines data processing and probability analysis of pulsed terahertz NDE scans of corrosion defects under a Shuttle tile. Pulsed terahertz data collected from an aluminum plate with fabricated corrosion defects and covered with a Shuttle tile is presented. The corrosion defects imaged were fabricated by electrochemically etching areas of various diameter and depth in the plate. In this work, the aluminum plate echo signal is located in the terahertz time-of-flight data and a threshold is applied to produce a binary image of sample features. Feature location and area are examined and identified as corrosion through comparison with the known defect layout. The results are tabulated with hit, miss, or false call information for a probability of detection analysis that is used to identify an optimal processing threshold.

Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Ely, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

70

Terahertz polarization imaging for colon cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, noninvasive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. The terahertz reflectance measurements of fresh 3 - 5 mm thick human colonic excisions were acquired using a continuous-wave polarization imaging technique. A CO2 optically pumped Far- Infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz was used to illuminate the colon tissue, while the reflected signals were detected using a liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer. Both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance from the samples was collected using wire grid polarizers in the experiment. The experimental analysis of 2D images obtained from THz reflection polarization imaging techniques showed intrinsic contrast between cancerous and normal regions based on increased reflection from the tumor. Also, the study demonstrates that the cross-polarized terahertz images not only correlates better with the histology, but also provide consistent relative reflectance difference values between normal and cancerous regions for all the measured specimens.

Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

2014-03-01

71

Analysis of system trade-offs for terahertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyse the trade-offs for a terahertz imaging system and discuss implementation of a terahertz micro antenna array for imaging. We also describe applications of terahertz imaging and improvements in the signal processing. q 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

S. Mickan; D. Abbott; X.-C. Zhang; T. van Doorn

72

Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results of homodyne terahertz interferometric 1-D and 2-D imaging are presented. Continuous waves at 0.25-0.3 THz are used to detect a metal object behind a barrier. The performance of an N element detector array is imitated by only one detector placed at N positions. The reconstructed images are in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The terahertz interferometric imaging method can be used in defense and security applications to detect concealed weapons, explosives as well as chemical and biological agents.

Sinyukov, Alexander M.; Bandyopadhyay, Aparajita; Sengupta, Amartya; Barat, Robert B.; Gary, Dale E.; Michalopoulou, Zoi-Heleni; Zimdars, David; Federici, John F.

2006-05-01

73

Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

2005-01-01

74

Terahertz Imaging Quantum Dot Detector  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1.2 Terahertz Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1.2.1 The Bolometer Transistors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.6.1 The Tunnel Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.6.2 Single Electron Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.6.3 The Double Tunnel

Sheldon, Nathan D.

75

Propagation of terahertz pulses in photoexcited media: Analytical theory for layered systems  

E-print Network

­terahertz probe spectroscopy has become a widely used experimental tool for the investigation of the ultrafast far-infrared-domain terahertz spectroscopy uses broadband picosecond pulses of far infrared radiation with frequencies most these terahertz pulses are used to probe changes of the far-infrared susceptibility or conductivity spectrum initi

KuÂ?el, Petr

76

Terahertz interferometric and synthetic aperture imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stand-off imaging properties of a terahertz (THz) interferometric array are examined. For this application, the imaged object is in the near-field region limit of the imaging array. In this region, spherical and circular array architectures can compensate for near-field distortions and increase the field of view and depth of focus. Imaging of THz point sources is emphasized to demonstrate

Aparajita Bandyopadhyay; Andrei Stepanov; Brian Schulkin; Michael D. Federici; Amartya Sengupta; Dale Gary; John F. Federici; Robert Barat; Zoi-Heleni Michalopoulou; David Zimdars

2006-01-01

77

Terahertz imaging using full-field electrooptic sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real time terahertz imaging is emerging as an important non-destructive imaging tool for medical, quality control, security and other industrial applications. In this thesis, we demonstrate real-time full-field terahertz (THz) imaging of still, moving, and concealed objects, and real-time THz images of the field distribution on the imaging plane. A femtosecond laser pulse from an amplified Ti:sapphire laser system with a pulse duration of 100 fs, repetition rate of 1 kHz, and 800 nm center wavelength is used to generate THz pulses via optical rectification in a 15x15 mm2 by 2 mm thick [110] ZnTe crystal. The THz pulses are collimated to a 1" diameter beam using off-axis parabolic reflectors. An object is placed in the collimated THz beam, and a plastic lens is used to form an image of the object on a second ZnTe crystal (detector). The THz image is detected by free-space electro-optic sampling using a large diameter gating beam derived from the laser source. Video or still images are captured by an 8-bit (30 fps) grayscale CCD camera, and objects hidden behind paper or inside Styrofoam can be clearly seen in real-time. We also study the ring-like spatial intensity distribution of the various frequency components of the THz pulse focused in the image plane by varying the time-delay between the THz and probe beams. Methods for improving signal-to-noise such as frame averaging and dynamic subtraction are also studied.

Ayesheshim, Ayesheshim Kebie

78

Ionic contrast terahertz near field imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated the direct and noninvasive imaging of functional neurons by Ionic Contrast Terahertz (ICT) near-field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative measurements of ionic concentrations in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments and opens the way to direct noninvasive imaging of neurons during electrical, toxin, or thermal stresses. Furthermore, neuronal activity results from both a precise control of transient variations in ionic conductance and a much less studied water exchange between the extracellular matrix and the intraaxonal compartment. The developed ICT technique associated with a full three-dimensional simulation of the axon-aperture near-field system allows a precise measurement of the axon geometry and therefore the direct visualization of neuron swelling induced by temperature change or neurotoxin poisoning. We also developed Terahertz Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) devices perfectly suited for studying cell layers. Inserted in a terahertz time-domain system, and using a high resistivity low loss silicon prism to couple the terahertz wave into the sample, the detection scheme is based on the relative differential spectral phase of two orthogonal polarizations. Biological sample imaging as well as subwavelength (?/16) longitudinal resolution are demonstrated.

Gallot, Guilhem

2013-09-01

79

Inexpensive detector for terahertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glow discharge plasma, derived from direct-current gas breakdown, is investigated in order to realize an inexpensive terahertz (THz) room-temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room-temperature detectors yield good responsivity and noise-equivalent power. Development of a focal plane array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the cost of a glow

A. Abramovich; N. S. Kopeika; D. Rozban; E. Farber

2007-01-01

80

Selecting rotational two-level coherence in polar molecules by double terahertz pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate experimentally a method for controlling two-level coherence in jet-cooled rotating polar molecules by using a pair of intense terahertz pulses. The broad spectra of the terahertz pulses can induce resonant population transfer between four rotational states J =0 ,1 ,2 ,3 to establish two-level coherence. This coherence is controlled by the delay between the two terahertz pulses, resulting in selection of a single two-level coherence. This scheme can be extended to select a specific two-level coherence in a thermally distributed molecular ensemble by applying a train of terahertz pulses.

Kitano, Kenta; Ishii, Nobuhisa; Kanai, Teruto; Itatani, Jiro

2014-10-01

81

Tunable and collimated terahertz radiation generation by femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism is proposed for the generation of tunable terahertz (THz) radiation under the application of two femtosecond laser pulses and an external magnetic field, where quick tunnel ionization is achieved that leads to higher plasma density evolution and large residual current for the efficient THz radiation generation. With the optimization of magnetic field, phase difference, and amplitudes of lasers' fields, a THz source can be obtained with tunable frequency and power along with a control on the direction of radiation emission.

Malik, Hitendra K.; Malik, Anil K.

2011-12-19

82

Nonlinear propagation of terahertz pulses in ammonia vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the propagation of terahertz (THz) pulses resonant with the lowest rotational levels in ammonia vapors at room temperature. We demonstrate a quasisimultonic regime of propagation for two-color THz pulses (their lossless simultaneous propagation with equal group velocities and stable envelopes at finite distances, like coupled solitons). The quasisimultons are formed by two pulses synchronized in time, the first one being intense and two humped with an area multiple of 4 ? , while the another one is weaker, one humped, and with an area much less than ? . Two- and one-humped pulses have equal width and copropagate in ammonia vapor at the same group velocity. Moreover, the larger the dip of the two-hump pulse is, the weaker may be the one-humped pulse. The stability of this coupled state is provided by the fact that the two-humped pulse makes the medium transparent for the one-humped pulse. In its turn, the latter prevents the breakup of the former into separate pulses. It is established as well that a multihumped pulse with an odd or even number of humps and a hyperbolic secant pulse can behave like a simulton. In this case, the area of multihumped pulse equals to 2 n ? , where n is the number of humps in the powerful pulse structure.

Fedotova, O. M.; Khasanov, O. K.; Rusetsky, G. A.; Degert, J.; Freysz, E.

2014-11-01

83

Comprehensive imaging of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons.  

PubMed

A comprehensive system with a high speed is built for imaging the terahertz (THz) surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Both the amplitude and the phase information of the focusing THz-SPPs excited by a semicircular plasmonic lens are achieved by using this system. The amplitude images present the focusing profiles of the THz-SPPs with different frequencies and the phase images reveal the Gouy phase shift as the THz-SPPs evolving through the focus. The simulations are also performed and a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results has been found. PMID:25090508

Wang, Sen; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Xinke; Qu, Shiliang; Zhang, Yan

2014-07-14

84

Solar cell imaging and characterization by terahertz techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enhanced attention to solar cell development stimulates search of innovative solutions to their characterization and identification of possible technological defects in various steps of production in a contactless way. In the given work, investigation of solar cells structures by means of terahertz (THz) imaging is presented. Both continuous wave and pulsed THz imaging set-ups were employed in this study. Investigated objects included typical for various production stages test silicon structures - structured and unstructured surfaces, metalized and unmetalized contact areas, commercial silicon solar cells. We demonstrate that phase sensitive subTHz imaging can be employed for detecting manufacturing defects of the solder tabs, while images at higher frequencies reveal finer details of solar cells, such as cracks or different reflection coefficients for structured and unstructured surfaces with different doping.

Minkevi?ius, Linas; Suzanovi?ienÄ--, Rasa; Molis, Gediminas; Krotkus, Arúnas; Balakauskas, Saulius; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Valušis, Gintaras; Tamošiúnas, Vincas

2012-10-01

85

Applications of terahertz (THz) technology to medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An imaging system has been developed based on pulses of Terahertz (THz) radiation generated and detected using all- optical effects accessed by irradiating semiconductors with ultrafast pulses of visible laser light. This technique, commonly referred to as T-Ray Imaging or THz Pulse Imaging (TPI), holds enormous promise for certain aspects of medical imaging. We have conducted an initial survey of possible medical applications of TPI and demonstrated that TPI images show good contrast between different animal tissue types. Moreover, the diagnostic power of TPI has been elicidated by the spectra available at each pixel in the image, which are markedly different for the different tissue types. This suggests that the spectral information inherent in TPI might be used to identify the type of soft and hard tissue at each pixel in an image and provide other diagnostic information not afforded by conventional imagin techniques. Preliminary TPI studies of pork skin show that 3D tomographic imaging of the skin surface and thickness is possible, and data from experiments on models of the human dermis are presented which demonstrate that different constituents of skin have different refractive indices. Lastly, we present the first THz image of human tissue, namely an extracted tooth. The time of flight of THz pulses through the tooth allows the thickness of the enamel to be determined, and is used to create an image showing the enamel and dentine regions. Absorption of THz pulses in the tooth allows the pulp cavity region to be identified. Initial evidence strongly suggests that TPI my be used to provide valuable diagnostic information pertaining to the enamel, dentine, and the pump cavity.

Arnone, Donald D.; Ciesla, Craig M.; Corchia, Alessandra; Egusa, S.; Pepper, Michael; Chamberlain, J. Martyn; Bezant, C.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Clothier, R.; Khammo, N.

1999-09-01

86

Generation of terahertz radiation by focusing femtosecond bichromatic laser pulses in a gas or plasma  

SciTech Connect

The generation of terahertz radiation by focusing two-frequency femtosecond laser pulses is studied. Focusing is carried out both in an undisturbed gas and in a pre-formed plasma. The energy of the terahertz radiation pulses is shown to reduce significantly in the case of focusing in a plasma. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Chizhov, P A; Volkov, Roman V; Bukin, V V; Ushakov, A A; Garnov, Sergei V; Savel'ev-Trofimov, Andrei B

2013-04-30

87

Goya's artwork imaging with Terahertz waves.  

PubMed

In this paper we use a Terahertz (THz) time-domain system to image and analyze the structure of an artwork attributed to the Spanish artist Goya painted in 1771. The THz images show features that cannot be seen with optical inspection and complement data obtained with X-ray imaging that provide evidence of its authenticity, which is validated by other independent studies. For instance, a feature with a strong resemblance with one of Goya's known signatures is seen in the THz images. In particular, this paper demonstrates the potential of THz imaging as a complementary technique along with X-ray for the verification and authentication of artwork pieces through the detection of features that remain hidden to optical inspection. PMID:23938652

Seco-Martorell, C; López-Domínguez, V; Arauz-Garofalo, G; Redo-Sanchez, A; Palacios, J; Tejada, J

2013-07-29

88

Generation of high power single-cycle and multiple-cycle terahertz pulses  

E-print Network

In this thesis, we present experimental methods and results of tabletop generation of high power single-cycle and frequency-tunable multiple-cycle terahertz (THz) pulses pumped with near-infrared ultrashort optical pulses ...

Chen, Zhao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Chemistry

2013-01-01

89

A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser  

E-print Network

A terahertz pulse emitter monolithically integrated with a quantum cascade laser(QCL) is demonstrated. The emitter facet is excited by near-infrared pulses from a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser, and the resulting current ...

Kao, Tsung-Yu

90

Single-cycle strong terahertz pulse generation from a vacuum-plasma interface driven by intense laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-cycle strong terahertz pulses can be generated by irradiating ultrashort intense laser pulses onto a tenuous plasma slab. At the plasma surface, laser ponderomotive force accelerates electrons and induces net currents, which radiate terahertz pulses. Our theoretical model suggests that if ?L>2?/?p , with ?L as the laser-pulse duration and ?p as the plasma frequency, the emission frequency is around ?L-1 . On the other hand, the emission frequency is around ?p/2? if ?L<2?/?p . Our numerical simulations support the theoretical model, showing that such a terahertz source is capable of providing megawatt power, field strengths of MV/cm, and broad frequency tunability.

Dong, X. G.; Sheng, Z. M.; Wu, H. C.; Wang, W. M.; Zhang, J.

2009-04-01

91

NDE Imaging of Time Differential Terahertz Waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Natural voids are present in the vicinity of a conathane interface that bonds two different foam materials. These voids are out of focus with the terahertz imaging system and multiple optical reflections also make it difficult to determine their depths. However, waves passing through the top foam article at normal incidence are partially reflected at the denser conathane layer prior to total reflection at the tank s wall. Reflections embedded in the oscillating noise segment prior to the main signals can be extracted with dual applications of filtering and time derivative. Void's depth is computed from direct path's time of flight.

Trinh, Long B.

2008-01-01

92

3-D Terahertz Synthetic-Aperture Imaging and Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) wavelengths have attracted recent interest in multiple disciplines within engineering and science. Situated between the infrared and the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, THz energy can propagate through non-polar materials such as clothing or packaging layers. Moreover, many chemical compounds, including explosives and many drugs, reveal strong absorption signatures in the THz range. For these reasons, THz wavelengths have great potential for non-destructive evaluation and explosive detection. Three-dimensional (3-D) reflection imaging with considerable depth resolution is also possible using pulsed THz systems. While THz imaging (especially 3-D) systems typically operate in transmission mode, reflection offers the most practical configuration for standoff detection, especially for objects with high water content (like human tissue) which are opaque at THz frequencies. In this research, reflection-based THz synthetic-aperture (SA) imaging is investigated as a potential imaging solution. THz SA imaging results presented in this dissertation are unique in that a 2-D planar synthetic array was used to generate a 3-D image without relying on a narrow time-window for depth isolation cite [Shen 2005]. Novel THz chemical detection techniques are developed and combined with broadband THz SA capabilities to provide concurrent 3-D spectral imaging. All algorithms are tested with various objects and pressed pellets using a pulsed THz time-domain system in the Northwest Electromagnetics and Acoustics Research Laboratory (NEAR-Lab).

Henry, Samuel C.

93

Passive terahertz imaging for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The passive detection is safe for passengers and operators as no radiation. Therefore, passive terahertz (THz) imaging can be applied to human body security check. Imaging in the THz band offers the unique property of being able to identify object through a range of materials. Therefore passive THz imaging is meaningful for security applications. This attribute has always been of interest to both the civil and military marks with applications. We took advantage of a single THz detector and a trihedral scanning mirror to propose another passive THz beam scanning imaging method. This method overcame the deficiencies of the serious decline in image quality due to the movement of the focused mirror. We exploited a THz scanning mirror with a trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror to streamline the structure of the system and increase the scanning speed. Then the passive THz beam scanning imaging system was developed based on this method. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 1.7m, the image height was 2m, the image width was 1m, the minimum imaging time of per frame was 8s, and the minimum resolution was 4cm. We imaged humans with different objects hidden under their clothes, such as fruit knife, belt buckle, mobile phone, screwdriver, bus cards, keys and other items. All the tested stuffs could be detected and recognized from the image.

Guo, Lan-tao; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

94

Observation of energetic terahertz pulses from relativistic solid density plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first experimental observation of terahertz (THz) radiation from the rear surface of a solid target while interacting with an intense laser pulse. Experimental and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the observed THz radiation is mostly emitted at large angles to the target normal. Numerical results point out that a large part of the emission originates from a micron-scale plasma sheath at the rear surface of the target, which is also responsible for the ion acceleration. This opens a perspective for the application of THz radiation detection for on-site diagnostics of particle acceleration in laser-produced plasmas.

Gopal, A.; May, T.; Herzer, S.; Reinhard, A.; Minardi, S.; Schubert, M.; Dillner, U.; Pradarutti, B.; Polz, J.; Gaumnitz, T.; Kaluza, M. C.; Jäckel, O.; Riehemann, S.; Ziegler, W.; Gemuend, H.-P.; Meyer, H.-G.; Paulus, G. G.

2012-08-01

95

Complex extreme learning machine applications in terahertz pulsed signals feature sets.  

PubMed

This paper presents a novel approach to the automatic classification of very large data sets composed of terahertz pulse transient signals, highlighting their potential use in biochemical, biomedical, pharmaceutical and security applications. Two different types of THz spectra are considered in the classification process. Firstly a binary classification study of poly-A and poly-C ribonucleic acid samples is performed. This is then contrasted with a difficult multi-class classification problem of spectra from six different powder samples that although have fairly indistinguishable features in the optical spectrum, they also possess a few discernable spectral features in the terahertz part of the spectrum. Classification is performed using a complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithm that takes into account features in both the amplitude as well as the phase of the recorded spectra. Classification speed and accuracy are contrasted with that achieved using a support vector machine classifier. The study systematically compares the classifier performance achieved after adopting different Gaussian kernels when separating amplitude and phase signatures. The two signatures are presented as feature vectors for both training and testing purposes. The study confirms the utility of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms for classification of the very large data sets generated with current terahertz imaging spectrometers. The classifier can take into consideration heterogeneous layers within an object as would be required within a tomographic setting and is sufficiently robust to detect patterns hidden inside noisy terahertz data sets. The proposed study opens up the opportunity for the establishment of complex-valued extreme learning machine algorithms as new chemometric tools that will assist the wider proliferation of terahertz sensing technology for chemical sensing, quality control, security screening and clinic diagnosis. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm should also be very useful in other applications requiring the classification of very large datasets. PMID:25037827

Yin, X-X; Hadjiloucas, S; Zhang, Y

2014-11-01

96

Image reconstruction and optimization using a terahertz scanned imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the limited number of array detection architectures in the millimeter wave to terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum, imaging schemes with scan architectures are typically employed. In these configurations the interplay between the frequencies used to illuminate the scene and the optics used play an important role in the quality of the formed image. Using a multiplied Schottky-diode based terahertz transceiver operating at 340 GHz, in a stand-off detection scheme; the effect of image quality of a metal target was assessed based on the scanning speed of the galvanometer mirrors as well as the optical system that was constructed. Background effects such as leakage on the receiver were minimized by conditioning the signal at the output of the transceiver. Then, the image of the target was simulated based on known parameters of the optical system and the measured images were compared to the simulation. By using an image quality index based on ?2 algorithm the simulated and measured images were found to be in good agreement with a value of ?2 = 0 .14. The measurements as shown here will aid in the future development of larger stand-off imaging systems that work in the terahertz frequency range.

Y?ld?r?m, ?hsan Ozan; Özkan, Vedat A.; Idikut, F?rat; Takan, Taylan; ?ahin, Asaf B.; Altan, Hakan

2014-10-01

97

High-speed terahertz imaging toward food quality inspection.  

PubMed

In contrast to conventional x-ray food inspection systems that have difficulty in detecting low-density materials, a terahertz imaging system can even identify insects and plastics embedded in a food matrix. A reflection-mode continuous-wave terahertz imaging system was therefore developed for application to food quality inspection, which requires fast, compact, and low-cost detection. High-speed operation of the terahertz imaging system was achieved through the use of a beam-steering tool. A reasonable compromise between the spatial resolution and the scan length of an aspheric f-theta scanning lens could be achieved by optimizing the lens parameters. PMID:24663370

Ok, Gyeongsik; Park, Kisang; Kim, Hyun Jung; Chun, Hyang Sook; Choi, Sung-Wook

2014-03-01

98

New terahertz beam imaging device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a new electro-optic detection system has been used to characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of free-space broadband, pulsed electromagnetic radiation (THz beams).1 This detection system, which uses an electro-optic crystal sensor, provides diffraction-limited spatial resolution, femtosecond temporal resolution, DC-THz spectral bandwidth, and sub-milli-volt per centimeter field detectability.2-5 The sensitivity and bandwidth of the electro-optic detectors are comparable or superior to conventional ultrafast photoconductive dipole antennas and liquid helium cooled bolometers. Advantages intrinsic to electro-optic detection include nonresonant frequency response, large detector area, high scan rate, low optical probe power, and large linear dynamic range.

Zhang, X.-C.; Wu, Q.

1996-12-01

99

Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz spectroscopic images of paraffin-embedded cancer tissues have been measured by a terahertz time domain spectrometer. For the systematic identification of cancer tumors, the principal component analysis and the clustering analysis were applied. In three of the four samples, the cancer tissue was recognized as an aggregate of the data points in the principal component plots. By the agglomerative hierarchical clustering, the data points were well categorized into cancer and the other tissues. This method can be also applied to various kinds of automatic discrimination of plural components by terahertz spectroscopic imaging.

Nakajima, Sachiko; Hoshina, Hiromichi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Otani, Chiko; Miyoshi, Norio

2007-01-01

100

Electric-Field Ionization of Gallium Acceptors in Germanium Induced by Single-cycle Terahertz Pulses  

E-print Network

The electric field ionization of gallium acceptors in germanium was studied by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy after single-cycle terahertz pulse excitation. As the peak electric field of the excitation pulse increases, the distinct absorptions due to acceptor transitions centered at 2.0 and 2.2 THz decrease, and simultaneously, absorption emerges in the lower frequency region. These behaviors clearly show that the terahertz pulse ionizes neutral acceptors. The electric field dependence of the released hole density is well reproduced by a model assuming direct field-assisted tunneling of acceptors.

Mukai, Y; Tanaka, K

2013-01-01

101

Terahertz imaging and quantum cascade laser based devices  

E-print Network

The terahertz (THz) frequency range (f=0.3-10 THz, [lambda]=30-1000 lam) is much less technologically developed that the adjacent microwave and infrared frequency ranges, but offers several advantages for imaging applications: ...

Lee, Alan Wei Min

2010-01-01

102

Fast continuous terahertz wave imaging system for security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous terahertz wave (CW THz) has been widely used in imaging field. However, the speed of imaging calls for an improvement for security screening since the speed of previous CW imaging systems which scan point to point is too slow to be applied in security field. To increase the imaging speed, we proposed a fast CW-THz imaging system in which

Qian Song; Yuejin Zhao; Albert Redo-Sanchez; Cunlin Zhang; Xiaohua Liu

2009-01-01

103

Terahertz Imaging System for Medical Applications and Related High Efficiency Terahertz Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terahertz (THz) imaging system and high efficient terahertz sources and detectors for medical applications were developed. A fiber laser based compact time domain terahertz tomography system was developed with a high depth resolution of less than 20 ?m. Three-dimensional images of porcine skin were obtained including some physical properties such as applied skin creams. The discrimination between healthy human tissue and tumor tissue has been achieved using reflection spectra. To improve the THz imaging system, a ridge waveguide LiNbO3 based nonlinear terahertz generator was studied to achieve high output power. A ridge waveguide with 5-7 ?m width was designed for high efficiency emission from the LiNbO3 crystal by the electro-optic Cherenkov effect. Terahertz electronic sources and detectors were also realized for future imaging systems. As electronic source devices, resonant tunneling diode (RTD) oscillators with a patch antenna were fabricated using an InGaAs/InAlAs/AlAs triple barrier structure. On the other side, Schottky barrier diode (SBD) detectors with a log-periodic antenna were fabricated by thin-film technology on a Si substrate. Both devices operate above 1 THz at room temperature. This electronic THz device set could provide a future high performance imaging system.

Ouchi, Toshihiko; Kajiki, Kousuke; Koizumi, Takayuki; Itsuji, Takeaki; Koyama, Yasushi; Sekiguchi, Ryota; Kubota, Oichi; Kawase, Kodo

2013-07-01

104

Terahertz imaging system using high-Tc superconducting oscillation devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microwatt power oscillation devices at sub-terahertz frequency region between 0.3 and 1.0 terahertz (THz) were fabricated from high-Tc superconducting single crystalline Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? and used as a source of the transmission terahertz imaging system. As test examples, terahertz images of coins and a razor blade placed inside the brownish paper envelopes with the spatial resolution of 1 mm are presented. The signal-to-noise ratio exceeds 130 in these images. Using a simple wedge-shaped interferometer and analysing the interference fringe pattern, the wavelength of the terahertz wave is calibrated within 0.1% accuracy. This interferometer also provides a simple method to measure the absorption coefficient of the liquid sample. Two test measurements for distilled water and ethanol are demonstrated and their absorption coefficients are obtained with 99.2% accuracy. This suggests that our terahertz imaging system can be applied to many practical applications, such as biological and biomedical imaging, environmental monitoring, microanalysis of impurities, structure and dynamical analyses of large molecules and ions in solution.

Tsujimoto, M.; Minami, H.; Delfanazari, K.; Sawamura, M.; Nakayama, R.; Kitamura, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Kashiwagi, T.; Hattori, T.; Kadowaki, K.

2012-06-01

105

Can energetic terahertz pulses initiate surface catalytic reactions on the picosecond time scale?  

PubMed

In preparation for picosecond pump-probe experiments at the SwissFEL X-ray laser facility, the feasibility of collectively initiating surface chemical reactions using energetic pulses of terahertz radiation is being tested. PMID:21744685

Patterson, Bruce D; Sa, Jacinto; Ichsanow, Anastasija; Hauri, Christoph P; Vicario, Carlo; Ruchert, Clemens; Czekaj, Izabela; Gehrig, Regula; Sigg, Hans C; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Pedrini, Bill; Abela, Rafael

2011-01-01

106

Subsurface nanoimaging by broadband terahertz pulse near-field microscopy.  

PubMed

Combined with terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy, THz near-field microscopy based on an atomic force microscope is a technique that, while challenging to implement, is invaluable for probing low-energy light-matter interactions of solid-state and biomolecular nanostructures, which are usually embedded in background media. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a broadband THz pulse near-field microscope that provides subsurface nanoimaging of a metallic grating embedded in a dielectric film. The THz near-field microscope can obtain broadband nanoimaging of the subsurface grating with a nearly frequency-independent lateral resolution of 90 nm, corresponding to ??/3300, at 1 THz, while the AFM only provides a flat surface topography. PMID:25436437

Moon, Kiwon; Park, Hongkyu; Kim, Jeonghoi; Do, Youngwoong; Lee, Soonsung; Lee, Gyuseok; Kang, Hyeona; Han, Haewook

2015-01-14

107

In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d10-90/ ?~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology.

Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P.; Bennett, David B.; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S.; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S.; Taylor, Zachary D.

2012-04-01

108

In vivo terahertz imaging of rat skin burns.  

PubMed

A reflective, pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system was used to acquire high-resolution (d(10-90)/?~1.925) images of deep, partial thickness burns in a live rat. The rat's abdomen was burned with a brass brand heated to ~220°C and pressed against the skin with contact pressure for ~10 sec. The burn injury was imaged beneath a Mylar window every 15 to 30 min for up to 7 h. Initial images display an increase in local water concentration of the burned skin as evidenced by a marked increase in THz reflectivity, and this likely correlates to the post-injury inflammatory response. After ~1 h the area of increased reflectivity consolidated to the region of skin that had direct contact with the brand. Additionally, a low reflecting ring of tissue could be observed surrounding the highly reflective burned tissue. We hypothesize that these regions of increased and decreased reflectivity correlate to the zones of coagulation and stasis that are the classic foundation of burn wound histopathology. While further investigations are necessary to confirm this hypothesis, if true, it likely represents the first in vivo THz images of these pathologic zones and may represent a significant step forward in clinical application of THz technology. PMID:22559669

Tewari, Priyamvada; Kealey, Colin P; Bennett, David B; Bajwa, Neha; Barnett, Kelli S; Singh, Rahul S; Culjat, Martin O; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Grundfest, Warren S; Taylor, Zachary D

2012-04-01

109

Terahertz time-lapse imaging of hydration in physiological tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes terahertz (THz) imaging of hydration changes in physiological tissues with high water concentration sensitivity. A fast-scanning, pulsed THz imaging system (centered at 525 GHz; 125 GHz bandwidth) was utilized to acquire a 35 mm x 35 mm field-of-view with 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm pixels in less than two minutes. THz time-lapsed images were taken on three sample systems: (1) a simple binary system of water evaporating from a polypropylene towel, (2) the accumulation of fluid at the site of a sulfuric acid burn on ex vivo porcine skin, and (3) the evaporative dehydration of an ex vivo porcine cornea. The diffusion-regulating behavior of corneal tissue is elucidated, and the correlation of THz reflectivity with tissue hydration is measured using THz spectroscopy on four ex vivo corneas. We conclude that THz imaging can discern small differences in the distribution of water in physiological tissues and is a good candidate for burn and corneal imaging.

Bennett, David B.; Taylor, Zachary D.; Bajwa, Neha; Tewari, Priyamvada; Maccabi, Ashkan; Sung, Shijun; Singh, Rahul S.; Culjat, Martin O.; Grundfest, Warren S.; Brown, Elliott R.

2011-02-01

110

Terahertz spectroscopic imaging of a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopic imaging technique was applied to classify the tumor region in the rabbit liver with VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma. Within the measurement range of 0.1-2 THz, the average reflectance values for all tumor samples were more than 4% higher than those for healthy cells, and the terahertz measurements correlated well with histological analysis results. This study on paraffin-embedded tissues showed the alteration of cell density and protein content in tumors, excluding the effect of water.

Park, Jae Yeon; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Cho, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Kyu-Rae; Son, Joo-Hiuk

2011-03-01

111

Single-pixel terahertz imaging via compressed sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of terahertz related technologies, the terahertz imaging technology will show its greater practical value in more areas. In this paper, we describe a terahertz imaging system that uses a single pixel detector in combination with a series of random masks to enable high-speed image acquisition. The image formation is based on the theory of compressed sensing (CS). When the scene under view is compressible by an algorithm like JPEG or JPEG2000, the CS theory enables us to stably reconstruct an image of the scene from fewer measurements than the number of reconstructed pixels. In this manner, we achieve sub-Nyquist image acquisition. CS theory mainly includes signal sparse representation, encoding measurement and reconstruction algorithm. CS combines sampling and compression into a single non-adaptive linear measurement process. Rather than measuring pixel samples of the scene under view, we measure inner products between the scene and a set of test functions. CS permits the reconstruction of a N-by-N pixel image using much fewer than N2 measurements. This approach eliminates the need for raster scanning of the object or the terahertz beam, while maintaining the high sensitivity of a single-element detector. We demonstrate the concept using a backward wave oscillator (BWO) which is a continuous-wave terahertz source and get a preliminary test result.

Zhao, Ya-qin; Zhang, Liang-liang; Duan, Guo-teng; Liu, Xiao-hua; Zhang, Cun-lin

2011-08-01

112

Contrast improvement of terahertz images of thin histopathologic sections.  

PubMed

We present terahertz images of 10 ?m thick histopathologic sections obtained in reflection geometry with a time-domain spectrometer, and demonstrate improved contrast for sections measured in paraffin with water. Automated segmentation is applied to the complex refractive index data to generate clustered terahertz images distinguishing cancer from healthy tissues. The degree of classification of pixels is then evaluated using registered visible microscope images. Principal component analysis and propagation simulations are employed to investigate the origin and the gain of image contrast. PMID:21326635

Formanek, Florian; Brun, Marc-Aurèle; Yasuda, Akio

2010-01-01

113

Reflective terahertz imaging with the TEM01 mode laser beam.  

PubMed

Reflective terahertz imaging with a first-order Hermite-Gaussian laser beam was experimentally investigated. High spatial resolution targets prepared by direct laser microprocessing were used to evaluate the performance. The reflection imaging system at 2.524 THz frequency demonstrated up to diffraction limited resolution using the single focusing mirror with the numerical aperture not smaller than 0.6. The TEM(01) mode laser beam was also applied for practical samples such as silicon solar cell terahertz (THz) imaging. It is shown that usage of appropriate optics enables us to obtain high-quality THz images with the multimode laser beam. PMID:23938412

Kašalynas, Irmantas; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Tumonis, Laurynas; Voisiat, Bogdan; Seliuta, Dalius; Valušis, Gintaras; Ra?iukaitis, Gediminas

2013-08-10

114

Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented for the first imaging system that combines the high power of terahertz quantum cascade lasers with three-dimensional image reconstruction based on filtered back-projection. Images of various phantoms have been successfully reconstructed revealing both their external and internal structures.

K. Lien Nguyen; Michael L. Johns; Lynn Gladden; Christopher H. Worrall; Paul Alexander; Harvey E. Beere; Michael Pepper; David A. Ritchie; Jesse Alton; Stefano Barbieri; Edmund H. Linfield

2006-01-01

115

Single-cycle strong terahertz pulse generation from a vacuum-plasma interface driven by intense laser pulses.  

PubMed

Single-cycle strong terahertz pulses can be generated by irradiating ultrashort intense laser pulses onto a tenuous plasma slab. At the plasma surface, laser ponderomotive force accelerates electrons and induces net currents, which radiate terahertz pulses. Our theoretical model suggests that if tau_{L}>2pi/omega_{p}, with tau_{L} as the laser-pulse duration and omega_{p} as the plasma frequency, the emission frequency is around tau_{L};{-1}. On the other hand, the emission frequency is around omega_{p}/2pi if tau_{L}<2pi/omega_{p}. Our numerical simulations support the theoretical model, showing that such a terahertz source is capable of providing megawatt power, field strengths of MV/cm, and broad frequency tunability. PMID:19518363

Dong, X G; Sheng, Z M; Wu, H C; Wang, W M; Zhang, J

2009-04-01

116

Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity  

E-print Network

Ionic contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity contrast terahertz time resolved imaging of frog auricular heart muscle electrical activity Jean of functional frog auricular fibers by ionic contrast terahertz ICT near field microscopy. This technique

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Advanced imaging and spectroscopy of biological and chemical agents at terahertz frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer receivers for heterodyne detection at terahertz frequencies. HEB detectors provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at terahertz frequencies. Terahertz imagers based on HEB technology have sufficient sensitivity to operate in a passive imaging mode, thus eliminating the need for active illumination. HEB mixers have, therefore, become the detectors of choice for applications

E. Gerecht; D. Gu; L. You; S. Yngvesson

2007-01-01

118

Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate dark-field imaging in the terahertz (THz) fre-quency regime with the intention to enhance image contrast through the analysis of scattering and diffraction signatures. A gold-on-TPX test structure and an archived biomedical tissue sample are examined in conventional and dark-field transmission geometry. In particular, the capability of the technique for tumor detection is addressed.

Löffler, Torsten; Bauer, T.; Siebert, Karsten; Roskos, Hartmut G.; Fitzgerald, A.; Czasch, S.

2001-12-01

119

Rapid Scanning Terahertz Time-Domain Magnetospectroscopy with a Table-Top Repetitive Pulsed Magnet  

E-print Network

We have performed terahertz time-domain magnetospectroscopy by combining a rapid scanning terahertz time-domain spectrometer based on the electronically coupled optical sampling method with a table-top mini-coil pulsed magnet capable of producing magnetic fields up to 30 T. We demonstrate the capability of this system by measuring coherent cyclotron resonance oscillations in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs and interference-induced terahertz transmittance modifications in a magnetoplasma in lightly doped n-InSb.

Noe, G T; Lee, J; Kato, E; Woods, G L; Nojiri, H; Kono, J

2014-01-01

120

Rapid scanning terahertz time-domain magnetospectroscopy with a table-top repetitive pulsed magnet.  

PubMed

We have performed terahertz time-domain magnetospectroscopy by combining a rapid scanning terahertz time-domain spectrometer based on the electronically controlled optical sampling method with a table-top minicoil pulsed magnet capable of producing magnetic fields up to 30 T. We demonstrate the capability of this system by measuring coherent cyclotron resonance oscillations in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs and interference-induced terahertz transmittance modifications in a magnetoplasma in lightly doped n-InSb. PMID:25321662

Noe, G Timothy; Zhang, Qi; Lee, Joseph; Kato, Eiji; Woods, Gary L; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Kono, Junichiro

2014-09-10

121

Electric field ionization of gallium acceptors in germanium induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electric field ionization of gallium acceptors in germanium was studied by using terahertz-pump-terahertz-probe spectroscopy. As the pump electric field increases, the distinct absorptions due to acceptor transitions centered at 2.0 and 2.2 THz decrease, and simultaneously, a free carrier response emerges in the lower frequency region. These behaviors clearly show that the terahertz-pump pulse ionizes neutral acceptors. The pump electric field dependence of the released hole density is reproduced by a model assuming direct field-assisted tunneling of acceptors.

Mukai, Y.; Hirori, H.; Tanaka, K.

2013-05-01

122

Detection of the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse based on spectral holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to electro-optical sampling theory, we propose a new method to detect the spatiotemporal field of a single-shot terahertz pulse by spectral holography for the first time. The single-shot terahertz pulse is coupled into a broadened chirped femtosecond pulse according to electro-optical sampling theory in the detecting system. Then the reference wave and the signal wave are split by Dammann grating and spread into the interference band-pass filter. The filtered sub-waves are at different central-frequencies because of the different incident angles. These sub-waves at different central-frequencies interfere to form sub-holograms, which are recorded in a single frame of a charge coupled device (CCD). The sub-holograms are numerically processed, and the spatiotemporal field distribution of the original terahertz pulse is reconstructed. The computer simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

Wang, Xiao-Lei; Fei, Yang; Li, Lu-Jie; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhu-Qing

2014-06-01

123

Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated an advanced terahertz imaging technique for detection and identification of illicit drugs by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. As an explanation, the characteristic fingerprint spectra and refractive index of ketamine were first measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy both in the air and nitrogen. The results obtained in the ambient air indicated that some absorption peaks are not obvious or probably not dependable. It is necessary and important to present a more practical technique for the detection. The spatial distributions of several illicit drugs [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, heroin, acetylcodeine, morphine, and ketamine], widely consumed in the world, were obtained from terahertz images using absorption spectra previously measured in the range from 0.2to2.6THz in the ambient air. The different kinds of pure illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes were inspected and identified. It could be an effective method in the field of safety inspection.

Lu, Meihong; Shen, Jingling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Cunlin; Liang, Laishun; Xu, Xiaoyu

2006-11-01

124

High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) technology has emerged for biomedical applications such as scanning, molecular spectroscopy, and medical imaging. Although a thorough assessment to predict potential concerns has to precede before practical utilization of THz source, the biological effect of THz radiation is not yet fully understood with scant related investigations. Here, we applied a femtosecond-terahertz (fs-THz) pulse to mouse skin to evaluate non-thermal effects of THz radiation. Analysis of the genome-wide expression profile in fs-THz-irradiated skin indicated that wound responses were predominantly mediated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling pathways. We validated NF?B1- and Smad3/4-mediated transcriptional activation in fs-THz-irradiated skin by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Repeated fs-THz radiation delayed the closure of mouse skin punch wounds due to up-regulation of TGF-?. These findings suggest that fs-THz radiation initiate a wound-like signal in skin with increased expression of TGF-? and activation of its downstream target genes, which perturbs the wound healing process in vivo. PMID:23907528

Kim, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jaehun; Jo, Sung Jin; Jung, Seonghoon; Kwon, Oh Sang; Gallerano, Gian Piero; Park, Woong-Yang; Park, Gun-Sik

2013-01-01

125

Efficient Cherenkov emission of broadband terahertz radiation from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core  

SciTech Connect

A scheme for efficient generation of broadband terahertz radiation by a femtosecond laser pulse propagating in a planar sandwichlike structure is proposed. The structure consists of a thin nonlinear core cladded with prisms made of a material with low terahertz absorption. The focused into a line laser pulse propagates in the core as a leaky or waveguide mode and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The developed theory predicts the conversion efficiency of up to several percent in a 1 cm long and 1 cm wide Si-LiNbO{sub 3}-Si sandwich structure with a 20 {mu}m thick nonlinear layer pumped by 8.5 {mu}J Ti:sapphire laser with pulse duration of 100 fs.

Bodrov, S. B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Bakunov, M. I. [University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Hangyo, M. [Laser Terahertz Division, Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

2008-11-01

126

Efficient real-time detection of terahertz pulse radiation based on photoacoustic conversion by carbon nanotube nanocomposite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz sensing plays an important role in industry, biology and material science. Most existing techniques for terahertz detection either require bulky optics or need cryogenic cooling, and the uncooled thermal detectors usually suffer from long integration times (1-1,000 ms). We propose, and experimentally demonstrate, a novel scheme based on photoacoustic detection of terahertz pulse radiation. The transient and localized heating in a carbon nanotube-polymer composite by the absorption of terahertz pulse energy produces ultrasound, which is subsequently detected by a highly sensitive acoustic sensor. In contrast to conventional thermal detectors utilizing continuous heat integration, this new method of terahertz detection responds to the energy of each individual terahertz pulse by a time-gated scheme, thus rejecting the continuous radiation from the ambient. In addition, this novel detector possesses advantages such as room-temperature operation, a fast response (~0.1 µs) allowing real-time detection, compact size (millimetre scale) and wide spectral response.

Chen, Sung-Liang; Chang, You-Chia; Zhang, Cheng; Ok, Jong G.; Ling, Tao; Mihnev, Momchil T.; Norris, Theodore B.; Guo, L. Jay

2014-07-01

127

Terahertz wave two-dimensional transmission imaging with a backward wave oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a terahertz (THz) imaging system with a Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO). BWO Continuous-Wave THz imaging is a new approach to non-destructive testing. Many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light are transparent to THz radiation. THz wave image provides a higher spatial resolution than microwave image by having much shorter wavelength. It also poses no known harm to living organisms, making it a safe and powerful imaging technology. Unlike pulsed THz imaging, BWO THz imaging only yields intensity data without providing any depth, frequency-domain or time-domain information about the subject. However, in most cases the energy plots are sufficient for identification of targets. In exchange for the loss of depth, time-domain and frequency-domain information, BWO imaging offers a simple, fast and relatively low-cost system. In this work we show a simple Terahertz (THz) 2-dimentional scanning imaging system utilizing a BWO source tunable from 0.52 to 0.71 THz and a pyroelectric sensor detector operated in THz range. The sample is placed on an X-Z two-dimensional stage controlled by a computer. The intensity information of the terahertz wave after passing sample is collected. Two-dimensional image of the sample is obtained by raster scanning the sample in X and Z directions. A number of potential imaging applications are demonstrated using the 0.71 THz radiation, including nondestructive real-time testing for campus debit card and various articles contained in an envelop. And we present the digital image processing based on the result of the imaging system. This work reveals that a BWO THz imaging system is very practical, effective and promising in nondestructive identification and security inspections applications in future.

Yuan, Hongyang; Ge, Xinhao; Zhang, Cunlin

2008-12-01

128

Three-dimensional imaging of optically opaque materials using nonionizing terahertz radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz electromagnetic radiation has already been shown to have a wide number of uses. We consider spe- cific applications of terahertz time-domain imaging that are inherently three-dimensional. This paper high- lights the ability of terahertz radiation to reveal subsurface information as we exploit the fact that the radia- tion can penetrate optically opaque materials such as clothing, cardboard, plastics, and

Vincent P. Wallace; Emma MacPherson; J. Axel Zeitler; Caroline Reid

2008-01-01

129

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging and spec troscopy at terahertz fre quencies have great po tential for healthcare, plasma di ag nos tics, and homeland se- cu rity ap pli ca tions. Terahertz fre quen cies cor re spond to en ergy level tran si tions of im por tant mol e cules in bi ol ogy and as tro- phys ics. Terahertz ra

Eyal Gerecht; Lixing You

2009-01-01

130

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies have great potential for healthcare, plasma diagnostics, and homeland security applications. Terahertz frequencies correspond to energy level transitions of important molecules in biology and astrophysics. Terahertz radiation (T-rays) can penetrate clothing and, to some extent, can also penetrate biological materials. Because of their shorter wavelengths, they offer higher spatial resolution than do microwaves or

Eyal Gerecht; Lixing You

2008-01-01

131

Proposal for real-time terahertz imaging system with palm-size terahertz camera and compact quantum cascade laser  

E-print Network

This paper describes a real-time terahertz (THz) imaging system, using the combination of a palm-size THz camera with a compact quantum cascade laser (QCL). The THz camera contains a 320x240 microbolometer focal plane array ...

Oda, Naoki

132

High field, high efficiency terahertz pulse generation by optical rectification  

E-print Network

The great difficulty of producing high intensity radiation in the terahertz (THz) spectral region by conventional electronics has stimulated interest in development of sources based on photonics. Optical rectification in ...

Huang, Wenqian Ronny

2014-01-01

133

Probing ultrafast carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures with terahertz pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to probe ultrafast carrier dynamics in a variety of semiconductor nanostructures including InGaAs quantum dot chains and wires, GaAs nanowires, and Si nanoclusters embedded in glass.

D. G. Cooke; A. N. MacDonald; A. Hryciw; A. Meldrum; F. A. Hegmann; Yu. I. Mazur; H. Wen; W. Q. Ma; X. Wang; Z. M. Wang; G. J. Salamo; M. Xiao; T. D. Mishima; G. D. Lian; J. Keay; M. B. Johnson; J. Wang; Q. Li; Z. H. Wu; C. DeSouza; H. E. Ruda

2005-01-01

134

Chapter 41. Terahertz and Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers, and Real-time Imaging Terahertz and Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers, and Real-time Imaging  

E-print Network

Chapter 41. Terahertz and Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers, and Real-time Imaging 41-1 Terahertz and Infrared Quantum Cascade Lasers, and Real-time Imaging Academic and Research Staff Professor Qing Hu-wave and THz to infrared frequencies. Specifically, we are working on THz quantum cascade lasers based

135

Fast high-resolution terahertz radar imaging at 25 meters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report improvements in the scanning speed and standoff range of an ultra-wide bandwidth terahertz (THz) imaging radar for person-borne concealed object detection. Fast beam scanning of the single-transceiver radar is accomplished by rapidly deflecting a flat, light-weight subreflector in a confocal Gregorian optical geometry. With RF back-end improvements also implemented, the radar imaging rate has increased by a factor

Ken B. Cooper; Robert J. Dengler; Nuria Llombart; Ashit Talukder; Anand V. Panangadan; Chris S. Peay; Imran Mehdi; Peter H. Siegel

2010-01-01

136

Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

Metamaterials offer exciting opportunities that enable precise control of amplitude, polarization and phase of the light beam at a subwavelength scale. A gradient metasurface consists of a class of anisotropic subwavelength metamaterial resonators that offer abrupt amplitude and phase changes, thus enabling new applications in optical device design such as ultrathin flat lenses. We propose a highly efficient gradient metasurface lens based on a metal-dielectric-metal structure that operates in the terahertz regime. The proposed structure consists of slotted metallic resonator arrays on two sides of a thin dielectric spacer. By varying the geometrical parameters, the metasurface lens efficiently manipulates the spatial distribution of the terahertz field and focuses the beam to a spot size on the order of a wavelength. The proposed flat metasurface lens design is polarization insensitive and works efficiently even at wide angles of incidence. PMID:25401626

Yang, Quanlong; Gu, Jianqiang; Wang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xueqian; Tian, Zhen; Ouyang, Chunmei; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

2014-10-20

137

Nondestructive Evaluation of Aircraft Composites Using Dielectric Properties and Imaging in the Terahertz Spectrum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz imaging and dielectric property measurements were assessed as nondestructive evaluation techniques for damage to aircraft glass fiber composites. Samples with localized heat damage showed a minimal change in refractive index or absorption coefficient; however, material blistering was detected. Voids were located by terahertz imaging using amplitude and phase techniques. Delamination depths were approximated by measuring the timing of Fabry-Perot reflections. Evidence of bending stress damage and simulated hidden cracks was also detected with terahertz imaging.

Stoik, C. D.; Bohn, M. J.; Blackshire, J. L.

2009-03-01

138

Reflection type of terahertz imaging system using a high-T{sub c} superconducting oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A reflection type of imaging system is shown at sub-terahertz frequencies generated from high-T{sub c} superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction mesa structures fabricated by single crystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?} to demonstrate how the sub-terahertz imaging technique using monochromatic radiation is powerful and unique for the variety of practical applications. Several examples are discussed in detail and are compared to other terahertz imaging systems.

Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Markovi?, B.; Mirkovi?, J. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [National Institute for Materials Science, Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

2014-01-13

139

A single-frame terahertz image super-resolution reconstruction method based on sparse representation theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrorist attacks make the public safety issue becoming the focus of national attention. Passive terahertz security instrument can help overcomesome shortcomings with current security instruments. Terahertz wave has a strong penetrating power which can pass through clothes without harming human bodies and detected objects. However, in the lab experiments, we found that original terahertz imagesobtained by passive terahertz technique were often too vague to detect the objects of interest. Prior studies suggest that learning-based image super-resolution reconstruction(SRR) method can solve this problem. To our knowledge, we applied the learning-based image SRR method for the first time in single-frame passive terahertz image processing. Experimental results showed that the processed passive terahertz images wereclearer and easier to identify suspicious objects than the original images. We also compare our method with three conventional methods and our method show greater advantage over the other methods.

Li, Yue; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cunlin

2014-11-01

140

Fast scanning and real time monitoring of a pulsed terahertz signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a fast measurement and real time monitoring of a pulsed terahertz signal generated by a femtosecond laser and a photoconductive antenna. Two types of high speed optical delay lines (ODLs) are considered: oscillating type and rotary type. The method to measure the amplitude of the retro-reflector in the oscillating optical delay line is proposed and the displacement of

Yun-Sik Jin; Seok-Gy Jeon; Geun-Ju Kim; Jung-Il Kim; Chae-Hwa Shon

2007-01-01

141

Plasmon-enhanced terahertz emission in self-assembled quantum dots by femtosecond pulses  

SciTech Connect

A scheme for terahertz (THz) generation from intraband transition in a self-assembled quantum dot (QD) molecule coupled to a metallic nanoparticle (MNP) is analyzed. The QD structure is described as a three-level atom-like system using the density matrix formalism. The MNP with spherical geometry is considered in the quasistatic approximation. A femtosecond laser pulse creates a coherent superposition of two subbands in the quantum dots and produces localized surface plasmons in the nanoparticle which act back upon the QD molecule via dipole-dipole interaction. As a result, coherent THz radiation with a frequency corresponding to the interlevel spacing can be obtained, which is strongly modified by the presence of the MNP. The peak value of the terahertz signal is analyzed as a function of nanoparticle's size, the MNP to QD distance, and the area of the applied laser field. In addition, we theoretically demonstrate that the terahertz pulse generation can be effectively controlled by making use of a train of femtosecond laser pulses. We show that by a proper choice of the parameters characterizing the pulse train a huge enhancement of the terahertz signal is obtained.

Carreño, F., E-mail: ferpo@fis.ucm.es; Antón, M. A., E-mail: antonm@fis.ucm.es; Melle, Sonia, E-mail: smelle@fis.ucm.es; Calderón, Oscar G., E-mail: oscargc@fis.ucm.es; Cabrera-Granado, E., E-mail: ecabrera@fis.ucm.es [Facultad de Óptica y Optometría, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/ Arcos de Jalón 118, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Cox, Joel, E-mail: jcox27@uwo.ca; Singh, Mahi R., E-mail: msingh@uwo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Egatz-Gómez, A., E-mail: Ana.Egatz-Gomez.1@nd.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana 46556 (United States)

2014-02-14

142

Terahertz Lasers Reveal Information for 3D Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After taking off her shoes and jacket, she places them in a bin. She then takes her laptop out of its case and places it in a separate bin. As the items move through the x-ray machine, the woman waits for a sign from security personnel to pass through the metal detector. Today, she was lucky; she did not encounter any delays. The man behind her, however, was asked to step inside a large circular tube, raise his hands above his head, and have his whole body scanned. If you have ever witnessed a full-body scan at the airport, you may have witnessed terahertz imaging. Terahertz wavelengths are located between microwave and infrared on the electromagnetic spectrum. When exposed to these wavelengths, certain materials such as clothing, thin metal, sheet rock, and insulation become transparent. At airports, terahertz radiation can illuminate guns, knives, or explosives hidden underneath a passenger s clothing. At NASA s Kennedy Space Center, terahertz wavelengths have assisted in the inspection of materials like insulating foam on the external tanks of the now-retired space shuttle. "The foam we used on the external tank was a little denser than Styrofoam, but not much," says Robert Youngquist, a physicist at Kennedy. The problem, he explains, was that "we lost a space shuttle by having a chunk of foam fall off from the external fuel tank and hit the orbiter." To uncover any potential defects in the foam covering, such as voids or air pockets, that could keep the material from staying in place, NASA employed terahertz imaging to see through the foam. For many years, the technique ensured the integrity of the material on the external tanks.

2013-01-01

143

Intense terahertz pulses from SLAC electron beams using coherent transition radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SLAC has two electron accelerators, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET), providing high-charge, high-peak-current, femtosecond electron bunches. These characteristics are ideal for generating intense broadband terahertz (THz) pulses via coherent transition radiation. For LCLS and FACET respectively, the THz pulse duration is typically 20 and 80 fs RMS and can be tuned via the electron bunch duration; emission spectra span 3-30 THz and 0.5 THz-5 THz; and the energy in a quasi-half-cycle THz pulse is 0.2 and 0.6 mJ. The peak electric field at a THz focus has reached 4.4 GV/m (0.44 V/Å) at LCLS. This paper presents measurements of the terahertz pulses and preliminary observations of nonlinear materials response.

Wu, Ziran; Fisher, Alan S.; Goodfellow, John; Fuchs, Matthias; Daranciang, Dan; Hogan, Mark; Loos, Henrik; Lindenberg, Aaron

2013-02-01

144

Intense terahertz pulses from SLAC electron beams using coherent transition radiation  

SciTech Connect

SLAC has two electron accelerators, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET), providing high-charge, high-peak-current, femtosecond electron bunches. These characteristics are ideal for generating intense broadband terahertz (THz) pulses via coherent transition radiation. For LCLS and FACET respectively, the THz pulse duration is typically 20 and 80 fs RMS and can be tuned via the electron bunch duration; emission spectra span 3-30 THz and 0.5 THz-5 THz; and the energy in a quasi-half-cycle THz pulse is 0.2 and 0.6 mJ. The peak electric field at a THz focus has reached 4.4 GV/m (0.44 V/A) at LCLS. This paper presents measurements of the terahertz pulses and preliminary observations of nonlinear materials response.

Wu Ziran; Fisher, Alan S.; Hogan, Mark; Loos, Henrik [Accelerator Directorate, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Goodfellow, John [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Fuchs, Matthias [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Daranciang, Dan [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lindenberg, Aaron [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); PULSE Institute for Ultrafast Energy Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2013-02-15

145

Advanced terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed weapon identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of this MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security and Defence Symposium. The focus of this paper is to report on recent advances to the base model which have been designed to more realistically account for the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system. The advanced terahertz-band imaging system performance model now also accounts for target and background thermal emission, and has been recast into a user-friendly, Windows-executable tool. This advanced THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will describe the advanced THz model and its new radiometric sub-model in detail, and provide modeling and experimental results on target observability as a function of target and background orientation.

Murrill, Steven R.; Redman, Brian; Espinola, Richard L.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Griffin, Steven T.; Halford, Carl E.; Reynolds, Joe

2007-04-01

146

Terahertz field enhancement via coherent superposition of the pulse sequences after a single optical-rectification crystal  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz electromagnetic pulses are frequently generated by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses. In many cases, the efficiency of this process is known to saturate with increasing intensity of the generation beam because of two-photon absorption. Here, we demonstrate two routes to reduce this effect in ZnTe(110) crystals and enhance efficiency, namely, by (i) recycling the generation pulses and by (ii) splitting each generation pulse into two pulses before pumping the crystal. In both methods, the second pulse arrives ?1?ns after the first one, sufficiently long for optically generated carriers to relax. Enhancement is achieved by coherently superimposing the two resulting terahertz fields.

Sajadi, Mohsen, E-mail: sajadi@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Wolf, Martin; Kampfrath, Tobias [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

2014-03-03

147

LIGHT SOURCE: Terahertz emission in tenuous gases irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanism of terahertz (THz) pulse generation in gases irradiated by ultrashort laser pulses is investigated theoretically. Quasi-static transverse currents produced by laser field ionization of gases and the longitudinal modulation in formed plasmas are responsible for the THz emission at the electron plasma frequency, as demonstrated by particle-in-cell simulations including field ionization. The THz field amplitude scaling with the laser amplitude within a large range is also discussed.

Wang, Wei-Min; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Wit, Hui-Chun; Chen, Min; Li, Chun; Zhang, Jie; Mima, K.

2009-06-01

148

Intense terahertz emission from atomic cluster plasma produced by intense femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz (THz) emission from argon cluster plasma, generated by intense femtosecond laser pulses in the energy range of 10-70 mJ, has been investigated. THz polarization, energy dependence, and angular distribution were measured to provide an initial discussion on the mechanisms of THz emission. THz pulses of much higher energy were generated from argon clusters than from argon gas, which indicates that plasma produced from atomic clusters holds considerable promise as an intense THz source.

Jahangiri, Fazel; Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan and Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-7501 (Japan); Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-12-26

149

High energy terahertz pulses from organic crystals: DAST and DSTMS pumped at Ti:sapphire wavelength  

E-print Network

High energy terahertz pulses are produced by optical rectification (OR) in organic crystals DAST and DSTMS by a Ti:sapphire amplifier system centered at 0.8 microns. The simple scheme provides broadband spectra between 1 and 5 THz, when pumped by collimated 60 fs near-infrared pump pulse and it is scalable in energy. Fluence-dependent conversion efficiency and damage threshold are reported as well as optimized OR at visible wavelength.

Monoszlai, B; Jazbinsek, M; Hauri, C P

2013-01-01

150

Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

We demonstrated that tumors in freshly excised whole brain tissue could be differentiated clearly from normal brain tissue using a reflection-type terahertz (THz) imaging system. THz binary images of brain tissues with tumors indicated that the tumor boundaries in the THz images corresponded well to those in visible images. Grey and white-matter regions were distinguishable owing to the different distribution of myelin in the brain tissue. THz images corresponded closely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The MRI and hematoxylin and eosin-stained microscopic images were investigated to account for the intensity differences in the THz images for fresh and paraffin-embedded brain tissue. Our results indicated that the THz signals corresponded to the cell density when water was removed. Thus, THz imaging could be used as a tool for label-free and real-time imaging of brain tumors, which would be helpful for physicians to determine tumor margins during brain surgery. PMID:25136506

Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Ji, Young Bin; Jeong, Kiyoung; Park, Yeonji; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Kang, Seok-Gu; Huh, Yong-Min; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Suh, Jin-Suck

2014-08-01

151

Study of freshly excised brain tissues using terahertz imaging  

PubMed Central

We demonstrated that tumors in freshly excised whole brain tissue could be differentiated clearly from normal brain tissue using a reflection-type terahertz (THz) imaging system. THz binary images of brain tissues with tumors indicated that the tumor boundaries in the THz images corresponded well to those in visible images. Grey and white-matter regions were distinguishable owing to the different distribution of myelin in the brain tissue. THz images corresponded closely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. The MRI and hematoxylin and eosin-stained microscopic images were investigated to account for the intensity differences in the THz images for fresh and paraffin-embedded brain tissue. Our results indicated that the THz signals corresponded to the cell density when water was removed. Thus, THz imaging could be used as a tool for label-free and real-time imaging of brain tumors, which would be helpful for physicians to determine tumor margins during brain surgery. PMID:25136506

Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Ji, Young Bin; Jeong, Kiyoung; Park, Yeonji; Yang, Jaemoon; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Kang, Seok-Gu; Huh, Yong-Min; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Suh, Jin-Suck

2014-01-01

152

Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on imaging at terahertz frequencies using a 3x5 Si MOSFET focal-plane array (FPA) processed by a 0.25-mum CMOS technology. Each pixel of the FPA consists of a 645-GHz patch antenna coupled to a FET detector and a 43-dB voltage amplifier with a 1.6-MHz bandwidth. We achieve a typical single-pixel responsivity of 80 kV\\/W and a noise-equivalent power (NEP)

A. Lisauskas; D. Glaab; H. G. Roskos; E. Oejefors; U. R. Pfeiffer

2009-01-01

153

Cost-efficient delay generator for fast terahertz imaging.  

PubMed

We present a fast and low-cost delay generator for terahertz (THz) waves that transfers a rotational motion of a transparent dielectric cube into an effective THz delay. The device is easily implemented in the THz beam path and allows for coherent sampling over 40 ps with a scan rate of hundreds of hertz. Furthermore, we show that our approach is particularly suitable for fast THz imaging. PMID:25121894

Probst, T; Rehn, A; Busch, S F; Chatterjee, S; Koch, M; Scheller, M

2014-08-15

154

EDITORIAL: Terahertz nanotechnology Terahertz nanotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A useful synergy is being established between terahertz research and nanotechnology. High power sources [1-3] and detectors [4] in what was once considered the terahertz 'frequency gap' [5] in the electromagnetic spectrum have stimulated research with huge potential benefits in a range of industries including food, medicine and security, as well as fundamental physics and astrophysics. This special section, with guest editors Masayoshi Tonouchi and John Reno, gives a glimpse of the new horizons nanotechnology is broaching in terahertz research. While the wavelengths relevant to the terahertz domain range from hundreds of micrometres to millimetres, structures at the nanoscale reveal interesting low energy dynamics in this region. As a result terahertz spectroscopy techniques are becoming increasingly important in nanomaterial characterization, as demonstrated in this special section by colleagues at the University of Oxford in the UK and the Australian National University. They use terahertz spectroscopy to identify the best nanostructure parameters for specific applications [6]. The low energy dynamics in nanostructures also makes them valuable tools for terahertz detection [7]. In addition the much sought after terahertz detection over broadband frequency ranges has been demonstrated, providing versatility that has been greatly in demand, particularly in spectroscopy applications [8, 9]. Also in this special section, researchers in Germany and China tackle some of the coupling issues in terahertz time domain spectroscopy with an emitter specifically well suited for systems operated with an amplified fibre [3]. 'In medical imaging, the advantage of THz radiation is safety, because its energy is much lower than the ionization energy of biological molecules, in contrast to hazardous x-ray radiation,' explains Joo-Hiuk Son from the University of Seoul in Korea in his review [10]. As he also points out, the rotational and vibrational energies of water molecules are within the THz spectral region providing an additional benefit. His review describes the principle, characteristics, and applications of terahertz molecular imaging, where the use of nanoparticle probes allows dramatically enhanced sensitivity. Jiaguang Han and Weili Zhang and colleagues in China, Saudi Arabia, Japan and the US report exciting developments for optoelectronics [11]. They describe work on plasmon-induced transparency (PIT), an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) where interference leads to a sharp transparency window that may be useful for nonlinear and slow-light devices, optical switching, pulse delay, and storage for optical information processing. While PIT has advantages over the cumbersome experimental systems required for EIT, it has so far been constrained to very narrow band operation. Now Zhang and colleagues present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz in the terahertz regime. 'We can foresee a historic breakthrough for science and technology through terahertz research,' concluded Masayoshi Tonouchi in his review over five years ago as momentum in the field was mounting [12]. He added, 'It is also noteworthy that THz research is built on many areas of science and the coordination of a range of disciplines is giving birth to a new science.' With the inherently multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology research it is not so strange to see the marriage of the two fields form such a fruitful partnership, as this special section highlights. References [1] Williams B S, Kumar S, Hu Q and Reno J L 2006 High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers Electron. Lett. 42 89-91 [2] Köhler R et al 2002 Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser Nature 417 156-9 [3] Mittendorff M, Xu M, Dietz R J B, K¨unzel H, Sartorius B, Schneider H, Helm M and Winnerl S 2013 Large area photoconductive THz emitter for 1.55 ?m excitation based on an InGaAs heterostructure Nanotechnology 24 214007 [4] Chen H-T, Padilla W J, Zide J M O, Gossa

Demming, Anna; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Reno, John L.

2013-05-01

155

Terahertz generation by nonlinear mixing of laser pulses in a clustered gas  

SciTech Connect

A scheme of terahertz (THz) generation by two collinear laser pulses of finite spot size in a clustered gas is investigated theoretically. The lasers quickly ionize the atoms of the clusters, converting them into plasma balls, and exert a ponderomotive force on the cluster electrons, producing a beat frequency longitudinal current of limited transverse extent. The current acts as an antenna to produce beat frequency terahertz radiation. As the cluster expands under the hydrodynamic pressure, plasma frequency of cluster electrons {omega}{sub pe} decreases and approaches {radical}(3) times the frequency of laser, resonant heating and expansion of clusters occurs. On further expansion of clusters as {omega}{sub pe} approaches {radical}(3) times the terahertz frequency, resonant enhancement in THz radiated power occurs.

Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2011-05-15

156

Terahertz interferometric synthetic aperture tomography for confocal imaging systems.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) interferometric synthetic aperture tomography (TISAT) for confocal imaging within extended objects is demonstrated by combining attributes of synthetic aperture radar and optical coherence tomography. Algorithms recently devised for interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy are adapted to account for the diffraction-and defocusing-induced spatially varying THz beam width characteristic of narrow depth of focus, high-resolution confocal imaging. A frequency-swept two-dimensional TISAT confocal imaging instrument rapidly achieves in-focus, diffraction-limited resolution over a depth 12 times larger than the instrument's depth of focus in a manner that may be easily extended to three dimensions and greater depths. PMID:22513671

Heimbeck, M S; Marks, D L; Brady, D; Everitt, H O

2012-04-15

157

INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING WITH TERAHERTZ PULSES. (R827122)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

158

Temperature-dependent terahertz imaging of excised oral malignant melanoma.  

PubMed

We imaged a single case of oral malignant melanoma using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging at room temperature (20 °C) and below freezing (-20 °C). A malignant nodule beneath the oral tissue surface was visualized using 2-D and B-scan THz imaging techniques. The THz images were well correlated with the histological findings. The nodule was found to have lower water content than that of normal cells, and this water effect may have influenced the THz refractive index and absorption coefficient at 20 °C. The THz spectroscopic image of the frozen tissue at -20 °C showed better contrast because of the lack of liquid water; this implies that there are significant structural differences between malignant oral melanoma cells and normal mucosal cells. The better contrast in the frozen tissue images was due to the greater penetration of THz radiation into the sample. This temperature-dependent THz imaging approach demonstrated the feasibility of accurate imaging of the oral tumor tissue. PMID:25055305

Sim, Yookyeong Carolyn; Ahn, Kang-Min; Park, Jae Yeon; Park, Chan-Sik; Son, Joo-Hiuk

2013-07-01

159

The potential of terahertz imaging for cancer diagnosis: A review of investigations to date  

PubMed Central

The terahertz region lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such that it is strongly attenuated by water and very sensitive to water content. Terahertz radiation has very low photon energy and thus it does not pose any ionization hazard for biological tissues. Because of these characteristic properties, there has been an increasing interest in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for biological applications within the last few years and more and more terahertz spectra are being reported, including spectroscopic studies of cancer. The presence of cancer often causes increased blood supply to affected tissues and a local increase in tissue water content may be observed: this acts as a natural contrast mechanism for terahertz imaging of cancer. Furthermore the structural changes that occur in affected tissues have also been shown to contribute to terahertz image contrast. This paper introduces terahertz technology and provides a short review of recent advances in terahertz imaging and spectroscopy techniques. In particular investigations relating to the potential of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis will be highlighted. PMID:23256057

Yu, Calvin; Fan, Shuting; Sun, Yiwen; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2012-01-01

160

Terahertz Imaging System Based on a Backward-Wave Oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an imaging system designed for use in the terahertz range. As the radiation source a backward-wave oscillator was chosen for its special features such as high output power, good wave-front quality, good stability, and wavelength tunability from 520 to 710 GHz. Detection is achieved with a pyroelectric sensor operated at room temperature. The alignment procedure for the optical elements is described, and several methods to reduce the etalon effect that are inherent in monochromatic sources are discussed. The terahertz spot size in the sample plane is 550 µm (nearly the diffraction limit), and the signal-to-noise ratio is 10,000:1; other characteristics were also measured and are presented in detail. A number of preliminary applications are also shown that cover various areas: nondestructive real-time testing for plastic tubes and packaging seals; biological terahertz imaging of fresh, frozen, or freeze-dried samples; paraffin-embedded specimens of cancer tissue; and measurement of the absorption coefficient of water by use of a wedge-shaped cell.

Dobroiu, Adrian; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Ohshima, Yuichi N.; Morita, Yasuyuki; Otani, Chiko; Kawase, Kodo

2004-10-01

161

An algorithm for the detection of handguns in terahertz images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an algorithm for detecting handguns in terahertz images. Terahertz radiation is capable of penetrating certain materials which are opaque at optical wavelengths, such as clothing, without the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The approach taken is to segment objects of interest and classify them based on shape. We use a modified version of an active contour algorithm found in the open literature. Modifications include: a pre-processing step that includes clutter filtering and seeding of an initial contour; and a post-processing step that removes clutter pixels from the segmentation. The features used for classification are moment-based and Fourier shape descriptors. Classification as handgun or non-handgun from these features is done via Fisher's linear discriminant.

Lingg, Andrew J.; Rigling, Brian D.

2009-05-01

162

Target recognition in passive terahertz image of human body  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

THz radiation can penetrate through many nonpolar dielectric materials and can be used for nondestructive/noninvasive sensing and imaging of targets under nonpolar, nonmetallic covers or containers. Thus using THz systems to "see through" concealing barriers (i.e. packaging, corrugated cardboard, clothing) has been proposed as a new security screening method. Objects that can be detected by THz include concealed weapons, explosives, and chemical agents under clothing. Passive THz imaging system can detect THz wave from human body without transmit any electromagnetic wave, and the suspicious objects will become visible because the THz wave is blocked by this items. We can find out whether or not someone is carrying dangerous objects through this image. In this paper, the THz image enhancement, segmentation and contour extraction algorithms were studied to achieve effective target image detection. First, the terahertz images are enhanced and their grayscales are stretched. Then we apply global threshold segmentation to extract the target, and finally the targets are marked on the image. Experimental results showed that the algorithm proposed in this paper can extract and mark targets effectively, so that people can identify suspicious objects under clothing quickly. The algorithm can significantly improve the usefulness of the terahertz security apparatus.

Zhao, Ran; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Cun-lin; Li, Yue

2014-11-01

163

Fast continuous terahertz wave imaging system for security  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous terahertz wave (CW THz) has been widely used in imaging field. However, the speed of imaging calls for an improvement for security screening since the speed of previous CW imaging systems which scan point to point is too slow to be applied in security field. To increase the imaging speed, we proposed a fast CW-THz imaging system in which a galvanometer is introduced. The galvanometer makes the beams reflected in different angles by vibrating at a certain frequency which can significantly decrease the image acquisition time compared to traditional CW-THz imaging system. Furthermore, the system is compact due to source and detector of small size. Examples of measurements of concealed weapons are presented and discussed. Ideal results of better resolution are obtained.

Song, Qian; Zhao, Yuejin; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, Cunlin; Liu, Xiaohua

2009-05-01

164

Developments in time-resolved ultrafast imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies  

E-print Network

Prior to the advent of high energy pulsed femtosecond lasers, the field of terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was stagnated by the lack of both high power THz sources and sensitive THz detectors. Over the past few years, it has ...

Teo, Stephanie M

2014-01-01

165

Model-based, one-sided, time-of-flight terahertz image reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, terahertz-mode imaging has received increased attention for non-destructive testing applica- tions due to its ability to penetrate many materials while maintaining a small wavelength. This paper describes a model-based reconstruction algorithm that is able to image defects in the spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) used in aerospace applications that has been sprayed on a re ective metal hull. In this situation, X-ray based imaging is infeasible since only one side of the hull is accessible in ight. This paper models the object as a grid of materials, each section of which has a constant index of refraction. The delay between the transmission and reception of a THz pulse is related to the integral of the index of refraction along the pulse's path, and we adapt computed tomography (CT) methods to reconstruct an image of an object's index of refraction. We present the results of our reconstruction method using real data of the timing of THz pulses passing through a block of SOFI with holes of a known location and radius. The resulting image of the block has a low level of noise, but contains artifacts due to the limited angular range of one-sided imaging and due to the narrow beam approximation used in the forward model.

Schmitt, Stephen M.; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Fichter, Greg D.; Zimdars, David A.

2013-03-01

166

Continuous wave terahertz reflection imaging of human colorectal tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous wave terahertz (THz) imaging has the potential to offer a safe, non-ionizing, and nondestructive medical imaging modality for delineating colorectal cancer. Fresh excisions of normal colon tissue were obtained from surgeries performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester. Reflection measurements of thick sections of colorectal tissues, mounted in an aluminum sample holder, were obtained for both fresh and formalin fixed tissues. The two-dimensional reflection images were acquired by using an optically pumped far-infrared molecular gas laser operating at 584 GHz with liquid Helium cooled silicon bolometer detector. Using polarizers in the experiment both co-polarized and cross-polarized remittance form the samples was collected. Analysis of the images showed the importance of understanding the effects of formalin fixation while determining reflectance level of tissue response. The resulting co- and cross-polarized images of both normal and formalin fixed tissues showed uniform terahertz response over the entire sample area. Initial measurements indicated a co-polarized reflectance of 16%, and a cross-polarized reflectance of 0.55% from fresh excisions of normal colonic tissues.

Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil S.; Giles, Robert H.

2013-03-01

167

Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect

High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

Balogh, Emeric [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kovacs, Katalin [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Pecs, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Tosa, Valer [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varju, Katalin [HAS Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)

2011-08-15

168

The excitation and emission of terahertz surface plasmon polaritons on metal wire waveguides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of effective techniques for guiding pulsed terahertz radiation is essential for the continued development of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging applications based on the technique of time-domain spectroscopy. Terahertz surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) can be excited and guided on cylindrical metal wires with low loss and dispersion. This propagating surface wave, known as a Sommerfeld wave, possesses radial polarization,

Jason A. Deibel; Kanglin Wang; Matthew Escarra; Nicholas Berndsen; Daniel M. Mittleman

2008-01-01

169

To realize the optimal probe pulse length for detection of pulsed terahertz signal with spectral-encoding technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approach to realize the optimal chirped probe pulse length for an arbitrary pulsed terahertz (THz) signal measured with the spectral-encoding technique was investigated by simulation. It was found that either the maximum positive peak or the absolute value of the strongest negative peak of the normalized difference between the probe spectrum modulated by THz signal and the background probe spectrum tended to be maximized when the probe pulse duration approached to the optimal value. The probe pulse length can be adjusted continuously with a pair of triangular dispersive prisms. THz signals from high-voltage biased air plasmas induced by femtosecond laser pulse were measured with minimum distortion using our simple method.

Peng, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Xin-Hai; Teng, Jing-Hua; Guo, Hong-Cheng; Foo, Yong-Lim

2011-06-01

170

Single circularly polarized attosecond pulse generation by intense few cycle elliptically polarized laser pulses and terahertz fields from molecular media.  

PubMed

We present a method for producing a single circularly polarized attosecond pulse by an intense few cycle elliptically polarized laser pulse combined with a terahertz field from numerical solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecular ion H2(+). It is found that in the presence of a 62.5 THz (?=4800??nm) field at an intensity of ?10(14)??W/cm2, a single circularly polarized 114 as pulse can be generated by an elliptical polarized laser pulse at a wavelength of 400 nm with an ellipticity of ?=0.59. The efficiency of circular polarization attosecond pulse generation is interpreted based on a classical model of single electron recollision with the parent ion. PMID:23383902

Yuan, Kai-Jun; Bandrauk, André D

2013-01-11

171

Role of nonlinear refraction in the generation of terahertz field pulses by light fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of microwave (terahertz) pulses without any envelope in a four-level quasi-resonant medium is considered. Two intense quasi-monochromatic laser fields lead to a partial upper-level population. Microwave field pulses cause the transition between these levels. For appropriately chosen scales, the evolution of the fields is shown to be described by the pseudo-spin evolution equations in a microwave field with the inclusion of nonlinear refraction caused by an adiabatic upper-level population. The evolution of terahertz field pulses is described outside the scope of the slow-envelope approximation. When a number of standard approximations are taken into account, this system of equations is shown to be equivalent to an integrable version of the generalized reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations or to the generalized three-wave mixing equations. The soliton solution found by the inverse scattering transform method is used as an example to show that nonlinear refraction leads to a strong compression of the microwave (terahertz) field soliton.

Zabolotskii, A. A.

2013-07-01

172

Role of nonlinear refraction in the generation of terahertz field pulses by light fields  

SciTech Connect

The generation of microwave (terahertz) pulses without any envelope in a four-level quasi-resonant medium is considered. Two intense quasi-monochromatic laser fields lead to a partial upper-level population. Microwave field pulses cause the transition between these levels. For appropriately chosen scales, the evolution of the fields is shown to be described by the pseudo-spin evolution equations in a microwave field with the inclusion of nonlinear refraction caused by an adiabatic upper-level population. The evolution of terahertz field pulses is described outside the scope of the slow-envelope approximation. When a number of standard approximations are taken into account, this system of equations is shown to be equivalent to an integrable version of the generalized reduced Maxwell-Bloch equations or to the generalized three-wave mixing equations. The soliton solution found by the inverse scattering transform method is used as an example to show that nonlinear refraction leads to a strong compression of the microwave (terahertz) field soliton.

Zabolotskii, A. A., E-mail: zabolotskii@iae.nsk.su [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

2013-07-15

173

Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed weapon identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance models that couple system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane-Array Technology (TIFT) program and is presently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active/passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to validate and calibrate the model through human perception testing.

Murrill, Steven R.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moyer, Steven K.; Halford, Carl E.; Griffin, Steven T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; Franck, Charmaine C.

2005-11-01

174

Terahertz imaging system performance model for concealed-weapon identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory have developed a terahertz (THz) -band imaging system performance model for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The MATLAB-based model accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination. The model is based on recent U.S. Army NVESD sensor performance modeling technology that couples system design parameters to observer-sensor field performance by using the acquire methodology for weapon identification performance predictions. This THz model has been developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agencies' Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program and is currently being used to guide the design and development of a 0.650 THz active-passive imaging system. This paper will describe the THz model in detail, provide and discuss initial modeling results for a prototype THz imaging system, and outline plans to calibrate and validate the model through human perception testing.

Murrill, Steven R.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Moyer, Steven K.; Halford, Carl E.; Griffin, Steven T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Petkie, Douglas T.; Franck, Charmaine C.

2008-03-01

175

Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy based on hot electron bolometer (HEB) heterodyne detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging and spectroscopy at terahertz frequencies have great potential for healthcare, plasma diagnostics, and homeland security applications. Terahertz frequencies correspond to energy level transitions of important molecules in biology and astrophysics. Terahertz radiation (T-rays) can penetrate clothing and, to some extent, can also penetrate biological materials. Because of their shorter wavelengths, they offer higher spatial resolution than do microwaves or millimeter waves. We are developing hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixer receivers for heterodyne detection at terahertz frequencies. HEB detectors provide unprecedented sensitivity and spectral resolution at terahertz frequencies. We describe the development of a two-pixel focal plane array (FPA) based on HEB technology. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a fully automated, two-dimensional scanning, passive imaging system based on our HEB technology operating at 0.85 THz. Our high spectral resolution terahertz imager has a total system noise equivalent temperature difference (NE?T) value of better than 0.5 K and a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. HEB technology is becoming the basis for advanced terahertz imaging and spectroscopic technologies for the study of biological and chemical agents over the entire terahertz spectrum.

Gerecht, Eyal; You, Lixing

2008-02-01

176

Terahertz generation in lithium niobate driven by Ti:sapphire laser pulses and its limitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally investigate the limits to 800 nm-to-terahertz (THz) energy conversion in lithium niobate at room temperature driven by amplified Ti:Sapphire laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front. The influence of the pump central wavelength, pulse duration, and fluence on THz generation is studied. We achieved a high peak efficiency of 0.12% using transform limited 150 fs pulses and observed saturation of the optical to THz conversion efficiency at a fluence of 15 mJ/cm2. We experimentally identify two main limitations for the scaling of optical-to-THz conversion efficiencies: (i) the large spectral broadening of the optical pump spectrum in combination with large angular dispersion of the tilted-pulse-front and (ii) free-carrier absorption of THz radiation due to multi-photon absorption of the 800 nm radiation.

Wu, Xiaojun; Carbajo, Sergio; Ravi, Koustuban; Ahr, Frederike; Cirmi, Giovanni; Zhou, Yue; Mücke, Oliver D.; Kärtner, Franz X.

2014-09-01

177

Terahertz Generation in Lithium Niobate Driven by Ti:Sapphire Laser Pulses and its Limitations  

E-print Network

We experimentally investigate the limits to 800 nm-to-terahertz (THz) energy conversion in lithium niobate at room temperature driven by amplified Ti:Sapphire laser pulses with tilted-pulse-front. The influence of the pump central wavelength, pulse duration, and fluence on THz generation is studied. We achieved a high peak efficiency of 0.12% using transform limited 150 fs pulses and observed saturation of the optical to THz conversion efficiency at a fluence of 15 mJ/cm2. We experimentally identify two main limitations for the scaling of optical-to-THz conversion efficiencies: (i) the large spectral broadening of the optical pump spectrum in combination with large angular dispersion of the tilted-pulse-front and (ii) free-carrier absorption of THz radiation due to multi-photon absorption of the 800 nm radiation.

Wu, Xiaojun; Ravi, Koustuban; Ahr, Frederike; Cirmi, Giovanni; Zhou, Yue; Mücke, Oliver D; Kärtner, Franz X

2014-01-01

178

Single-shot spatiotemporal measurements of high-field terahertz pulses  

SciTech Connect

The electric field profiles of broad-bandwidth coherent terahertz (THz) pulses, emitted by laser-wakefield-accelerated electron bunches, are studied. The near-single-cycle THz pulses are measured with two single-shot techniques in the temporal and spatial domains. Spectra of 0-6 THz and peak fields up to {approx_equal} 0.4 MV cm{sup -1} are observed. The measured field substructure demonstrates the manifestation of spatiotemporal coupling at focus, which affects the interpretation of THz radiation as a bunch diagnostic and in high-field pump-probe experiments.

van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

2011-06-17

179

Generation and coherent control of pure spin currents via terahertz pulses  

SciTech Connect

We inspect the time and spin-dependent, inelastic tunneling in engineered semiconductor-based double quantum well driven by time-structured terahertz pulses. An essential ingredient is an embedded spin-active structure with vibrational modes that scatter the pulse driven carriers. Due to the different time scales of the charge and spin dynamics, the spin-dependent electron-vibron coupling may result in pure net spin current (with negligible charge current). Heating the vibrational site may affect the resulting spin current. Furthermore, by controlling the charge dynamics, the spin dynamics and the generated spin current can be manipulated and switched on and off coherently.

Schüler, Michael, E-mail: michael.schueler@physik.uni-halle.de; Berakdar, Jamal [Institute for Physics, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06099 Halle (Germany)

2014-04-21

180

High-resolution emission spectra of pulsed terahertz quantum-cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect

The spectra of pulsed terahertz quantum-cascade lasers were measured with high spectral resolution. The characteristic line width at half maximum was 0.01 cm{sup -1}; it is controlled by laser temperature variations during the supply voltage pulse. It was shown that an increase in the laser temperature leads to a decrease in the emission frequency, which is caused by an increase in the effective refractive index of the active region. It was also found that a decrease in the supply voltage results in a decrease in the emission frequency, which is caused by a change in the energy of diagonal transitions between lasing levels.

Ikonnikov, A. V., E-mail: antikon@ipm.sci-nnov.ru; Antonov, A. V.; Lastovkin, A. A.; Gavrilenko, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Sadof'ev, Yu. G.; Samal, N. [Trion Technology (United States)

2010-11-15

181

Single-cycle Terahertz Pulses with >0.2 V/A Field Amplitudes via Coherent Transition Radiation  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 0.2 V/{angstrom} generated by coherent transition radiation. Femtosecond, relativistic electron bunches generated at the Linac Coherent Light Source are passed through a beryllium foil, and the emitted radiation is characterized as a function of the bunch duration and charge. Broadband pulses centered at a frequency of 10 THz with energies of 140 {mu}J are measured. These far-below-bandgap pulses drive a nonlinear optical response in a silicon photodiode, with which we perform nonlinear autocorrelations that yield information regarding the terahertz temporal profile. Simulations of the spatiotemporal profile agree well with experimental results.

Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Goodfellow, John; /Stanford U. Materials Sci. Dept.; Fuchs, Matthias; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Wen, Haidan; /ANL, APS; Ghimire, Shambhu; /SLAC, PULSE; Reis, David A.; /SIMES, Sanford /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Loos, Henrik; Fisher, Alan S.; /SLAC, LCLS; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; /Stanford U. Materials Sci. Dept. /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE

2012-02-15

182

Single-cycle terahertz pulses with >0.2 V/A? field amplitudes via coherent transition radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 0.2 V/Å generated by coherent transition radiation. Femtosecond, relativistic electron bunches generated at the Linac Coherent Light Source are passed through a beryllium foil, and the emitted radiation is characterized as a function of the bunch duration and charge. Broadband pulses centered at a frequency of 10 THz with energies of 140 ?J are measured. These far-below-bandgap pulses drive a nonlinear optical response in a silicon photodiode, with which we perform nonlinear autocorrelations that yield information regarding the terahertz temporal profile. Simulations of the spatiotemporal profile agree well with experimental results.

Daranciang, Dan; Goodfellow, John; Fuchs, Matthias; Wen, Haidan; Ghimire, Shambhu; Reis, David A.; Loos, Henrik; Fisher, Alan S.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.

2011-10-01

183

Measurement depth enhancement in terahertz imaging of biological tissues.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of a THz penetration-enhancing agent (THz-PEA) to enhance the terahertz (THz) wave penetration depth in tissues. The THz-PEA is a biocompatible material having absorption lower than that of water, and it is easily absorbed into tissues. When using glycerol as a THz-PEA, the peak value of the THz signal which was transmitted through the fresh tissue and reflected by a metal target, was almost doubled compared to that of tissue without glycerol. THz time-of-flight imaging (B-scan) was used to display the sequential glycerol delivery images. Enhancement of the penetration depth was confirmed after an artificial tumor was located below fresh skin. We thus concluded that the THz-PEA technique can potentially be employed to enhance the image contrast of the abnormal lesions below the skin. PMID:24104004

Oh, Seung Jae; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Kiyoung; Park, Yeonji; Huh, Yong-Min; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Suh, Jin-Suck

2013-09-01

184

Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed terahertz (THz) radiation, generated through optical rectification (OR) by exciting <110> ZnTe crystal with ultrafast optical pulses, typically consists of only a few-cycles of electromagnetic field oscillations with a duration about a couple of picoseconds. However, it is possible, under appropriate conditions, to generate a long damped oscillation tail (LDOT) following the main cycles. The LDOT can last tens of picoseconds and its Fourier transform shows a higher and narrower frequency peak than that of the main pulse. We have demonstrated that the generation of the LDOT depends on both the duration of the optical pulse and its central wavelength. Furthermore, we have also performed theoretical calculations based upon the OR effect coupled with the phonon-polariton mode of ZnTe and obtained theoretical THz waveforms in good agreement with our experimental observation.

Tu, C. M.; Ku, S. A.; Chu, W. C.; Luo, C. W.; Chen, J. C.; Chi, C. C.

2012-11-01

185

Terahertz imaging with Si MOSFET focal-plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on imaging at terahertz frequencies using a 3x5 Si MOSFET focal-plane array (FPA) processed by a 0.25-?m CMOS technology. Each pixel of the FPA consists of a 645-GHz patch antenna coupled to a FET detector and a 43-dB voltage amplifier with a 1.6-MHz bandwidth. We achieve a typical single-pixel responsivity of 80 kV/W and a noise-equivalent power (NEP) of 300 pW/?Hz at 30-kHz. The performance data of these all-CMOS devices pave the way for the realization of broad-band THz detectors and FPAs for video-rate active imaging on the basis of established low-cost and integration-friendly CMOS technology.

Lisauskas, A.; Glaab, D.; Roskos, H. G.; Oejefors, E.; Pfeiffer, U. R.

2009-02-01

186

Terahertz transceiver concept.  

PubMed

We present a photoconductive terahertz transceiver based on a modulation of the optical pulses used for generation and detection at different rates. External modulation of the THz pulses is not required as opposed to previously reported approaches. Devices from fiber-optic technology are used, providing flexibility and stability to the system. Imaging and thickness measurement experiments are carried out to demonstrate the performance of the transceiver. PMID:25090501

Busch, Stefan; Probst, Thorsten; Schwerdtfeger, Michael; Dietz, Roman; Palací, Jesús; Koch, Martin

2014-07-14

187

Exploration of Terahertz Imaging with Silicon MOSFETs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize three lines of development and investigation of foundry-processed patch-antenna-coupled Si MOSFETs as detectors of THz radiation: (i) Exploiting the pinciple of plasma-waved-based mixing in the two-dimensional electron gas of the transistors' channels, we demonstrate efficient detection at frequencies as high as 9 THz, much above the transit-time-limited cut-off frequencies of the devices (tens of GHz). Real-time imaging at 600 GHz with a 12 × 12 detector array is explored. (ii) Given the limited THz power usually available for applications, we explore imaging with enhanced sensitivity in heterodyne mode. We show that real-time operation of a 100 × 100-pixel heterodyne camera should be possible at 600 GHz with a better dynamic range (30 dB) than for direct power detection (20 dB), even if only a quarter-milliwatt of local-oscillator power, distributed radiatively over all detector pixels, is available. (iii) Finally, we present an all-electronic raster-scan imaging system for 220 GHz entirely based on CMOS devices, combining the CMOS detectors with an emitter circuit implemented in a 90-nm CMOS process and delivering radiation with a power on the 100- ?W scale. Considering progress in the field, we anticipate that the emitter concept of oscillator-based power generation with on-chip frequency multiplication will carry well into the sub-millimeter-wave regime.

Lisauskas, Alvydas; Bauer, Maris; Boppel, Sebastian; Mundt, Martin; Khamaisi, Bassam; Socher, Eran; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Minkevi?ius, Linas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Valušis, Gintaras; Krozer, Viktor; Roskos, Hartmut G.

2014-01-01

188

A self-consistent regime of generation of terahertz radiation by an optical pulse with a tilted intensity front  

SciTech Connect

We derived a self-consistent system of nonlinear wave equations describing the terahertz generation in dielectric uniaxial crystals by optical pulsed radiation with a tilted wavefront. The numerical analysis of the system of equations showed that the generation of a broadband one-period terahertz signal is accompanied by a red shift of the carrier frequency of the optical pulse, the magnitude of the shift being proportional to the pulse intensity. The generation efficiency with respect to energy reached a maximum at a certain distance of propagation in the crystal, after which the efficiency decreased. A satisfactory agreement was obtained between theoretical calculations and experimental data of other investigations. (generation of terahertz radiation)

Bugai, A N; Sazonov, S V; Shashkov, Andrei Yu

2012-11-30

189

Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from terahertz multispectral transillumination images, using absorption spectra measured with a tunable terahertz-wave source. The samples we used were methamphetamine and MDMA, two of the most widely consumed illegal drugs in Japan, and aspirin as a reference.

Kawase, Kodo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Watanabe, Yuuki; Inoue, Hiroyuki

2003-10-01

190

JTC based concealed object detection in terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detection of concealed objects under cloth or inside paper/lather/plastic box is a challenge for security applications. With terahertz (THz) imaging technology, it is possible to spot concealed objects inside plastic box, underneath cloths paper or similar scenarios. THz frequency domain (~100 GHz - 10 THz) shows a unique feature in the under-used domain of the electromagnetic spectrum which helps to acquire image of concealed objects. This property of THz wave makes it useful in a variety of applications. Previously millimeter wave imaging and infrared imaging were used for detection of concealed features in an image with limited success rate. THz imaging helps solving the problem to a great extent because it can transmit through substances like cloths, paper, plastic, dried food etc. THz images have poor quality and low signal-to-noise-ratio. Noises and related artifacts must be reduced for proper detection of concealed objects. In this paper, a new technique for artifact reduction and detection of concealed object is proposed by utilizing nonzero-order fringe adjusted joint transform correlation (NFJTC) technique. In the proposed NFJTC technique, the joint power spectrum (JPS) is modified to obtain the nonzero-order fringe-adjusted joint power spectrum. NFJTC is already been used for object detection but never been used to detect concealed objects in THz imagery. Test results using real life THz imagery confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

Habib, M. U.; Alam, M. S.; Al-Assadi, W. K.

2013-03-01

191

Numerical and simulation study of terahertz radiation generation by laser pulses propagating in the extraordinary mode in magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect

A one-dimensional numerical model for studying terahertz radiation generation by intense laser pulses propagating, in the extraordinary mode, through magnetized plasma has been presented. The direction of the static external magnetic field is perpendicular to the polarization as well as propagation direction of the laser pulse. A transverse electromagnetic wave with frequency in the terahertz range is generated due to the presence of the magnetic field. Further, two-dimensional simulations using XOOPIC code show that the THz fields generated in plasma are transmitted into vacuum. The fields obtained via simulation study are found to be compatible with those obtained from the numerical model.

Jha, Pallavi; Kumar Verma, Nirmal [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

2014-06-15

192

Catadioptric optics for high-resolution terahertz imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

INO has developed infrared camera systems with microscanning capabilities in order to increase image resolution. It has been shown in previous works that the image quality may be improved even if the pixel pitch is smaller than the point spread function. This paper introduces a catadioptric optics system with fully integrated microscan for improved resolution in the THz band. The design, inspired by the INO's HRXCAM infrared camera core and adapted for terahertz wavelengths, includes two mirrors and one refractive element. It has a 11.9 degree full field of view and an effective F-number of 1.07 over a wide spectral range, from 100 ?m to 1.5 mm wavelength. This diffraction limited optics is used to provide video rate high quality THz images. A THz camera, with 160 x 120 pixel and 52 ?m pitch detector, is combined with the microscan objective to provide a 320 x 240 pixel image with a 26 ?m sampling step. Preliminary imaging results using a THz illumination source at 118 ?m wavelength are presented. A comparison between standard and microscanned images is also presented.

Blanchard, Nathalie; Marchese, Linda; Martel, Anne; Terroux, Marc; Savard, Éric; Chevalier, Claude; Mercier, Luc; Gagnon, Lucie; Lambert, Julie; Bolduc, Martin; Bergeron, Alain

2012-05-01

193

Directional elliptically polarized terahertz emission from air plasma produced by circularly polarized intense femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We have observed directional elliptically polarized terahertz (THz) waves emitted from air plasma produced by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. The spatial distribution of the THz waves shows that the radiation is strongly directed forward with a peak around the laser propagation direction. Measured THz power shows a square dependence on laser energy. We consider the parametric decay of laser light to R-waves in plasma in the presence of a spontaneous magnetic field as a possible explanation for the polarization, power dependence, and direction of the THz beam.

Jahangiri, Fazel; Hashida, Masaki; Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji [Advanced Research Center for Beam Science, ICR, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan and Department of Physics, GSS, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-7501 (Japan); Nagashima, Takeshi; Hangyo, Masanori [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

2011-10-17

194

Terahertz imaging systems: a non-invasive technique for the analysis of paintings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) imaging is an emerging technique for non-invasive analysis. Since THz waves can penetrate opaque materials, various imaging systems that use THz waves have been developed to detect, for instance, concealed weapons, illegal drugs, and defects in polymer products. The absorption of THz waves by water is extremely strong, and hence, THz waves can be used to monitor the water content in various objects. THz imaging can be performed either by transmission or by reflection of THz waves. In particular, time domain reflection imaging uses THz pulses that propagate in specimens, and in this technique, pulses reflected from the surface and from the internal boundaries of the specimen are detected. In general, the internal structure is observed in crosssectional images obtained using micro-specimens taken from the work that is being analysed. On the other hand, in THz time-domain imaging, a map of the layer of interest can be easily obtained without collecting any samples. When realtime imaging is required, for example, in the investigation of the effect of a solvent or during the monitoring of water content, a THz camera can be used. The first application of THz time-domain imaging in the analysis of a historical tempera masterpiece was performed on the panel painting Polittico di Badia by Giotto, of the permanent collection of the Uffizi Gallery. The results of that analysis revealed that the work is composed of two layers of gypsum, with a canvas between these layers. In the paint layer, gold foils covered by paint were clearly observed, and the consumption or ageing of gold could be estimated by noting the amount of reflection. These results prove that THz imaging can yield useful information for conservation and restoration purposes.

Fukunaga, K.; Hosako, I.; Duling, I. N., III; Picollo, M.

2009-07-01

195

Resonant-Phonon Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Lasers and Video-Rate Terahertz Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the development of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (QCLs) that can be uniquely qualified based on a resonant-phonon depopulation scheme. Record performances in terms of operating temperature and optical power output are reported. The best temperature performance is achieved in the metal-metal (MM) waveguides, which provide near-unity mode confinement and low waveguiding loss at terahertz (THz) frequencies even for cavities

Sushil Kumar; Alan W. M. Lee

2008-01-01

196

Emission of terahertz pulses from nanostructured metal surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When (nanostructured) metals, such as gold and silver, are illuminated with laser pulses having a duration in the femtosecond range, they can emit pulses of THz light. Most of these experiments have been performed using amplified lasers, giving rise to energy densities on the sample on the order of mJ cm-2. The results of the different experiments are surprisingly inconsistent in both the measurements of the THz fluence as a function of laser fluence and in the interpretation of the results. This paper reviews the current state of affairs of this interesting topic and discusses some effects related to surface preparation that may influence the emission THz light on metals, particularly silver and copper. We also show results of measurements on nanostructured metals using unamplified laser pulses, which emphasize the role played by plasmons in the generation of THz light. When increasing the optical energy density on a specially nanostructured sample, we observe a transition from a ‘classical’ second-order non-linear optical process to a higher-order process as the source of the THz radiation. This supports recent results on a differently structured metal by Polyushkin et al (2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 125426), who also observe two different power regimes when decreasing the intensity coming from the high energy density side.

Ramanandan, G. K. P.; Ramakrishnan, G.; Kumar, N.; Adam, A. J. L.; Planken, P. C. M.

2014-09-01

197

Terahertz wave two-dimensional transmission imaging with a backward wave oscillator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a terahertz (THz) imaging system with a Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO). BWO Continuous-Wave THz imaging is a new approach to non-destructive testing. Many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light are transparent to THz radiation. THz wave image provides a higher spatial resolution than microwave image by having much shorter wavelength. It also poses no known

Hongyang Yuan; Xinhao Ge; Cunlin Zhang

2008-01-01

198

Generation of high power pulsed terahertz radiation using a plasmonic photoconductive emitter array with logarithmic spiral antennas  

SciTech Connect

An array of 3?×?3 plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitters with logarithmic spiral antennas is fabricated on a low temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate and characterized in response to a 200 fs optical pump from a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser at 800?nm wavelength. A microlens array is used to split and focus the optical pump beam onto the active area of each plasmonic photoconductive emitter element. Pulsed terahertz radiation with record high power levels up to 1.9 mW in the 0.1–2 THz frequency range is measured at an optical pump power of 320 mW. The record high power pulsed terahertz radiation is enabled by the use of plasmonic contact electrodes, enhancing the photoconductor quantum efficiencies, and by increasing the overall device active area, mitigating the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown at high optical pump power levels.

Berry, Christopher W. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hashemi, Mohammad R.; Jarrahi, Mona [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2014-02-24

199

Generation of high power pulsed terahertz radiation using a plasmonic photoconductive emitter array with logarithmic spiral antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of 3 × 3 plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitters with logarithmic spiral antennas is fabricated on a low temperature (LT) grown GaAs substrate and characterized in response to a 200 fs optical pump from a Ti:sapphire mode-locked laser at 800 nm wavelength. A microlens array is used to split and focus the optical pump beam onto the active area of each plasmonic photoconductive emitter element. Pulsed terahertz radiation with record high power levels up to 1.9 mW in the 0.1-2 THz frequency range is measured at an optical pump power of 320 mW. The record high power pulsed terahertz radiation is enabled by the use of plasmonic contact electrodes, enhancing the photoconductor quantum efficiencies, and by increasing the overall device active area, mitigating the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown at high optical pump power levels.

Berry, Christopher W.; Hashemi, Mohammad R.; Jarrahi, Mona

2014-02-01

200

Fast high-resolution terahertz radar imaging at 25 meters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report improvements in the scanning speed and standoff range of an ultra-wide bandwidth terahertz (THz) imaging radar for person-borne concealed object detection. Fast beam scanning of the single-transceiver radar is accomplished by rapidly deflecting a flat, light-weight subreflector in a confocal Gregorian optical geometry. With RF back-end improvements also implemented, the radar imaging rate has increased by a factor of about 30 compared to that achieved previously in a 4 m standoff prototype instrument. In addition, a new 100 cm diameter ellipsoidal aluminum reflector yields beam spot diameters of approximately 1 cm over a 50×50 cm field of view at a range of 25 m, although some aberrations are observed that probably arise from misaligned optics. Through-clothes images of concealed pipes at 25 m range, acquired in 5 seconds, are presented, and the impact of reduced signal-to-noise from an even faster frame rate is analyzed. These results inform the requirements for eventually achieving sub-second or video-rate THz radar imaging.

Cooper, Ken B.; Dengler, Robert J.; Llombart, Nuria; Talukder, Ashit; Panangadan, Anand V.; Peay, Chris S.; Mehdi, Imran; Siegel, Peter H.

2010-04-01

201

Terahertz Kerr effect  

E-print Network

We have observed optical birefringence in liquids induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses with field strengths exceeding 100 kV/cm. The induced change in polarization is proportional to the square of the terahertz electric ...

Hoffmann, Matthias C.

202

1.56 Terahertz 2-frames per second standoff imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Terahertz imaging system intended to demonstrate identification of objects concealed under clothing was designed, assembled, and tested. The system design was based on a 2.5 m standoff distance, with a capability of visualizing a 0.5 m by 0.5 m scene at an image rate of 2 frames per second. The system optical design consisted of a 1.56 THz laser beam, which was raster swept by a dual torsion mirror scanner. The beam was focused onto the scan subject by a stationary 50 cm-diameter focusing mirror. A heterodyne detection technique was used to down convert the backscattered signal. The system demonstrated a 1.5 cm spot resolution. Human subjects were scanned at a frame rate of 2 frames per second. Hidden metal objects were detected under a jacket worn by the human subject. A movie including data and video images was produced in 1.5 minutes scanning a human through 180° of azimuth angle at 0.7° increment.

Goyette, Thomas M.; Dickinson, Jason C.; Linden, Kurt J.; Neal, William R.; Joseph, Cecil S.; Gorveatt, William J.; Waldman, Jerry; Giles, Robert; Nixon, William E.

2008-02-01

203

Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have previously demonstrated that terahertz pulsed imaging is able to distinguish between rat tissues from different healthy organs. In this paper we report our measurements of healthy and cirrhotic liver tissues using terahertz reflection spectroscopy. The water content of the fresh tissue samples was also measured in order to investigate the correlations between the terahertz properties, water content, structural changes and cirrhosis. Finally, the samples were fixed in formalin to determine whether water was the sole source of image contrast in this study. We found that the cirrhotic tissue had a higher water content and absorption coefficient than the normal tissue and that even after formalin fixing there were significant differences between the normal and cirrhotic tissues' terahertz properties. Our results show that terahertz pulsed imaging can distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue due to differences in absorption originating from both water content and tissue structure.

Sy, Stanley; Huang, Shengyang; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Yu, Jun; Ahuja, Anil T.; Zhang, Yuan-ting; Pickwell-MacPherson, Emma

2010-12-01

204

Study of image reconstruction for terahertz indirect holography with quasi-optics receiver.  

PubMed

In this paper, an indirect holographic image reconstruction algorithm was studied for terahertz imaging with a quasi-optics receiver. Based on the combination of the reciprocity principle and modified quasi-optics theory, analytical expressions of the received spatial power distribution and its spectrum are obtained for the interference pattern of target wave and reference wave. These results clearly give the quantitative relationship between imaging quality and the parameters of a Gaussian beam, which provides a good criterion for terahertz quasi-optics transceivers design in terahertz off-axis holographic imagers. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed analysis method, some imaging results with a 0.3 THz prototype system are shown based on electromagnetic simulation. PMID:24323117

Gao, Xiang; Li, Chao; Fang, Guangyou

2013-06-01

205

Detection of colon cancer by continuous-wave terahertz polarization imaging  

E-print Network

Detection of colon cancer by continuous- wave terahertz polarization imaging technique Pallavi polarization imaging technique Pallavi Doradla,a,b Karim Alavi,c Cecil Joseph,a,b and Robert Gilesa and increased reflection. We hypothesize that the imaging sys- tem and polarization techniques are capable

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

206

High-energy terahertz pulses from organic crystals: DAST and DSTMS pumped at Ti:sapphire wavelength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy terahertz pulses are produced by optical rectification (OR) in organic crystals DAST and DSTMS by a Ti:sapphire amplifier system centered at 0.8 microns. The simple scheme provides broadband spectra between 1 and 5 THz, when pumped by collimated 60 fs near-infrared pump pulse and it is scalable in energy. Fluence-dependent conversion efficiency and damage threshold are reported as well as optimized OR at visible wavelength.

Monoszlai, B.; Vicario, C.; Jazbinsek, M.; Hauri, C. P.

2013-12-01

207

Single-shot measurement of the spectral envelope of broad-bandwidth terahertz pulses from femtosecond electron bunches  

SciTech Connect

We present a new approach (demonstrated experimentally and through modeling) to characterize the spectral envelope of a terahertz (THz) pulse in a single shot. The coherent THz pulse is produced by a femtosecond electron bunch and contains information on the bunch duration. The technique, involving a single low-power laser probe pulse, is an extension of the conventional spectral encoding method (limited in time resolution to hundreds of femtoseconds) into a regime only limited in resolution by the laser pulse length (tens of femtoseconds). While only the bunch duration is retrieved (and not the exact charge profile), such a measurement provides a useful and critical parameter for optimization of the electron accelerator.

van Tilborg, Jeroen; Toth, Csaba; Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; Leemans, Wim

2011-06-17

208

Observation of hydrofluoric acid burns on osseous tissues by means of terahertz spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

Terahertz technologies have gained great amount of attention for biomedical imaging and tissue analysis. In this study, we utilize terahertz imaging to study the effects of hydrofluoric acid on both compact bone tissue and cartilage. We compare the differences observed in the exposure for formalin fixed and raw, dried, tissue as well as those resulting from a change in hydrofluoric (HF) concentration. Measurements are performed with THz-TDS, and a variety of spectroscopic-based image reconstruction techniques are utilized to develop contrast in the features of interest. PMID:25055307

Baughman, William E; Yokus, Hamdullah; Balci, Soner; Wilbert, David Shawn; Kung, Patrick; Kim, Seongsin Margaret

2013-07-01

209

DEVELOPMENT OF A 4 K STIRLING-TYPE PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLER FOR A MOBILE TERAHERTZ DETECTION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We discuss in this paper the design and development of a 4 K Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for a mobile terahertz detection system. This system integrates new heterodyne detector technology at terahertz frequencies with advancements of Stirling-type pulse tube technology that brings the advent of cooled detector sensitivities in a mobile, compact, and long duration operation system without degradation of sensitivity. To achieve this goal we reduced overall system size, input power, and temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations in order to maintain the detector sensitivity. The Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler developed for this system is a hybrid design employing a He-4 pulse-tube cryocooler operating at 60 Hz and 2.5 MPa average pressure that precools a He-3 pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30 Hz and 1.0 MPa average pressure to achieve 4 K cooling for the terahertz receiver. The He-4 cryocooler employs stainless steel mesh regenerators for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage, while the He-3 cryocooler employs stainless mesh for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage with a layered rare-earth third stage regenerator. Design details and cooler performance goals are discussed.

Bradley, P. E.; Gerecht, E.; Radebaugh, R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Garaway, I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado, 80305 (United States); Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

2010-04-09

210

Efficient terahertz wave generation from GaP crystals pumped by chirp-controlled pulses from femtosecond photonic crystal fiber amplifier  

SciTech Connect

A chirp-tunable femtosecond 10?W, 42?MHz photonic-crystal-fiber oscillator-amplifier system that is capable of delivering sub-60 fs light pulses at 1040?nm is used to demonstrate high-efficiency terahertz radiation generation via optical rectification in GaP crystals only a few millimeters in length. The optimization of the chirp of the fiber-laser pulses is shown to radically enhance the terahertz output, indicating one possible way to more efficiently use these extended nonlinear crystals in compact fiber-pumped terahertz radiation sources.

Li, Jiang; Shi, Junkai; Xu, Baozhong; Xing, Qirong; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Chai, Lu, E-mail: lu-chai@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: yanfengli@tju.edu.cn; Liu, Bowen; Hu, Minglie; Li, Yanfeng, E-mail: lu-chai@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: yanfengli@tju.edu.cn [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); MOEMS Key Laboratory (Ministry of Education), Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fedotov, Andrey B. [Physics Department, Russian Quantum Center, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Zheltikov, Aleksei M. [Physics Department, Russian Quantum Center, International Laser Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2014-01-20

211

Confocal Ellipsoidal Reflector System for a Mechanically Scanned Active Terahertz Imager  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design of a reflector system that can rapidly scan and refocus a terahertz beam for high-resolution standoff imaging applications. The proposed optical system utilizes a confocal Gregorian geometry with a small mechanical rotating mirror and an axial displacement of the feed. For operation at submillimeter wavelengths and standoff ranges of many meters, the imaging targets are electrically

Nuria Llombart; Ken B. Cooper; Robert J. Dengler; Tomas Bryllert; Peter H. Siegel

2010-01-01

212

High-Power Terahertz Source Opens the Door for Full-Field Video-Rate Terahertz Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz (THz) light, at wavelengths between electronics and photonics, promises novel imaging applications such as revealing epithelial carcinomas 1 or identifying objects hidden in clothing and packages 2. But THz imaging has been little exploited because generating source power high enough for adequate signal detection is difficult -- and because even more power is needed for most applications that require detecting scattered light rather than light transmitted straight through the target 3. The ability to image movement in real time would aid medicine by allowing the rapid viewing of multiple perspectives and larger areas for detecting skin cancer. Real-time imaging is also essential for the efficient detection, with sufficient resolution, of hidden, and possibly moving, objects. Here, in work building on our earlier demonstration that relativistic electrons can yield tens of watts of broadband THz light 4, 5, we report the first video-rate THz movies of objects observed in real t

Klopf, John; Coppinger, Matthew; Sustersic, Nathan; Kolodzey, James; Williams, Gwyn

2008-07-01

213

Development and Testing of a Single Frequency Terahertz Imaging System for Breast Cancer Detection  

PubMed Central

The ability to discern malignant from benign tissue in excised human breast specimens in Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) was evaluated using single frequency terahertz radiation. Terahertz (THz) images of the specimens in reflection mode were obtained by employing a gas laser source and mechanical scanning. The images were correlated with optical histological micrographs of the same specimens, and a mean discrimination of 73% was found for five out of six samples using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The system design and characterization is discussed in detail. The initial results are encouraging but further development of the technology and clinical evaluation is needed to evaluate its feasibility in the clinical environment. PMID:25055306

St. Peter, Benjamin; Yngvesson, Sigfrid; Siqueira, Paul; Kelly, Patrick; Khan, Ashraf; Glick, Stephen; Karellas, Andrew

2013-01-01

214

Development and testing of a single frequency terahertz imaging system for breast cancer detection.  

PubMed

The ability to discern malignant from benign tissue in excised human breast specimens in Breast Conservation Surgery (BCS) was evaluated using single frequency terahertz radiation. Terahertz (THz) images of the specimens in reflection mode were obtained by employing a gas laser source and mechanical scanning. The images were correlated with optical histological micrographs of the same specimens, and a mean discrimination of 73% was found for five out of six samples using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The system design and characterization is discussed in detail. The initial results are encouraging but further development of the technology and clinical evaluation is needed to evaluate its feasibility in the clinical environment. PMID:25055306

St Peter, Benjamin; Yngvesson, Sigfrid; Siqueira, Paul; Kelly, Patrick; Khan, Ashraf; Glick, Stephen; Karellas, Andrew

2013-07-01

215

Terahertz Technology: A Boon to Tablet Analysis  

PubMed Central

The terahertz gap has a frequency ranges from ?0.3 THz to ?10 THz in the electromagnetic spectrum which is in between microwave and infrared. The terahertz radiations are invisible to naked eye. In comparison with x-ray they are intrinsically safe, non-destructive and non-invasive. Terahertz spectroscopy enables 3D imaging of structures and materials, and the measurement of the unique spectral fingerprints of chemical and physical forms. Terahertz radiations are produced by a dendrimer based high power terahertz source and spectroscopy technologies. It resolves many of the questions left unanswered by complementary techniques, such as optical imaging, Raman and infrared spectra. In the pharmaceutical industries it enables nondestructive, internal, chemical analysis of tablets, capsules, and other dosage forms. Tablet coatings are a major factor in drug bioavailability. Therefore tablet coatings integrity and uniformity are of crucial importance to quality. Terahertz imaging gives an unparalleled certainty about the integrity of tablet coatings and the matrix performance of tablet cores. This article demonstrates the potential of terahertz pulse imaging for the analysis of tablet coating thickness by illustrating the technique on tablets. PMID:20490288

Wagh, M. P.; Sonawane, Y. H.; Joshi, O. U.

2009-01-01

216

Room temperature terahertz wave imaging at 60 fps by frequency up-conversion in DAST crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz imaging has attracted a lot of interests for more than 10 years. But real time, high sensitive, low cost THz imaging in room temperature, which is widely needed by fields such as biology, biomedicine and homeland security, has not been fully developed yet. A lot of approaches have been reported on electro-optic (E-O) imaging and THz focal plane arrays with photoconductive antenna or micro-bolometer integrated. In this paper, we report high sensitive realtime THz image at 60 frames per second (fps) employing a commercial infrared camera, using nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion technology. In this system, a flash-lamp pumped nanosecond pulse green laser is used to pump two optical parametric oscillator systems with potassium titanyl phosphate crystals (KTP-OPO). One system with dual KTP crystals is used to generate infrared laser for the pumping of THz difference frequency generation (DFG) in a 4- Dimethylamino-N-Methyl-4-Stilbazolium Tosylate (DAST) crystal. The other one is for generation of pumping laser for THz frequency up-conversion in a second DAST crystal. The THz frequency can be tuned continuously from a few THz to less than 30 THz by controlling the angle of KTP crystals. The frequency up-converted image in infrared region is recorded by a commercial infrared camera working at 60 Hz. Images and videos are presented to show the feasibility of this technique and the real-time ability. Comparison with a general micro-bolometer THz camera shows the high sensitivity of this technique.

Fan, Shuzhen; Qi, Feng; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Takida, Yuma; Minamide, Hiroaki

2014-02-01

217

Terahertz standoff imaging testbed design and performance for concealed weapon and device identification model development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and performance of the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate's (NVESD), active 0.640-THz imaging testbed, developed in support of the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. The laboratory measurements and standoff images were acquired during the development of a NVESD and Army Research Laboratory terahertz imaging performance model. The imaging testbed is based on a 12-inch-diameter Off-Axis Elliptical (OAE) mirror designed with one focal length at 1 m and the other at 10 m. This paper will describe the design considerations of the OAE-mirror, dual-capability, active imaging testbed, as well as measurement/imaging results used to further develop the model.

Franck, Charmaine C.; Lee, Dave; Espinola, Richard L.; Murrill, Steven R.; Jacobs, Eddie L.; Griffin, Steve T.; Petkie, Douglas T.; Reynolds, Joe

2007-04-01

218

Pulsed terahertz spectroscopy of DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen between 0.1 and 2.0 THz  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first use of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy to examine low-frequency collective vibrational modes of biomolecules. Broadband absorption increasing with frequency was observed for lyophilized powder samples of calf thymus DNA, bovine serum albumin and collagen in the 0.06–2.00 THz (2–67 cm?1) frequency range, suggesting that a large number of the low-frequency collective modes for these systems are IR

A. G. Markelz; A. Roitberg; E. J. Heilweil

2000-01-01

219

Undulator superradiance effect and its applicability for the generation of multimegawatt terahertz pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of multimegawatt terahertz pulses based on the superradiance of picosecond electron bunches moving in a periodic magnetic (undulator) field is shown to be possible. The theoretical study of superradiance processes is based both on the method of an averaged ponderomotive force and on direct numerical PIC (particle in cell) simulations. The analysis is performed in the K' reference frame comoving with the electrons followed by the recalculation of radiation characteristics to the laboratory frame using the Lorentz transformations. Within the framework of the averaged approach, the electron bunch is represented as an ensemble of macroelectrons interacting between themselves through the radiation fields and Coulomb forces. The superradiance effect includes particle bunching followed by coherent emission of a single intense pulse from the entire volume of an electron bunch whose length exceeds considerably the wavelength. PIC simulations of this process based on the KARAT code have been performed for a more detailed analysis including the transverse inhomogeneity of the undulator field, the relativistic pattern of electron motion in this field, etc. A considerable simplification of the calculation procedure when passing to the comoving reference frame due to the commensurability of all spatial scales, including the radiation wavelength, the bunch length, and the length of the train of the pump wave into which the undulator field is transformed, is shown to be possible.

Ginzburg, N. S.; Golovanov, A. A.; Zotova, I. V.; Malkin, A. M.; Tarakanov, V. P.

2014-10-01

220

Terahertz Laser Based Standoff Imaging System Kurt J. Linden, William R. Neal  

E-print Network

_gatesman@uml.edu, andriy_danylov@student.uml.edu Abstract Definition and design of a terahertz standoff imag- ing system materials such as clothing, paper, metals, or a human body. Beyond the far-infrared spectral region however explosive materials), but materials such as clothing, paper, and most packaging materials are relatively

Massachusetts at Lowell, University of

221

Non-destructive terahertz imaging of illicit drugs using spectral fingerprints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absence of non-destructive inspection techniques for illicit drugs hidden in mail envelopes has resulted in such drugs being smuggled across international borders freely. We have developed a novel basic technology for terahertz imaging, which allows detection and identification of drugs concealed in envelopes, by introducing the component spatial pattern analysis. The spatial distributions of the targets are obtained from

Kodo Kawase; Yuichi Ogawa; Yuuki Watanabe; Hiroyuki Inoue

2003-01-01

222

Application of Terahertz Imaging and Backscatter Radiography to Space Shuttle Foam Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two state of the art technologies have been developed for External Fuel Tank foam inspections. Results of POD tests have shown Backscatter Radiography and Terahertz imaging detect critical defects with no false positive issue. These techniques are currently in use on the External Tank program as one component in the foam quality assurance program.

Ussery, Warren

2008-01-01

223

Terahertz inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging using self-mixing interferometry with a quantum cascade laser.  

PubMed

We propose a terahertz (THz)-frequency synthetic aperture radar imaging technique based on self-mixing (SM) interferometry, using a quantum cascade laser. A signal processing method is employed which extracts and exploits the radar-related information contained in the SM signals, enabling the creation of THz images with improved spatial resolution. We demonstrate this by imaging a standard resolution test target, achieving resolution beyond the diffraction limit. PMID:24784063

Lui, H S; Taimre, T; Bertling, K; Lim, Y L; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Lachab, M; Valavanis, A; Indjin, D; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Raki?, A D

2014-05-01

224

Terahertz photoconductive antennas: Principles and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operation principles of terahertz photoconductive antennas (THz-PCAs) in terahertz pulsed and continuous-wave (cw) measurement systems are presented and their transmission and reception properties in pulsed and cw operation modes are investigated. I. INTRODUCTION Terahertz photoconductive antennas are among the most promising devices that are used to harness the unique properties of terahertz waves for variety of applications, such as security,

Daryoosh Saeedkia

2011-01-01

225

Effect of preformed plasma on terahertz-wave emission from the plasma generated by two-color laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We introduced a weak prepulse 0-2 ns before the main pulse in the formation of a terahertz (THz) wave in air plasma by laser pulses composed of fundamental and second-harmonic waves. The prepulse suppressed the THz wave generated by the main pulse. We analyzed the suppression factor as a function of the time interval between the prepulse and the main pulse and found that the THz wave from the main pulse decreases immediately after the prepulse, recovers partially within several hundred picoseconds, and then recovers slowly. This suppression is attributed to the dense plasma, which absorbs and screens the generated THz wave, since the relaxation time is close to the lifetime of the fluorescence from the plasma. The results support the idea that the major mechanism of THz wave generation is explained by the plasma current model.

Minami, Yasuo; Nakajima, Makoto; Suemoto, Tohru [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba, 277-8581 (Japan)

2011-02-15

226

Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a scheme to generate single-cycle powerful terahertz (THz) pulses by ultrashort intense laser pulses obliquely incident on an underdense plasma slab of a few THz wavelengths in thickness. THz waves are radiated from a transient net current driven by the laser ponderomotive force in the plasma slab. Analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show that such a THz source is capable of providing power of megawatts to gigawatts, field strength of MV/cm-GV/cm, and broad tunability range, which is potentially useful for nonlinear and high-field THz science and applications.

Wu, Hui-Chun; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

2008-04-01

227

High-energy terahertz pulses from organic crystals: DAST and DSTMS pumped at Ti:sapphire wavelength.  

PubMed

High-energy terahertz pulses are produced by optical rectification (OR) in organic crystals 4-dimethylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST) and 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4'-N'-methyl-stilbazolium 2,4,6-trimethylbenzenesulfonate (DSTMS) by a Ti:sapphire amplifier system with 0.8 ?m central wavelength. The simple scheme provides broadband spectra between 1 and 5 THz, when pumped by a collimated 60 fs near-IR pump pulse, and it is scalable in energy. Fluence-dependent conversion efficiency and damage threshold are reported, as well as optimized OR at visible wavelengths. PMID:24281521

Monoszlai, B; Vicario, C; Jazbinsek, M; Hauri, C P

2013-12-01

228

Numerical and experimental studies of mechanisms underlying the effect of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation on nerve cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the mechanisms underlying the effect of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation on the growth of neurites of sensory ganglia using a comparative analysis of measured reflection spectra of ganglion neurites (in the frequency range 0.1 – 2.0 THz) and spectra obtained by numerical simulation with CST Microwave Studio. The observed changes are shown to be mainly due to pulse energy absorption in the ganglion neurites. Of particular interest are the observed single resonance frequencies related to resonance size effects, which can be used to irradiate ganglia in order to activate their growth.

Duka, M. V.; Dvoretskaya, L. N.; Babelkin, N. S.; Khodzitskii, M. K.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Smolyanskaya, O. A.

2014-08-01

229

Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas at Submillimeter Wavelengths for Terahertz Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most optical systems require antennas with directive patterns. This means that the physical area of the antenna will be large in terms of the wavelength. When non-cooled systems are used, the losses of microstrip or coplanar waveguide lines impede the use of standard patch or slot antennas for a large number of elements in a phased array format. Traditionally, this problem has been solved by using silicon lenses. However, if an array of such highly directive antennas is to be used for imaging applications, the fabrication of many closely spaced lenses becomes a problem. Moreover, planar antennas are usually fed by microstrip or coplanar waveguides while the mixer or the detector elements (usually Schottky diodes) are coupled in a waveguide environment. The coupling between the antenna and the detector/ mixer can be a fabrication challenge in an imaging array at submillimeter wavelengths. Antennas excited by a waveguide (TE10) mode makes use of dielectric superlayers to increase the directivity. These antennas create a kind of Fabry- Perot cavity between the ground plane and the first layer of dielectric. In reality, the antenna operates as a leaky wave mode where a leaky wave pole propagates along the cavity while it radiates. Thanks to this pole, the directivity of a small antenna is considerably enhanced. The antenna consists of a waveguide feed, which can be coupled to a mixer or detector such as a Schottky diode via a standard probe design. The waveguide is loaded with a double-slot iris to perform an impedance match and to suppress undesired modes that can propagate on the cavity. On top of the slot there is an air cavity and on top, a small portion of a hemispherical lens. The fractional bandwidth of such antennas is around 10 percent, which is good enough for heterodyne imaging applications.The new geometry makes use of a silicon lens instead of dielectric quarter wavelength substrates. This design presents several advantages when used in the submillimeter-wave and terahertz bands: a) Antenna fabrication compatible with lithographic techniques. b) Much simpler fabrication of the lens. c) A simple quarter-wavelength matching layer of the lens will be more efficient if a smaller portion of the lens is used. d) The directivity is given by the lens diameter instead of the leaky pole (the bandwidth will not depend anymore on the directivity but just on the initial cavity). The feed is a standard waveguide, which is compatible with proven Schottky diode mixer/detector technologies. The development of such technology will benefit applications where submillimeter- wave heterodyne array designs are required. The main fields are national security, planetary exploration, and biomedicine. For national security, wideband submillimeter radars could be an effective tool for the standoff detection of hidden weapons or bombs concealed by clothing or packaging. In the field of planetary exploration, wideband submillimeter radars can be used as a spectrometer to detect trace concentrations of chemicals in atmospheres that are too cold to rely on thermal imaging techniques. In biomedicine, an imaging heterodyne system could be helpful in detecting skin diseases.

Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Gill, John J.; Skalare, Anders; Lee, Choonsup; Llombart, Nuria; Siegel, Peter H.

2011-01-01

230

Chemical recognition in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present an overview of chemical recognition with ultrashort THz pulses. We describe the experimental technique and demonstrate how signals for chemical recognition of substances in sealed containers can be obtained, based on the broadband absorption spectra of the substances. We then discuss chemical recognition in combination with THz imaging and show that certain groups of biological substances may give rise to characteristic recognition signals. Finally, we explore the power of numerical prediction of absorption spectra of molecular crystals and illuminate some of the challenges facing state-of-the-art computational chemistry software.

Fischer, B.; Hoffmann, M.; Helm, H.; Modjesch, G.; Jepsen, P. Uhd

2005-07-01

231

"Shim pulses" for NMR spectroscopy and imaging.  

PubMed

A way to use adiabatic radiofrequency pulses and modulated magnetic-field gradient pulses, together constituting a "shim pulse," for NMR spectroscopy and imaging is demonstrated. These pulses capitalize on phase shifts derived from probe gradient coils to compensate for nonlinear intrinsic main magnetic field homogeneity for spectroscopy, as well as for deviations from linear gradients for imaging. This approach opens up the possibility of exploiting cheaper, less-than-perfect magnets and gradient coils for NMR applications. PMID:15591105

Topgaard, Daniel; Martin, Rachel W; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Meriles, Carlos A; Pines, Alexander

2004-12-21

232

Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster

Hua Zhong; Albert Redo-Sanchez; X.-C. Zhang

2006-01-01

233

Uncooled bolometer-type Terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time Terahertz (THz) imaging technologies which make use of uncooled bolometer-type infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed. A description of how THz focal plane array and THz imagers have been developed on the basis of infrared technologies, especially the improvement in both THz sensitivity of bolometer-type FPA and THz transmittance of materials for

Naoki Oda

2010-01-01

234

Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air  

SciTech Connect

We experimentally investigated the dynamic behavior of remote terahertz (THz) generation from two-color femtosecond laser-induced filamentation in air. A record-high THz pulse energy of 570 nJ at frequency below 5.5 THz was measured by optimizing the pump parameters at a controllable remote distance of 16 m, while super-broadband THz (<300 THz) pulse energy was up to 2.8 {mu}J. A further energy-scaling possibility was proposed. By analyzing simultaneously the fluorescence from both neutral N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}{sup +} in the filament, we found that the enhancement of THz radiation was due principally to guiding of the weak second-harmonic pulse inside the filament of the first strong fundamental pulse.

Wang, T.-J.; Daigle, J.-F.; Yuan, S.; Chin, S. L. [Centre d'Optique, Photonique et Laser (COPL) and Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Theberge, F.; Chateauneuf, M.; Dubois, J.; Roy, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada-Valcartier, 2459 Pie-XI Boulevard North, Quebec, Quebec G3J 1X5 (Canada); Zeng, H. [State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2011-05-15

235

Research on pulse wave acoustical holographic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the resolution of acoustical holographic imaging, a new method, i.e. pulse wave holographic imaging has been discussed in the article. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the pulse wave holographic imaging has a better resolution than the continuous wave one. In addition, picking up the phase information of reconstructed waves and using deconvolution technology in

Jianzheng Cheng; Dejun Zhang

2010-01-01

236

Strong sub-terahertz surface waves generated on a metal wire by high-intensity laser pulses  

PubMed Central

Terahertz pulses trapped as surface waves on a wire waveguide can be flexibly transmitted and focused to sub-wavelength dimensions by using, for example, a tapered tip. This is particularly useful for applications that require high-field pulses. However, the generation of strong terahertz surface waves on a wire waveguide remains a challenge. Here, ultrafast field propagation along a metal wire driven by a femtosecond laser pulse with an intensity of 1018?W/cm2 is characterized by femtosecond electron deflectometry. From experimental and numerical results, we conclude that the field propagating at the speed of light is a half-cycle transverse-magnetic surface wave excited on the wire and a considerable portion of the kinetic energy of laser-produced fast electrons can be transferred to the sub-surface wave. The peak electric field strength of the surface wave and the pulse duration are estimated to be 200?MV/m and 7?ps, respectively. PMID:25652694

Tokita, Shigeki; Sakabe, Shuji; Nagashima, Takeshi; Hashida, Masaki; Inoue, Shunsuke

2015-01-01

237

Metamaterial fibres for subdiffraction imaging and focusing at terahertz frequencies over optically long distances.  

PubMed

Using conventional materials, the resolution of focusing and imaging devices is limited by diffraction to about half the wavelength of light, as high spatial frequencies do not propagate in isotropic materials. Wire array metamaterials, because of their extreme anisotropy, can beat this limit; however, focusing with these has only been demonstrated up to microwave frequencies and using propagation over a few wavelengths only. Here we show that the principle can be scaled to frequencies orders of magnitudes higher and to considerably longer propagation lengths. We demonstrate imaging through straight and tapered wire arrays operating in the terahertz spectrum, with unprecedented propagation of near field information over hundreds of wavelengths and focusing down to 1/28 of the wavelength with a net increase in power density. Applications could include in vivo terahertz-endoscopes with resolution compatible with imaging individual cells. PMID:24162458

Tuniz, Alessandro; Kaltenecker, Korbinian J; Fischer, Bernd M; Walther, Markus; Fleming, Simon C; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T

2013-01-01

238

An ultrafast terahertz scanning tunnelling microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrafast studies of excitations on the nanometre scale are essential for guiding applications in nanotechnology. Efforts to integrate femtosecond lasers with scanning tunnelling microscopes (STMs) have yielded a number of ultrafast STM techniques, but the basic ability to directly modulate the STM junction bias while maintaining nanometre spatial resolution has been limited to ~10 ps (refs 7,8) and has required specialized probe or sample structures. Here, without any modification to the STM design, we modulate the STM junction bias by coupling terahertz pulses to the scanning probe tip of an STM and demonstrate terahertz-pulse-induced tunnelling in an STM. The terahertz STM (THz-STM) provides simultaneous subpicosecond (<500 fs) time resolution and nanometre (2 nm) imaging resolution under ambient laboratory conditions, and can directly image ultrafast carrier capture into a single InAs nanodot. The THz-STM accesses an ultrafast tunnelling regime that opens the door to subpicosecond scanning probe microscopy of materials with atomic resolution.

Cocker, Tyler L.; Jelic, Vedran; Gupta, Manisha; Molesky, Sean J.; Burgess, Jacob A. J.; Reyes, Glenda De Los; Titova, Lyubov V.; Tsui, Ying Y.; Freeman, Mark R.; Hegmann, Frank A.

2013-08-01

239

Imaging molecular adsorption and desorption dynamics on graphene using terahertz emission spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being an atomically thin material, graphene is known to be extremely susceptible to its environment, including defects and phonons in the substrate on which it is placed as well as gas molecules that surround it. Thus, any device design using graphene has to take into consideration all surrounding components, and device performance needs to be evaluated in terms of environmental influence. However, no methods have been established to date to readily measure the density and distribution of external perturbations in a quantitative and non-destructive manner. Here, we present a rapid and non-contact method for visualizing the distribution of molecular adsorbates on graphene semi-quantitatively using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the waveform of terahertz bursts emitted from graphene-coated InP sensitively changes with the type of atmospheric gas, laser irradiation time, and ultraviolet light illumination. The terahertz waveform change is explained through band structure modifications in the InP surface depletion layer due to the presence of localized electric dipoles induced by adsorbed oxygen. These results demonstrate that terahertz emission serves as a local probe for monitoring adsorption and desorption processes on graphene films and devices, suggesting a novel two-dimensional sensor for detecting local chemical reactions.

Sano, Y.; Kawayama, I.; Tabata, M.; Salek, K. A.; Murakami, H.; Wang, M.; Vajtai, R.; Ajayan, P. M.; Kono, J.; Tonouchi, M.

2014-08-01

240

Imaging molecular adsorption and desorption dynamics on graphene using terahertz emission spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Being an atomically thin material, graphene is known to be extremely susceptible to its environment, including defects and phonons in the substrate on which it is placed as well as gas molecules that surround it. Thus, any device design using graphene has to take into consideration all surrounding components, and device performance needs to be evaluated in terms of environmental influence. However, no methods have been established to date to readily measure the density and distribution of external perturbations in a quantitative and non-destructive manner. Here, we present a rapid and non-contact method for visualizing the distribution of molecular adsorbates on graphene semi-quantitatively using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging. We found that the waveform of terahertz bursts emitted from graphene-coated InP sensitively changes with the type of atmospheric gas, laser irradiation time, and ultraviolet light illumination. The terahertz waveform change is explained through band structure modifications in the InP surface depletion layer due to the presence of localized electric dipoles induced by adsorbed oxygen. These results demonstrate that terahertz emission serves as a local probe for monitoring adsorption and desorption processes on graphene films and devices, suggesting a novel two-dimensional sensor for detecting local chemical reactions. PMID:25116593

Sano, Y; Kawayama, I; Tabata, M; Salek, K A; Murakami, H; Wang, M; Vajtai, R; Ajayan, P M; Kono, J; Tonouchi, M

2014-01-01

241

Character research on 2.52 terahertz coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of terahertz (THz) is a major research area in the 21st century. THz imaging is an important research direction. The single-frequency continuous-wave THz technology is combined with coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging in this article. Under the given system parameters, the transverse response character of 2.52THz (118.83?m) coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging is emulated and analyzed. The results of emulation show that coaxial reflection-mode confocal scanning microscopic imaging is feasible in THz region.

Yang, Yong-fa; Li, Qi; Hu, Jia-qi

2014-12-01

242

Effect of extreme pump pulse reshaping on intense terahertz emission in lithium niobate at multimilliJoule pump energies.  

PubMed

We report on terahertz (THz) generation via optical rectification in a room-temperature lithium niobate crystal under variable pump pulse durations, ranging from 100 to 300 fs, at 800 nm center wavelength. The efficiency for the process is predicted to have an order of magnitude increase when longer duration Fourier-limited pump pulses are used. Our results confirm this increase in efficiency, and we report a record 800 nm pump energy conversion efficiency of 0.35% with a saturation at >240??fs pulse duration. While promising, our findings show a series of key problems that must be overcome before the theoretical limit can be achieved, including the influence of the pump bandwidth broadening due to the cascaded nonlinearity taking place within the crystal. PMID:25078170

Blanchard, F; Ropagnol, X; Hafez, H; Razavipour, H; Bolduc, M; Morandotti, R; Ozaki, T; Cooke, D G

2014-08-01

243

Imaging of local temperature distributions in mesas of high-Tc superconducting terahertz sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors are a promising source of intense, continuous, and monochromatic terahertz waves. In this paer, we establish a fluorescence-based temperature imaging system to directly image the surface temperature on a Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? mesa sample. Intense terahertz emissions are observed in both high- and low-bias regimes, where the mesa voltage satisfies the cavity resonance condition. In the high- bias regime, the temperature distributions are shown to be inhomogeneous with a considerable temperature rise. In contrast, in the low-bias regime, the distributions are rather uniform and the local temperature is close to the bath temperature over the entire sample.

Tsujimoto, M.; Kambara, H.; Maeda, Y.; Yoshioka, Y.; Nakagawa, Y.; Kakeya, I.

2014-12-01

244

Terahertz Imaging and Backscatter Radiography Probability of Detection Study for Space Shuttle Foam Inspections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of terahertz imaging and Backscatter Radiography in a probability of detection study of the foam on the external tank (ET) shedding and damaging the shuttle orbiter. Non-destructive Examination (NDE) is performed as one method of preventing critical foam debris during the launch. Conventional NDE methods for inspection of the foam are assessed and the deficiencies are reviewed. Two methods for NDE inspection are reviewed: Backscatter Radiography (BSX) and Terahertz (THZ) Imaging. The purpose of the Probability of Detection (POD) study was to assess performance and reliability of the use of BSX and or THZ as an appropriate NDE method. The study used a test article with inserted defects, and a sample of blanks included to test for false positives. The results of the POD study are reported.

Ussery, Warren; Johnson, Kenneth; Walker, James; Rummel, Ward

2008-01-01

245

High Frequency Methods for Simulation of High Resolution Imaging in Terahertz Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

High resolution imaging in the terahertz (THz) frequency range is investigated theoretically in this paper through the use\\u000a of the high frequency methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM). Physical optics (PO), shooting and bouncing ray (SBR)\\u000a and truncated-wedge incremental length diffraction coefficients (TW-ILDCs) methods are combined together to compute the scattered\\u000a fields, which are then used to construct the inverse synthetic

Zhuo Li; Tie Jun Cui

2010-01-01

246

Terahertz imaging system based on bessel beams via 3D printed axicons at 100GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) imaging technology shows great advantage in nondestructive detection (NDT), since many optical opaque materials are transparent to THz waves. In this paper, we design and fabricate dielectric axicons to generate zeroth order-Bessel beams by 3D printing technology. We further present an all-electric THz imaging system using the generated Bessel beams in 100GHz. Resolution targets made of printed circuit board are imaged, and the results clearly show the extended depth of focus of Bessel beam, indicating the promise of Bessel beam for the THz NDT.

Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Zhang, Zhongqi; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhenggang; Liu, Jinsong

2014-11-01

247

High Frequency Methods for Simulation of High Resolution Imaging in Terahertz Regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution imaging in the terahertz (THz) frequency range is investigated theoretically in this paper through the use of the high frequency methods in computational electromagnetics (CEM). Physical optics (PO), shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) and truncated-wedge incremental length diffraction coefficients (TW-ILDCs) methods are combined together to compute the scattered fields, which are then used to construct the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images through two dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT). The corresponding ISAR images clearly show that high range and bearing resolution can be easily realized for THz carrier waves with broad bandwidth.

Li, Zhuo; Cui, Tie Jun

2010-03-01

248

Processing sequence for non-destructive inspection based on 3D terahertz images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present an innovative data and image processing sequence to perform non-destructive inspection from 3D terahertz (THz) images. We develop all the steps starting from a 3D tomographic reconstruction of a sample from its radiographs acquired with a monochromatic millimetre wave imaging system. Thus an automated segmentation provides the different volumes of interest (VOI) composing the sample. Then a 3D visualization and dimensional measurements are performed on these VOI, separately, in order to provide an accurate nondestructive testing (NDT) of the studied sample. This sequence is implemented onto an unique software and validated through the analysis of different objects

Balacey, H.; Perraud, Jean-Baptiste; Bou Sleiman, J.; Guillet, Jean-Paul; Recur, B.; Mounaix, P.

2014-11-01

249

Enhanced terahertz imaging system performance analysis and design tool for concealed weapon identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and the U.S. Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) have developed a terahertz-band imaging system performance model/tool for detection and identification of concealed weaponry. The details of the MATLAB-based model which accounts for the effects of all critical sensor and display components, and for the effects of atmospheric attenuation, concealment material attenuation, and active illumination, were reported on at the 2005 SPIE Europe Security & Defence Symposium (Brugge). An advanced version of the base model that accounts for both the dramatic impact that target and background orientation can have on target observability as related to specular and Lambertian reflections captured by an active-illumination-based imaging system, and for the impact of target and background thermal emission, was reported on at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium (Orlando). This paper will provide a comprehensive review of an enhanced, user-friendly, Windows-executable, terahertz-band imaging system performance analysis and design tool that now includes additional features such as a MODTRAN-based atmospheric attenuation calculator and advanced system architecture configuration inputs that allow for straightforward performance analysis of active or passive systems based on scanning (single- or line-array detector element(s)) or staring (focal-plane-array detector elements) imaging architectures. This newly enhanced THz imaging system design tool is an extension of the advanced THz imaging system performance model that was developed under the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency's (DARPA) Terahertz Imaging Focal-Plane Technology (TIFT) program. This paper will also provide example system component (active-illumination source and detector) trade-study analyses using the new features of this user-friendly THz imaging system performance analysis and design tool.

Murrill, Steven R.; Franck, Charmaine C.; Espinola, Richard L.; Petkie, Douglas T.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Jacobs, Eddie L.

2011-11-01

250

Using terahertz pulse spectroscopy to study the crystalline structure of a drug: A case study of the polymorphs of ranitidine hydrochloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the application of Terahertz pulse spectroscopy to polymorph identification. The particular compounds investigated were the different crystalline Forms 1 and 2 of ranitidine hydrochloride, both in the pure form and also obtained as a marketed pharmaceutical product. Identification was clear. The technique has advant- ages that excitation is not via a powerful laser source, as used in Raman

P. F. Taday; I. V. Bradley; D. D. Arnone; M. Pepper

2003-01-01

251

Pulsed Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy of Liquid CHCl3, CCl4, and their Mixtures B. N. Flanders, R. A. Cheville, D. Grischkowsky, and N. F. Scherer*,  

E-print Network

Pulsed Terahertz Transmission Spectroscopy of Liquid CHCl3, CCl4, and their Mixtures B. N. Flanders 29, 1996X The frequency-dependent absorption coefficient of CHCl3, CCl4, and their mixtures, based on mole fraction weighted sums of the absorption coefficients of pure CHCl3 and CCl4, indicate

Scherer, Norbert F.

252

Terahertz near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures and a quantum cascade laser source.  

PubMed

The first demonstration, to our knowledge, of near-field imaging using subwavelength plasmonic apertures with a terahertz quantum cascade laser source is presented. "Bull's-eye" apertures, featuring subwavelength circular apertures flanked by periodic annular corrugations were created using a novel fabrication method. A fivefold increase in intensity was observed for plasmonic apertures over plain apertures of the same diameter. Detailed studies of the transmitted beam profiles were undertaken for apertures with both planarized and corrugated exit facets, with the former producing spatially uniform intensity profiles and subwavelength spatial resolution. Finally, a proof-of-concept imaging experiment is presented, where an inhomogeneous pharmaceutical drug coating is investigated. PMID:21725422

Baragwanath, Adam J; Freeman, Joshua R; Gallant, Andrew J; Zeitler, J Axel; Beere, Harvey E; Ritchie, David A; Chamberlain, J Martyn

2011-07-01

253

Focusing and imaging of a virtual all-optical tunable terahertz Fresnel zone plate.  

PubMed

A virtual all-optical tunable terahertz Fresnel zone plate is achieved utilizing the localized distribution of the transient electron plasma on a silicon wafer. Its focusing and imaging performance are experimentally demonstrated. Experimental results show that the effect of the virtual zone plate is the same as an actual one. Adjusting the spatial pattern of the electron plasma, the central wavelength and the focal length of the virtual zone plate can be all-optically dynamically steered. The research is a significant step to the development of tunable optical imaging elements. PMID:24322118

Wang, Xinke; Xie, Zhenwei; Sun, Wenfeng; Feng, Shengfei; Cui, Ye; Ye, Jiasheng; Zhang, Yan

2013-11-15

254

Scannerless imaging pulsed-laser range finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Range-imaging devices are useful in various applications, both on the ground and in space. In this paper a prototype imaging pulsed time-of-flight laser range finder is presented. The range finder produces an image with 36 pixels, each containing distance and reflectivity information. The scannerless structure is robust and provides instantaneous snapshot-type imaging. An integrated video camera provides high-resolution grey-level images.

Heikki Ailisto; Veli Heikkinen; Risto Mitikka; Risto Myllylä; Juha Kostamovaara; Antti Mäntyniemi; Markku Koskinen

2002-01-01

255

Transmission properties of terahertz pulses through semiconductor split-ring resonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, two novel planar terahertz semiconductor split-ring resonators are successfully constructed and measured using the commercial software CST Microwave Studio. They exhibit a duel-band and a triple-band transmission property within the frequencies ranging from 0.1THz to 3THz. We have simulated the dual-band planar metamaterial with two distinct electric resonances at 0.81THz and 1.818THz, and triple-band planar metamaterial with three distinct electric resonances at 0.543THz, 1.044THz, and 1.506THz. These developments are further steps towards the development of broadband terahertz devices.

yun-hong, He; Jiu-sheng, Li

2011-02-01

256

Utilization of chirped laser pulses to measure stimulated Raman scattering of organic liquids in the terahertz regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the present paper, we demonstrate an experimental setup connecting two highly innovative fields of research: stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopy and terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of liquids. For this purpose, we use the spectral focusing method allowing us to excite and measure molecular vibrations by chirped laser pulses. With our experimental setup, we apply this method to the THz regime in order to detect the frequency dependence of SRS processes in organic liquids. More specifically, we focus two chirped laser pulses onto the sample to drive molecular vibrations at THz frequencies. Thereby, the time delay between the laser pulses is directly related to the driving frequency. Due to SRS process, an energy transfer between the two laser pulses is established. By detecting the corresponding energy change of only one of the two laser pulses, we are able to observe inverse Raman scattering and stimulated Raman gain scattering as well as the transition between both processes at zero delay time. The peak positions and the line shapes of the measured spectra agree well with literature data obtained by spontaneous Raman scattering spectroscopy and optical heterodyne detection optical Kerr effect spectroscopy. With the present setup, we are able to excite and detect molecular vibrations ranging over two orders of magnitude from 10 THz to ultra-low frequencies at 100 GHz.

Funkner, Stefan; Saito, Katsuya; Niehues, Gudrun; Yazawa, Yoshiki; Furuya, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kohji; Tani, Masahiko

2014-07-01

257

An ultrafast carbon nanotube terahertz polarisation modulator  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate ultrafast modulation of terahertz radiation by unaligned optically pumped single-walled carbon nanotubes. Photoexcitation by an ultrafast optical pump pulse induces transient terahertz absorption in nanowires aligned parallel to the optical pump. By controlling the polarisation of the optical pump, we show that terahertz polarisation and modulation can be tuned, allowing sub-picosecond modulation of terahertz radiation. Such speeds suggest potential for semiconductor nanowire devices in terahertz communication technologies.

Docherty, Callum J.; Stranks, Samuel D.; Habisreutinger, Severin N.; Joyce, Hannah J.; Herz, Laura M.; Nicholas, Robin J.; Johnston, Michael B., E-mail: m.johnston@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)

2014-05-28

258

[Application of terahertz technology in medical testing and diagnosis].  

PubMed

Terahertz science and technology is increasingly emphasized in science and industry, and has progressed significantly in recent years. There is an important aspect of attention in the application of terahertz technology to medicine. The overview of the terahertz characters, terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging technology is introduced. This paper focuses on reviewing the use of and research progress in terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging technology in medical testing and diagnosis. Furthermore, the problems to be solved and development directions of terahertz spectroscopy and terahertz imaging technology are discussed. PMID:24159847

Qi, Na; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong; Xiang, Yu-Hong

2013-08-01

259

Characterization of Terahertz Single-Photon-Sensitive Bolometric Detectors Using a Pulsed Microwave Technique  

E-print Network

bolometric detectors consisting of a superconducting titanium nanobridge with niobium contacts. Present of the titanium nanobridge. Such a detector has important applications in future space-based terahertz astronomy,2]. Moderate resolution THz spectroscopy (/ ~ 1000) using an external frequency-selective element (e

260

Restoration of terahertz continuous wave image obtained by continuous scan mode with large time constant.  

PubMed

Abstract-continuous scan mode offers a relatively higher data achievement rate than the step scan mode, so it is often used in continuous-wave terahertz imaging to improve the imaging efficiency. The large time constant of lock-in amplifiers also provides good noise attenuation; however, it might bring motion blur to some extent in continuous scan mode. To cope with the problem, an imaging restoration method, which identifies the motion-point spread function of the motion blur, was proposed. A modified spatial filter was used to restore the blurred image. The image quality is better than that obtained by a conventional Wiener filter evaluated by a modified no-reference motion blur metric. PMID:25402998

Lou, Xiao; Hou, Lei; Guo, Gaoyuan; Shi, Wei

2014-11-10

261

Enhanced Continuous-Wave Terahertz Imaging with a Horn Antenna for Food Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuous-wave (CW) terahertz (THz) imaging with a horn antenna is proposed to enhance the spatial resolution of a THz imaging system. The attached waveguide that is smaller than the wavelength can easily increase the spatial resolution, and the optimized horn flare can significantly increase the transmission power. Consequentially, transmission THz images of a phantom obtained by the amplitude signal using a 0.2 THz wave reveal that the spatial resolution is achieved up to 500 ?m. Also, the transmitted power is increased up to 6 times higher compared to the pinhole aperture. The feasibility of CW THz imaging with a horn antenna is demonstrated by the inspection of the organic samples inside food resulting in a relatively high sensitivity for soft organic samples compared with the sensitivity of X-ray imaging to this kind of samples.

Kim, Geun-Ju; Kim, Jung-Il; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jaehong; Park, Kyung-Kook; Oh, Chang-Hyun

2012-06-01

262

Terahertz imaging with sub-wavelength resolution by femtosecond laser filament in air.  

PubMed

Terahertz (THz) imaging provides cutting edge technique in biology, medical sciences and non-destructive evaluation. However, due to the long wavelength of the THz wave, the obtained resolution of THz imaging is normally a few hundred microns and is much lower than that of the traditional optical imaging. We introduce a sub-wavelength resolution THz imaging technique which uses the THz radiation generated by a femtosecond laser filament in air as the probe. This method is based on the fact that the femtosecond laser filament forms a waveguide for the THz wave in air. The diameter of the THz beam, which propagates inside the filament, varies from 20??m to 50??m, which is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the THz wave. Using this highly spatially confined THz beam as the probe, THz imaging with resolution as high as 20??m (~?/38 at 0.4?THz) can be realized. PMID:24457525

Zhao, Jiayu; Chu, Wei; Guo, Lanjun; Wang, Zhi; Yang, Jing; Liu, Weiwei; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2014-01-01

263

Terahertz imaging with sub-wavelength resolution by femtosecond laser filament in air  

PubMed Central

Terahertz (THz) imaging provides cutting edge technique in biology, medical sciences and non-destructive evaluation. However, due to the long wavelength of the THz wave, the obtained resolution of THz imaging is normally a few hundred microns and is much lower than that of the traditional optical imaging. We introduce a sub-wavelength resolution THz imaging technique which uses the THz radiation generated by a femtosecond laser filament in air as the probe. This method is based on the fact that the femtosecond laser filament forms a waveguide for the THz wave in air. The diameter of the THz beam, which propagates inside the filament, varies from 20??m to 50??m, which is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the THz wave. Using this highly spatially confined THz beam as the probe, THz imaging with resolution as high as 20??m (~?/38 at 0.4?THz) can be realized. PMID:24457525

Zhao, Jiayu; Chu, Wei; Guo, Lanjun; Wang, Zhi; Yang, Jing; Liu, Weiwei; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

2014-01-01

264

Personnel screening with terahertz opto-mechanical scanning imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We presented a passive THz opto-mechnical scanning imaging method using a single detector and a trihedral scanning mirror. The system improved the imaging speed through employing two flapping mirrors. Also the trihedral scanning mirror and an ellipsoidal mirror were adopted. The parameters were set as follows: the best imaging distance was 2.2m with the image range of 1.6m (W) ×1.6m (H), the imaging time was 2s, and the resolution was 3cm. We imaged human body with different objects concealed under their clothes, such as buckle, ceramic chip, etc.

Guo, Lan-tao; Liu, Xin; Deng, Chao; Zhao, Yuan-meng; Zhang, Cun-lin

2014-11-01

265

Terahertz imaging of sub-wavelength particles with Zenneck surface waves  

SciTech Connect

Impact of sub-wavelength-size dielectric particles on Zenneck surface waves on planar metallic antennas is investigated at terahertz (THz) frequencies with THz near-field probe microscopy. Perturbations of the surface waves show the particle presence, despite its sub-wavelength size. The experimental configuration, which utilizes excitation of surface waves at metallic edges, is suitable for THz imaging of dielectric sub-wavelength size objects. As a proof of concept, the effects of a small strontium titanate rectangular particle and a titanium dioxide sphere on the surface field of a bow-tie antenna are experimentally detected and verified using full-wave simulations.

Navarro-Cía, M., E-mail: m.navarro@imperial.ac.uk [Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BT (United Kingdom); Centre for Plasmonics and Metamaterials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Centre for Terahertz Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Natrella, M.; Graham, C.; Renaud, C. C.; Seeds, A. J.; Mitrofanov, O., E-mail: o.mitrofanov@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Dominec, F.; Kužel, P., E-mail: kuzelp@fzu.cz [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Delagnes, J. C.; Mounaix, P., E-mail: p.mounaix@loma.u-bordeaux1.fr [LOMA, Bordeaux 1 University, CNRS UMR 4798, 351 cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France)

2013-11-25

266

Simultaneous Noncontact Precision Imaging of Microstructural and Thickness Variation in Dielectric Materials Using Terahertz Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article describes a noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement and imaging method that simultaneously characterizes microstructural (egs. spatially-lateral density) and thickness variation in dielectric (insulating) materials. The method was demonstrated for two materials-Space Shuttle External Tank sprayed-on foam insulation and a silicon nitride ceramic. It is believed that this method can be used as an inspection method for current and future NASA thermal protection system and other dielectric material inspection applications, where microstructural and thickness variation require precision mapping. Scale-up to more complex shapes such as cylindrical structures and structures with beveled regions would appear to be feasible.

Roth, Don J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

2008-01-01

267

Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers  

SciTech Connect

To monitor the density of photo-generated charge carriers on a semiconductor surface, we demonstrate a detectorless imaging system based on the analysis of the optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. Photo-excited free electron carriers are created in high resistivity n-type silicon wafers via low power (?40 mW/cm{sup 2}) continuous wave pump laser in the near infrared spectral range. A spatial light modulator allows to directly reconfigure and control the photo-patterned intensity and the associated free-carrier density distribution. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

Mezzapesa, F. P., E-mail: francesco.mezzapesa@uniba.it; Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi e Politecnico di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR-IFN UOS Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Columbo, L. L. [Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Università degli Studi e Politecnico di Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); CNR-IFN UOS Bari, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università dell'Insubria, via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Vitiello, M. S. [NEST, CNR - Istituto Nanoscienze and Scuola Normale Superiore, piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

2014-01-27

268

Swept-frequency feedback interferometry using terahertz frequency QCLs: a method for imaging and materials analysis.  

PubMed

The terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a compact source of high-power radiation with a narrow intrinsic linewidth. As such, THz QCLs are extremely promising sources for applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, heterodyne detection, and coherent imaging. We exploit the remarkable phase-stability of THz QCLs to create a coherent swept-frequency delayed self-homodyning method for both imaging and materials analysis, using laser feedback interferometry. Using our scheme we obtain amplitude-like and phase-like images with minimal signal processing. We determine the physical relationship between the operating parameters of the laser under feedback and the complex refractive index of the target and demonstrate that this coherent detection method enables extraction of complex refractive indices with high accuracy. This establishes an ultimately compact and easy-to-implement THz imaging and materials analysis system, in which the local oscillator, mixer, and detector are all combined into a single laser. PMID:24104111

Raki?, Aleksandar D; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Lim, Yah Leng; Dean, Paul; Indjin, Dragan; Ikoni?, Zoran; Harrison, Paul; Valavanis, Alexander; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Wilson, Stephen J; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles

2013-09-23

269

Foveation from Pulse Images Jason M. Kinser  

E-print Network

Foveation from Pulse Images Jason M. Kinser The Institute for Biosciences, Bionformatics do not stare at scenes. They foveate. Their eyes dart about the scene at locations of interest during natural segments of an image that can easily be used for the generation of foveation point selection. 1

Kinser, Jason M.

270

Materials for terahertz science and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Terahertz spectroscopy systems use far-infrared radiation to extract molecular spectral information in an otherwise inaccessible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Materials research is an essential component of modern terahertz systems: novel, higher-power terahertz sources rely heavily on new materials such as quantum cascade structures. At the same time, terahertz spectroscopy and imaging provide a powerful tool for the characterization of

Bradley Ferguson; Xi-Cheng Zhang

2002-01-01

271

Screening mail for powders using terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2001 Anthrax letter attacks in the USA, there has been a continuing interest in techniques that can detect or identify so-called 'white powder' concealed in envelopes. Electromagnetic waves (wavelengths 100-500 ?m) in the terahertz frequency range penetrate paper and have short enough wavelengths to provide good resolution images; some materials also have spectroscopic signatures in the terahertz region. We report on an experimental study into the use of terahertz imaging and spectroscopy for mail screening. Spectroscopic signatures of target powders were measured and, using a specially designed test rig, a number of imaging methods based on reflection, transmission and scattering were investigated. It was found that, contrary to some previous reports, bacterial spores do not appear to have any strong spectroscopic signatures which would enable them to be identified. Imaging techniques based on reflection imaging and scattering are ineffective in this application, due to the similarities in optical properties between powders of interest and paper. However, transmission imaging using time-of-flight of terahertz pulses was found to be a very simple and sensitive method of detecting small quantities (25 mg) of powder, even in quite thick envelopes. An initial feasibility study indicates that this method could be used as the basis of a practical mail screening system.

Kemp, Mike

2011-11-01

272

Identification and classification of chemicals using terahertz reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present terahertz (THz) reflective spectroscopic focal-plane imaging of four explosive and bio-chemical materials (2, 4-DNT, Theophylline, RDX and Glutamic Acid) at a standoff imaging distance of 0.4 m. The 2 dimension (2-D) nature of this technique enables a fast acquisition time and is very close to a camera-like operation, compared to the most commonly used point emission-detection and raster scanning configuration. The samples are identified by their absorption peaks extracted from the negative derivative of the reflection coefficient respect to the frequency (-dr/dv) of each pixel. Classification of the samples is achieved by using minimum distance classifier and neural network methods with a rate of accuracy above 80% and a false alarm rate below 8%. This result supports the future application of THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) in standoff distance sensing, imaging, and identification.

Zhong, Hua; Redo-Sanchez, Albert; Zhang, X.-C.

2006-10-01

273

Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the direct and noninvasive imaging of functional neurons by ionic contrast terahertz near-field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative measurements of ionic concentrations in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments and opens the way to direct noninvasive imaging of neurons during electrical, toxin, or thermal stresses. Furthermore, neuronal activity results from both a precise control of transient variations in ionic conductances and a much less studied water exchange between the extracellular matrix and the intraaxonal compartment. The developed ionic contrast terahertz microscopy technique associated with a full three-dimensional simulation of the axon-aperture near-field system allows a precise measurement of the axon geometry and therefore the direct visualization of neuron swelling induced by temperature change or neurotoxin poisoning. Water influx as small as 20 fl per ?m of axonal length can be measured. This technique should then provide grounds for the development of advanced functional neuroimaging methods based on diffusion anisotropy of water molecules. PMID:16547134

Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Martin, Jean-Louis; Gallot, Guilhem

2006-01-01

274

Robust multifrequency inversion in terahertz diffraction tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-frequency terahertz imaging has received much attention in recent years due to its ability to observe unique spectral characteristics of chemicals, which can be used in numerous applications such as explosives detection. Short-pulse terahertz sources can provide broadband excitation, but current approaches for image formation based on diffraction tomography construct images independently for each frequency. This results in a lack of resolution at lower frequencies, and lower signal-to-noise reconstructions. In this paper, we explore different techniques for joint image formation using multiple frequencies for enhanced detection. Among these are techniques that use prior information on spectral characteristics of materials of interest to coherently combine information from multiple frequencies, as well as robust techniques that assume incomplete or inaccurate prior knowledge of spectral signatures. We explore the relative performance of these techniques on image reconstruction and object recognition tasks using numerical simulations.

Chen, Ke; Castañón, David A.

2011-03-01

275

Photonic time-division multiplexing (OTDM) using ultrashort picosecond pulses in a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of a terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) operating with an ordinary fiber and with a DDF and DIF (dispersion decreasing and increasing fiber) configurations, for three lengths of fiber ( ?=?/2,2? and 5?) and using soliton and quasi-soliton laser profiles for the control pulse, was studied. The numerical simulations show that the increase of the fiber length leads to the decrease of the power for the first and second demultiplexed pulses and leads to a broadening of these pulses, with the exception of the TOAD operating with the DDF fiber. For the TOAD operating with a basic telecommunication fiber one see that the increase of the power of the control power lead to a strong compression of the demultiplexed pulse. Operating the TOAD using a DDF fiber one can say that the control power necessary to demultiplex the signal pulse is always lower compared with the TOAD with the normal telecommunication fiber. This is a strong suggestion that the use of the DDF fiber will allow the use of less control power. Our simulations considering the TOAD operating with a DDF and DIF with a linear profile conclude that it is possible to operate the TOAD with lower control power using a DDF fiber setup. For this device the demultiplexed pulses will present a compression on time duration and will be insensitive to the time profile of the control pulse. We also did simulations with the TOAD operating with DDF in four different profiles: hyperbolic, exponential, linear and Gaussian. For all the profiles the increase of the length of the fiber also decreases the pump power of the three first peaks for the soliton and quasi-soliton regimes. The first critical power is always lower for the quasi-soliton regime compared to the soliton regime for all profiles under consideration and all lengths of the TOAD under consideration. It was also observed that for all the profiles and lengths of fiber one has pulse compression for the switched pulse. For the ?=2? fiber with the hyperbolic profile, both soliton and quasi-soliton profiles present the lowest critical power and the highest compression factors for all the considered profiles.

Melo, A. M.; Lima, J. L. S.; de Oliveira, R. S.; Sombra, A. S. B.

2002-05-01

276

High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging for nondestructive  

E-print Network

* dsyee@kriss.re.kr Abstract: We demonstrate high-speed terahertz (THz) reflection three- dimensional (3D, M. Jewariya, M. Nagai, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, "Real-time line projection for fast terahertz International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz) (2010). 13. B. Schulkin and D

277

Single nanowire photoconductive terahertz detectors.  

PubMed

Spectroscopy and imaging in the terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum has proven to provide important insights in fields as diverse as chemical analysis, materials characterization, security screening, and nondestructive testing. However, compact optoelectronics suited to the most powerful terahertz technique, time-domain spectroscopy, are lacking. Here, we implement single GaAs nanowires as microscopic coherent THz sensors and for the first time incorporated them into the pulsed time-domain technique. We also demonstrate the functionality of the single nanowire THz detector as a spectrometer by using it to measure the transmission spectrum of a 290 GHz low pass filter. Thus, nanowires are shown to be well suited for THz device applications and hold particular promise as near-field THz sensors. PMID:25490548

Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Fu, Lan; Gao, Qiang; Jiang, Nian; Guo, Ya-Nan; Wang, Fan; Joyce, Hannah J; Boland, Jessica L; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; Johnston, Michael B

2015-01-14

278

FDTD-based computed terahertz wave propagation in multilayer medium structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum spans the frequency range of 0.1THz~10THz, which means it sandwiches between the mid-infrared (IR) and the millimeter/ microwave. With the development and commercialization of terahertz pulsed spectroscopy (TPS) and terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) systems, terahertz technologies have been widely used in the sensing and imaging fields. It allows high quality cross-sectional images from within scattering media to be obtained nondestructively. Characterizing the interaction of terahertz radiation with multilayer medium structures is critical for the development of nondestructive testing technology. Currently, there was much experimental investigation of using TPI for the characterization of terahertz radiation in materials (e.g., pharmaceutical tablet coatings), but there were few theoretical researches on propagation of terahertz radiation in multilayer medium structures. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm is a proven method for electromagnetic scattering theory, which analyzes continuous electromagnetic problems by employing finite difference and obtains electromagnetic field value at the sampling point to approach the actual continuous solutions. In the present work, we investigated the propagation of terahertz radiation in multilayer medium structures based on FDTD method. The model of multilayer medium structures under the THz frequency plane wave incidence was established, and the reflected radiation properties were recorded and analyzed. The terahertz radiation used was broad-band in the frequency up to 2 THz. A batch of single layer coated pharmaceutical tablets, whose coating thickness in the range of 40~100?m, was computed by FDTD method. We found that the simulation results on pharmaceutical tablet coatings were in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a commercial system (TPI imaga 2000, TeraView, Cambridge, UK) , demonstrating its usefulness in simulating and analyzing terahertz responses from a multilayered sample.

Tu, Wan-li; Zhong, Shun-cong; Yao, Hai-zi; Shen, Yao-chun

2013-08-01

279

CCD-based imaging and 3D space-time mapping of terahertz fields via Kerr frequency conversion.  

PubMed

We investigate the spatially and temporally resolved four-wave mixing of terahertz (THz) fields and optical pulses in large-bandgap dielectrics, such as diamond. We show that it is possible to perform beam profiling and space-time resolved mapping of THz fields by encoding the spatial information into an optical signal, which can then be recorded by a standard CCD camera. PMID:23722782

Clerici, Matteo; Faccio, Daniele; Caspani, Lucia; Peccianti, Marco; Rubino, Eleonora; Razzari, Luca; Légaré, François; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Morandotti, Roberto

2013-06-01

280

Terahertz holography for imaging amplitude and phase objects.  

PubMed

A non-monochromatic THz Quantum Cascade Laser and an uncooled micro-bolometer array detector with VGA resolution are used in a beam-splitter free holographic set-up to measure amplitude and phase objects in transmission. Phase maps of the diffraction pattern are retrieved using the Fourier transform carrier fringe method; while a Fresnel-Kirchhoff back propagation algorithm is used to reconstruct the complex object image. A lateral resolution of 280 µm and a relative phase sensitivity of about 0.5 rad are estimated from reconstructed images of a metallic Siemens star and a polypropylene test structure, respectively. Simulations corroborate the experimental results. PMID:24977861

Hack, Erwin; Zolliker, Peter

2014-06-30

281

Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode.  

SciTech Connect

We report the demonstration of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser that operates up to 164 K in pulsed mode and 117 K in continuous-wave mode at approximately 3.0 THz. The active region was based on a resonant-phonon depopulation scheme and a metal-metal waveguide was used for modal confinement. Copper to copper thermocompression wafer bonding was used to fabricate the waveguide, which displayed improved thermal properties compared to a previous indium-gold bonding method.

Kumar, Sushil (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Williams, Benjamin S. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Hu, Qing (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA); Reno, John Louis

2005-04-01

282

Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the demonstration of a terahertz quantum-cascade laser that operates up to 164 K in pulsed mode and 117 K in continuous-wave mode at approximately 3.0 THz. The active region was based on a resonant-phonon depopulation scheme and a metal-metal waveguide was used for modal confinement. Copper to copper thermocompression wafer bonding was used to fabricate the waveguide, which

Sushil Kumar; Benjamin S. Williams; Qing Hu; John Louis Reno

2005-01-01

283

The generation of high field terahertz radiation and its application in terahertz nonlinear spectroscopy  

E-print Network

In this thesis research, I implemented a terahertz generation scheme that enables high-field near-single-cycle terahertz (THz) pulse generation via optical rectification in a LiNbO3 (LN) crystal. I also developed a method ...

Yeh, Ka-Lo

2009-01-01

284

Continuous-wave coherent imaging with terahertz quantum cascade lasers using electro-optic harmonic sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a coherent imaging system based on a terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) phase-locked to a near-infrared fs-laser comb. The phase locking enables coherent electro-optic sampling of the continuous-wave radiation emitted by the QCL through the generation of a heterodyne beat-note signal. We use this beat-note signal to demonstrate raster scan coherent imaging using a QCL emitting at 2.5 THz. At this frequency the detection noise floor of our system is of 3 pW/Hz and the long-term phase stability is <3°/h, limited by the mechanical stability of the apparatus.

Ravaro, M.; Jagtap, V.; Santarelli, G.; Sirtori, C.; Li, L. H.; Khanna, S. P.; Linfield, E. H.; Barbieri, S.

2013-03-01

285

Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal activity and water fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated the direct and noninvasive imaging of functional neurons,1 as well as auricular heart muscle electrical activity2 by Ionic Contrast Terahertz (ICT) near-field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative measurements of ionic concentrations in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments and opens the way to direct noninvasive imaging of neurons during electrical, toxin, or thermal stresses. Furthermore, neuronal activity results from both a precise control of transient variations in ionic conductances and a much less studied water exchange between the extracellular matrix and the intraaxonal compartment. The developed ICT technique associated with a full three-dimensional simulation of the axon-aperture near-field system allows a precise measurement of the axon geometry and therefore the direct visualization of neuron swelling induced by temperature change or neurotoxin poisoning. This technique should then provide grounds for the development of advanced functional neuroimaging methods based on diffusion anisotropy of water molecules.

Masson, Jean-Baptiste; Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Martin, Jean-Louis; Gallot, Guilhem

2007-02-01

286

Uncooled bolometer-type Terahertz focal plane array and camera for real-time imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time Terahertz (THz) imaging technologies which make use of uncooled bolometer-type infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed. A description of how THz focal plane array and THz imagers have been developed on the basis of infrared technologies, especially the improvement in both THz sensitivity of bolometer-type FPA and THz transmittance of materials for lens and vacuum package window will be given. Characteristics of 320×240 THz-FPA, such as relation of noise equivalent power (NEP) to wavelength and real-time THz imageries will be presented. One of the imageries indicates that THz technology is promising for label-free detection of reaction of small molecules with proteins.

Oda, Naoki

2010-08-01

287

Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model.  

PubMed

We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection. PMID:25574429

Ji, Young Bin; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Kiyoung; Choi, Yuna; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Jeon, Tae-In; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Lee, Sang Kil; Oh, Seung Jae; Suh, Jin-Suck

2014-12-01

288

Continuous-wave coherent imaging with terahertz quantum cascade lasers using electro-optic harmonic sampling  

E-print Network

We demonstrate a coherent imaging system based on a terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) phase-locked to a near-infrared fs-laser comb. The phase locking enables coherent electro-optic sampling of the continuous-wave radiation emitted by the QCL through the generation of a heterodyne beat-note signal. We use this beat-note signal to demonstrate raster scan coherent imaging using a QCL emitting at 2.5 THz. At this frequency the detection noise floor of our system is of 3 pW/Hz and the long-term phase stability is <3 degrees/h, limited by the mechanical stability of the apparatus.

Ravaro, Marco; Santarelli, Giorgio; Sirtori, Carlo; Li, Lianhe; Khanna, S P; Linfield, Edmund H; Barbieri, Stefano; 10.1063/1.4793424

2013-01-01

289

A Nipkow disk integrated with Fresnel lenses for terahertz single pixel imaging.  

PubMed

We present a novel Nipkow disk design for terahertz (THz) single pixel imaging applications. A 100 mm high resistivity (??3k-10k ??cm) silicon wafer was used for the disk on which a spiral array of twelve 16-level binary Fresnel lenses were fabricated using photolithography and a dry-etch process. The implementation of Fresnel lenses on the Nipkow disk increases the THz signal transmission compared to the conventional pinhole-based Nipkow disk by more than 12 times thus a THz source with lower power or a THz detector with lower detectivity can be used. Due to the focusing capability of the lenses, a pixel resolution better than 0.5 mm is in principle achievable. To demonstrate the concept, a single pixel imaging system operating at 2.52 THz is described. PMID:24150289

Li, Chong; Grant, James; Wang, Jue; Cumming, David R S

2013-10-21

290

Terahertz spectroscopic imaging and properties of gastrointestinal tract in a rat model  

PubMed Central

We have investigated basic properties of normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, including glandular stomach (GS), fore stomach (FS), large intestine (LI), small intestine (SI), and esophagus (ESO), from a rat model using terahertz (THz) reflection imaging and spectroscopy. The THz images collected from stratified squamous epithelia (SSE) of FS and ESO show a lower peak-to-peak value compared to those from columnar epithelia (CE) of GS, LI, or SI because the SSE contains less water than CE. The refractive index and absorption coefficient of FS were less than those of GS or LI, both having values similar to those of water. Additionally, we report internal reflection THz signals from ESO, although we were unable to determine the exact interface for this internal reflection. PMID:25574429

Ji, Young Bin; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jeong, Kiyoung; Choi, Yuna; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Jeon, Tae-In; Huh, Yong-Min; Haam, Seungjoo; Lee, Sang Kil; Oh, Seung Jae; Suh, Jin-Suck

2014-01-01

291

Experiment Studies on Two-Dimension Terahertz Raster Scan Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, two kinds of THz two-dimension raster scan imaging methods are investigated. An array scanning system, which uses a Pyrocam III camera as the detecting device, and a point-wise scanning system, which adapts a Golay cell as the detector, are designed and tested with imaging experiments. The speed, scale and quality aspects of the two systems are analyzed. The experimental results show the point-wise scanning system has higher contrast and precision performances, with a lower scanning speed, and it could be used to scan detailed small-scale textures. The array scanning system has faster scanning speed, with lower resolution, and it could be deployed for rapid, large-scale scans.

Cui, Yumeng; Fu, Wenjie; Guan, Xiaotong; Hu, Min; Yan, Yang; Liu, Shenggang

2012-05-01

292

Silicon integrated patch antennas for terahertz imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patch antennas for 0.65 THz imaging applications have been implemented in the silicon-oxide backend of a 0.25 ?m BiCMOS technology. Integrated transistor-based square-law detectors are used to characterize the co- and cross-polarization radiation patterns of differentially fed patch elements arranged in a 3 × 5 pixel array. Each element of the array provides a ±50 degree E-plane and ±30 degree

Neda Baktash; E. O?jefors; H. M. Keller; U. R. Pfeiffer

2010-01-01

293

Narrowband continuous-wave terahertz generation and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The output of seeded, dual periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric generators (OPG) are combined in the nonlinear crystal 4-dimthylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST) to produce a widely tunable narrowband THz source via difference frequency generation (DFG). We have demonstrated that by employing this type of configuration we are able to tune our system seamlessly, without mode-hops, from 1.5 THz to 21THz with a minimum bandwidth of 3.1 GHz. The bandwidth of the source was measured by using the THz transmission spectrum of water vapor lines over a 3-meter path length. By selecting of the DFG pump wavelength to be at 1380 nm and the signal wavelength to tune over a range from 1380 nm to 1570 nm, we produced several maxima in the output THz spectrum that was dependent on the phase matching ability of the DAST crystal and the efficiency of our pyro-electric detector. Due to the effects of dispersive phase matching, filter absorption of the THz waves, and two-photon absorption multiple band gaps in the overall spectrum occur and are discussed. Employing the dual generator scheme, we have obtained THz images at several locations in the spectrum using an infrared camera that runs at a rate of 35 frames per second. We have demonstrated the ability to image 13 THz to 20 THz under static conditions. We will present images of carbon fibers illuminated at different THz frequencies.

Dolasinski, Brian; Powers, Peter

2014-03-01

294

Terahertz phase contrast imaging of sorption kinetics in porous coordination polymer nanocrystals using differential optical resonator.  

PubMed

The enhancement of light-matter coupling when light is confined to wavelength scale volumes is useful both for studying small sample volumes and increasing the overall sensing ability. At these length scales, nonradiative interactions are of key interest to which near-field optical techniques may reveal new phenomena facilitating next-generation material functionalities and applications. Efforts to develop novel chemical or biological sensors using metamaterials have yielded innovative ideas in the optical and terahertz frequency range whereby the spatially integrated response over a resonator structure is monitored via the re-radiated or leaked light. But although terahertz waves generally exhibit distinctive response in chemical molecules or biological tissue, there is little absorption for subwavelength size sample and therefore poor image contrast. Here, we introduce a method that spatially resolves the differential near-field phase response of the entire resonator as a spectral fingerprint. By simultaneously probing two metallic ring resonators, where one loaded with the sample of interest, the differential phase response is able to resolve the presence of guest molecules (e.g. methanol) as they are adsorbed or released within the pores of a prototypical porous coordination polymer. PMID:24921804

Blanchard, F; Sumida, K; Wolpert, C; Tsotsalas, M; Tanaka, T; Doi, A; Kitagawa, S; Cooke, D G; Furukawa, S; Tanaka, K

2014-05-01

295

TIME-RESOLVED TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF DIELECTRICS  

E-print Network

Republic. Using the method of time-domain terahertz-transmission spectroscopy we measured the far-infrared Terahertz pulses; far infrared; time-resolved spectroscopy INTRODUCTION The time-domain terahertzTIME-RESOLVED TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION SPECTROSCOPY OF DIELECTRICS PETR KUZEL AND JAN PETZELT

KuÂ?el, Petr

296

Coherent terahertz control of antiferromagnetic spin waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafast charge and spin excitations in the elusive terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum play a pivotal role in condensed matter. The electric field of free-space terahertz pulses has provided a direct gateway to manipulating the motion of charges on the femtosecond timescale. Here, we complement this process by showing that the magnetic component of intense terahertz transients enables ultrafast

Tobias Kampfrath; Alexander Sell; Gregor Klatt; Alexej Pashkin; Sebastian Mährlein; Thomas Dekorsy; Martin Wolf; Manfred Fiebig; Alfred Leitenstorfer; Rupert Huber

2011-01-01

297

Imaging embryonic development with ultrashort pulse microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the application of ultrashort pulse microscopy (UPM) for integrated imaging of embryonic development at the tissue, cell, and molecular length scales. The UPM is a multimodal imaging platform that utilizes the broad-power spectrum and high-peak power of 10-fs pulses to render two-photon excited signals and the short coherence gate of such pulses to render optical coherence signals. We show that ultrashort pulses efficiently excite cellular autofluorescence in developing zebrafish embryos such that tissues are readily visualized and individual cells can be monitored, providing a potential method for label-free cell tracking. We also show the ability of ultrashort pulses, without tuning, to excite a broad spectrum of fluorescent protein variants for tracking genetically labeled cell lineages in live embryos, with no apparent damage to the embryos. Molecular information at the mRNA transcript level can also be obtained from embryos that have been stained to reveal the localization of the expression of a gene using NBT/BCIP, which we show can be detected with three-dimensional resolution using a combination of two-photon and optical coherence signals. From this demonstration, we conclude that UPM is an efficient and a powerful tool for elucidating the dynamic multiparameter and multiscale mechanisms of embryonic development.

Gibbs, Holly C.; Bai, Yuqiang; Lekven, Arne C.; Yeh, Alvin T.

2014-05-01

298

Generation of longitudinally polarized terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 2 kV/cm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the generation of near-single cycle longitudinally polarized terahertz radiation using a large-area radially biased photoconductive antenna with a longitudinal field amplitude in excess of 2 kV/cm. The 76 mm diameter antenna was photo-excited by a 0.5 mJ amplified near-infrared femtosecond laser system and biased with a voltage of up to 100 kV applied over concentric electrodes. Amplitudes for both the transverse and longitudinal field components of the source were measured using a calibrated electro-optic detection scheme. By tightly focusing the radiation emitted from the photoconductive antenna, we obtained a maximum longitudinal field amplitude of 2.22 kV/cm with an applied bias field of 38.5 kV/cm.

Cliffe, M. J.; Rodak, A.; Graham, D. M.; Jamison, S. P.

2014-11-01

299

Pulse-Modulation Imaging—Review and Performance Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In time-domain or pulse-modulation (PM) imaging, the incident light intensity is not encoded in amounts of charge, voltage, or current as it is in conventional image sensors. Instead, the image data are represented by the timing of pulses or pulse edges. This method of visual information encoding optimizes the phototransduction individually for each pixel by abstaining from imposing a fixed

Denis Guangyin Chen; Daniel Matolin; Amine Bermak; Christoph Posch

2011-01-01

300

Coded Pulse Excitation for Ultrasonic Strain Imaging  

PubMed Central

Decorrelation strain noise can be significantly reduced in low echo-signal-to-noise (eSNR) conditions using coded excitation. Large time-bandwidth-product (>30) pulses are transmitted into tissue mimicking phantoms with 2.5-mm diameter inclusions that mimic the elastic properties of breast lesions. We observed a 5–10 dB improvement in eSNR that led to a doubling of the depth of focus for strain images with no reduction of spatial resolution. In high eSNR conditions, coded excitation permits the use of higher carrier frequencies and shorter correlation windows to improve the attainable spatial resolution for strain relative to that obtained with conventional short pulses. This paper summarizes comparative studies of strain imaging in noise-limited conditions obtained by short pulses and four common aperiodic codes (chirp, Barker, suboptimal, and Golay) as a function of attenuation, eSNR and applied strain. Imaging performance is quantified using SNR for displacement (SNRd), local modulation transfer function (LMTF), and contrast-to-noise ratio for strain (CNR?). We found that chirp and Golay codes are the most robust for imaging soft tissue deformation using matched filter decoding. Their superior performance is obtained by balancing the need for low-range lobes, large eSNR improvement, and short-code duration. PMID:15801311

Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F.

2009-01-01

301

Superhuman Vision - Seeing with Terahertz  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an introduction to terahertz waves and imaging applications that use them. An explanation of how the reflection and absorption of these electromagnetic waves can be used to generate 3D images and identify materials is provided. The site also presents components developed to improve the performance and functionality of terahertz imaging systems.

2006-12-28

302

Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is extended to double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) diffusion MRI sequences. This gives a practical approach for acquiring and analyzing d-PFG data. In particular, the leading d-PFG effects, beyond what conventional single-pulsed field gradient (s-PFG) provides, are interpreted in terms of the kurtosis for a diffusion displacement probability density function (dPDF) in a six-dimensional (6D) space. The 6D diffusional kurtosis encodes the unique information provided by d-PFG sequences up to second order in the b-value. This observation leads to a compact expression for the signal magnitude, and it suggests novel data acquisition and analysis methods. Double-pulsed DKI (DP-DKI) is demonstrated for in vivo mouse brain with d-PFG data obtained at 7?T. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24677661

Jensen, Jens H; Hui, Edward S; Helpern, Joseph A

2014-02-20

303

Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging.  

PubMed

Diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) is extended to double-pulsed-field-gradient (d-PFG) diffusion MRI sequences. This gives a practical approach for acquiring and analyzing d-PFG data. In particular, the leading d-PFG effects, beyond what conventional single-pulsed field gradient (s-PFG) provides, are interpreted in terms of the kurtosis for a diffusion displacement probability density function (dPDF) in a six-dimensional (6D) space. The 6D diffusional kurtosis encodes the unique information provided by d-PFG sequences up to second order in the b-value. This observation leads to a compact expression for the signalmagnitude, and it suggests novel data acquisition and analysis methods. Double-pulsed DKI (DP-DKI) is demonstrated for in vivo mouse brain with d-PFG data obtained at 7 T. PMID:24623712

Jensen, Jens H; Hui, Edward S; Helpern, Joseph A

2014-04-01

304

Standoff Detection of Hidden Explosives and Cold and Fire Arms by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy and Active Spectral Imaging (Review)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and standoff spectral imaging for detection of explosives and cold and fire arms hidden, for example, under clothing, were reviewed. Special attention was paid to different schemes for practical implementation of these methods. Progress in this direction and existing problems and the prospects for their solution were discussed. Issues related to sources and receivers of terahertz radiation were briefly discussed. It was noted that interest in quantum-cascade lasers as compact sources of terahertz radiation and the potential of using them at room temperature were increasing.

Skvortsov, L. A.

2014-11-01

305

In vivo confirmation of hydration based contrast mechanisms for terahertz medical imaging using MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) detection has been proposed and applied to a variety of medical imaging applications in view of its unrivaled hydration profiling capabilities. Variations in tissue dielectric function have been demonstrated at THz frequencies to generate high contrast imagery of tissue, however, the source of image contrast remains to be verified using a modality with a comparable sensing scheme. To investigate the primary contrast mechanism, a pilot comparison study was performed in a burn wound rat model, widely known to create detectable gradients in tissue hydration through both injured and surrounding tissue. Parallel T2 weighted multi slice multi echo (T2w MSME) 7T Magnetic Resonance (MR) scans and THz surface reflectance maps were acquired of a full thickness skin burn in a rat model over a 5 hour time period. A comparison of uninjured and injured regions in the full thickness burn demonstrates a 3-fold increase in average T2 relaxation times and a 15% increase in average THz reflectivity, respectively. These results support the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for measuring in vivo burn tissue water content and the use of this modality to verify and understand the hydration sensing capabilities of THz imaging for acute assessments of the onset and evolution of diseases that affect the skin. A starting point for more sophisticated in vivo studies, this preliminary analysis may be used in the future to explore how and to what extent the release of unbound water affects imaging contrast in THz burn sensing.

Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Ennis, Daniel B.; Alger, Jeffery; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

2014-09-01

306

High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry  

PubMed Central

There is considerable interest in the interrogation of biological tissue at terahertz (THz) frequencies, largely due to the contrast in the optical properties of different biological tissues which occur in this electro-magnetic radiation band. Of particular interest are THz biomedical images, which have the potential to highlight different information than those acquired in other frequency bands, thereby providing an augmented picture of biological structures. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of an interferometric biological imaging technique using a THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at 2.59 THz to perform coherent imaging of porcine tissue samples. We show the potential of this new THz biomedical imaging technique for in vivo studies, by virtue of its reflection geometry and useful tissue penetration depth enabled by the large THz powers emitted by the quantum cascade laser used in this work. The observed clustering of interferometric tissue signatures opens a pathway towards automatic techniques for the discrimination of healthy tissue types for the study of normal physiology and possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:25426324

Lim, Yah Leng; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Dean, Paul; Indjin, Dragan; Valavanis, Alexander; Khanna, Suraj P.; Lachab, Mohammad; Schaider, Helmut; Prow, Tarl W.; Peter Soyer, H.; Wilson, Stephen J.; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A.; Raki?, Aleksandar D.

2014-01-01

307

High-contrast coherent terahertz imaging of porcine tissue via swept-frequency feedback interferometry.  

PubMed

There is considerable interest in the interrogation of biological tissue at terahertz (THz) frequencies, largely due to the contrast in the optical properties of different biological tissues which occur in this electro-magnetic radiation band. Of particular interest are THz biomedical images, which have the potential to highlight different information than those acquired in other frequency bands, thereby providing an augmented picture of biological structures. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of an interferometric biological imaging technique using a THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) operating at 2.59 THz to perform coherent imaging of porcine tissue samples. We show the potential of this new THz biomedical imaging technique for in vivo studies, by virtue of its reflection geometry and useful tissue penetration depth enabled by the large THz powers emitted by the quantum cascade laser used in this work. The observed clustering of interferometric tissue signatures opens a pathway towards automatic techniques for the discrimination of healthy tissue types for the study of normal physiology and possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:25426324

Lim, Yah Leng; Taimre, Thomas; Bertling, Karl; Dean, Paul; Indjin, Dragan; Valavanis, Alexander; Khanna, Suraj P; Lachab, Mohammad; Schaider, Helmut; Prow, Tarl W; Peter Soyer, H; Wilson, Stephen J; Linfield, Edmund H; Giles Davies, A; Raki?, Aleksandar D

2014-11-01

308

Terahertz time-domain reflectometry of multilayered systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented in this work are applications of terahertz pulse ranging, spectroscopy and imaging to the nondestructive evaluation of three disparate multilayer systems for the detection and measurement of hidden layers, as well as the extraction of system information that will aid in its maintenance, repair or replacement. Thermal protection systems for turbine engine components were investigated. Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) and thermally-grown oxide (TGO) thicknesses were determined with 10 micron resolution using time-of-flight and refractive index calculations. Two alternative methods of monitoring TGO growth using reflection amplitudes and spectral shifts were proposed for the prediction of TBC failure. Laser-machined defects as narrow as 50 microns were resolved in one- and two-dimensional images. The light and dark rings of trees, which reflect the changes in tree growth density over the course of a year, are measurable using pulsed terahertz beams. Tree-rings of bare and painted wood specimen were laterally and axially tomographically imaged in order to facilitate the dendrochronological cross-dating of artifacts. Comparisons were made between photographs and terahertz images to demonstrate the reliability of the technique. Historically, numerous unique artworks have been lost through the act of being covered over time. Samples of paintings, drawings and mosaics were imaged beneath layers of paint and plaster using pulsed-terahertz techniques to demonstrate the efficacy of the technique for art history and restoration. Sketch materials and pigments were measured, between 0.05 and 1.0 THz, to help identify colors in spectroscopic images. Other computational and processing methods were used to optimize the distinction between color domains. Additional time-domain terahertz applications for the examination of artwork and other artifacts were proposed.

Jackson, J. Bianca

309

Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging for cultural heritage management: state of art and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive diagnostic tools able to provide information on the materials and preservation state of artworks are crucial to help conservators, archaeologists and anthropologists to plan and carry out their tasks properly. In this frame, technological solutions exploiting Terahertz (THz) radiation, i.e., working at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 THz, are currently deserving huge attention as complementary techniques to classical analysis methodologies based on electromagnetic radiations from X-rays to mid infrared [1]. The main advantage offered by THz spectroscopy and imaging systems is referred to their capability of providing information useful to determine the construction modality, the history life and the conservation state of artworks as well as to identify previous restoration actions [1,2]. In particular, unlike mid- and near-infrared spectroscopy, which provides fingerprint absorption spectra depending on the intramolecular behavior, THz spectroscopy is related to the structure of the molecules of the investigated object. Hence, it can discriminate, for instance, the different materials mixed in a paint [1,2]. Moreover, THz radiation is able to penetrate several materials which are opaque to both visible and infrared materials, such as varnish, paint, plaster, paper, wood, plastic, and so on. Accordingly, it is useful to detect hidden objects and characterize the inner structure of the artwork under test even in the direction of the depth, while avoiding core drillings. In this frame, THz systems allow us to discriminate different layers of materials present in artworks like paints, to obtain images providing information on the construction technique as well as to discover risk factors affecting the preservation state, such as non-visible cracks, hidden molds and air gaps between the paint layer and underlying structure. Furthermore, adopting a no-ionizing radiation, THz systems offer the not trivial benefit of negligible long term risks to the molecular stability of the exposed objects and humans. Recently, the interest on THz technology is also growing up thanks to the development of flexible and compact commercial systems having source and detector probes coupled by means of optical fiber cables and that do not require complex optical alignments. These features allow us to reconfigure the measurement configuration easily; thus transmission, normal reflection and oblique reflection data can be collected according to the constrains and objective of the survey to be performed. Moreover, they open the way to on field applications. An example of last generation THz systems is the Fiber-Coupled Terahertz Time Domain System (FICO) marketed by Z-Omega and available at the Institute of Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment. Such a system is designed to perform both transmission and reflection spectroscopy and imaging measurements in the range from 60GHz to 3THz; with a waveform acquisition speed up to 500Hz. A review of the literature assessing potentialities and open challenges of THz spectroscopy and imaging in the frame of cultural heritage preservation will be provided at the conferences, with a specific focus on the diagnostic capabilities of last generation systems. REFERENCES [1] K. Fukunaga, I. Hosako, Innovative non-invasive analysis techniques for cultural heritage using terahertz technology, C. R. Physique, vol. 11, pp.519-526, 2010. [2] G.Fillippidis, M. Massaouti, A. Selimis, E.J. Gualda, J.M. Manceau, S. Tzortzakis, Nonlinear imaging and THz diagnostic tools in the service of Cultural Heritage, Appl. Phys. A, vol.106, pp.257-263, 2012.

Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco

2014-05-01

310

2microm pulsed fiber laser sources and their application in terahertz generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, an all-fiber-based single frequency nanosecond pulsed laser system at ˜ 1918.4 nm in master-oscillator-power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration is present. The nanosecond pulse seed is achieved by directly modulating a continuous wave (CW) single frequency fiber laser using a fast electro-optical modulator (EOM) driven by an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG). One piece of single mode, large core, polarization-maintaining (PM) highly thulium-doped (Tm-doped) germanate glass fiber (LC-TGF) is used to boost the pulse power and pulse energy of these modulated pulses in the final power amplifier. This laser system can work in both high power and high energy regime: in high power regime, to the best of our knowledge, the highest average power 16 W and peak power 78.1 kW are achieved for single frequency transform-limited ˜2.0 ns pulses at 500 kHz and 100 kHz repetition rate, respectively: In high energy regime, nearly 1 mJ and half mJ pulse energy is obtained for ˜15 ns pulses at 1 kHz repetition rate and 5 kHz repetition rate, respectively. Theoretical modeling of the large-core highly Tm-doped germanate glass double-cladding fiber amplifier (LC-TG-DC-FA) is also present for 2 microm nanosecond pulse amplification. A good agreement between the theoretical and experimental results is achieved. The model can simulate the evolution of pump power, signal energy, pulse shape and the amplified stimulated emission (ASE) in the amplifier. It can also be utilized to investigate the dependence of the stored energy in the LC-TGF on the pump power, seed energy and repetition rate, which can be used to design and optimize the LC-TG-DC-FA to achieve higher pulse energy and average power. Two channel of high energy nanosecond pulses (at 1918.4 nm and 1938 nm) are utilized to generate THz wave in a quasi-phase-matched (QPM) gallium arsenide (GaAs) based on difference frequency generation. THz wave with ˜ 5.4 microW average power and ˜18 mW peak power has been achieved. Besides, one model is built to simulate a singly resonated THz parametric oscillator. The threshold, the dependence of output THz energy on pump energy has been investigated through this model. One pump enhanced THz parametric oscillator has been proposed. The enhancement factor of the nanosecond pulses in a bow-tie ring cavity has been calculated for different pulse duration, cavity length and the transmission of the coupler. And the laser resonances in the ring cavity have been observed by using a piezo to periodically adjust the cavity length. We also build an all-fiber thulium-doped wavelength tunable mode-locked laser operating near 2 microm. Reliable self-starting mode locking over a large tuning range (> 50 nm) using fiber taper based carbon nanotube (FTCNT) saturable absorber (SA) is observed. Spectral tuning is achieved by stretching another fiber taper. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an all-fiber wavelength tunable mode-locked laser near 2 microm.

Fang, Qiang

311

Computed tomography image using sub-terahertz waves generated from a high-Tc superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction oscillator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computed tomography (CT) imaging system using monochromatic sub-terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves generated from a device constructed from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in a single crystalline mesa structure of the high-Tc superconductor Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? was developed and tested on three samples: Standing metallic rods supported by styrofoam, a dried plant (heart pea) containing seeds, and a plastic doll inside an egg shell. The images obtained strongly suggest that this CT imaging system may be useful for a variety of practical applications.

Kashiwagi, T.; Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Minami, H.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Markovi?, B.; Mirkovi?, J.; Klemm, R. A.; Kadowaki, K.

2014-02-01

312

Imaging with a 90 frames/s microbolometer focal plane array and high-power terahertz free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array (FPA) has been developed and used for imaging of objects illuminated by monochromatic coherent radiation of a free electron laser tunable in the range of 1.25-2.5 THz. A sensitivity threshold of 1.3x10{sup -3} W/cm{sup 2} was obtained for the FPA with a homemade absolute interferometric power meter. Videos up to 90 frames/s were recorded in both transmission and reflection/scattering modes. When objects were illuminated by laser radiation scattered by a rough metal surface, speckled images were observed. Good quality terahertz images were achieved through the fast rotation of the scatterer.

Dem'yanenko, M. A.; Esaev, D. G. [Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Knyazev, B. A.; Vinokurov, N. A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kulipanov, G. N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2008-03-31

313

Study of single-cycle pulse propagation inside a terahertz near-field probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation of 0.5 THz single cycle pulses inside an aperture-type near-field probe is studied. The E-field amplitude attenuation is experimentally measured at various distances from the aperture. Numerical simulations based on a two-dimensional model illustrate the pulse waveform transformation and the spectral blueshift, which is experimentally observed. The study shows that the sensitivity of such a near-field probe can be improved by more than a factor of 10 by decreasing the aperture-to-detector separation without reduction of the spatial resolution.

Mitrofanov, O.; Harel, R.; Lee, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K.; Wynn, J. D.; Federici, J.

2001-01-01

314

Investigation of microelectromechanical systems bimaterial sensors with metamaterial absorbers for terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One attractive option to achieve real-time terahertz (THz) imaging is a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) bimaterial sensor with embedded metamaterial absorbers. We have demonstrated that metamaterial films can be designed using standard MEMS materials such as silicon oxide (SiOx), silicon oxinitrate (SiOxNy), and aluminum (Al) to achieve nearly 100% resonant absorption matched to the illumination source, providing structural support, desired thermomechanical properties and access to external optical readout. The metamaterial structure absorbs the incident THz radiation and transfers the heat to bimaterial microcantilevers that are connected to the substrate, which acts as a heat sink via thermal insulating legs, allowing the overall structure to deform proportionally to the absorbed power. The amount of deformation can be probed by measuring the displacement of a laser beam reflected from the sensor's metallic ground plane. Several sensor configurations have been designed, fabricated, and characterized to optimize responsivity and speed of operation and to minimize structural residual stress. Measured responsivity values as high as 1.2 deg/?W and time constants as low as 20 ms with detectable power on the order of 10 nW were obtained, indicating that the THz MEMS sensors have a great potential for real-time imaging.

Alves, Fabio; Grbovic, Dragoslav; Karunasiri, Gamani

2014-09-01

315

Terahertz real-time imaging uncooled array based on antenna- and cavity-coupled bolometers.  

PubMed

The development of terahertz (THz) applications is slowed down by the availability of affordable, easy-to-use and highly sensitive detectors. CEA-Leti took up this challenge by tailoring the mature infrared (IR) bolometer technology for optimized THz sensing. The key feature of these detectors relies on the separation between electromagnetic absorption and the thermometer. For each pixel, specific structures of antennas and a resonant quarter-wavelength cavity couple efficiently the THz radiation on a broadband range, while a central silicon microbridge bolometer resistance is read out by a complementary metal oxide semiconductor circuit. 320×240 pixel arrays have been designed and manufactured: a better than 30?pW power direct detection threshold per pixel has been demonstrated in the 2-4?THz range. Such performance is expected on the whole THz range by proper tailoring of the antennas while keeping the technological stack largely unchanged. This paper gives an overview of the developed bolometer-based technology. First, it describes the technology and reports the latest performance characterizations. Then imaging demonstrations are presented, such as real-time reflectance imaging of a large surface of hidden objects and THz time-domain spectroscopy beam two-dimensional profiling. Finally, perspectives of camera integration for scientific and industrial applications are discussed. PMID:24567477

Simoens, François; Meilhan, Jérôme

2014-03-28

316

Nanowire-based field effect transistors for terahertz detection and imaging systems.  

PubMed

The development of self-assembled nanostructure technologies has recently opened the way towards a wide class of semiconductor integrated devices, with progressively optimized performances and the potential for a widespread range of electronic and photonic applications. Here we report on the development of field effect transistors (FETs) based on semiconductor nanowires (NWs) as highly-sensitive room-temperature plasma-wave broadband terahertz (THz) detectors. The electromagnetic radiation at 0.3?THz is funneled onto a broadband bow-tie antenna, whose lobes are connected to the source and gate FET electrodes. The oscillating electric field experienced by the channel electrons, combined with the charge density modulation by the gate electrode, results in a source-drain signal rectification, which can be read as a DC signal output. We investigated the influence of Se-doping concentration of InAs NWs on the detection performances, reaching responsivity values higher than 100 V W?¹, with noise-equivalent-power of ?10?? W Hz(?½). Transmission imaging experiments at 0.3 THz show the good reliability and sensitivity of the devices in a real practical application. PMID:23618953

Romeo, L; Coquillat, D; Pea, M; Ercolani, D; Beltram, F; Sorba, L; Knap, W; Tredicucci, A; Vitiello, M S

2013-05-31

317

Research of room-temperature continuous-wave terahertz imaging array based on microbolometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed a novel uncooled Terahertz (THz) imaging array based microbolometer. The Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology is used to fabricate the imaging array which comprise bolometer layer, THz absorption layer, supporting layer (silicon nitride (SiNx)), resonant optical cavity and electrode. The vanadium oxide thin films is selected for the bolometer temperature sensing material because it has a high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) in the range 2%/K and 3%/K at room temperature and suitable square resistance 18.40k?/?, a small 1/f noise constant and can be integrated with signal read-out electronics in a cost efficient way. In order to provide a high absorption of the radiation in the bolometer membrane, a resonant optical cavity structure which has a reflection layer formed at the bottom of air gap is adopted for the targeted wavelength. The best air gap of the optical cavity structure is quarter of wavelength of interest, for example, 25?m for 3 THz radiation. The absorption mechanism is that the two reflected THz radiations coming from the absorption layer and reflection layer interfere destructively at THz absorption layer and free carriers in THz absorption layer absorb THz radiation, the absorbed THz radiation heats the imaging array so that the resistance values of bolometer change. The microbolometer need to be packaged in vacuum for best performance, so a cylindrical vacuum chamber which is sealed with polyethylene lamina for the THz radiation is fabricated. In order to maintain the vacuum performance of the chamber (conventional bolometers operate with vacuum levels <0.01mbar), the vacuum pump and molecular pump are adopted; furthermore the packaging technique of vacuum chamber is introduced in detail. Finally, because of its uncooled property of the microbolometer, it will have a low cost and be easy for fabrication of large array.

Su, Bo; Duan, Guoteng; Cui, Hai-lin; Zhang, Cun-lin

2013-08-01

318

Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz and millimeter waves penetrate various dielectric materials, including plastics, ceramics, crystals, and concrete, allowing terahertz transmission and reflection images to be considered as a new imaging tool complementary to X-Ray or Infrared. Terahertz imaging is a well-established technique in various laboratory and industrial applications. However, these images are often two-dimensional. Three-dimensional, transmission-mode imaging is limited to thin samples, due to the absorption of the sample accumulated in the propagation direction. A tomographic imaging procedure can be used to acquire and to render three-dimensional images in the terahertz frequency range, as in the optical, infrared or X-ray regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this paper, after a brief introduction to two dimensional millimeter waves and terahertz imaging we establish the principles of tomography for Terahertz Computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis (TS), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and time-of-flight (TOF) terahertz tomography. For each technique, we present advantages, drawbacks and limitations for imaging the internal structure of an object.

Guillet, J. P.; Recur, B.; Frederique, L.; Bousquet, B.; Canioni, L.; Manek-Hönninger, I.; Desbarats, P.; Mounaix, P.

2014-04-01

319

Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of leather in terahertz wave range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed THz time-domain spectroscopy is a coherent technique, in which both the amplitude and the phase of a THz pulse are measured. Recently, material characterization using THz spectroscopy has been applied to biochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers and semiconductors and has given us important information. Moreover, THz imaging has progressed and is expected to be applicable for the identification of narcotics and explosives. The most important and characteristic point of THz spectroscopy is said to be its ability to observe intermolecular vibrations in contrast to infrared spectroscopy (IR), which observes intramolecular vibrations. Coherent detection enables direct calculations of both the imaginary and the real parts of the refractive index without using the Kramers-Kronig relations. Terahertz wave spectroscopy has been used to study the properties and absorption spectra characteristic of materials. In this paper, the spectral characteristics of cow skin, pig skin sheep skin, horse skin and deer skin have been measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.1~2.0THz. The results show that THz-TDS technology provides an important tool for quality analysis and detection of leathers.

Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

2011-11-01

320

Terahertz spectroscopic investigations of leather in terahertz wave range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed THz time-domain spectroscopy is a coherent technique, in which both the amplitude and the phase of a THz pulse are measured. Recently, material characterization using THz spectroscopy has been applied to biochemicals, pharmaceuticals, polymers and semiconductors and has given us important information. Moreover, THz imaging has progressed and is expected to be applicable for the identification of narcotics and explosives. The most important and characteristic point of THz spectroscopy is said to be its ability to observe intermolecular vibrations in contrast to infrared spectroscopy (IR), which observes intramolecular vibrations. Coherent detection enables direct calculations of both the imaginary and the real parts of the refractive index without using the Kramers-Kronig relations. Terahertz wave spectroscopy has been used to study the properties and absorption spectra characteristic of materials. In this paper, the spectral characteristics of cow skin, pig skin sheep skin, horse skin and deer skin have been measured with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in the range of 0.1~2.0THz. The results show that THz-TDS technology provides an important tool for quality analysis and detection of leathers.

Song, Mei-jing; Li, Jiu-sheng

2012-03-01

321

FDTD-based quantitative analysis of terahertz wave detection for multilayered structures.  

PubMed

Experimental investigations have shown that terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI) is able to quantitatively characterize a range of multilayered media (e.g., biological issues, pharmaceutical tablet coatings, layered polymer composites, etc.). Advanced modeling of the interaction of terahertz radiation with a multilayered medium is required to enable the wide application of terahertz technology in a number of emerging fields, including nondestructive testing. Indeed, there have already been many theoretical analyses performed on the propagation of terahertz radiation in various multilayered media. However, to date, most of these studies used 1D or 2D models, and the dispersive nature of the dielectric layers was not considered or was simplified. In the present work, the theoretical framework of using terahertz waves for the quantitative characterization of multilayered media was established. A 3D model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is proposed. A batch of pharmaceutical tablets with a single coating layer of different coating thicknesses and different refractive indices was modeled. The reflected terahertz wave from such a sample was computed using the FDTD method, assuming that the incident terahertz wave is broadband, covering a frequency range up to 3.5 THz. The simulated results for all of the pharmaceutical-coated tablets considered were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results obtained using a commercial TPI system. In addition, we studied a three-layered medium to mimic the occurrence of defects in the sample. PMID:25401257

Tu, Wanli; Zhong, Shuncong; Shen, Yaochun; Zhou, Qing; Yao, Ligang

2014-10-01

322

FEATURE ARTICLE Terahertz Spectroscopy  

E-print Network

about 13 years ago with the demonstration that nearly single-cycle pulses of far-infrared radiation covers the spectral range from about 3 cm-1 to about 600 cm-1, also known as the far-infrared (far- IR#12;FEATURE ARTICLE Terahertz Spectroscopy Matthew C. Beard, Gordon M. Turner, and Charles A

323

Pulsed-Source Interferometry in Acoustic Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combination of pulsed-source interferometry and acoustic diffraction has been proposed for use in imaging subsurface microscopic defects and other features in such diverse objects as integrated-circuit chips, specimens of materials, and mechanical parts. A specimen to be inspected by this technique would be mounted with its bottom side in contact with an acoustic transducer driven by a continuous-wave acoustic signal at a suitable frequency, which could be as low as a megahertz or as high as a few hundred gigahertz. The top side of the specimen would be coupled to an object that would have a flat (when not vibrating) top surface and that would serve as the acoustical analog of an optical medium (in effect, an acoustical "optic").

Shcheglov, Kirill; Gutierrez, Roman; Tang, Tony K.

2003-01-01

324

Perfect image segmentation using pulse coupled neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method for segmenting digital images using pulse coupled neural networks (PCNN). The pulse coupled neuron (PCN) model used in PCNN is a modification of the cortical neuron model of Eckhorn et al. (1990). A single layered laterally connected PCNN is capable of perfectly segmenting digital images even when there is a considerable overlap in the intensity

G. Kuntimad; Heggere S. Ranganath

1999-01-01

325

Terahertz time-domain imaging of hidden defects in wooden artworks: application to a Russian icon painting.  

PubMed

We use terahertz time-domain imaging and time-of-flight tomography to examine subsurface defects in an early-19th-century Russian icon painting. In the transmission geometry, we distinguish between native wood and higher-absorption knotted wood. In reflection, we identify a void in the wood filled with foreign filler material. By using time-of-flight tomographic analysis, we ascertain the depth of burial of the defects. This information helps us to identify the cause of surface faults in the painting, thus allowing the conservators to choose an adequate restoration strategy. PMID:24663298

Skryl, Anton S; Jackson, J Bianca; Bakunov, Michael I; Menu, Michel; Mourou, Gerard A

2014-02-20

326

Terahertz radiation imaging of supercurrent distribution in vortex-penetrated YBa2Cu3O7-? thin film strips  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a supercurrent distribution imaging system for high Tc superconductive thin films and demonstrated the visualization of the supercurrent distribution in the vortex-penetrated YBa2Cu3O7-? thin film strips. The terahertz (THz) radiation and detection system with a scanning femtosecond laser was employed to visualize the distribution. The imaging system utilizes the principle that the femtosecond optical pulses excite THz radiation into the free space by optical supercurrent modulation, and the radiation amplitude is proportional to the local supercurrent density at the optically excited area. Prior to the observation of the supercurrent distribution, we studied optical excitation effects on the vortices trapped in the strips, calibration of the current density from the THz radiation amplitude, temperature dependence of the THz radiation properties, etc. The laser power dependence of the THz radiation in the remanent state revealed that the excitation with powers larger than the relatively weak finite value (about 10 mW in the present case) strongly affects the vortices trapped in the films. We attributed this behavior to the optically excited depinning effect. We derived a calibration function from the THz radiation images into the supercurrent density distributions by observing the bias-current dependence of the THz radiation, and applied it for the diagnosis of the distributions in the vortex-penetrated strips. The THz radiation images were successfully transferred into the supercurrent density distributions with quantitative agreement. The minimum magnetic flux resolution at the optically excited area was roughly estimated to be 3 ?0 where ?0 is a single flux quantum. The measurement of the laser beam profile indicated that the spatial resolution of the THz radiation images is limited by the laser beam diameter: 25 ?m in our case. The observed distributions revealed that the vortices easily penetrate into the strip under an external magnetic field BEX of 0.9 mT, and the persistent supercurrent exists only near the strip edges in the remanent state after removal of the field. The calculations of the convolution between the observed laser pattern and the trial functions suggested that the supercurrent distribution width in the remanent state after removal of the field of 0.9 mT is estimated to be less than 1 ?m. The temperature dependence of the supercurrent distributions revealed that, below 60 K, the thermal activation produces no significant effects on the penetrated vortices at BEX=0.9 mT, whereas, the vortices in the remanent state after removal of the field of 15 mT were strongly affected by the thermal activation. The decreasing rate of the supercurrent density at the edge with increasing temperature was larger than that inside the strip. This suggested that the vortices trapped near the edges exhibit rather different behavior from the ones that penetrated into the inner part of the strip.

Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Masatsugu; Hangyo, Masanori

2000-05-01

327

Simultaneous Noncontact Precision Imaging of Microstructural and Thickness Variation in Dielectric Materials Using Terahertz Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process for simultaneously measuring the velocity of terahertz electromagnetic radiation in a dielectric material sample without prior knowledge of the thickness of the sample and for measuring the thickness of a material sample using terahertz electromagnetic radiation in a material sample without prior knowledge of the velocity of the terahertz electromagnetic radiation in the sample is disclosed and claimed. The process evaluates, in a plurality of locations, the sample for microstructural variations and for thickness variations and maps the microstructural and thickness variations by location. A thin sheet of dielectric material may be used on top of the sample to create a dielectric mismatch. The approximate focal point of the radiation source (transceiver) is initially determined for good measurements.

Roth, Donald J (Inventor)

2011-01-01

328

Terahertz imaging: a new non-destructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first investigation of plastic weld joints using terahertz waves. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy clearly reveals contaminations like metal or sand within the weld joint of two high-density polyethylene sheets. Furthermore, areas can be identified where the welding process has failed and the parts to be joined are separated by a small air gap. We show that a three layer structure of polyethylene-air-polyethylene has a characteristic, frequency-dependent transmission behaviour. This allows for a distinction between welded and non-welded material as well as for the calculation of the air layer thickness from the relative transmission spectrum. Consequently, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy provides a promising new non-destructive and even contactless technique, which is desired by the plastics industry for detecting a variety of deviations from the ideal welding process.

Wietzke, S.; Jördens, C.; Krumbholz, N.; Baudrit, B.; Bastian, M.; Koch, M.

2007-04-01

329

How to take your pulse (image)  

MedlinePLUS

... the blood pulsing beneath your fingers. Use a watch or clock with a second hand. Count the beats you ... the blood pulsing beneath your fingers. Use a watch or clock with a second hand. Count the beats you ...

330

Terahertz frequency spectrum characterization of coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz wave which can provide innovative sensing and imaging techniques can obtain spectroscopic information unavailable at other wavelengths. The terahertz air-biased-coherent-detection (ABCD) method can achieve the third-order nonlinear susceptibility tensor to produce field-induced optical second harmonic photons. Therefore, the intense terahertz wave generated and detected by the laser-induced air plasma provides a promising ultra-broadband terahertz source and sensor for spectroscopy and imaging technique. Aiming at that purpose, an understanding of the frequency spectrum characterization of terahertz pulse is crucial. In this work, we investigated the variation of the THz pulse bandwidth measured through the third harmonic generation using the coherent detection scheme, by increasing the optical probe pulse power and biased electric field. A bandwidth broadening of the measured THz pulse is observed by increasing either the probe pulse power or the bias voltage strength. We speculate that a pulse shape change of the probe beam and a saturation effect during the second-harmonic generation might cause the bandwidth broaden with probe power. To further investigate the mechanism, we fixed the power of probe laser at 150mW and changed the bias voltage. The results show that the frequency spectrum width becomes wider gradually with the increasing of the bias voltage. A theoretical explaination shows that the bandwidth broadening with bias field might be introduced by a pulse shape change of the bias field induced second harmonic wave. This study reveals that we can control THz intensity and bandwidth by changing probe power and bias voltage in the ABCD system.

Zhao, Ji; Zhang, Liang-liang; Luo, Yi-man; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhao, Yue-jin

2013-12-01

331

Continuous-wave terahertz field imaging based on photonics-based self-heterodyne electro-optic detection.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a photonics-based self-heterodyne electro-optic field imaging technique at terahertz (THz) frequency. An optical intensity beat generated by mixing two frequency-detuned free-running lasers is used for both the generation and the detection. The frequency of the beat for detection is shifted by an optical frequency shifter to realize coherent heterodyne measurement with free-running lasers. Neither mechanical delay lines nor phase-locked synthesizers are required for the amplitude and the phase imaging of the THz field, and the system simplicity is thus improved. The amplitude and phase of the THz field (125 GHz) radiated from a horn antenna are simultaneously imaged, and the standard deviation of the phase measurement is found to be 0.18 rad. PMID:23811911

Hisatake, Shintaro; Nagatsuma, Tadao

2013-07-01

332

Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

2010-01-01

333

Beating the wavelength limit: three-dimensional imaging of buried subwavelength fractures in sculpture and construction materials by terahertz time-domain reflection spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We use reflection terahertz spectroscopy to locate and produce three-dimensional images of air gaps between stones that resemble fractures, even of subwavelength thicknesses. This technique is found to be promising tool for sculpture and building damage evaluation as well as structural quality control in other dielectric materials. PMID:23338182

Schwerdtfeger, M; Castro-Camus, E; Krügener, K; Viöl, W; Koch, M

2013-01-20

334

Photothermal converters for quantitative 2D and 3D real-time TeraHertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances for the measurement of TeraHertz (THz) radiation by using original IR temperature flux sensors are presented. The bolometer principle is used for designing simple thermal converters for THz radiations (measurement of the temperature increase of a sensitive absorber). Most of these sensors are efficient, sensitive and fast enough for quantitative measurement of THz source power as well as

Christophe Pradere; Jean-Pascal Caumes; Daniel Balageas; Simon Salort; Emmanuel Abraham; Bruno Chassagne; Jean-Christophe Batsale

2010-01-01

335

Fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar.  

PubMed

We demonstrate an all-terahertz swept-source imaging radar operated at room temperature by using terahertz fibers for radiation delivery and with a terahertz-fiber directional coupler acting as a Michelson interferometer. By taking advantage of the high water reflection contrast in the low terahertz regime and by electrically sweeping at a high speed a terahertz source combined with a fast rotating mirror, we obtained the living object's distance information with a high image frame rate. Our experiment showed that this fiber-based swept-source terahertz radar could be used in real time to locate concealed moving live objects with high stability. PMID:20436563

Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Tzu-Fang; Kuo, Chung-Chiu; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang

2010-05-01

336

A Multislice Gradient Echo Pulse Sequence for CEST Imaging  

PubMed Central

Chemical exchange–dependent saturation transfer and paramagnetic chemical exchange–dependent saturation transfer are agent-mediated contrast mechanisms that depend on saturating spins at the resonant frequency of the exchangeable protons on the agent, thereby indirectly saturating the bulk water. In general, longer saturating pulses produce stronger chemical and paramagnetic exchange–dependent saturation transfer effects, with returns diminishing for pulses longer than T1. This could make imaging slow, so one approach to chemical exchange–dependent saturation transfer imaging has been to follow a long, frequency-selective saturation period by a fast imaging method. A new approach is to insert a short frequency-selective saturation pulse before each spatially selective observation pulse in a standard, two-dimensional, gradient-echo pulse sequence. Being much less than T1 apart, the saturation pulses have a cumulative effect. Interleaved, multislice imaging is straightforward. Observation pulses directed at one slice did not produce observable, unintended chemical exchange–dependent saturation transfer effects in another slice. Pulse repetition time and signal-to noise ratio increase in the normal way as more slices are imaged simultaneously. PMID:19918889

Dixon, W. Thomas; Hancu, Ileana; Ratnakar, S. James; Sherry, A. Dean; Lenkinski, Robert E.; Alsop, David C.

2010-01-01

337

Wavelet denoising and reconstruction of a microneedle embedded in human skin ex-vivo using terahertz pulsed reflectance.  

PubMed

Biological tissue can show promising features in the terahertz region of the electro-magnetic spectrum but face the problem that the signal to noise ratio can be poor due to the low energy output from the measurement instrument coupled with the high absorbance of water in biological tissue. Wavelet denoising and reconstruction are known to be suitable digital signal processing filters for reflected terahertz energy when appropriate thresholds, scales and mother-wavelets are chosen. In this article, we therefore describe a Wavelet transform-based method for denoising reflections of THz energy from ex-vivo human skin with an embedded microneedle. The wavelet reconstruction was then successfully used to identify the microneedle from the reflected waveform. This technique is potentially useful to enhance in-depth analysis and visualisation of underlying skin layers, lesions and penetration depth for targeted drug delivery. PMID:25571543

Mueller-Holtz, Martin; Seker, Huseyin; Smith, Geoff

2014-08-01

338

Antenna-coupled microbolometer based uncooled 2D array and camera for 2D real-time terahertz imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CEA-Leti has developed a monolithic large focal plane array bolometric technology optimized for 2D real-time imaging in the terahertz range. Each pixel consists in a silicon microbolometer coupled to specific antennas and a resonant quarter-wavelength cavity. First prototypes of imaging arrays have been designed and manufactured for optimized sensing in the 1-3.5THz range where THz quantum cascade lasers are delivering high optical power. NEP in the order of 1 pW/sqrt(Hz) has been assessed at 2.5 THz. This paper reports the steps of this development, starting from the pixel level, to an array associated monolithically to its CMOS ROIC and finally a stand-alone camera. For each step, modeling, technological prototyping and experimental characterizations are presented.

Simoens, F.; Meilhan, J.; Gidon, S.; Lasfargues, G.; Lalanne Dera, J.; Ouvrier-Buffet, J. L.; Pocas, S.; Rabaud, W.; Guellec, F.; Dupont, B.; Martin, S.; Simon, A. C.

2013-09-01

339

Antenna-coupled field-effect transistors for multi-spectral terahertz imaging up to 4.25 THz.  

PubMed

We demonstrate for the first time the applicability of antenna-coupled field-effect transistors for the detection of terahertz radiation (TeraFETs) for multi-spectral imaging from 0.76 to 4.25 THz. TeraFETs were fabricated in a commercial 90-nm CMOS process and noise-equivalent powers of 59, 20, 63, 85 and 110?pW/?(Hz) at 0.216, 0.59, 2,52, 3.11 and 4.25 THz, respectively, have been achieved. A set of TeraFETs has been applied in raster-scan transmission and reflection imaging of pellets of sucrose and tartaric acid simulating common plastic explosives. Transmittance values are in good agreement with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy data. The spatial distribution of the components in the samples has been determined from the transmission data using principal component analysis. PMID:25321008

Bauer, M; Venckevi?ius, R; Kašalynas, I; Boppel, S; Mundt, M; Minkevi?ius, L; Lisauskas, A; Valušis, G; Krozer, V; Roskos, H G

2014-08-11

340

Improvements in magnetic resonance imaging excitation pulse design  

E-print Network

This thesis focuses on the design of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) radio-frequency (RF) excitation pulses, and its primary contributions are made through connections with the novel multiple-system single-output (MSSO) ...

Zelinski, Adam Charles

2008-01-01

341

Terahertz Frequency Sensing and Imaging: A Time of Reckoning Future Applications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the field of terahertz (THz) science and technology has entered a completely new phase of unprecedented expansion that is generating ever growing levels of broad-based international attention. In particular,there have been important advances in state-of-the-art THz technology and very enthusiastic growth in research activities associated with related scientific and industrial applications. One can legitimately argue that the

DWIGHT L. WOOLARD; R. Brown; MICHAEL PEPPER; MICHAEL KEMP

2005-01-01

342

Development of integrated HEB\\/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present measurement results for a new type of integrated terahertz receiver, as an extension to previous work by the authors. The receiver we developed integrates quasi-optically coupled phonon-cooled NbN hot electron bolometric (HEB) mixers in close proximity with InP monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) intermediate-frequency (IF) amplifiers. We have measured antenna radiation pattern, receiver noise temperature, and bandwidth, as

Fernando Rodriguez-Morales; K. Sigfrid Yngvesson; Richard Zannoni; Eyal Gerecht; Dazhen Gu; Xin Zhao; Niklas Wadefalk; John J. Nicholson

2006-01-01

343

Highly Sensitive Vibrational Imaging by Femtosecond Pulse Stimulated Raman Loss  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear vibrational imaging of live cells and organisms is demonstrated by detecting femtosecond pulse stimulated Raman loss. Femtosecond pulse excitation produced a 12 times larger stimulated Raman loss signal than picosecond pulse excitation. The large signal allowed real-time imaging of the conversion of deuterated palmitic acid into lipid droplets inside live cells, and three-dimensional sectioning of fat storage in live C. elegans. With the majority of the excitation power contributed by the Stokes beam in the 1.0 to 1.2 ?m wavelength range, photodamage of biological samples was not observed. PMID:21731798

Zhang, Delong; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Cheng, Ji-Xin

2011-01-01

344

Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a reflection-based pulsed THz imaging system built upon our ErAs:GaAs photoconductive switch and a gated receiver, we quantify image quality at different detection bands (centered at 100, 400, and 600 GHz). Zero-bias Schottky diode detectors mounted in various waveguide sizes are used to tune the operational frequency bands of the imaging system, while the rest of the imaging system

Zachary D. Taylor; Rahul S. Singh; Elliott R. Brown; Jon E. Bjarnason; Micah P. Hanson; Arthur C. Gossard

2009-01-01

345

Single molecule imaging with longer x-ray laser pulses  

E-print Network

In serial femtosecond crystallography, x-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes because Bragg diffraction exceeds the damage-induced background scattering for longer pulses ($\\sim$ 50--100 fs). This is due to a "self-gating pulse" effect whereby damage terminates Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if that diffraction were produced by a shorter pulse of equal fluence. We show here that a similar gating effect applies to single molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage ("damage noise"). Our results suggest that sub-nanometer single molecule imaging with longer pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The...

Martin, Andrew V; Caleman, Carl; Quiney, Harry M

2015-01-01

346

Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using terahertz time domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) was assessed as a nondestructive evaluation technique for aircraft composites. Material properties of glass fiber composite were measured using both transmission and reflection configuration. The interaction of THz with a glass fiber composite was then analyzed, including the effects of scattering, absorption, and the index of refraction, as well as effective medium approximations. THz TDS, in both transmission and reflection configuration, was used to study composite damage, including voids, delaminations, mechanical damage, and heat damage. Measurement of the material properties on samples with localized heat damage showed that burning did not change the refractive index or absorption coefficient noticeably; however, material blistering was detected. Voids were located by THz TDS transmission and reflection imaging using amplitude and phase techniques. The depth of delaminations was measured via the timing of Fabry-Perot reflections after the main pulse. Evidence of bending stress damage and simulated hidden cracks was also detected with terahertz imaging.

Stoik, Christopher D.

347

Adiabatic pulse preparation for imaging iron oxide nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles produce changes in the surrounding microscopic magnetic field. A method for generating contrast based on the application of an adiabatic preparation pulse and the failure of the adiabatic condition surrounding the nanoparticles is introduced in this article. Images were obtained in the presence and absence of an adiabatic preparation pulse and the difference was obtained. With the use of an adiabatic full passage pulse, the contrast in the difference image depends linearly on iron concentration up to 1 mM. The use of an adiabatic zero passage pulse resulted in higher sensitivity to nanoparticles compared to the adiabatic full passage, while maintaining linear concentration dependence to 0.1 mM. This technique was shown to be insensitive to magnetization transfer and B(0) inhomogeneity. With its linearity with iron concentration and insensitivity to changes in the main magnetic field, the new method is well suited for quantitative iron oxide nanoparticle imaging. PMID:22213366

Harris, Steven S; Mao, Hui; Hu, Xiaoping P

2012-04-01

348

The SPARC linear accelerator based terahertz source  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-short electron beams, produced through the velocity bunching compression technique, are used to drive the SPARC linear accelerator based source, which relies on the emission of coherent transition radiation in the terahertz range. This paper reports on the main features of this radiation, as terahertz source, with spectral coverage up to 5 THz and pulse duration down to 200 fs, with an energy per pulse of the order of several micro-joule, and as electron beam longitudinal diagnostics.

Chiadroni, E.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Cultrera, L.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Gatti, G.; Pace, E.; Rossi, A. R.; Vaccarezza, C. [INFN-LNF, Frascati (Italy)] [INFN-LNF, Frascati (Italy); Catani, L.; Cianchi, A.; Marchetti, B. [INFN and University of Rome 'Tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy)] [INFN and University of Rome 'Tor Vergata,' Rome (Italy); Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L. [INFN and SBAI Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy)] [INFN and SBAI Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Ronsivalle, C. [ENEA C.R. Frascati (Italy)] [ENEA C.R. Frascati (Italy); and others

2013-03-04

349

264 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 1, NO. 1, SEPTEMBER 2011 Broadband THz Pulse Transmission  

E-print Network

THz Pulse Transmission Through the Atmosphere Yihong Yang, Student Member, IEEE, Mahboubeh Mandehgar of repetitive broadband THz pulses the record distance of 167 m through the atmosphere with 51% relative in the output pulse structure is composed of phase-locked frequency components extending from 0.07 to 0.37 THz

Oklahoma State University

350

Terahertz metamaterials  

DOEpatents

Terahertz metamaterials comprise a periodic array of resonator elements disposed on a dielectric substrate or thin membrane, wherein the resonator elements have a structure that provides a tunable magnetic permeability or a tunable electric permittivity for incident electromagnetic radiation at a frequency greater than about 100 GHz and the periodic array has a lattice constant that is smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Microfabricated metamaterials exhibit lower losses and can be assembled into three-dimensional structures that enable full coupling of incident electromagnetic terahertz radiation in two or three orthogonal directions. Furthermore, polarization sensitive and insensitive metamaterials at terahertz frequencies can enable new devices and applications.

Peralta, Xomalin Guaiuli; Brener, Igal; O'Hara, John; Azad, Abul; Smirnova, Evgenya; Williams, John D.; Averitt, Richard D.

2014-08-12

351

Finite Element Modeling of the Pulse Wave propagation in the aorta for simulation of the Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of pathological conditions result in significant changes of the mechanical properties of the aortic wall. Using the Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) as an indicator of aortic stiffness has been proposed for several decades. Pulse Wave Imaging (PWI) is an ultrasonography-based imaging method that has been developed to map and quantify the pulse wave (PW) propagation along the

Jonathan Vappou; Ioannis Zervantonakis; Jianwen Luo; Elisa Konofagou

2008-01-01

352

Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers operating at 0.6 - 5 THz (? ˜ 60 - 500 µm) are poised to become the dominant solid-state sources of continuous-wave (cw) far-infrared radiation enabling applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging, and sensing. QC-lasers are the longest wavelength semiconductor laser sources in which terahertz gain is obtained from electronic intersubband radiative transitions in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure quantum wells. Since their invention in 2001, rapid development has enabled demonstration of cw powers greater than 100 mW. However, challenges still remain in the areas of operating temperature, laser efficiency and power, and beam quality to name a few. The highest-temperature operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers (200 K pulsed, 117 K cw) depends on the use of a low-loss "metal-metal" waveguide where the active gain material is sandwiched between two metal cladding layers; a technique similar, in concept, to microstrip transmission line technology at microwave frequencies. Due to the subwavelength transverse dimensions of the metal-metal waveguide, however, obtaining a directive beam pattern and efficient out-coupling of THz power is non-trivial. This thesis reports the demonstration of a one-dimensional waveguide for terahertz quantum-cascade lasers that acts as a leaky-wave antenna and tailors laser radiation in one dimension to a directional beam. This scheme adapts microwave transmission-line metamaterial concepts to a planar structure realized in terahertz metal-metal waveguide technology and is fundamentally different from distributed feedback/photonic crystal structures that work based on Bragg scattering of propagating modes. The leaky-wave metamaterial antenna operates based on a propagating mode with an effective phase index smaller than unity such that it radiates in the surface direction via a leaky-wave mechanism. Surface emission (˜ 40° from broadside) with a single directive beam (FWHM ˜ 15°) at 2.74 THz was demonstrated from terahertz QC-lasers with leaky-wave coupler antennas which exhibited slope efficiencies ˜ 4 times greater than conventional Fabry-Perot metal-metal waveguides. Using this technique the first demonstration of beam scanning for a terahertz QC-laser was reported (from 35° - 60°) as the emission frequency varied from 2.65 - 2.81 THz. Towards the bigger goal of realizing an active terahertz metamaterial to ultimately develop "zero-index" terahertz quantum-cascade lasers immune to spatial hole burning, or "negative-index" metamaterials for superresolution terahertz imaging, a composite right-/left-handed transmission-line metamaterial based upon subwavelength metal waveguide loaded with terahertz QC material was demonstrated. Due to the addition of distributed series capacitors (realized by introducing gaps in top metallization) and shunt inductors (realized by operating in the higher-order lateral mode of the waveguide), the transmission-line metamaterial exhibits left-handed (backward waves or negative index) leaky-wave propagation from 2.3 - 2.45 THz in addition to the conventional right-handed leaky-wave behavior (from 2.6 - 3.0 THz).

Tavallaee, Amir Ali

353

Photo-designed terahertz devices  

PubMed Central

Technologies are being developed to manipulate electromagnetic waves using artificially structured materials such as photonic crystals and metamaterials, with the goal of creating primary optical devices. For example, artificial metallic periodic structures show potential for the construction of devices operating in the terahertz frequency regime. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of photo-designed terahertz devices that enable the real-time, wide-range frequency modulation of terahertz electromagnetic waves. These devices are comprised of a photo-induced, planar periodic-conductive structure formed by the irradiation of a silicon surface using a spatially modulated, femtosecond optical pulsed laser. We also show that the modulation frequency can be tuned by the structural periodicity, but is hardly affected by the excitation power of the optical pump pulse. We expect that our findings will pave the way for the construction of all-optical compact operating devices, such as optical integrated circuits, thereby eliminating the need for materials fabrication processes. PMID:22355638

Okada, Takanori; Tanaka, Koichiro

2011-01-01

354

Terahertz-time domain spectrometer with 90 dB peak dynamic range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many time-domain terahertz applications require systems with high bandwidth, high signal-to-noise ratio and fast measurement speed. In this paper we present a terahertz time-domain spectrometer based on 1550 nm fiber laser technology and InGaAs photoconductive switches. The delay stage offers both a high scanning speed of up to 60 traces / s and a flexible adjustment of the measurement range from 15 ps - 200 ps. Owing to a precise reconstruction of the time axis, the system achieves a high dynamic range: a single pulse trace of 50 ps is acquired in only 44 ms, and transformed into a spectrum with a peak dynamic range of 60 dB. With 1000 averages, the dynamic range increases to 90 dB and the measurement time still remains well below one minute. We demonstrate the suitability of the system for spectroscopic measurements and terahertz imaging.

Vieweg, N.; Rettich, F.; Deninger, A.; Roehle, H.; Dietz, R.; Göbel, T.; Schell, M.

2014-10-01

355

Pulse Processing System for the RADMAP Radiation Modulation Aperture Imager  

SciTech Connect

We are currently developing a portable radiation imager for emergency responders. The instrument contains a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube with a thin CsI(Na) scintillator and a tungsten radiation modulation aperture. As part of this project, we have designed a novel pulse processing system to record the amplitude and position of incident events. This system consists of four charge-to-pulse-width converters that transfer time-modulated digital pulses to a field-programmable gate array. The design can process data at count rates exceeding 40,000 events per second and transmit data over an Ethernet link at 1 Gb/sec.

Myjak, Mitchell J.; Rohrer, John S.; Morris, Scott J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.

2007-12-31

356

Experimental point spread function of fm pulse imaging scheme.  

PubMed

In this paper, we have examined the possibility of incorporating pulse compression techniques into a conventional medical B-scan imaging scheme. Linear frequency modulation fm, one form of pulse coding among many others, has been used in this study. With this approach, one can overcome current peak intensity limitations. A theoretical framework that includes medium propagation effects, transducer bandwidth and diffraction effects is presented, which could be used to examine the system point spread function under this imaging scheme. A prototype experimental set-up and signal processing are described and used for simple imaging tasks in attenuating and nonattenuating media. Analysis of the experimental point spread functions shows that resolution similar to conventional short pulse imaging can be achieved. However, the existence of large range side lobe levels usually associated with pulse compression processing can degrade contrast resolution in medical ultrasound. We have considered various different factors that can affect the range side lobe levels and examined their effect either experimentally or through simulations. The technique has the potential for improving signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), maximum penetration depth and resolution without exceeding peak intensity limitations. Some possible applications are discussed that merit further evaluation. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of this technique and presents a theoretical framework that can be used in future studies aimed at evaluating image quality, system performance, and possible artifacts under such an imaging scheme. PMID:7571207

Rao, N A; Mehra, S; Bridges, J; Venkatraman, S

1995-04-01

357

Terahertz surface emission from Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin film photovoltaic material excited by femtosecond laser pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed efficient terahertz (THz) emission from sol-gel grown Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films using THz time domain spectroscopy technique. The THz emission bandwidth exceeds 2 THz with a dynamic range of 20 dB in the amplitude spectrum. The THz emission amplitude from CZTSe is found to be independent of external magnetic fields. Comparing the polarity of THz emission waveforms of CZTSe and GaAs, we suggest that the acceleration of photo-carriers in the surface accumulation layer of CZTSe is the dominant mechanism of radiation emission. Optical excitation fluence dependence measurements show that the saturation fluence of the CZTSe thin film reaches 1.48 ?J/cm2.

Zhao, Zhenyu; Niehues, Gudrun; Funkner, Stefan; Estacio, Elmer; Han, Qifeng; Yamamoto, Kohji; Zhang, Jingtao; Shi, Wangzhou; Guo, Qixin; Tani, Masahiko

2014-12-01

358

Applications of Ultrafast Terahertz Pulses for Intra-ExcitonicSpectroscopy of Quasi-2D Electron-Hole Gases  

SciTech Connect

Excitons are of fundamental interest and of importance foropto-electronic applications of bulk and nano-structured semiconductors.This paper discusses the utilization of ultrafast terahertz (THz) pulsesfor the study of characteristic low-energy excitations of photoexcitedquasi 2D electron-hole (e-h) gases. Optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopyat 250-kHz repetition rate is employed to detect characteristic THzsignatures of excitons and unbound e-h pairs in GaAs quantum wells.Exciton and free-carrier densities are extracted from the data using atwo-component model. We report the detailed THz response and pairdensities for different photoexcitation energies resonant to heavy-holeexcitons, light-hole excitons, or the continuum of unbound pairs. Suchexperiments can provide quantitative insights into wavelength, time, andtemperature dependence of the low-energy response and composition ofoptically excited e-h gases in low-dimensionalsemiconductors.

Kaindl, Robert A.; Carnahan, Marc A.; Hagele, Daniel; Chemla, D.S.

2006-09-02

359

Computed tomography image using sub-terahertz waves generated from a high-T{sub c} superconducting intrinsic Josephson junction oscillator  

SciTech Connect

A computed tomography (CT) imaging system using monochromatic sub-terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves generated from a device constructed from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in a single crystalline mesa structure of the high-T{sub c} superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+?} was developed and tested on three samples: Standing metallic rods supported by styrofoam, a dried plant (heart pea) containing seeds, and a plastic doll inside an egg shell. The images obtained strongly suggest that this CT imaging system may be useful for a variety of practical applications.

Kashiwagi, T., E-mail: kashiwagi@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Markovi?, B. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Mirkovi?, J. [Faculty of Science, University of Montenegro, and CETI, Put Radomira Ivanovica, 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Klemm, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816-2385 (United States)

2014-02-24

360

Pulse-modulation imaging-review and performance analysis.  

PubMed

In time-domain or pulse-modulation (PM) imaging, the incident light intensity is not encoded in amounts of charge, voltage, or current as it is in conventional image sensors. Instead, the image data are represented by the timing of pulses or pulse edges. This method of visual information encoding optimizes the phototransduction individually for each pixel by abstaining from imposing a fixed integration time for the entire array. Exceptionally high dynamic range (DR) and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are immediate benefits of this approach. In particular, DR is no longer limited by the power-supply rails as in conventional complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor active pixel sensors, thus providing relative immunity to the supply-voltage scaling of modern CMOS technologies. In addition, PM imaging naturally supports pixel-parallel analog-to-digital conversion, thereby enabling high temporal resolution/frame rates or an asynchronous event-based array readout. The applications of PM imaging in emerging areas, such as sensor network, wireless endoscopy, retinal prosthesis, polarization imaging, and energy harvesting are surveyed to demonstrate the effectiveness of PM imaging in low-power, high-performance machine vision, and biomedical applications of the future. The evolving design innovations made in PM imaging, such as high-speed arbitration circuits and ultra-compact processing elements, are expected to have even wider impacts in disciplines beyond CMOS image sensors. This paper thoroughly reviews and classifies all common PM image sensor architectures. Analytical models and a universal figure of merit - image quality and dynamic range to energy complexity factor are proposed to quantitatively assess different PM imagers across the entire spectrum of PM architectures. PMID:23850979

Chen, D G; Matolin, D; Bermak, A; Posch, C

2011-02-01

361

Security applications of terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent events have accelerated the quest for ever more effective security screening to detect an increasing variety of threats. Many techniques employing different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum from radio up to X- and gammaray are in use. Terahertz radiation, which lies between microwave and infrared, is the last part to be exploited for want, until recently, of suitable sources and detectors. This paper describes practical techniques for Terahertz imaging and spectroscopy which are now being applied to a variety of applications. We describe a number of proof-of-principle experiments which show that Terahertz imaging has the ability to use very low levels of this non-ionising radiation to detect hidden objects in clothing and common packing materials and envelopes. Moreover, certain hidden substances such as plastic explosives and other chemical and biological agents may be detected from their characteristic Terahertz spectra. The results of these experiments, coupled with availability of practical Terahertz systems which operate outside the laboratory environment, demonstrate the potential for Terahertz technology in security screening and counterterrorism.

Kemp, Michael C.; Taday, P. F.; Cole, Bryan E.; Cluff, J. A.; Fitzgerald, Anthony J.; Tribe, William R.

2003-08-01

362

Pulsed holography for combustion diagnostics. [image reconstruction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image reconstruction and data extraction techniques were considered with respect to their application to combustion diagnostics. A system was designed and constructed that possesses sufficient stability and resolution to make quantitative data extraction possible. Example data were manually processed using the system to demonstrate its feasibility for the purpose intended. The system was interfaced with the PDP-11-04 computer for maximum design capability. It was concluded that the use of specialized digital hardware controlled by a relatively small computer provides the best combination of accuracy, speed, and versatility for this particular problem area.

Klein, N.; Dewilde, M. A.

1980-01-01

363

Screening of the bias field in terahertz generation from photoconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We include screening of the bias field by the space charge induced by carrier transport and by the generated terahertz radiation in a model describing the far-field electromagnetic radiation from a large-aperture biased photoconductor triggered by an ultrashort optical pulse. At high fluences, space-charge screening is shown to produce bipolar terahertz waveforms. However, the dominant saturation mechanism is screening of the bias field by the radiated terahertz field.

Rodriguez, G.; Taylor, A. J.

1996-07-01

364

Giant enhancement of terahertz emission from nanoporous GaP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have studied the emission of terahertz radiation from nanoporous semiconductor matrices of GaP excited by the femtosecond laser pulses. We observe 3-4 orders of magnitude increase of terahertz radiation emission from the nanoporous matrix compared to bulk material. The effect is mainly related to drastic increase of the sample surface and pinning of conducting electrons to surface states. This result opens up a promising way to create powerful sources of terahertz radiation using nanoporous semiconductors.

Atrashchenko, A.; Arlauskas, A.; Adomavi?ius, R.; Korotchenkov, A.; Ulin, V. P.; Belov, P.; Krotkus, A.; Evtikhiev, V. P.

2014-11-01

365

Nonperturbative interband response of a bulk InSb semiconductor driven off resonantly by terahertz electromagnetic few-cycle pulses.  

PubMed

Intense multiterahertz pulses are used to study the coherent nonlinear response of bulk InSb by means of field-resolved four-wave mixing spectroscopy. At amplitudes above 5??MV/cm the signals show a clear temporal substructure which is unexpected in perturbative nonlinear optics. Simulations based on a model of a two-level quantum system demonstrate that in spite of the strongly off-resonant character of the excitation the high-field few-cycle pulses drive the interband resonances into a nonperturbative regime of Rabi flopping. The rotating wave approximation breaks down in this case and the system reaches a complete population inversion. PMID:23083284

Junginger, F; Mayer, B; Schmidt, C; Schubert, O; Mährlein, S; Leitenstorfer, A; Huber, R; Pashkin, A

2012-10-01

366

Electron acceleration and kinetic energy tailoring via ultrafast terahertz fields.  

PubMed

We propose a mechanism for tuning the kinetic energy of surface plasmon generated electron pulses through control of the time delay between a pair of externally applied terahertz pulses. Varying the time delay results in translation, compression, and broadening of the kinetic energy spectrum of the generated electron pulse. We also observe that the electrons' kinetic energy dependence on the carrier envelope phase of the surface plasmon is preserved under the influence of a terahertz electric field. PMID:25402147

Greig, S R; Elezzabi, A Y

2014-11-17

367

Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma Thomas M. Antonsen, Jr. and John Palastro  

E-print Network

corrugated channels can also be used for creation of THz radiation by bunched electron beams. © 2007 American is generally minimal. However, if one considers propagation in corrugated plasma channels, conditions pulse can be generated at accelerator facilities with intense bunched electron beams4 via synchrotron

Milchberg, Howard

368

406 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON TERAHERTZ SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 4, JULY 2012 Understanding THz Pulse Propagation in the  

E-print Network

THz Pulse Propagation in the Atmosphere Yihong Yang, Student Member, IEEE, Mahboubeh Mandehgar, and Daniel R. Grischkowsky, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In this paper, we have extracted the THz refractivity of water vapor ( ( ) 1) from the complex spectra of the pre- cise coherent THz-TDS absorption measurement

Oklahoma State University

369

Theory of a laser-plasma method for detecting terahertz radiation  

SciTech Connect

A theory is developed for calculating the spectrum and the shape of a terahertz wave packet from the temporal profile of the energy of the second harmonic of the laser field generated during nonlinear interaction of laser and terahertz pulses in an optical-breakdown plasma. The spectral and temporal characteristics of the second-harmonic envelope and a terahertz pulse are shown to coincide only for short laser pulses. For long laser pulses, the second-harmonic spectral line shifts to the red and its temporal profile is determined by the time integral of the electric field of terahertz radiation.

Frolov, A. A., E-mail: frolov@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Borodin, A. V.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kuritsyn, I. I.; Shkurinov, A. P. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15

370

Opportunities for silicon at mmWave and Terahertz frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes opportunities for silicon process technologies at mmwave and terahertz frequencies and demonstrates key building blocks for 94-GHz and 600-GHz imaging arrays. It reviews potential applications and summarizes state-of-the-art terahertz technologies. Terahertz focal-plane arrays (FPAs) for video-rate imaging applications have been fabricated in commercially available CMOS and SiGe process technologies respectively. The 3times5 arrays achieve a responsivity of

U. R. Pfeiffer; E. Ojefors; A. Lisauskas; H. G. Roskos

2008-01-01

371

A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams  

SciTech Connect

Spatial light modulators that control the spatial transmission of a terahertz beam either electrically or optically, have been difficult to build due to the lack of suitable materials. Here we propose the use of active terahertz metamaterials for the construction of a multi-pixel spatial modulator for terahertz beams. Our first-generation device consists of a 4 x 4 pixel array, where each pixel is an array of sub-wavelength-sized split-ring resonator elements fabricated on a semiconductor substrate, and is independently controlled by applying an external voltage. Through terahertz transmission experiments, we show that the spatial modulator has a uniform modulation depth of around 40 percent across all pixels at the resonant frequency. Around this operating frequency, the crosstalk between pixels is negligible. This device can operate under small voltage levels, at room temperature, with low power consumption and reasonably high switching speed, and can therefore benefit future applications in terahertz imaging and communications.

Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

372

Transit Time Enhanced Bandwidth in Nanostructured Terahertz Emitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte-Carlo simulations are used to show that the transit time in ˜100 nm gap photoconductive emitters of terahertz radiation is short enough to produce broad-bandwidth pulses. Furthermore, with these calculations we demonstrate that nanostructured contacts remove the need for low-temperature-grown or ion-implanted materials for broad-band terahertz devices.

Corzo-Garcia, S. C.; Alfaro, M.; Castro-Camus, E.

2014-09-01

373

Application of the InGaAs-based bow-tie diodes for terahertz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bow-tie InGaAs diode with broken symmetry has been designed as fast detector of THz frequency operating at room temperature. Scanning THz imaging system with the bow-tie diode is considered and compared with similar imaging schemes. Suitability of bow-tie diodes for real-time THz imaging is also discussed.

D. Seliuta; I. Kas?alynas; V. Tamos?iunas; R. Simnis?kis; G. Valus?is

2010-01-01

374

Terahertz Sensing of Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomolecules such as DNA and proteins exhibit a wealth of modes in the Terahertz (THz) range from the rotational, vibrational and stretching modes of biomolecules. Many materials such as drywall that are opaque to human eyes are transparent to THz. Therefore, it can be used as a powerful tool for biomolecular sensing, biomedical analysis and through-the-wall imaging. Experiments were carried out to study the absorption of various materials including DNA and see-through imaging of drywall using FTIR spectrometer and Time Domain Spectroscopy (TDS) system.

Xuan, G.; Ghosh, S.; Kim, S.; Lv, P.-C.; Buma, T.; Weng, B.; Barner, K.; Kolodzey, J.

2007-06-01

375

The simulation of adaptive optical image even and pulse noise and research of image quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As optical image becomes more and more important in adaptive optics area, and adaptive optical telescopes play a more and more important role in the detection system on the ground, and the images we get are so many that we need find a suitable method to choose good quality images automatically in order to save human power, people pay more and more attention in image's evaluation methods and their characteristics. According to different image degradation model, the applicability of different image's quality evaluation method will be different. Researchers have paid most attention in how to improve or build new method to evaluate degraded images. Now we should change our way to take some research in the models of degradation of images, the reasons of image degradation, and the relations among different degraded images and different image quality evaluation methods. In this paper, we build models of even noise and pulse noise based on their definition and get degraded images using these models, and we take research in six kinds of usual image quality evaluation methods such as square error method, sum of multi-power of grey scale method, entropy method, Fisher function method, Sobel method, and sum of grads method, and we make computer software for these methods to use easily to evaluate all kinds of images input. Then we evaluate the images' qualities with different evaluation methods and analyze the results of six kinds of methods, and finally we get many important results. Such as the characteristics of every method for evaluating qualities of degraded images of even noise, the characteristics of every method for evaluating qualities of degraded images of pulse noise, and the best method to evaluate images which affected by tow kinds of noise both and the characteristics of this method. These results are important to image's choosing automatically, and this will help we to manage the images we get through adaptive optical telescopes base on the ground.

Wen, Changli; Xu, Yuannan; Xu, Rong; Liu, Changhai; Men, Tao; Niu, Wei

2013-09-01

376

Single pulse frequency compounding protocol for superharmonic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second harmonic imaging is currently accepted as the standard in commercial echographic systems. A new imaging technique, coined as superharmonic imaging (SHI), combines the third till the fifth harmonics, arising during nonlinear sound propagation. It could further enhance the resolution and quality of echographic images. To meet the bandwidth requirement for SHI a dedicated phased array has been developed: a low frequency subarray, intended for transmission, interleaved with a high frequency subarray, used in reception. As the bandwidth of the elements is limited, the spectral gaps in between the harmonics cause multiple (ghost) reflection artifacts. A dual-pulse frequency compounding method aims at suppressing those artifacts at a price of a reduced frame rate. In this study we explore a possibility of performing frequency compounding within a single transmission. The traditional frequency compounding method suppresses the ripples by consecutively emitting two short Gaussian bursts with a slightly different center frequency. In the newly proposed method, the transmit aperture is divided into two parts: the first half is used to send a pulse at the lower center frequency, while the other half simultaneously transmits at a slightly higher center frequency. The suitability of the protocol for medical imaging applications in terms of the steering capabilities was performed in a simulation study with INCS and the hydrophone measurements. Moreover, an experimental study was carried out to find the optimal parameters for the clinical imaging protocol. The latter was subsequently used to obtain the images of a tissue mimicking phantom containing strongly reflecting wires. Additionally, the images of a human heart in the parasternal projection were acquired. The scanning aperture with the developed protocol amounts to approximately 90°, which is sufficient to capture the cardiac structures in the standard anatomical projections. The theoretically estimated and experimentally measured grating lobe levels are equal to -28.3 dB and -35.9 dB, respectively. A considerable improvement in the axial resolution of the SHI component (0.73 mm) at -6 dB in comparison with the third harmonic (2.23 mm) was observed. A similar comparison in terms of the lateral resolution slightly favored the superharmonic component by 0.2 mm. Additionally, the images of the tissue mimicking phantom exhibited the absence of the multiple reflection artifacts. The in-vivo acquisition allows one to clearly observe the dynamic of the mitral valve leaflets. The new method is equally effective in eliminating the ripple artifacts associated with SHI as the dual-pulse technique, while the full frame rate is maintained.

Danilouchkine, M. G.; van Neer, P. L. M. J.; Verweij, M. D.; Matte, G. M.; Vletter, W. B.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; de Jong, N.

2013-07-01

377

Terahertz wave opto-mechanical scanner for security application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new opto-mechanical scanner that is hopeful for terahertz imaging in security applications. The target of using this scanner is portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects. It is not only applied to active terahertz imaging but also applied to passive Terahertz imaging. Terahertz wave can penetrate many materials that are opaque to visible and infrared light, such as plastics, cardboard, textiles and so on. So the terahertz imaging technology has a potential to be applicable in security inspection at airports, stations and other public place. Now, the most terahertz imaging system works at point to point mechanical scan pattern. The speed of this raster scan is too slow to apply in practical field. 2-D terahertz array detector can be applied to real time imaging. But at present their cost is prohibitively high. Fortunately low cost, high performance, opto-mechanically scanner is able to meet the current requirements. An opto-mechanical scanner should be able to rapidly scan a 2-D image of the scene. It also should have high optical efficiency so that an image system can achieve the required thermal sensitivity with the minimum number of receivers. These ensure that it can easily operate at any wavelength, and be active or passive. The opto-mechanically scanning can meets these requirements and is being developed into a high performance, low-cost prototype system that will meet the future needs for terahertz security.

Deng, Chao; Zheng, Yongju; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-11-01

378

Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes  

ScienceCinema

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

Leonard, Francois

2014-06-13

379

Terahertz detection and carbon nanotubes  

SciTech Connect

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, along with collaborators from Rice University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, are developing new terahertz detectors based on carbon nanotubes that could lead to significant improvements in medical imaging, airport passenger screening, food inspection and other applications.

Leonard, Francois

2014-06-11

380

High-resolution broadband terahertz spectroscopy via electronic heterodyne detection of photonically generated terahertz frequency comb.  

PubMed

We report an alternative approach to the terahertz frequency-comb spectroscopy (TFCS) based on nonlinear mixing of a photonically generated terahertz pulse train with a continuous wave signal from an electronic synthesizer. A superlattice is used as a nonlinear mixer. Unlike the standard TFCS technique, this approach does not require a complex double-laser system but retains the advantages of TFCS-high spectral resolution and wide bandwidth. PMID:25360955

Pavelyev, D G; Skryl, A S; Bakunov, M I

2014-10-01

381

Approaching real-time terahertz imaging using photo-induced reconfigurable aperture arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a technique using photo-induced coded-aperture arrays for potential real-time THz imaging at roomtemperature. The coded apertures (based on Hadamard coding) were implemented using programmable illumination on semi-insulating Silicon wafer by a commercial digital-light processing (DLP) projector. Initial imaging experiments were performed in the 500-750 GHz band using a WR-1.5 vector network analyzer (VNA) as the source and receiver. Over the entire band, each array pixel can be optically turned on and off with an average modulation depth of ~20 dB and ~35 dB, for ~4 cm2 and ~0.5 cm2 imaging areas respectively. The modulation speed is ~1.3 kHz using the current DLP system and data acquisition software. Prototype imaging demonstrations have shown that a 256-pixel image can be obtained in the order of 10 seconds using compressed sensing (CS), and this speed can be improved greatly for potential real-time or video-rate THz imaging. This photo-induced coded-aperture imaging (PI-CAI) technique has been successfully applied to characterize THz beams in quasi-optical systems and THz horn antennas.

Shams, Md. Itrat Bin; Jiang, Zhenguo; Rahman, Syed; Qayyum, Jubaid; Hesler, Jeffrey L.; Cheng, Li-Jing; Xing, Huili Grace; Fay, Patrick; Liu, Lei

2014-05-01

382

A Source for Ultrafast Continuum Infrared and Terahertz Radiation  

E-print Network

A compact and stable method for generating high-intensity linearly polarized continuum mid-IR and terahertz light using ultrafast femtosecond (fs) laser pulses is demonstrated. Continuous light generation from <400cm?1 ...

Petersen, Poul B.

383

Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portability, low cost and fast acquisition rates are key features that a THz imaging system should satisfy for extended commercialized applications. With regards to these features, the source - detector association of a THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) with an un-cooled micro-bolometer two-dimensional array looks promising for THz active imaging. QCLs performance is rapidly improving, with higher operating temperatures and

F. Simoens; T. Durand; J. Meilhan; P. Gellie; W. Maineult; C. Sirtori; S. Barbieri; H. Beere; D. Ritchie

2009-01-01

384

Experimental imaging performance evaluation for alternate configurations of undersea pulsed laser serial imagers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines imaging performance bounds for undersea electro-optic identification (EOID) sensors that use pulsed laser line scanners to form serial images, typically utilizing one laser pulse for each formed image element. The experimental results presented include the use of two distinct imaging geometries; firstly where the laser source and single element optical detector are nearly co-aligned (near monostatic) and secondly where the laser source is deployed on a separate platform positioned closer to the target (bistatic) to minimize source-to-target beam spread, volumetric scatter and attenuation, with the detector being positioned much further from the target. The former system uses synchronous scanning in order to significantly limit the required instantaneous angular acceptance function of the detector and has the desired intention of acquiring only ballistic photons that have directly interacted with the target element and the undesirable property of acquiring snake photon contributions that indirectly arrive into the detector aperture via multiple forward scattering over the two-way propagation path. The latter system utilizes a staring detector with a much wider angular acceptance function, the objective being to deliver maximum photon density to each target element and acquire diffuse, snake and ballistic photon contributions in order to maximize the signal. The objective of this work was to experimentally investigate pulse-to-pulse detection statistics for both imaging geometries in carefully controlled particle suspensions, with and without artificially generated random uncharacterized scattering inhomogeneities to assess potential image performance in realistic conditions where large biological and mineral particles, aggregates, thin biological scattering layers and turbulence will exist. More specifically, the study investigates received pulse energy variance in clear filtered water, as well as various well-characterized particle suspensions with and without an artificial thin random scattering layer. Efforts were made to keep device noise constant in order to assess the impact of the environment on extrapolated image quality.

Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Nootz, Gero; Ouyang, Bing; Caimi, Frank M.

2011-06-01

385

Active terahertz metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

Chen, Hou-tong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

386

Active terahertz holography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel technology to dynamically control the wave front of the terahertz (THz) beam with photo-generated carriers. The computer generated hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional optical spatial light modulator. The photo-generated carriers on the silicon surface will from a hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special field distributions and vortex beams are generated using this method. This technology is broadband, structure free, tunable, and all-optical controllable. It will provide numerous possible applications in future THz imaging and communication systems.

Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan

2013-12-01

387

Real-time, T-ray imaging using a sub-terahertz gyrotron  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated real-time, active, T-ray imaging using a 0.46 THz gyrotron capable of producing 16 W in continuous wave operation and a pyroelectric array camera with 124-by-124 pixels. An expanded Gaussian beam from the gyrotron was used to maintain the power density above the detection level of the pyroelectric array over the area of the irradiated object. Real-time imaging at a video rate of 48 Hz was achieved through the use of the built-in chopper of the camera. Potential applications include fast scanning for security purposes and for quality control of dry or frozen foods.

Han, Seong-Tae; Torrezan, Antonio C.; Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

2012-06-01

388

Single pulse frequency compounding protocol for superharmonic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Second harmonic imaging is currently adopted as standard in commercial echographic systems. A new imaging technique, coined as superharmonic imaging (SHI), combines the 3rd till the 5th harmonics, arising during nonlinear sound propagation. It could further enhance resolution and quality of echographic images. To meet the bandwidth requirement for SHI a dedicated phased array has been developed: a low frequency subarray, intended for transmission, interleaved with a high frequency subarray, used in reception. As the bandwidth of the elements is limited, the spectral gaps in between the harmonics cause multiple reflection artifacts. Recently, we introduce a dual-pulse frequency compounding (DPFC) method to suppress those artifacts at price of a reduced frame rate. In this study we investigate the feasibility of performing the frequency compounding protocol within a single transmission. The traditional DPFC method constructs each trace in a post-processing stage by summing echoes from two emitted pulses, the second slightly frequency-shifted compared to the first. In the newly proposed method, the transmit aperture is divided into two parts: the first half is used to send a pulse at the lower center frequency, while the other half simultaneously transmits at the higher center frequency. The suitability of the protocol for medical imaging applications in terms of the steering capabilities was performed in a simulation study using the FIELD II toolkit. Moreover, an experimental study was performed to deduce the optimal parametric set for implementation of the clinical imaging protocol. The latter was subsequently used to obtain the images of a tissue mimicking phantom containing strongly reflecting wires. For in-vitro acquisitions the SHI probe with interleaved phased array (44 odd elements at 1MHz and 44 even elements at 3.7MHz elements, optimized for echocardiography) was connected to a fully programmable ultrasound system. The results of the Field II simulations demonstrated that the angle between the main and grating lobe amounted to 90°. The difference in the fundamental pressure level between those lobes was equal to -26.8 dB. Those results suggest that the superharmonic content in the grating lobe was acceptably low. A considerable improvement in the axial resolution of the SHI component (0.73 mm) at -6 dB in comparison with the 3rd harmonic (2.23 mm) was observed. A similar comparison in terms of the lateral resolution slightly favored the superharmonic component by 0.2 mm. Additionally, the images of the tissue mimicking phantom exhibited an absence of the multiple reflection artifacts in the focal and post-focal regions. The new method is equally effective in eliminating the ripple artifacts associated with SHI as the dual pulse technique, while the full frame rate is maintained.

Danilouchkine, Mikhail G.; van Neer, Paul L. M. J.; Matte, Guillaume M.; Verweij, Martin D.; de Jong, Nico

2011-03-01

389

Features of plasma glow in low pressure terahertz gas discharge  

SciTech Connect

Investigations of the low pressure (1–100 Torr) gas discharge in the powerful (1 kW) quasi-optical terahertz (0.55 THz) wave beams were made. An intense afterglow was observed after the end of gyrotron terahertz radiation pulse. Afterglow duration significantly exceeded radiation pulse length (8 ?s). This phenomenon could be explained by the strong dependence of the collisional-radiative recombination rate (that is supposed to be the most likely mechanism of electron losses from the low pressure terahertz gas discharge) on electron temperature.

Bratman, V. L.; Golubev, S. V.; Izotov, I. V.; Kalynov, Yu. K.; Koldanov, V. A.; Razin, S. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)] [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Litvak, A. G.; Sidorov, A. V.; Skalyga, V. A.; Zorin, V. G. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation) [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina st., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2013-12-15

390

Enhanced coupling of terahertz radiation to cylindrical wire waveguides.  

PubMed

Wire waveguides have recently been shown to be valuable for transporting pulsed terahertz radiation. This technique relies on the use of a scattering mechanism for input coupling. A radially polarized surface wave is excited when a linearly polarized terahertz pulse is focused on the gap between the wire waveguide and another metal structure. We calculate the input coupling efficiency using a simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). Additional FEM results indicate that enhanced coupling efficiency can be achieved through the use of a radially symmetric photoconductive antenna. Experimental results confirm that such an antenna can generate terahertz radiation which couples to the radial waveguide mode with greatly improved efficiency. PMID:19503341

Deibel, Jason A; Wang, Kanglin; Escarra, Matthew D; Mittleman, Daniel

2006-01-01

391

Perspectives in the design of monolithic focal plane arrays for terahertz active spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active spectroscopic imaging is based on arrays of broadband, short-response-time detectors observing a scene illuminated by a number of THz sources. Here we present the system design, the fabrication process and the single-pixel test for three detector technologies: GaAs Schottky diodes, GaN transistors, Nb bolometers.

M. Ortolani; E. Giovine; A. Di Gaspare; S. Cibella; R. Leoni; G. Torrioli; F. Evangelisti; V. Foglietti; M. S. Vitiello; G. Scamarcio; A. Cetronio; C. Lanzieri; M. Peroni; A. Doria; E. Giovenale; A. Petralia; G. P. Gallerano

2010-01-01

392

Production of high power femtosecond terahertz radiation  

SciTech Connect

The terahertz (THz) region of the electromagnetic spectrum is attracting interest for a broad range of applications ranging from diagnosing electron beams to biological imaging. Most sources of short pulse THz radiation utilize excitation of biased semiconductors or electro-optic crystals by high peak power lasers. For example, this was done by using an un-doped InAs wafer irradiated by a femtosecond free-electron laser (FEL) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Microwatt levels of THz radiation were detected when excited with FEL pulses at 1.06 mm wavelength and 10W average power. Recently substantially higher powers of femtosecond THz pulses produced by synchrotron emission were extracted from the electron beamline. Calculations and measurements confirm the production of coherent broadband THz radiation from relativistic electrons with an average power of nearly 20W, a world record in this wavelength range by a factor of 10,000. We describe the source, presenting theoretical calculations and their experimental verification. Potential applications of this exciting new source include driving new non-linear phenomena, performing pump-probe studies of dynamical properties of novel materials, and studying molecular vibrations and rotations, low frequency protein motions, phonons, superconductor band gaps, electronic scattering, collective electronic excitations (e.g., charge density waves), and spintronics.

Neil, George R.; Carr, G.L.; Gubeli III, Joseph F.; Jordan, K.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Shinn, Michelle; Tani, Masahiko; Williams, G.P.; Zhang, X.-C.

2003-07-11

393

Terahertz imaging with a quantum cascade laser and amorphous-silicon microbolometer array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Portability, low cost and fast acquisition rates are key features that a THz imaging system should satisfy for extended commercialized applications. With regards to these features, the source - detector association of a THz Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) with an un-cooled micro-bolometer two-dimensional array looks promising for THz active imaging. QCLs performance is rapidly improving, with higher operating temperatures and output powers recently demonstrated. On the detector side, un-cooled micro-bolometer array opens the way to real-time video rate, with no raster scanning and potential low cost. In parallel to the development of room temperature micro-bolometer sensors specifically designed for the THz range, the authors have characterized experimentally the sensitivity of CEA-LETI standard amorphous Silicon infrared microbolometers illuminated by a 3THz QCL. The sensitivity of these existing sensors is then compared to the expected sensitivity of the CEA-LETI upcoming THz sensors.

Simoens, F.; Durand, T.; Meilhan, J.; Gellie, P.; Maineult, W.; Sirtori, C.; Barbieri, S.; Beere, H.; Ritchie, D.

2009-09-01

394

Multichannel terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system at 1030 nm excitation wavelength.  

PubMed

We present Terahertz (THz) imaging with a 1D multichannel time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) system which operates with a photoconductive array of 15 detection channels excited by a 1030 nm femtosecond fiber laser. The emitter and detector are photoconductive antennas based on InGaAs/InAlAs multi-layer heterostructures (MLHS). We characterized the THz optics and the resolution of the system. The performance is demonstrated by the multichannel imaging of two samples. A simultaneous measurement of 15 THz pulses with a pixel pitch of 1 mm increases the measurement speed of the TDS system by factor 15. PMID:24921495

Brahm, Anika; Wilms, Annika; Dietz, Roman J B; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

2014-06-01

395

Contrast ratio optimisation in terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations are undertaken to optimise the contrast ratios of terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) devices subject to frequency-detuned signal and control picosecond optical pulses. Optimum control pulse widths and pulse energies as well as optimum small-signal gains of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are identified for achieving maximum contrast ratios in TOAD devices.

Tang, J. M.; Spencer, P. S.; Rees, P.; Shore, K. A.

2000-08-01

396

Glow discharge detector for terahertz and millimeter wave radiation detection and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glow discharge plasma, deriving from direct current gas breakdown, was investigated in order to realize an inexpensive THz room temperature detector. Preliminary results for THz radiation show that glow discharge indicator lamps as room temperature detectors yield good responsivity and NEP. Development of a Focal Plane Array (FPA) using such devices as detectors is advantageous since the costs of glow discharge detector is around 0.2-0.5 per lamp, and the FPA images will be diffraction limited. The detection mechanism of the glow discharge detector was found to be enhanced diffusion current which causes decrease of glow discharge detector bias current when exposed to THz radiation.

Abromovich, A.; Kopeika, N. S.; Rozban, D.

2007-10-01

397

Pulse wave imaging of the human carotid artery: an in vivo feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noninvasive quantification of regional arterial stiffness, such as measurement of the pulse wave velocity (PWV), has been shown to be of high clinical importance. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) has been previously developed by our group to visualize the propagation of the pulse wave along the aorta and to estimate the regional PWV. The objective of this paper is to determine

Jianwen Luo; Ronny Li; Elisa Konofagou

2012-01-01

398

Thermal Imaging of the Superficial Temporal Artery: An Arterial Pulse Recovery Model  

E-print Network

. A multresolution wavelet-based signal analy- sis approach is used to extract the arterial pulse waveform, which limitation was the validation of the results. The reported arterial pulse wave- forms agreed with the groundThermal Imaging of the Superficial Temporal Artery: An Arterial Pulse Recovery Model Sergey Y

Farag, Aly A.

399

Application of laser pulse stretching scheme for efficiently delivering laser energy in photoacoustic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-energy and short-duration laser pulses are desirable to improve the photoacoustic image quality when imaging deeply seated lesions. In many clinical applications, the high-energy pulses are coupled to tissue using optical fibers. These pulses can damage fibers if the damage threshold is exceeded. While keeping the total energy under the Food and Drug Administration limit for avoiding tissue damage, it is necessary to reduce the peak intensity and increase the pulse duration for minimizing fiber damage and delivering sufficient light for imaging. We use laser-pulse-stretching to address this problem. An initial 17-ns pulse was stretched to 27 and 37 ns by a ring-cavity laser-pulse-stretching system. The peak power of the 37-ns stretched pulse reduced to 42% of the original, while the fiber damage threshold was increased by 1.5-fold. Three ultrasound transducers centered at 1.3-, 3.5-, and 6-MHz frequencies were simulated, and the results showed that the photoacoustic signal of a 0.5-mm-diameter target obtained with 37-ns pulse was about 98, 91, and 80%, respectively, using the same energy as the 17-ns pulse. Simulations were validated using a broadband hydrophone. Quantitative comparisons of photoacoustic images obtained with three corresponding transducers showed that the image quality was not affected by stretching the pulse.

Wang, Tianheng; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Zhu, Quing

2012-06-01

400

Breast imaging in coronal planes with simultaneous pulse echo and transmission ultrasound.  

PubMed

Clear delineation of breast architecture was achieved with compound pulse echo ultrasound imaging in which the images were acquired in the coronal planes used for quantitative transmission ultrasonic computed tomography. Since most connective tissue planes in the breast radiate toward the nipple, compound scans from the sides of the breast record normal interfaces more consistently and reveal greater symmetries in normal portions of relatively full breasts than do conventional scans in sagittal or transverse planes. Simultaneous acquisition of the pulse echo images and images representing the local ultrasound attenuation coefficient and speed of ultrasound suggested complementary role for reflection and through-transmission images in breast cancer detection. The high quality of pulse echo images in coronal planes provides the potential for more complete pulse echo diagnosis and the basis for spatial correlation of lesions viewed in pulse echo and ultrasonic computed tomograms. These observations may permit routine ultrasonic computed tomography of the breast in the clinical setting. PMID:7302585

Carson, P L; Meyer, C R; Scherzinger, A L; Oughton, T V

1981-12-01

401

Real-time terahertz wave imaging by nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion in a 4-dimethylamino-N'-methyl-4'-stilbazolium tosylate crystal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time terahertz (THz) wave imaging has wide applications in areas such as security, industry, biology, medicine, pharmacy, and arts. In this letter, we report on real-time room-temperature THz imaging by nonlinear optical frequency up-conversion in organic 4-dimethylamino-N'-methyl-4'-stilbazolium tosylate crystal. The active projection-imaging system consisted of (1) THz wave generation, (2) THz-near-infrared hybrid optics, (3) THz wave up-conversion, and (4) an InGaAs camera working at 60 frames per second. The pumping laser system consisted of two optical parametric oscillators pumped by a nano-second frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. THz-wave images of handmade samples at 19.3 THz were taken, and videos of a sample moving and a ruler stuck with a black polyethylene film moving were supplied online to show real-time ability. Thanks to the high speed and high responsivity of this technology, real-time THz imaging with a higher signal-to-noise ratio than a commercially available THz micro-bolometer camera was proven to be feasible. By changing the phase-matching condition, i.e., by changing the wavelength of the pumping laser, we suggest THz imaging with a narrow THz frequency band of interest in a wide range from approximately 2 to 30 THz is possible.

Fan, Shuzhen; Qi, Feng; Notake, Takashi; Nawata, Kouji; Matsukawa, Takeshi; Takida, Yuma; Minamide, Hiroaki

2014-03-01

402

Metamaterial Devices for the Terahertz Band Gabriel Kniffin  

E-print Network

metamaterials research includes the design of devices that operate at THz frequencies, filling a niche left wideMetamaterial Devices for the Terahertz Band Gabriel Kniffin June 4, 2009 Abstract Terahertz (THz these waves interact with matter, with potential applications including security screening, medical imaging

La Rosa, Andres H.

403

Characterization of burn injuries using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accuracy rates of the clinical assessment techniques used in grading burn injuries remain significantly low for partial thickness burns. In this paper, we present experimental results from terahertz characterization of 2nd and 3rd degree burn wounds induced on a rat model. Reflection measurements were obtained from the surface of both burned and normal skin using pulsed terahertz spectroscopy. Signal processing techniques are described for interpretation of the acquired terahertz waveform and differentiation of burn wounds. Furthermore, the progression of burn injuries is shown by comparison between acute characterization and 72-hours survival studies. While the water content of healthy and desiccated skin has been considered as a source of terahertz signal contrast, it is demonstrated that other biological effects such as formation of post-burn interstitial edema as well as the density of the discrete scattering structures in the skin (such as hair follicles, sweat glands, etc.) play a significant role in the terahertz response of the burn wounds.

Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Mourad, Pierre D.

2011-03-01

404

Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography to effectively access pulse rate variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noncontact imaging photoplethysmography (PPG) can provide physiological assessment at various anatomical locations with no discomfort to the patient. However, most previous imaging PPG (iPPG) systems have been limited by a low sample frequency, which restricts their use clinically, for instance, in the assessment of pulse rate variability (PRV). In the present study, plethysmographic signals are remotely captured via an iPPG system at a rate of 200 fps. The physiological parameters (i.e., heart and respiration rate and PRV) derived from the iPPG datasets yield statistically comparable results to those acquired using a contact PPG sensor, the gold standard. More importantly, we present evidence that the negative influence of initial low sample frequency could be compensated via interpolation to improve the time domain resolution. We thereby provide further strong support for the low-cost webcam-based iPPG technique and, importantly, open up a new avenue for effective noncontact assessment of multiple physiological parameters, with potential applications in the evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity and remote sensing of vital physiological signs.

Sun, Yu; Hu, Sijung; Azorin-Peris, Vicente; Kalawsky, Roy; Greenwald, Stephen

2013-06-01

405

Wavelet restoration of medical pulse-echo ultrasound images in an EM framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical utility of pulse-echo ultrasound images is severely limited by inherent poor resolution that impacts negatively on their diagnostic potential. Research into the enhancement of image quality has mostly been concentrated in the areas of blind image restoration and speckle removal, with little regard for accurate modeling of the underlying tissue reflectivity that is imaged. The acoustic response of

James Ng; Richard Prager; Nick Kingsbury; Graham Treece; Andrew Gee

2007-01-01

406

Place Pulse : measuring the collaborative image of the city  

E-print Network

This thesis presents Place Pulse, a tool capable of conducting large crowdsourced visual preference surveys. The data collected with Place Pulse was used to create quantitative measures of the perceptions people hold of ...

Salesses, Mark Philip

2012-01-01

407

Study on applications of terahertz technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) technology, as new research topic and technology field which is paid more and more attention by the researchers and governments, has some unique properties which is different from other electromagnetic wave. THz wave is regarded to have potential application in many fields. Existing and emerging applications of terahertz technology in imaging, medicine, biology, space exploration, covert communications, compact radar ranges, industrial controls, terahertz microscopy, terahertz tomography, and homeland security have stimulated intensive research effort in photonics and electronics technologies bracketing the famous terahertz gap from the high and low frequency sides, respectively. Cutoff frequencies and maximum frequencies of operation of InGaAs-based Heterostructure Bipolar Transistors and High Electron Mobility Transistors are now approaching or even exceeding 600 GHz. New ideas of using plasma resonances of two-dimensional electrons for tunable detection and emission of terahertz radiation are being explored and proven experimentally. Plasma effects in polarization-induced electrons and holes in granular pyroelectric/semiconductor heterostructures hold promise of an active THz medium tunable by external electric field or light.

Luo, Ji-jun; Hou, Su-xia; Xu, Jun; Li, Juan-juan

2008-03-01

408

A novel micro-pulse laser active imaging method based on photon counting scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the use and characterization of a Single Photon Detector (SPD) for active micro-pulse laser imaging. Laser active imaging technology obtains the two dimensional (2D) intensity information of objects by using the active continuous or pulsed laser illumination and an image sensor array. The Maximum range of laser active imaging is limited by the performance of image sensor, whose noise can seriously lower the obtainable SNR and degrade the quality of the reconstructed image. This paper presents a photon counting scheme based micro-pulse laser active imaging method that utilizes the SPD as the receiver and the micro-pulsed laser as the source. In this case, SPD was used to detect the laser echo. By using repeated multi-cycle detection strategies, every detected photon event is treated as an independent measurement of laser echo and thus the intensity information of objects is acquired with the response possibility estimation of laser echo. We chose a Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiodes (GM-APD) based approach, extending the methods of micro-pulse laser active imaging. In our implement, the number of TTL pulses output from the GM-APD within the duration of the pixel dwell time was recorder by a LabView pre-programmed instrument and then the laser echo response possibility of GM-APD was established by Full Waveform Analysis algorithm. This approach combined remote imaging with single photon sensitivity and laser active imaging.

Liu, Chenghao; Yin, Wenye; Miao, Zhuang; He, Wei-ji; Chen, Qian; Gu, Guo-Hua

2013-12-01

409

Imaging the Cardiovascular Pulse Dept. of Computer Sc.  

E-print Network

diseases, sport training, sleep studies, and psychophysiology (polygraph). 1. Introduction Monitoring of cardiac pulse is widely used in health care, sport training, sleep studies, and psycho- physiological's cardiac pulse. The golden standard for pulse measurement is Electro-Cardio- Graphy (ECG) [1]. ECG records

410

Passive Euro-American terahertz camera (PEAT-CAM): passive indoor THz imaging at video rates for security applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this program is to demonstrate a system capable of passive indoors detection and identification of concealed threat items hidden underneath the clothing of non-cooperative subjects from a stand-off distance of several meters. To meet this difficult task, we are constructing an imaging system utilising superconducting ultrawideband antenna-coupled microbolometers, coupled to innovative room temperature read-out electronics, and operated within a cryogen-free pulse tube refrigerator. Previously, we have demonstrated that these devices are capable of a Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference (NETD) of 125 mK over a pre-detection bandwidth from 0.2-1 THz using a post-detection integration time of 30 ms. Further improvements on our devices are reducing this number to a few tens of mK. Such an exquisite sensitivity is necessary in order to achieve the undoubtedly stringent requirements for low false positive alarm rate combined with high probability of detection dictated by the application. Our technological approach allows for excellent per frame NETD (objective 0.5 K or below at 30 Hz frame rate), and is also amenable to multispectral (colour) imagery that enhances the discrimination of innocuous objects against real threats. In the paper we present results obtained with an 8-pixel subarray from our linear array of 128 pixels constructed using a modular approach. Two-dimensional imaging will be achieved by the use of conical scanning.

Luukanen, Arttu; Grönberg, Leif; Helistö, Panu; Penttilä, Jari S.; Seppä, Heikki; Sipola, Hannu; Dietlein, Charles R.; Grossman, Erich N.

2007-04-01

411

Stimulated Raman hyperspectral imaging based on spectral filtering of broadband fiber laser pulses.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a technique of hyperspectral imaging in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy using a tunable optical filter, whose transmission wavelength can be varied quickly by a galvanometer mirror. Experimentally, broadband Yb fiber laser pulses are synchronized with picosecond Ti:sapphire pulses, and then spectrally filtered out by the filter. After amplification by fiber amplifiers, we obtain narrowband pulses with a spectral width of <3.3 cm(-1) and a wavelength tunability of >225 cm(-1). By using these pulses, we accomplish SRS imaging of polymer beads with spectral information. PMID:22297376

Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Umemura, Wataru; Sumimura, Kazuhiko; Nishizawa, Norihiko; Fukui, Kiichi; Itoh, Kazuyoshi

2012-02-01

412

Terahertz wide aperture reflection tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a powerful imaging modality for terahertz (THz) radiation, THz wide aperture reflection tomography (WART). Edge maps of an object's cross section are reconstructed from a series of time-domain reflection measurements at different viewing angles. Each measurement corresponds to a parallel line projection of the object's cross section. The filtered backprojection algorithm is applied to recover the image from the projection data. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a reflection computed tomography technique using electromagnetic waves. We demonstrate the capabilities of THz WART by imaging the cross sections of two test objects.

Pearce, Jeremy; Choi, Hyeokho; Mittleman, Daniel M.; White, Jeff; Zimdars, David

2005-07-01

413

High dynamic velocity range particle image velocimetry using multiple pulse separation imaging.  

PubMed

The dynamic velocity range of particle image velocimetry (PIV) is determined by the maximum and minimum resolvable particle displacement. Various techniques have extended the dynamic range, however flows with a wide velocity range (e.g., impinging jets) still challenge PIV algorithms. A new technique is presented to increase the dynamic velocity range by over an order of magnitude. The multiple pulse separation (MPS) technique (i) records series of double-frame exposures with different pulse separations, (ii) processes the fields using conventional multi-grid algorithms, and (iii) yields a composite velocity field with a locally optimized pulse separation. A robust criterion determines the local optimum pulse separation, accounting for correlation strength and measurement uncertainty. Validation experiments are performed in an impinging jet flow, using laser-Doppler velocimetry as reference measurement. The precision of mean flow and turbulence quantities is significantly improved compared to conventional PIV, due to the increase in dynamic range. In a wide range of applications, MPS PIV is a robust approach to increase the dynamic velocity range without restricting the vector evaluation methods. PMID:22346564

Persoons, Tim; O'Donovan, Tadhg S

2011-01-01

414

64 ?W pulsed terahertz emission from growth optimized InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures with separated photoconductive and trapping regions  

SciTech Connect

We present results on optimized growth temperatures and layer structure design of high mobility photoconductive Terahertz (THz) emitters based on molecular beam epitaxy grown In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As multilayer heterostructures (MLHS). The photoconductive antennas made of these MLHS are evaluated as THz emitters in a THz time domain spectrometer and with a Golay cell. We measured a THz bandwidth in excess of 4 THz and average THz powers of up to 64 ?W corresponding to an optical power-to-THz power conversion efficiency of up to 2 × 10{sup ?3}.

Dietz, Roman J. B.; Globisch, Björn; Stanze, Dennis; Roehle, Helmut; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich-Hertz-Institute, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Gerhard, Marina; Velauthapillai, Ajanthkrishna; Koch, Martin [Department of Physics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Department of Physics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

2013-08-05

415

64 ?W pulsed terahertz emission from growth optimized InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures with separated photoconductive and trapping regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on optimized growth temperatures and layer structure design of high mobility photoconductive Terahertz (THz) emitters based on molecular beam epitaxy grown In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As multilayer heterostructures (MLHS). The photoconductive antennas made of these MLHS are evaluated as THz emitters in a THz time domain spectrometer and with a Golay cell. We measured a THz bandwidth in excess of 4 THz and average THz powers of up to 64 ?W corresponding to an optical power-to-THz power conversion efficiency of up to 2 × 10-3.

Dietz, Roman J. B.; Globisch, Björn; Gerhard, Marina; Velauthapillai, Ajanthkrishna; Stanze, Dennis; Roehle, Helmut; Koch, Martin; Göbel, Thorsten; Schell, Martin

2013-08-01

416

Overcoming Optical Resolution Limits in Terahertz Spectroscopy C. Alfaro, H. Koga, I. Kawayama, H. Murakami, M. Tonouchi  

E-print Network

Overcoming Optical Resolution Limits in Terahertz Spectroscopy C. Alfaro, H. Koga, I. Kawayama, H to be emitted and allow image readings to be performed by the LTEM. One hurdle faced with terahertz spectroscopy to be beneficial, not only to those labs performing terahertz spectroscopy, but hopefully in other areas

Mellor-Crummey, John

417

Laser terahertz emission microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser terahertz (THz) emission microscopy (LTEM) is reviewed. Femtosecond lasers can excite THz waves in various electronic materials due to ultrafast current modulation. The current modulation is realized by the acceleration or deceleration of photo-excited carriers, and thus LTEM visualizes the dynamic photo-response of substances. We construct a free-space type and scanning probe type with transmission or reflection modes. The developed systems have a minimum spatial resolution better than 2 ?m, which is defined by the laser beam diameter. We present some examples of LTEM applications, such as ferroelectric domain imaging, quantitative supercurrent distribution in high- T superconductors, defect detection of MOS devices as well as the visualization of the photo-responses in materials and devices. To cite this article: H. Murakami, M. Tonouchi, C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

2008-03-01

418

MREIT conductivity imaging of canine head using multi-echo pulse sequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we measure induced magnetic flux densities subject to multiple injection currents to reconstruct cross-sectional conductivity images. Spin echo pulse sequence has been widely used in MREIT and produce postmortem and in vivo conductivity images of animal and human subjects. The image quality depends on the SNR of the measured magnetic flux density image. In order to reduce the scan time and current amplitude while keeping the image quality, we have developed a multi-echo pulse sequence for MREIT. In this study, we show results of canine head MREIT imaging experiments using the multi-echo pulse sequence. Compared to the injection current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) pulse sequence, it provides a higher SNR of MR magnitude images by combining multiple echo signals. Noise in measured magnetic flux density data is significantly reduced due to an increased current injection time over multiple echo signals. These allow us to significantly decrease the total scan time. Reconstructed conductivity images of a canine head show enhanced conductivity contrast between gray and white matter using the multi-echo pulse sequence. In our future work, we will focus on in vivo human and disease model animal experiments using the new MREIT pulse sequence.

Han, Y. Q.; Meng, Z. J.; Jeong, W. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Minhas, A. S.; Kim, H. J.; Nam, H. S.; Kwon, O.; Woo, E. J.

2010-04-01

419

Shadowgraphic imaging of metal drilling with a long pulse excimer laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shadowgraphic imaging technique is used for studying the interaction between the laser beam and the material during laser drilling. The used laser is a XeCl excimer laser with a nearly diffraction limited beam and 175 ns pulse length. We studied how and when the material is removed. Holes are drilled with a series of pulses in aluminum and Hastelloy X. The shadowgraphic images show the development of a shockwave whose expansion is in agreement with theory. Both the removal of material at different times after the start of the laser pulse and the material removal for different pulses during the drilling process are shown. Material removal occurs by vaporization as well as melt ejection. Our experiments show the same amount of removed material for drilling with different cover gases. The shadowgraphic images show that the larger part of the material is removed after the end of the laser pulse.

Schoonderbeek, Aart; Biesheuvel, Cornelis A.; Hofstra, Ramon M.; Boller, Klaus-Jochen; Meijer, Johan

2003-11-01

420

Design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitters.  

PubMed

In this video article we present a detailed demonstration of a highly efficient method for generating terahertz waves. Our technique is based on photoconduction, which has been one of the most commonly used techniques for terahertz generation (1-8). Terahertz generation in a photoconductive emitter is achieved by pumping an ultrafast photoconductor with a pulsed or heterodyned laser illumination. The induced photocurrent, which follows the envelope of the pump laser, is routed to a terahertz radiating antenna connected to the photoconductor contact electrodes to generate terahertz radiation. Although the quantum efficiency of a photoconductive emitter can theoretically reach 100%, the relatively long transport path lengths of photo-generated carriers to the contact electrodes of conventional photoconductors have severely limited their quantum efficiency. Additionally, the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown strictly limit the maximum output power of conventional photoconductive terahertz sources. To address the quantum efficiency limitations of conventional photoconductive terahertz emitters, we have developed a new photoconductive emitter concept which incorporates a plasmonic contact electrode configuration to offer high quantum-efficiency and ultrafast operation simultaneously. By using nano-scale plasmonic contact electrodes, we significantly reduce the average photo-generated carrier transport path to photoconductor contact electrodes compared to conventional photoconductors (9). Our method also allows increasing photoconductor active area without a considerable increase in the capacitive loading to the antenna, boosting the maximum terahertz radiation power by preventing the carrier screening effect and thermal breakdown at high optical pump powers. By incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes, we demonstrate enhancing the optical-to-terahertz power conversion efficiency of a conventional photoconductive terahertz emitter by a factor of 50 (10). PMID:23892574

Berry, Christopher; Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Unlu, Mehmet; Jarrahi, Mona

2013-01-01

421

Investigationof Spatial Sampling Resolution of the Real-TimeUltrasoundPulse-EchoBAI-modeImaging Technique  

E-print Network

to quantitatively study image quality versus the varying grid size and the changing spatial scanning step sizes not be separated in the image. I. INTRODUCTION Flexible food packages are produced by hermetically fusing opposingInvestigationof Spatial Sampling Resolution of the Real-TimeUltrasoundPulse-EchoBAI-modeImaging

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

422

Broadly tunable UV-blue picosecond pulsed laser and its application for biological imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have achieved a rapid and random wavelength tuned picosecond pulsed laser and a widely tunable UV-blue picosecond pulsed\\u000a laser by using the intracavity second harmonic generation of the laser. The tuning range was from 384 to 434 nm with picosecond\\u000a pulse oscillation. In addition, we demonstrated biological imaging using a fluorescent protein excited by the widely tunable\\u000a UV-blue picosecond

Yasuhiro Maeda; Masaki Yumoto; Norihito Saito; Takayo Ogawa; Kazuo Kurokawa; Akihiko Nakano; Masafumi Yamashita; Satoshi Wada

2010-01-01

423

Development of tunable terahertz quantum cascade wire lasers  

E-print Network

For a long time, terahertz (THz) radiation has been of great interest to scientific community because of its spectroscopic and imaging applications based on its unique properties, such as the capabilities to penetrate many ...

Qin, Qi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01

424

Theoretical foundations of detection of terahertz radiation in laser-plasma interactions  

SciTech Connect

A theory is developed enabling one to calculate the temporal profile and spectrum of a terahertz wave packet from the energy of the second harmonic of optical radiation generated during the nonlinear interaction between terahertz and circularly polarized laser pulses in the skin layer of an overdense plasma. It is shown that the spectral and temporal characteristics of the envelope of the second harmonic of optical radiation coincide with those of the terahertz pulse only at small durations of the detecting laser radiation. For long laser pulses, the temporal profile and spectrum of the second harmonic are mainly determined by the characteristics of optical radiation at the carrier frequency.

Frolov, A. A., E-mail: frolov@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15

425

Study of terahertz intensity dependence on time resolved dynamic fringes in the interferometric autocorrelation setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz signal is generated from Low temperature gallium arsenide photoconductive dipole antennas (gap = 5?m, length = 20?m) by focusing 15 fs laser pulses and applying 12V DC across it. Terahertz intensity is detected by Pyroelectric detector (THZ1.5MB-USB). The collinear autocorrelation arrangement provides dynamic fringes which are allowed to be incident on photoconductive antennas to study the variation in terahertz intensity with respect to delay between laser pulses. Interestingly, the profile of THz intensity variation was similar to interferometric autocorrelation signal of laser pulses. The THz power attenuation with its propagation distance in atmosphere was measured.

Venkatesh, M.; Chaudhary, A. K.

2014-10-01

426

Strip velocity measurements for gated x-ray imagers using short pulse lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strip velocity measurements of gated X-ray imagers are presented using an ultra-short pulse laser. Obtaining time- resolved X-ray images of inertial confinement fusion shots presents a difficult challenge. One diagnostic developed to address this challenge is the gated X-ray imagers. The gated X-ray detectors (GXDs) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory use a microchannel plate (MCP) coated with a gold strip line, which serves as a photocathode. GXDs are used with an array of pinholes, which image onto various parts of the GXD image plane. As the pulse sweeps over the strip lines, it creates a time history of the event with consecutive images. In order to accurately interpret the timing of the images obtained using the GXDs, it is necessary to measure the propagation of the pulse over the strip line. The strip velocity was measured using a short pulse laser with a pulse duration of approximately 1-2 ps. The 200nm light from the laser is used to illuminate the GXD MCP. The laser pulse is split and a retroreflective mirror is used to delay one of the legs. By adjusting the distance to the mirror, one leg is temporally delayed compared to the reference leg. The retroreflective setup is calibrated using a streak camera with a 1 ns full sweep. Resolution of 0.5 mm is accomplished to achieve a temporal resolution of ~5 ps on the GXD strip line.

Ross, P. W.; Cardenas, M.; Griffin, M.; Mead, A.; Silbernagel, C. T.; Bell, P.; Haque, S.

2013-09-01

427

Terahertz Kerr effect in gallium phosphide crystal M. Cornet,1,2  

E-print Network

Terahertz Kerr effect in gallium phosphide crystal M. Cornet,1,2 J. Degert,1,2, * E. Abraham,1 of the Kerr effect induced by an intense terahertz pulse in a h100i gallium phosphide crystal. The temporal in lithium niobate [5] and bulk n-GaAs [6]. Hereafter we report on the observation of TKE in a gallium

428

Chirped Pulse Adiabatic Passage in CARS for Imaging of Biological Structure and Dynamics  

SciTech Connect

We propose the adiabatic passage control scheme implementing chirped femtosecond laser pulses to maximize coherence in a predetermined molecular vibrational mode using two-photon Raman transitions. We investigate vibrational energy relaxation and collisional dephasing as factors of coherence loss, and demonstrate the possibility for preventing decoherence by the chirped pulse train. The proposed method may be used to advance noninvasive biological imaging techniques.

Malinovskaya, Svetlana A. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

2007-12-26

429

Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver  

DOEpatents

A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. A terahertz signal can be received by an antenna connected to the mixer, an end facet or sidewall of the laser, or through a separate active section that can amplify the incident signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Nordquist, Christopher D. (Albuquerque, NM); Cich, Michael J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-09-25

430

Integrated heterodyne terahertz transceiver  

DOEpatents

A heterodyne terahertz transceiver comprises a quantum cascade laser that is integrated on-chip with a Schottky diode mixer. An antenna connected to the Schottky diode receives a terahertz signal. The quantum cascade laser couples terahertz local oscillator power to the Schottky diode to mix with the received terahertz signal to provide an intermediate frequency output signal. The fully integrated transceiver optimizes power efficiency, sensitivity, compactness, and reliability. The transceiver can be used in compact, fieldable systems covering a wide variety of deployable applications not possible with existing technology.

Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM)

2009-06-23

431

Identification of biological tissue using chirped probe THz imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the application of pulsed THz imaging systems in biomedical diagnostics and mail\\/packaging inspection. The sub-millimetre spectroscopic measurements obtained from T-ray systems contain a wealth of information about the sample under test. We demonstrate that different types of tissue can be classified based on their terahertz response measured with the chirped probe pulse technique. We demonstrate the performance of

B. Ferguson; S. Wang; D. Gray; D. Abbott; X.-C Zhang

2002-01-01

432

Correlation chemical shift imaging with low-power adiabatic pulses and constant-density spiral trajectories  

E-print Network

In this work we introduce the concept of correlation chemical shift imaging (CCSI). Novel CCSI pulse sequences are demonstrated on clinical scanners for two-dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY) and Total Correlation ...

Andronesi, Ovidiu C.

433

Development of a new pulsed source for photoacoustic imaging based on aperiodically poled lithium niobate  

PubMed Central

We present the development of a source of deep-red radiation for photoacoustic imaging. This source, which is based on two cascaded wavelength conversion processes in aperiodically poled lithium niobate, emits 10 nanosecond pulses of over 500 µJ at 710 nm. Photoacoustic images were obtained from phantoms designed to mimic the optical and acoustic properties of oral tissue. Results indicate this device is a viable source of optical pulses for photoacoustic applications. PMID:24575341

Yankelevich, Diego; González, J. E.; Cudney, Roger S.; Ríos, Luis A.; Marcu, Laura

2014-01-01

434

Terahertz radiation by optical rectification in a hydrogen-bonded organic molecular ferroelectric crystal, 2-phenylmalondialdehyde  

E-print Network

Terahertz radiation by optical rectification has been observed at room temperature in a hydrogen-bonded organic molecular ferroelectric crystal, 2-phenyl malondialdehyde (PhMDA). The radiated electromagnetic wave consisted of a single-cycle terahertz pulse with a temporal width of $\\sim$ 0.5 ps. The terahertz radiation amplitude divided by the sample thickness in PhMDA was nearly equivalent to that in a typical terahertz wave emitter ZnTe. This is attributable to a long coherence length in the range of 130 $\\sim$ 800 $\\mu$m for the terahertz radiation from PhMDA. We also discussed the possibility of PhMDA as a terahertz wave emitter in terms of the phase-matching condition.

Guan, W; Sotome, M; Kinoshita, Y; Takeda, R; Inoue, A; Horiuchi, S; Okamoto, H

2014-01-01

435

Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation. PMID:20042313

Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

2010-06-01

436

Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform for Improved Defect Detection in Terahertz NDE of Shuttle Tiles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terahertz NDE is being examined as a method to inspect the adhesive bond-line of Space Shuttle tiles for defects. Terahertz signals are generated and detected, using optical excitation of biased semiconductors with femtosecond laser pulses. Shuttle tile samples were manufactured with defects that included repair regions unbond regions, and other conditions that occur in Shuttle structures. These samples were inspected with a commercial terahertz NDE system that scanned a tile and generated a data set of RF signals. The signals were post processed to generate C-scan type images that are typically seen in ultrasonic NDE. To improve defect visualization the Hilbert-Huang Transform, a transform that decomposes a signal into oscillating components called intrinsic mode functions, was applied to test signals identified as being in and out of the defect regions and then on a complete data set. As expected with this transform, the results showed that the decomposed low-order modes correspond to signal noise while the high-order modes correspond to low frequency oscillations in the signal and mid-order modes correspond to local signal oscillations. The local oscillations compare well with various reflection interfaces and the defect locations in the original signal.

Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

2005-01-01

437

A modulated pulse laser for underwater detection, ranging, imaging, and communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, modulated-pulse, technique is currently being investigated for underwater laser detection, ranging, imag- ing, and communications. This technique represents a unique marriage of pulsed and intensity modulated sources. For detection, ranging, and imaging, the source can be congured to transmit a variety of intensity modulated waveforms, from single-tone to pseudorandom code. The utility of such waveforms in turbid underwater envi- ronments in the presence of backscatter is investigated in this work. The modulated pulse laser may also nd utility in underwater laser communication links. In addition to exibility in modulation format additional variable parameters, such as macro-pulse width and macro-pulse repetition rate, provide a link designer with additional methods of optimizing links based on the bandwidth, power, range, etc. needed for the application. Initial laboratory experiments in simulated ocean waters are presented.

Cochenour, Brandon; Mullen, Linda; Muth, John

2012-06-01

438

Review NEW TRENDS IN TERAHERTZ ELECTRONICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid evolution of terahertz (THz) applications in imaging, material diagnostics, communication systems, etc. stimu- lates an intensive search for new solutions in design and fabrication of compact emitters and receivers. The particular place of THz range in the electromagnetic spectrum ñ between microwaves and the infrared one ñ denes the requirement to merge together different concepts in the development

V. Tamoöifl; D. Seliuta; A. Juozapavi; E. äirmulis; G. Valuöis; A. El Fatimy; Y. Meziani; N. Dyakonova; J. Lusakowski; W. Knap; A. Lisauskas; H. G. Roskos

439

Terahertz Array Receivers with Integrated Antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highly sensitive terahertz heterodyne receivers have been mostly single-pixel. However, now there is a real need of multi-pixel array receivers at these frequencies driven by the science and instrument requirements. In this paper we explore various receiver font-end and antenna architectures for use in multi-pixel integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies. Development of wafer-level integrated terahertz receiver front-end by using advanced semiconductor fabrication technologies has progressed very well over the past few years. Novel stacking of micro-machined silicon wafers which allows for the 3-dimensional integration of various terahertz receiver components in extremely small packages has made it possible to design multi-pixel heterodyne arrays. One of the critical technologies to achieve fully integrated system is the antenna arrays compatible with the receiver array architecture. In this paper we explore different receiver and antenna architectures for multi-pixel heterodyne and direct detector arrays for various applications such as multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer and imaging radar at terahertz frequencies.

Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Llombart, Nuria; Lee, Choonsup; Jung, Cecile; Lin, Robert; Cooper, Ken B.; Reck, Theodore; Siles, Jose; Schlecht, Erich; Peralta, Alessandro; Thomas, Bertrand; Mehdi, Imran

2011-01-01

440

Perfect terahertz absorber using fishnet based metafilm  

SciTech Connect

We present a perfect terahertz (THz) absorber working for a broad-angle of incidence. The two fold symmetry of rectangular fishnet structure allows either complete absorption or mirror like reflection depending on the polarization of incident the THz beam. Metamaterials enable the ability to control the electromagnetic wave in a unique fashion by designing the permittivity or permeability of composite materials with desired values. Although the initial idea of metamaterials was to obtain a negative index medium, however, the evolution of metamaterials (MMs) offers a variety of practically applicable devices for controlling electromagnetic wave such as tunable filters, modulators, phase shifters, compact antenna, absorbers, etc. Terahertz regime, a crucial domain of the electromagnetic wave, is suffering from the scarcity of the efficient devices and might take the advantage of metamaterials. Here, we demonstrate design, fabrication, and characterization of a terahertz absorber based on a simple fishnet metallic film separated from a ground mirror plane by a dielectric spacer. Such absorbers are in particular important for bolometric terahertz detectors, high sensitivity imaging, and terahertz anechoic chambers. Recently, split-ring-resonators (SRR) have been employed for metamaterial-based absorbers at microwave and THz frequencies. The experimental demonstration reveals that such absorbers have absorptivity close to unity at resonance frequencies. However, the downside of these designs is that they all employ resonators of rather complicated shape with many fine parts and so they are not easy to fabricate and are sensitive to distortions.

Azad, Abul Kalam [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smirnova, E I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

441

Terahertz reflectarray as a polarizing beam splitter.  

PubMed

A reflectarray is designed and demonstrated experimentally for polarization-dependent beam splitting at 1 THz. This reflective component is composed of two sets of orthogonal strip dipoles arranged into interlaced triangular lattices over a ground plane. By varying the length and width of the dipoles a polarization-dependent localized phase change is achieved on reflection, allowing periodic subarrays with a desired progressive phase distribution. Both the simulated field distributions and the measurement results from a fabricated sample verify the validity of the proposed concept. The designed terahertz reflectarray can efficiently separate the two polarization components of a normally incident wave towards different predesigned directions of ±30°. Furthermore, the measured radiation patterns show excellent polarization purity, with a cross-polarization level below -27 dB. The designed reflectarray could be applied as a polarizing beam splitter for polarization-sensitive terahertz imaging or for emerging terahertz communications. PMID:24977867

Niu, Tiaoming; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Upadhyay, Aditi; Gutruf, Philipp; Abbott, Derek; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Fumeaux, Christophe

2014-06-30

442

Terahertz wave parametric amplifier.  

PubMed

The importance of terahertz (THz) wave techniques has been demonstrated in various fields, and the range of applications is now expanding rapidly. However, the practical implementation of THz science to solve the real-world problems is restricted due to the lack not only of convenient high power THz wave emitters and sensitive detectors but also of efficient quasi-optical active devices such as amplifiers. In this work, we demonstrate the direct amplification of THz waves in room temperature using magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate (MgO:LiNbO3) crystals as the nonlinear gain medium. The input THz wave is injected as a seed beam along with the pump beam into the nonlinear crystal and it is amplified by the optical parametric process. We report gain in excess of 30 dB with an input THz pulse energy of less than 1 pJ. We believe that this demonstration will contribute to the convenience and further applicability of THz frequency techniques. PMID:24690860

Tripathi, Saroj R; Taira, Yuusuke; Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Nawata, Kouji; Murate, Kousuke; Minamide, Hiroaki; Kawase, Kodo

2014-03-15

443

Review of Terahertz Tomography Techniques J. P. Guillet & B. Recur & L. Frederique & B. Bousquet & L. Canioni &  

E-print Network

penetrate various dielectric materials, including plastics, ceramics, crystals, and concrete, allowing. A tomographic imaging procedure can be used to acquire and to render three-dimensional images in the terahertz the principles of tomography for Terahertz Computed tomography (CT), tomosynthesis (TS), synthetic aperture radar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

Terahertz emission from magnetoplasma oscillations in semiconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy can be used to probe charge and spin dynamics in semiconductors. We have studied THz emission from bulk InAs and GaAs and from GaAs\\/AlGaAs quantum wells as a function of magnetic field. Ultrashort pulses of THz radiation were produced at semiconductor surfaces by photoexcitation with a femtosecond Ti-Sapphire laser, and we recorded the THz emission spectrum and

James N. Heyman; H. Wrage; C. Lind; D. Hebert; P. Neocleous; P. A. Crowell; T. Mueller; Karl Unterrainer

2002-01-01

445

Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of electronic and vibrational responses in condensed matter systems  

E-print Network

In this work, I describe experiments utilizing high-field terahertz (THz) pulses to initiate nonlinear responses in several classes of materials. We have developed several methods for interrogating the nonlinear THz response ...

Hwang, Harold Young

2012-01-01

446

CONTRAST-TO-TISSUE RATIO IMPROVEMENT BY TRANSMITTED OPTIMIZED BINARY SIGNAL IN ULTRASOUND PULSE INVERSION IMAGING  

E-print Network

.6556590 ABSTRACT Ultrasound contrast imaging has provided more accurate medical diagnoses. One of the most used. INTRODUCTION Since the 1960s, medical ultrasound imaging has become an essential tool for clinical diagnosisCONTRAST-TO-TISSUE RATIO IMPROVEMENT BY TRANSMITTED OPTIMIZED BINARY SIGNAL IN ULTRASOUND PULSE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

447

Characterization of pulsed (plasma focus) neutron source with image plate and application to neutron radiography  

SciTech Connect

Plasma focus device of Mather type developed in house has been used first time for neutron radiography of different objects. The device gives (1.2{+-}0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} neutrons per pulse produced by D-D fusion reaction with a pulse width of 50{+-}5 ns. The method involves exposing sample to be radiographed to thermalized D-D neutrons and recording the image on Fuji-film BAS-ND image plates. The thermal neutron component of the moderated beam was estimated using two image plates: a conventional IP for X-rays and gamma rays, and an IP doped with Gd for detecting neutrons.

Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Rout, R. K.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, S. C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Shaikh, A. M. [Raja Ramanna Fellow, Solid State Physics Division (India)

2013-02-05